Group Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;, no. 610
Title: Palatable creep feeds for pigs
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027226/00001
 Material Information
Title: Palatable creep feeds for pigs
Series Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;, no. 610
Physical Description: 12 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E.
Combs, G. E. (George Ernest), 1927-
Wallace, H. D. (Harold Dean)
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Publication Date: 1959.
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds.
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 12).
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027226
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000927036
notis - AEN7739
oclc - 18299337

Full Text


Bulletin 610


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA






PALATABLE CREEP FEEDS

FOR PIGS

G. E. COMBS, JR., and H. D. WALLACE


Fig. 1.-Pigs creep fed on palatable feeds make good weight gains.


July 1959









PALATABLE CREEP FEEDS

FOR PIGS

G. E. COMBS, JR., and H. D. WALLACE

INTRODUCTION
The normal lactation curve for sows shows that a peak is
reached during the third week and steadily declines thereafter
(1). This decreased milk production, coupled with the rapid
growth exhibited by suckling pigs, prohibits expression of max-
imum growth potential unless the pigs are given additional feed
to supplement their inadequate supply of sow's milk. Creep feed-
ing, a management procedure whereby pre-weanling pigs are
provided with a supplemental feed that is not accessible to the
sow, is one method of supplying this additional feed.
Since palatability is an essential characteristic of a good creep
feed, numerous studies have been conducted to develop rations
that young pigs will readily consume. Terrill et al (4) reported
the feeds consumed in largest quantities during a creep feeding
trial included hulled oats, a mixed pig starter and a combination
of either rolled oats or dried skimmilk with a molasses concen-
trate. Teague and Wilson (3) found that 14.5 to 48.2 percent
finely ground clipped oats could replace an equal quantity of
oat groats with no adverse effect on palatability. They also ob-
tained only minor differences in the quantity of feed consumed
when creep feeds were fed in either meal or pelleted form. When
sugar-coated pellets were offered, ration acceptance was incon-

Fig. 2.-Home-constructed portable creep used in this study.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


sistent and feed consumption was only slightly increased when
cane sugar was included in creep rations fed in the meal form.
The work of Stevenson (2) clearly demonstrates the influ-
ence that creep feeding has on weaning weights. In this study
the pigs with access to the sows' self feeder averaged about 26
pounds at weaning, whereas creep-fed pigs averaged 37 pounds.
The experiments reported here were undertaken primarily
to study the palatability-enhancing value of various feed ingredi-
ents when included in a creep ration and to compare the perform-
ance of non-creep-fed and creep-fed pigs.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The pigs used in these studies were of mixed breeding and
were farrowed by both gilts and sows. The litters and their
dams were removed from the farrowing barn when the pigs
were approximately one week old and placed on alfalfa-clover
pastures. A maximum of 4 litters comprised each pasture group
and there was no more than 1 week of age difference among the
litters within each group. The sows were hand fed a nutrition-


Fig. 3.-Self feeder converted to creep feeder.


~ C t5' y
~JLk~c~-'-i,
"'"
1







Palatable Creep Feeds for Pigs


ally adequate ration twice daily. The quantity fed varied with
the sows' weight and the number of nursing pigs, with an average
of 12 pounds per head per day. Throughout the experiments
excellent pasture was available.
The creep rations were first made available when the pigs
were 14 days old. The test period was terminated when the pigs
reached 56 days.
The 3 experiments concerned with the effects of various in-
gredients on palatability were conducted in a like manner. Each
group of pigs involved was provided with a homemade portable
creep that was covered with a hinged top. Small metal self feed-
ers containing the rations to be tested were placed inside and the
pigs were allowed to select the ration they preferred. The feed-
ers were rotated weekly to prevent position preference and feed
consumption was recorded weekly.


Fig. 4.-One of the many types of creep feeders commercially available.

The fourth experiment was designed to demonstrate the value
of creep feeding and was carried out under conditions similar
to the first three experiments. Performance of 74 pigs fed creep
rations containing various levels of sugar was compared to that
of a comparable number of pigs not creep fed.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Composition of the rations tested and preference data for
Experiment I are presented in Table 1. With the exception of
the type of corn meal used, rations 1, 2 and 3 were basically the
same. The values for percent of total feed consumed indicate
that the pigs had very little preference for rations 1, 2 or 3.
Apparently dextrinization and gelatinization exerted little in-
fluence on palatability of the corn, either with or without germ
and bran. As indicated by the quantity of feed consumed, the
10 percent stabilized beef tallow in ration 4 greatly enhanced
palatability. Although ration 5, which was identical to ration 4
except that it was offered in meal form rather than as pellets,
was consumed in significant quantity, the pigs preferred the pel-
lets approximately 3 to 1 over the meal. Thus, it appears that
pelleting makes creep rations more acceptable to suckling pigs.
Rations 6 and 7 were not consumed in significant amounts, indi-
cating that neither citrus molasses no blackstrap molasses was
particularly helpful with the creep rations studied. Ration 8,
which contained 10 percent cane sugar, was consumed in larger
quantity than any of the other rations.
Since the consumption data from Experiment I indicated that
the pigs preferred the rations containing tallow and sugar, these
ingredients plus stabilized lard were selected for further testing
in Experiment II. The composition of the rations used and the
feed preference data are presented in Table 2. The consumption
of rations 1, 2 and 4, which contained 10 percent tallow, lard and
sugar, respectively, clearly indicates that the pigs preferred in
order, rations containing lard, sugar and tallow. When 5 percent
tallow and 5 percent lard were offered in combination (ration 3),
the consumption was higher than that of ration 1, but less than
ration 2. Ration 5, which contained 5 percent lard and 5 percent
sugar, was consumed in largest quantity. Thus, the pigs pre-
ferred lard, either singly or in combination, over the other in-
gredients tested.
In Experiment III a basal ration with the composition shown
in Table 3 was used.
The objective of this experiment was to determine the level
of C-grade sugar which would be most preferred by suckling
pigs. "C" sugar is the residue from raw sugar refining and is
the lowest grade produced from the standpoint of polarization
and freedom from impurities. The various levels of sugar were
added at the expense of corn and the percentage of protein was










TABLE 1.-PALATABILITY STUDIES ON CREEP FEED FORMULATIONS FOR SUCKLING PIGS.*
Experiment I **


Ration No. f .............- ... ...----..- -. ....- ....-...-..-................


Ground yellow corn ....-..................-....- .... ................-
Partially dextrinized and gelatinized corn meal with germ and bran ....
Partially dextrinized and gelatinized corn meal without germ and bran ..
Ground rolled oats ....................-.... .. ...-.-.--..- -
Soybean oil m eal ................... ---------...............................
Stabilized beef tallow ............... .....-- ....---- ................-
Citrus molasses .....................---- .........................
Blackstrap molasses ....................... ....-- ...-- -- -- ... -
Cane sugar ...................-..-....- ..-- ---
D ried skim m ilk ................- ..- ------- .. ........--........-------.. -------------
Steamed bone meal ._ -...-...................................--
Trace mineralized salt ..............--...-.--- ...-................


Percent of total feed eaten ..............-... ....-- ........ ....


.1


S46.0

0.0 30.0
8.0 18.0



5.0 5.0
0.5 0.5
0.5 0.5


0.8 0.7


5.0
0.5
0.5


2.3


5.0
0.5
0.5


33.5


5 6


33.0 33.0

30.0 30.0
21.0 21.0
10.0 -
10.0

5.0 5.0
0.5 0.5
0.5 0.5


11.8 0.5


7 8
_


1.6 48.8


All rations received the following vitamin-antibiotic fortification per hundred pounds, Lederle Fortafeed 249-C, 45 gis.; Lederle Aurofac 2A, 127 gms.
Fortafeed contains the following in mg. per pound: Riboflavin, 2000; pantothenic acid, 4000; niacin, 9000; and folic acid, 60. Aurofac contains 3.6 gms.
of aureomycin per pound.
**Included 30 litters totaling 217 pigs. Average weaning weight (56 days), 39.1 pounds. Average total feed consumed per pig, 27.3 pounds.
t All rations were pelleted except No. 5 which was fed in meal form.


I















TABLE 2.-PALATABILITY STUDIES ON CREEP FEED FORMULATIONS FOR SUCKLING PIGS.*
Experiment II **

Ration No.. .................-......... ....... ..... ............... 1 2 3 4 5 6


Ground yellow corn ............... ................. ....... 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5
Ground rolled oats .. --...................................-.......... 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0
Soybean oil meal ........................ ..................................... 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0
Dried skim m ilk ....---......................................... ................... ...... 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Stabilized beef tallow ...................... ....... .......................... 10.0 5.0 5.0
Stabilized lard ................ ........................... 10.0 5.0 5.0 -
Cane sugar ....................................................... ............... - 10.0 5.0 5.0 t
Steamed bonemeal ....-- -.. ----.-.. -............ ......... ..... 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Ground limestone ... ........................... ......-........ 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Trace m ineralized salt .. ......... -.--.......--......--..- ..-........................... 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5


Percent of total feed eaten ... .... ....................... 6.3 24.8 11.4 14.7 30.3 12.5

All rations received the following vitamin-antibiotic fortification per hundred pounds, Lederle Fortafeed 249-C, 45 gms. ; Lederle Aurofac 2A, 127 gms.
Fortafeed contains the following in mg. per pound: Riboflavin, 2000; pantothenic acid, 4000; niacin, 9000; and folic acid, 60. Aurofae contains 3.6 gms.
of aureomycin per pound.
** The experiment included 9 litters and a total of 60 pigs. Average weaning weight (56 days), 43.8 pounds. Average total feed consumed per pig,
36.9 pounds. C








Palatable Creep Feeds for Pigs


TABLE 3.-BASAL RATION-EXPERIMENT III.


Ground yellow corn .....................
Soybean oil meal ......................-..
T ankage ...................... ................
Salt-trace minerals -..--....-......
Vitamins and antibiotics ** .-.......


71.17
13.00
14.00
.53
1.30


Consisted of: Iodized salt 50 lbs.; MnSOI, HO2 921 gm; FeSO4, HLO 398 gm; CuSO1,
5HzO 125 gm; CoCOa 10 gm. and ZnSOi, HaO 350 gm.
** Provided 4580 and 396 I.U. of vitamins A and D, respectively, per pound of feed plus
90 gms. of Fortafeed 249-C and 45 grams of Aurofac-10 per 100 pounds of feed.

TABLE 4.-CONSUMPTION OF CREEP FEED CONTAINING VARIOUS
LEVELS OF "C" SUGAR.
Experiment III

Trial 1 *

Percent Sugar in Rations and Amount Consumed


Lot No.


1
2
3
4
5
6


No. Pigs


20
15
19
9
19
18


Total feed eaten
pounds ..........

percent .........


0


5.0
1.0
1.5
5.0
1.5
3.5



17.5

0.8


10 20


27.5
13.0
26.5
24.0
29.5
20.5



141.0

6.2


152.0
40.5
63.0
12.0
190.5
108.0



566.0

24.9


30


299.0
276.5
186.5
96.0
348.5
342.0



1548.5

68.1


1 20
2 14
3 21
4 42
5 36
6 35


Total feed eaten
pounds ............- .. |

percent ..-- ......


Trial 2**

0 10


- i 57.5
- 41.5
- 144.5
- 12.5
52.0
59.0



367.0

7.7


Trial 1 included 15 litters. Average weaning weight (56 days), 31.4 pounds. Average
total feed consumed per pig, 22.7 pounds.
** Trial 2 included 25 litters. Average weaning weight (56 days), 38.5 pounds. Average
total feed consumed per pig, 28.2 pounds.


20


58.5
95.5
158.0
100.0
152.0
145.0



709.0

15.0


30


131.0
207.0
253.0
366.5
360.5
413.5



1731.5

36.5


40


171.0
121.5
258.0
734.5
415.0
233.5



1933.5

40.8


. . .. . .............. -- -- --- -- --
-- -- -- - - -- - - - - -- - -- - --.. . . .
- - - ---. - -- - - - - - -- - - -- - ---.. . . -
-- - - - I... ---. .. . . . ..... ... -- -- -- -- -- -- -
- - - - - - - - -. -- - - - - - --.. . . .







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


kept constant by increasing the amount of soybean oil meal and
tankage. The experiment consisted of 2 trials which are sum-
marized in Table 4. In trial 1 levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30 percent
of sugar were tested and the pigs consumed a total of 17.5, 141.0,
566.0 and 1548.5 pounds of each ration, respectively.
These data clearly demonstrate that "C" sugar enhanced pal-
atability and that the pigs preferred the 30 percent level of sugar.
In trial 2 a 40 percent level of sugar was substituted for the 0
percent level. Again consumption was dependent upon the level
of sugar and the 40 percent sugar ration was consumed in largest
amounts. The increase from 30 to 40 percent sugar was consid-
erably less than increases from the other levels, which would in-
dicate that 40 percent sugar was probably approaching the max-
imum acceptable level.
Experiment IV was designed to compare the performance of
non-creep-fed pigs with those receiving a creep ration. The re-
sults of this study are summarized in Table 5.

TABLE 5.-WEIGHT GAIN COMPARISON OF CREEP-FED AND
NON-CREEP-FED PIGS.

Treatment No. of Pigs Avg. Birth Avg. 8-Week
Weight, Lbs. | Weight, Lbs.

Creep-fed ....... ..................... 74 3.1 40.5
Non-creep-fed ................... 62 2.9 24.8


The value of providing suckling pigs with a creep ration is
clearly demonstrated by the weight gain advantage found in the
creep-fed pigs.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

A series of 3 experiments involving 545 suckling pigs was con-
ducted to determine the palatability-enhancing properties of cer-
tain feed ingredients when used in creep feeds. A fourth ex-
periment compared the performance of creep-fed and non-creep-
fed pigs.
Based on results obtained, the following conclusions appear
justified.
1. A special treatment in which yellow corn meal was par-
tially dextrinized and gelatinized failed to improve ration palata-







Palatable Creep Feeds for Pigs


ability appreciably. Removal of the germ and bran from this
product resulted in a slight, but non-significant, increase in ra-
tion consumption.
2. Including 10 percent stabilized beef tallow markedly in-
creased creep ration acceptance.
3. A comparison of meal and pelleted rations that contained
10 percent beef tallow showed that the pigs preferred the pel-
leted ration about 3 to 1.

4. The inclusion of either citrus or blackstrap molasses at
the 10 percent level failed to enhance ration palatability.
5. Refined cane sugar fed at a level of 10 percent was more
effective than stabilized beef tallow in improving palatability.
6. A ration containing 10 percent stabilized lard was con-
sumed in larger quantities than rations containing comparable
percentages of tallow or sugar.
7. A combination of 5 percent stabilized lard and 5 percent
cane sugar produced the most beneficial effect on ration palat-
ability.
8. An unrefined C-grade sugar was readily accepted by suck-
ling pigs. They consumed rations containing levels of 30 and
40 percent in preference to levels of 0, 10 and 20 percent. No
adverse effects were noted from the heavy consumption of these
high sugar rations.
9. Pigs that were creep fed averaged 15.7 pounds heavier at
8 weeks of age than pigs not creep fed.
It is recommended that suckling pigs be offered a highly pal-
atable and nutritious creep ration. Care should be taken to keep
the feed dry and fresh. The creep should be located in a con-
venient place for the pigs, preferably near their shelter and
source of water.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are indebted to F. A. McMillan and C. E. Haines, Research
Assistants, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, for technical
assistance during various phases of the study; Louhoff Grain Company of
Danville, Illinois, for supplying the specially processed corn meals used;
Howard Feed Mills of Jacksonville, Florida, for pelleting certain of the
rations used in the study; American Cyanamid Company, Pearl River, New
York, and Chas. Pfizer and Company, Terre Haute, Indiana, for supplying








12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

antibiotics and vitamins; Minford and Company, Inc., Fellsmere, Florida,
for supplying the C-grade sugar; and W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor, herds-
men at the Experiment Station Swine Unit, for care of the experimental
animals.
LITERATURE CITED

1. BONSMA, F. N., and P. M. OOSTUIZEN. Milk production in large black
sows. So. Afr. J. Sci. 32: 360-378. 1935.
2. STEVENSON, J. W. The difference is diet. J. Agr. Res. 2: 3. 1953.
3. TEAGUE, H. S., and R. F. WILSON. Creep feeds for suckling pigs. The
effect of oat hull fiber, sugar and pelleting. Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. Res.
Cir. 46. 1957.
4. TERRILL, S. W., R. J. MEADE, T. S. NELSON and D. E. BECKER. Starter
rations for creep-fed pigs. J. An. Sci. 11: 777. 1952.




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