• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Review of literature
 Experimental methods and mater...
 Results and discussion
 Recommendations
 Acknowledgement
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations ; No. 655
Title: Nutrient intake of cows from silages made from typical Florida forages
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027221/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nutrient intake of cows from silages made from typical Florida forages
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 19 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wing, J. M ( James Marvin ), 1920-
Becker, R. B ( Raymond Brown ), 1892-1989
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Silage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dairy cattle -- Nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 18-19.
Statement of Responsibility: J.M. Wing and R.B. Becker.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027221
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929037
oclc - 18353201
notis - AEN9801

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Review of literature
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Experimental methods and materials
        Page 8
    Results and discussion
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Recommendations
        Page 16
    Acknowledgement
        Page 17
    Literature cited
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text

Technical Bulletin 655
May, 1963


Nutrient Intake of

Cows from Silages #"I0&

from

Typical Florida Forages






J. M. Wing and R. B. Becker







AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
J. R. Beckenbach, Director


L '~




























CONTENTS
Page

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ........ ..................... ---.............. 3


EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND MATERIALS ............................. ........ 8


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION --.... .............................................. ........ ........ 9


RECOMMENDATIONS .......... ...... ...... ............ .................... 16


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .-- .. ................................... .... ........... .. ... ---- 17


LITERATURE CITED .................. ...........---- -- ------- ..----........ 17









Nutrient Intake of Cows from Silages

Made from Typical Florida Forages

J. M. WING and R. B. BECKER 1

Silage has been made in the United States since 1876, and
considerable research into methods and materials for ensiling
forages has been accomplished. Little information is available,
however, to show how silage can be used to best advantage.
Interest in grassland farming generally has stimulated in-
terest in silage for two reasons. An over-abundance of herbage
occurs often at certain seasons, usually at a time when weather
conditions are unfavorable for curing hay. Moreover, the quality
and quantity of forage are inadequate during the fall and winter
months, making supplementary roughage desirable.
The present work was undertaken to determine the voluntary
intake and digestibility by cattle of various silages which are
likely to be used in Florida.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Kinekamp (9)2 related harvest time to silage quality and
found that 73 percent of silages in West Germany harvested at
the shoot stage were very good but only 50 percent were so
classified when harvested in the bloom stage. These data show-
ed also that very good quality occurred 76 percent of the time
with such chemical additives as A.I.V. acid,3 38 percent of the
time with molasses, and only 21 percent of the time with no
additives.
Nilsson and Rydin (19) reported experiments from Sweden
which showed that the addition of enzyme complexes in the
form of malt meal and cereal meal were effective for ensiling
green forage, raw potatoes, and cereals with high water con-
tents. Rydin (25) observed in experiments with alfalfa and
clover in pilot silos that addition of glucose, maltose, sucrose,
or dextrin (1 to 2.5%) promoted lactic acid fermentation.
Olson and Voelker (20) used enzymes of Aspergillus oryzac
at the rate of 10 pounds per ton and found that the pH of treated
1Associate Dairy Husbandman and Dairy Husbandman.
SNumbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.
A.I.V. are the initials of Arturi I. Virtanen who adapted the use of sul-
furic acid and hydrochloric acid to preservation of silage.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


alfalfa silage declined more rapidly during the first week of
preservation than did that of controls and it remained lower for
five weeks. The peak temperature of the treated silage was
105F, compared to 122F for untreated silage. Calves made
significantly faster gains on treated than on control silage, but
the enzyme treatment did not influence the performance of lactat-
ing cows. Solid carbon dioxide at 25 pounds per ton, used to in-
hibit cell respiration, increased silage consumption but did not
improve weight gains of calves.
Wieringa (28) reported work from The Netherlands which
demonstrated peak butyric acid and ammonia production at
350C, which appeared also to be the optimum temperature for
lactic acid formation. This demonstrated the difficulty of pro-
ducing the desired lactic acid without undesirable side effects.
He showed also that wilting possibly improved silage quality
because of an increase in osmotic pressure, which inhibited
butyric acid-producing organisms. This would tend to explain
the good preservation reported frequently under conditions of
relatively high silage pH.
English experiments reported by Murdoch (18) showed that
low temperatures in silage had no adverse effect on fermenta-
tion when other conditions were favorable. Usually silage qual-
ity was superior at low temperatures (70 to 800F) compared
with higher temperatures ranging up to 1160F. It appeared,
however, that such factors as moisture and sugar content of the
herbage influenced to a considerable extent the type of fermenta-
tion as determined by relative concentrations of lactic and bu-
tyric acids and volatile bases even in cold silage.
A series of studies in France by Zelter (30) on the chemistry
of ensiling alfalfa showed that the primary fermentation is es-
sentially of the lactic acid type and is independent of the con-
centration of immediately available carbohydrates. When lactic
acid fermentation did not proceed adequately to prevent bu-
tyric acid fermentation, lactic acid was catabolized to produce
butyric acid. The speed of catabolism was a function of the
concentration of lactic acid. The additives used in order of their
relative values as promotants of lactic acid were molasses, starch
jel, sucrose, cerelose, and A.I.V. acid.
Durand-Salomon and Zelter (8) showed that fermentation
takes a decisive course during the first two weeks, but the result-
ing metabolytes undergo further modifications which may be
unfavorable to quality of the silage. The properties of the







Nutrient Intake of Cows


A.I.V. method inhibited both plant and bacterial enzymatic ac-
tivity. Metabisulfite appeared to have a selective favorable
bacteriostatic effect on the course of carbohydrate fermentation
but did not affect the proteolytic phenomena caused mainly by
plant enzymes.
Schoch (26) showed that five percent formic acid added at
the rate of 8 to 10 pounds per ton herbage was superior to
sodium chloride at the rate of 4 to 6 pounds per ton. The report
showed also that chopped silages were superior to those which
were ensiled in the long state, as determined by relative con-
centrations of butyric and acetic acids and ammonia.
Martin and Buysse (16) used various chemicals in the prep-
aration of silage from alfalfa and barley. Mineral acids were
used at the rate of 20 gram equivalents per 100 kilograms:
sodium metabisulfite with calcium chloride (0.5% each), p-
aminosulfonic acid with calcium chloride (0.125% each), and
nonspecified monobromacetic esters (1 ml per 100 kg). Butyric
acid was nearly absent in all cases, although pH usually was
above 4.8. Jarl and Hellberg (10) found that clover and alfalfa
could not be ensiled satisfactorily without additives. A sodium
acid phosphate-bisulfate salt combination was recommended, and
the authors felt that it should contain a relatively large amount
of the bisulfate. These results agree with work published re-
cently by McCullough (17). He postulated that crude protein
was the primary factor associated with the rate and nature of
fermentation. The initial fermentation appeared to be the
most important part of the process insofar as final silage quality
was concerned.
Light and Bolin (14) observed significantly greater gains
in lambs fed silage preserved with cracked corn than in similar
animals fed alfalfa silage preserved with calcium format or
sodium metabisulfite, or with no preservative.
Langston et al. (13) conducted extensive studies on the
microbiology and chemistry of orchardgrass and alfalfa silages.
Most of the fresh forage contained relatively few organisms.
After a few days in the silo, however, bacteria numbered several
hundred billion per gram of silage, then leveled off and decreased
slightly. The alfalfa silages usually were of better quality than
those made from orchardgrass. When alfalfa did make poor
silage, the anaerobic spore-forming bacteria appeared later in the
fermentation process than in the orchardgrass silages, and the
numbers were lower.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The primary difference in the qualities of the silages with
respect to the occurrence of microorganisms apparently was as-
sociated directly with the increase of spore-forming anaerobes.
All of the poor quality silages showed substantial increases in
these organisms. As expected, the good quality silages showed
large quantities of lactic acid along with fair amounts of acetic
and succinic acids. The poor silages contained relatively large
amounts of butyric and lactic acids. Acetic, succinic, and pro-
pionic acids occurred along with butyric acid. Of the bacteria
isolated from the silages, 49 percent were homofermentative
rods, 27 percent were heterofermentative rods, 20 percent were
homofermentative cocci, and 4 percent were heterofermentative
cocci.
These authors agreed with McCullough (17) and Kbnekamp
(9) that the first few hours of the ensiling period are critical.
Kroulik, Burkey, and Wiseman (12) found that increases in
number of micro-organisms occurred with increases in the ma-
turity of plants. A definite increase in the number of micro-
organisms also was associated with wilting and chopping of plant
material in preparation for ensiling. The predominating micro-
organisms on fresh green plants consisted of pigmented, aero-
bic, non-spore forming, rod-shaped bacteria. Coliform bacteria
also were found on fresh green plants in large numbers and
increased during the harvesting process. Relatively few of the
micro-organisms isolated from fresh green plants were similar
to bacteria present in silage, and none of the typical lactobacilli
found in silage were observed.
The largest numbers of molds and yeasts on fresh green
plants occurred during July, August, and September on alfalfa,
corn, orchardgrass, and soybean plants under conditions during
which the numbers of bacteria also were high. The numbers of
bacteria increased rapidly during the first two to nine days in
the silo, again indicating the importance of the early part of
the ensiling period. The rate of increase was faster in the fresh-
ly cut high moisture forage and slower and of longer duration
in the wilted or low moisture forage. Later, a secondary fer-
mentation caused another increase in the numbers of bacteria
in most of the silages. Such bacteriological studies have stim-
ulated interest in the use of antibiotics as preservatives for
silage.
Dexter (6) used five antibiotics individually mixed and at
various concentrations as preservatives in making silage in glass







Nutrient Intake of Cows


jars. The antibiotics appeared to have a favorable effect, but
the conditions were not well defined and the results were not
easily repeatable.
Andrews and Stob (2) ensiled alfalfa in full bloom in small
plastic bags. Under these conditions, 4 grams of zinc bacitracin
per ton had no effect on pH at either 14 or 42 days after ensiling.
When ground corn and molasses were added individually with
or without the antibiotic, pH was lowered considerably. Molas-
ses and bacitracin were more effective than ground corn and
bacitracin. At a level of 400 grams per ton, bacitracin definitely
inhibited acid formation.
Rusoff et al. (24) concluded that feeding antibiotic-treated
silage had no effect on the aroma, quality, or quantity of milk.
It appeared that under the conditions of his studies the antibiotic
was eliminated before silage was ready for feeding. This agrees
generally with work conducted by Wing and Wilcox (29) on the
use of zinc bacitracin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, penicil-
lin, erythromycin, oleandomycin, and streptomycin as preserva-
tives for pearlmillet silage.
Dorener (7) studied the effects of molasses, formic acid, and
sodium metabisulfite on the digestibility of silages. It appeared
that digestibility and nutritive value of silage from fresh or
slightly wilted alfalfa was lower, but not significantly so, than
that of alfalfa which was wilted and preserved with molasses,
formic acid, or sodium metabisulfite. Breakdown of protein
was similar in all methods.
Pratt and Conrad (21) found that both zinc bacitracin and
metabisulfite reduced ammonia formation in alfalfa-bromegrass
silages. Metabisulfite appeared superior to bacitracin as an in-
hibitor of protein hydrolysis and resulted in lower concentration
of amino acids. Both reduced production of ammonia and bu-
tyric acid. A continuous 36-day feeding trial with cows on the
three silages resulted in no significant differences in dry matter
consumption or milk production. The authors felt, however,
that the feeding period was too short. A digestion trial showed
no marked differences in digestibility of dry matter between
the untreated and bacitracin-treated silages. There was, how-
ever, a marked difference in nitrogen balance, which may have
been especially important since Alexander et al. (1) found that
treating oats with zinc bacitracin resulted in significantly su-
perior preservation and digestibility of protein in comparison
with untreated oat silage.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND MATERIALS
Silos-Concrete pit silos were used from 1953 through 1958.
They were 8 feet deep and 4 feet in diameter, formed by con-
necting two 4 by 4 foot concrete culvert tiles. A layer of clay
approximately 4 inches thick was placed in the bottom of each
silo. Prior to filling, the concrete was treated each time with
boiled linseed oil. They were sealed by covering the top with
two-ply roofing paper or polyvinyl film held in place by a thick
layer of soil. In 1959, it was desirable to use larger silos, and
the change was made to a type constructed from polyvinyl-treat-
ed canvas. They were 10 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, hold-
ing approximately 6 tons of most of the silages. A liner of either
polyethylene or polyvinyl film was placed inside the silo and
allowed to come above the contents, where it was gathered and
tied. This provided an effective seal, keeping spoilage to a
minimum, although leakage occurred occasionally during heavy
rains.
Forages and Preservatives-Forage crops investigated were
typical for most of Florida. Included were Sart Sargo, pearl-
millet, alfalfa, oats, soybeans, pangolagrass, sweet lupine, and
hairy indigo. For each trial, one silo was filled with the plain
forage for comparison with silage made with different preserva-
tives. These preservatives included citrus pulp at levels of 125,
150, 250, and 300 pounds per ton; sodium metabisulfite at rates
of 7 or 8 pounds per ton; ground snapped corn, 150 pounds per
ton; and zinc bacitracin, 5 grams per ton of freshly cut forage.
Ensiling Procedure-In some cases the forage was mowed
with a sickle bar mower and allowed to wilt in the swath. Usual-
ly, however, the herbage was cut with a field chopper, transport-
ed immediately and weighed into the silos. Preservatives were
added and the forages were packed by tramping. Ten kilograms
of fresh forage were placed at levels of 1/4, /2, and 3/4 of the
depth of the silo in bags of moist muslin or fiberglass mesh for
chemical analyses later. Preservatives were used in the sample
bags at the same rate as in the silo.
Feeding Trials-A minimum of 45 days following filling was
allowed for the ensiling processes to be completed. The silages
then were fed once daily to large heifers or dry dairy cows con-
fined in a dry lot with free access to water and mineral supple-
ments in a three-compartment box (4).







Nutrient Intake of Cows


Four animals per trial were used in the earlier trials with
small pit silos, while eight were employed later with the larger
canvas-plastic silos. Each day the amount of silage which
would be consumed within approximately 24 hours was removed
from the silo and offered in covered feeders, on a group basis.
The daily refusal was recorded.
Group consumption rates were computed according to the
amount consumed per 1,000 pounds of body weight. The animals
were selected to weigh close to 1,000 pounds to keep errors
small, and adjustments to the 1,000-pound basis were accord-
ing to body surface. This is considered essential since the
ability to consume feed is more likely to vary with body sur-
faces than directly with weight and thus the data apply to all
types of cattle. Body surface was considered to vary as weight
to the .734 power (5).
As the sample bags were uncovered, they were dried at 600C
in a forced air drier. The entire 10 kilograms was ground in a
Wiley mill, and representative portions were sealed in airtight
containers until chemical analysis was completed. The feeding
trials were conducted for 10 days. During the last three days,
grab samples of feces were taken once daily at approximately
10 a.m. These were composite and stored in airtight containers
in a refrigerator or, if analysis had to be delayed, frozen in air-
tight containers.
The feeds and feces were assayed for dry matter, protein,
and organic matter, and the feeds for ether extract by standard
methods (3). Fecal chromogens were determined as suggested
by Reid (23), and the techniques of Lofgren and Meyer (15)
were used to determine the total digestible nutrients (TDN) of
the feed. Separate determinations were made for digestibility
of dry matter and digestible protein.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Four legumes and four grass-type forages were tested with
one or more of six forms of preservation in the current series
of trials. Legumes were alfalfa, hairy indigo, Jackson variety
of soybeans, and sweet yellow lupine. Oats, pangolagrass, pearl-
millet, and Sart Sargo constituted the non-legumes. Each crop
was ensiled with no additive. Additives used singly with one or
more of the crops in this series were, per ton of material ensiled,
150 pounds of ground snapped corn; 125, 150, 250, or 300 pounds






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of dried citrus pulp; 7 or 8 pounds of sodium metabisulfite;
and 5 grams of zinc bacitracin. The respective additive was
placed into the silo with corresponding weighed amounts of chop-
ped forage to make an intimate mixture on a per ton basis.
The rates of consumption and digestibility have been sum-
marized in Table 1. They are presented on both the dry and
fresh basis. When used in connection with feeding standards,
this information should facilitate the formulation and feeding
of rations to various classes of cattle. Since the amount of
TDN and digestible crude protein which might be expected from
silages of the types investigated herein can be determined from
the table, the quality and amount of supplementary feeds should
be determined without difficulty. Individual variations will make
adjustments necessary. Fertilization and stage of maturity at
harvest are related to protein and total nutrient content.
Alfalfa-Alfalfa was ensiled alone and with addition of
ground snapped corn, citrus pulp or sodium metabisulfite. An
average of 62 pounds per 1,000 pounds of body weight was con-
sumed daily in the plain state. An increase over this was ob-
served when additives were used. Plain alfalfa silage had an
objectionable putrefactive odor. In the plain and sodium meta-
bisulfite alfalfa silages slightly less than a maintenance level of
TDN was consumed, but in all cases the protein consumption
was above maintenance requirements. Lactating animals receiv-
ing this silage as their main roughage should be supplemented
with both energy bearing and protein nutrients in moderate
amounts according to performance.
Hairy Indigo-Hairy indigo silage, without an additive, pro-
vided the cows wth slightly more than the maintenance require-
ments for energy. However, the protein in plain silage was
preserved poorly, and the consumption as plain silage provided
insufficient protein for maintenance. It had a very noticeable
putrefactive odor. The cows consumed only 64.5 pounds per
1,000 pounds live weight. With addition of 150 pounds of citrus
pulp per ton when ensiled, the consumption of 81.3 pounds was
well above maintenance requirements. Lactating cows receiving
hairy indigo silage with the citrus pulp additive would need a
concentrate containing moderate amounts of protein. This for-
age should not be ensiled without an effective preservative.
Oats-Immature oats were ensiled after wilting enough to
increase the dry matter content to about 18 percent. Without







TABLE 1.--COMPOSITION, CONSUMPTION AND UTILIZATION OF SILAGE PRODUCED WITH VARIOUS PRESERVATIVES.


Silage


No. of % Dry
Animals Matter


Early bloom alfalfa, 4
plain
Early bloom alfalfa plus 4
150 lbs. ground snapped
corn per ton
Early bloom alfalfa plus 4
150 lbs. citrus pulp
per ton
Early bloom alfalfa plus 4
8 lbs. sodium metabisulfite
per ton

Pre-bloom hairy indigo, 4
plain
Pre-bloom hairy indigo, 4
with 150 lbs. citrus
pulp per ton

Oats, immature, wilted 3

Oats, immature, wilted, 4
plus 150 lbs. citrus pulp
per ton
Oats, immature, wilted, 4
plus 250 lbs. citrus
pulp per ton


% Digesti
bility
of Dry
Matter


59.3
.10*
57.5
2.10


TDN

% Dry % Fresh
Basis Basis

58.5 8.8
.88 .01
53.8 11.4
.17 .10


Digestible protein lbs. Intake
per 1,000
% Dry % Fresh per
Basis Basis Forage DM


58.5 57.8 12.6 7.1
2.19 2.79 .41 .82


15.2 60.8 60.0 9.2
2.30 .11 .12


24.2 56.6
3.22
28.4 54.9
1.10


18.8 77.1
1.95
25.6 65.5
4.57

24.9 61.5
3.44


56.1 13.6
3.14 .25
54.5 15.5
.14 .10


74.6
1.42
63.3
5.17


.63

1.4


14.0
3.75
16.2
1.52


63.3 15.8 8.6
4.40 1.25 .22


lbs.
body wt.
TDN DCP


62.2 9.4 5.5 0.8

70.8 14.9 8.1 1.1


81.1 17.6 10.2 1.0
Z.

67.0 10.2 6.1



64.5 15.6 8.7 0.4
0
81.3 23.1 12.5 1.2
o

55.9 10.5 7.8 1.0

55.6 14.2 9.0 1.2


39.4 9.8 6.2 0.9


* Figures in second line represent standard deviations.









TABLE 1.-CONTINUED.


Silage


Oats, mature

Oats, mature, plus 5 gm
zinc bacitracin per ton
Oats, mature, plus 150
lbs. ground snapped corn
per ton

Pangola, mature, wilted

Pangola, mature wilted
plus 150 lbs. citrus
pulp per ton
Pangola, mature, wilted
plus 250 lbs. citrus
pulp per ton

Pangola, immature


Pangola, immature, plus
150 lbs. citrus pulp
per ton
Pangola, immature, plus
8 lbs. sodium metabisulfi
per ton
Pangola, immature, plu
250 lbs. citrus pulp
per ton


No. of % Dry
Animals Matter


% Digesti-
bility
of Dry
Matter

72.9
.14
73.9
.10
65.0
.12


61.2
4.18
64.7
1.30

64.3
3.30


66.3
2.28

68.6
4.35

68.7
2.65

64.3
3.30


TDN Digestible protein lbs. Intake lbs.
per 1,000 body wt.
% Dry % Fresh % Dry % Fresh pr 10 b
Basis Basis Basis Basis Forage DM TDN DCP


71.3 7.8


.12
72.3
.10
64.3
.11


52.5
4.68
63.7
.10

61.8
3.55


65.2
2.58

67.4
3.86

62.1
5.39

61.8
3.55


6.0
.16
4.4
.11
5.6
.12


.66 118.0 12.9 6.2 0.8
.12
.53 92.2 11.2 8.0 0.5
.11
.76 80.8 11.0 7.1 0.6
.10


58.0 18.7 9.8

.7 40.0 12.9 8.3 1.1
.11

.3 43.0 13.1 8.1 1.0


.11
8.7
.10
8.8
.12


16.9
3.03
20.6
.29

18.8
1.23


12.3
.10

17.3
.28

11.6
1.56

18.8
2.23




TABLE 1.-CONTINUED.


Silage


Pre-bloom pearlmillet,
plain
Pre-bloom pearlmillet
plus 150 lbs. ground
snapped corn per ton
Pre-bloom pearlmillet
plus 300 lbs. citrus
pulp per ton

Sart Sargo with fully
developed seed heads

Pre-bloom soybeans,
plain
Pre-bloom soybeans plus
150 lbs. citrus pulp
per ton
Pre-broom soybeans plus
8 lbs. sodium metabi-
sulfite per ton

Pre-bloom sweet lupine,
plain
Pre-bloom sweet lupine
plus 125 Ibs. citrus pulp
per ton
Pre-bloom sweet lupine
plus 7 lbs. sodium meta-
bisulfite per ton


No. of (/( Dry
Animals Matter


4 11.8

16 15.5


8 20.6



12 23.6


4 16.9

4 20.2


4 17.3



4 19.3

4 20.8


4 19.5


', Digesti-
bility
of Dry
Matter

57.2
.29
54.7
.40


TDN


Digestible protein I


% Dry % Fresh / Dry
Basis Basis Basis


56.6
.11
57.0
1.1


6.7
.01
8.8
.01


53.3 53.5 11.0 5.0
.41 1.3 .02 1.5


74.5 73.3 17.3 6.8
.69 2.30 .28 .24


53.5
1.30
53.6


53.1
.10
53.2


53.3 52.9 9.2 5.0
.30 1.48 .10 .01


57.2
2.81
53.7
.19

59.9
2.60


56.1
2.91
53.0
.10


10.7
1.40
11.1
.10


10.8
.20
10.9
.07


59.1 11.5 10.9
2.38 .24 .32


% Fresh
Basis


1.1
.01
.94
.32

1.0
.31


1.7
.19

.93
.03
.94
.03

.90
.02


2.1
.10
2.3
.02

2.2
.13


Ibs. Intake Ibs.
per 1,000 body wt.


Forage DM


TDN DCP


79.1 9.4 5.3 0.8

81.2 12.6 7.1 0.8


81.0 16.7 8.9 0.8



50.1 11.8 8.7 0.9


70.8 11.9 6.4 0.7

72.0 14.6 7.7 0.7

o
73.9 12.8 6.8 0.7
o,


66.1 12.8 7.1 1.4

81.5 16.9 9.0 1.9


67.6 13.2 7.8 1.5






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


an additive, this feed was consumed in amounts sufficient to
supply above the maintenance requirement for protein and en-
ergy. The addition of 150 pounds per ton of citrus pulp result-
ed in increased consumption of both energy and protein. Two
hundred and fifty pounds per ton of citrus pulp caused a decrease
in the consumption to the extent that TDN intake dropped slight-
ly below the usual maintenance level. Even in this event, the
protein consumption was well above the maintenance level (0.9
lbs. per 1,000 lbs. body weight daily).
Mature oats were ensiled without wilting. In the plain state,
intake of this silage supplied slightly less than the requirements
for energy and provided about the recommended amount of pro-
tein for maintenance. The addition of zinc bacitracin appeared
to preserve the total digestible nutrients and to impart a pleasant
odor to the feed. The oats-bacitracin silage supplied slightly
more than the maintenance requirements for energy and slightly
less than the required amount of protein. The addition of 150
pounds per ton of ground snapped corn caused the feed to be
consumed at a level which supplied very close to the maintenance
needs for both energy and protein. Hence, concentrates high
in TDN and medium in protein are suitable for supplementing
oats silages.
Pangolagrass-Mature pangolagrass was wilted to a dry mat-
ter content of close to 30 percent. Addition of citrus pulp at
levels of 150 and 250 pounds per ton appeared to have some
preserving action but resulted in a reduction in the consumption
of dry matter and total digestible nutrients. With both levels
of the additive, well above the maintenance requirement for
both protein and total digestible nutrients were consumed. An
undue amount of sand in the plain silage made it impossible to
measure protein digestibility for this particular feed. It was
consumed at well above the maintenance level for energy and
presumably for protein.
Less mature pangola was ensiled at a dry matter content
of approximately 18 percent. With the addition of citrus pulp
at 150 or 250 pounds per ton, both TDN and protein were con-
sumed at well above maintenance levels. When ensiled plain,
the intakes of this forage provided approximately the require-
ments. The addition of sodium metabisulfite resulted in a slight
reduction in the intake of TDN and dry matter although when
preserved thus, the pangolagrass still met the requirements of







Nutrient Intake of Cows


the cows for protein. Pangola silage produced under conditions
of this experiment can be supplemented feasibly by concentrates
which are medium in protein content. It should be remembered,
however, that soil fertility and stage of maturity at harvest
may affect its protein content.
Pearlmillet-Pearlmillet was ensiled in the pre-bloom stage
when close to a 12 percent dry matter content. In this stage, it
met the requirements for digestible protein but was deficient in
supplying TDN. The addition of either 150 or 300 pounds of cit-
rus pulp per ton resulted in an increase in the consumption of
dry matter to the extent that the nutrient requirements were
met. Concentrates with a medium protein and high TDN con-
tent appear suitable for supplementing pearlmillet silage.
Sart Sargo-Sart Sargo was ensiled after seed heads had
formed but while the plant was still green. The dry matter
content was 23.6 percent. This forage supplied the protein need-
ed for maintenance and slightly more than the required amount
of TDN. Hence supplementary concentrates should be medium
in protein content.
Soybeans-Soybeans were ensiled in the pre-bloom stage.
With no additive or with sodium metabisulfite, slightly less than
the required amount of TDN for maintenance were supplied. In
all cases, this forage met the maintenance requirements for
protein. High energy medium protein concentrates are sug-
gested as supplementary feed.
Sweet Lupine-Sweet lupine was ensiled in the pre-bloom
stage alone and with the addition of 125 pounds of citrus pulp
or seven pounds of sodium metabisulfite per ton. The citrus
pulp appeared to enhance the palatability to the extent that con-
siderably more feed was consumed with this additive. With the
addition of citrus pulp, well above the maintenance requirements
for both energy and protein were supplied. The energy require-
ment was met with the other forages. All of these silages sup-
plied considerably more protein than necessary for maintenance.
A high energy concentrate feed with only medium protein sup-
plementation would seem to be in order when this silage is
used. Sweet lupine is unusual, being the only legume included
in this investigation which could be ensiled plain without develop-
ing putrefactive odors.
It must be remembered that the experimental animals were
not producing milk, and were fed only the silages. Some ad-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


justments in consumption rates may be necessary, especially
as they apply to lactating animals. These differences should be
expected to be small, however, because both the requirements
for feed and its supply from other sources will increase as milk
is produced. Hence, the requirement for and consumption of
silage is not expected to change appreciably. Still, the digestior
values should be considered an essential part of the data.
For the most part, forages were green when analyzed and
contained rather large amounts of chromogens. Excessive mucus
in some fecal samples made accurate protein determinations im-
possible. All other digestibility data, however, seemed reason-
able. Citrus pulp or ground snapped corn appeared to absol o
more dry matter from the gravitating fluids than they lost
through fermentation. This agrees with work presented by
Jones (11) on the use of beet pulp as a preservative. A level
of 150 pounds per ton appeared adequate. The citrus flavor ap-
peared especially palatable, as indicated by the consumption
rates. Other additives used in this work likewise appeared to
favor an acid type bacterial fermentation and prevent the dev-
elopment of undesirable odors. There were few other differences
in preservatives, however, which could be determined by the
methods employed. Sweet lupine was the only silage the aroma
of which was not affected by an added preservative. The ad-
dition of citrus pulp did enhance palatability, however, as indicat-
ed by an increased rate of voluntary consumption. As shown
in Table 1, all of the silages were consumed at reasonable rates
and supplied fairly large amounts of digestible proteins and
total digestible nutrients.
Wilting appeared to enhance the value of oats but not of
pangola silages. It is recognized that these data are limited,
and may have been influenced by the tendency of the harvesting
machinery to pick up more sand at some times than at others.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. All the forages investigated are recommended for silage
where adapted.

2. Forage plants in immature stages appeared to be higher
in productive nutrients on the dry matter basis than more ma-
ture forages of all the varieties studied.

3. Absorptive concentrates such as citrus pulp and ground







Nutrient Intake of Cows


snapped corn may be used as preservatives at the rate of 150
pounds per ton of fresh forage.

4. Sodium metabisulfite appears to be a very good silage
preservative. However, caution should be exercised when this
preservative is used. When it contacts moisture, fumes which
are quite corrosive form, and they must not be allowed to con-
tact either machinery or workmen.

5. Antibiotics at the rate of 5 grams per ton appear to en-
hance the aroma of silage, though they had little effect on the
nutrient content under conditions of these experiments.

6. An airtight seal (such as provided by plastic covers) ap-
pears to be desirable in all cases whether preservatives are used
or not.

7. It is suggested that the table accompanying this publica-
tion be consulted when any of the silages are being used. The
supplementary concentrate should supply the additional digestible
protein and total digestible nutrients necessary to meet the
requirements of the animal. These will vary considerably ac-
cording to the type of silage used.

8. Wilting hay crop silages is recommended when practical.
The sandy nature of many Florida soils, however, limits the
usefulness of this practice, since excessive amounts of soil are
likely to be mixed into the forage by the pick-up machinery.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to acknowledge the cooperation and extend
their thanks to the following who contributed to the accomplish-
ment of this work: P. T. Dix Arnold, J. T. McCall, and G. K.
Davis.

LITERATURE CITED
(1) ALEXANDER, R. A., MCCALL, J. T., HENTGES, J. F., JR., LOGGINS, P. E.,
and DAVIS, G. K. Digestibility of chopped oats silage preserved with
zinc bacitracin fed to cattle and sheep. J. Dairy Sci., 45:1928. 1961.
(2) ANDREWS, F. N., and STOB, MARTIN. Effect of molasses bacitracin
on the estrogenic activity of silages. J. Dairy Sci., 41:1616. 1958.
(3) A.O.A.C. OFFICIAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. Assn. of Off. Agr. Chem-
ists (8th ed.). Washington, D.C. 1955.







Nutrient Intake of Cows


snapped corn may be used as preservatives at the rate of 150
pounds per ton of fresh forage.

4. Sodium metabisulfite appears to be a very good silage
preservative. However, caution should be exercised when this
preservative is used. When it contacts moisture, fumes which
are quite corrosive form, and they must not be allowed to con-
tact either machinery or workmen.

5. Antibiotics at the rate of 5 grams per ton appear to en-
hance the aroma of silage, though they had little effect on the
nutrient content under conditions of these experiments.

6. An airtight seal (such as provided by plastic covers) ap-
pears to be desirable in all cases whether preservatives are used
or not.

7. It is suggested that the table accompanying this publica-
tion be consulted when any of the silages are being used. The
supplementary concentrate should supply the additional digestible
protein and total digestible nutrients necessary to meet the
requirements of the animal. These will vary considerably ac-
cording to the type of silage used.

8. Wilting hay crop silages is recommended when practical.
The sandy nature of many Florida soils, however, limits the
usefulness of this practice, since excessive amounts of soil are
likely to be mixed into the forage by the pick-up machinery.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to acknowledge the cooperation and extend
their thanks to the following who contributed to the accomplish-
ment of this work: P. T. Dix Arnold, J. T. McCall, and G. K.
Davis.

LITERATURE CITED
(1) ALEXANDER, R. A., MCCALL, J. T., HENTGES, J. F., JR., LOGGINS, P. E.,
and DAVIS, G. K. Digestibility of chopped oats silage preserved with
zinc bacitracin fed to cattle and sheep. J. Dairy Sci., 45:1928. 1961.
(2) ANDREWS, F. N., and STOB, MARTIN. Effect of molasses bacitracin
on the estrogenic activity of silages. J. Dairy Sci., 41:1616. 1958.
(3) A.O.A.C. OFFICIAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. Assn. of Off. Agr. Chem-
ists (8th ed.). Washington, D.C. 1955.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


(4) BECKER, R. B., ARNOLD, P. T. D., KIRK, W. G., DAVIS, G. K., and
KIDDER, R. W. Minerals for dairy and beef cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bull. 513. 1958.

(5) BRODY, S. Bioenergetics and growth. Reinhold Publishing Corp.
1945.

(6) DEXTER, S. T. Use of antibiotics in the making of lucerne silage.
J. Agron., 49:483. 1957.

(7) DORNER, L. A. Nutritive value of lucerne silage. Allattenyesztes,
7:93-99. 1958.

(8) DURAND-SALOMON, M., and ZELTER, S. Z. L'evolution des catabolismes
glucidique et protidique dans une luzerne ensilee: action des traitments
A.I.V. et metabisulfite de sodium. Proc. of the 8th Int. Grassland
Congr., p. 510. 1960.

(9) K6NEKAMP, A. H. Conservation of grass and clover under West
German conditions. Proc. of the 8th Int. Grassland Congr., p. 491.
1960.

(10) JARL, F. and HELLBERG, A. Ensiling experiments with acid sodium
salts or phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid as preservatives. Kgl.
Lantbrukshogskol. och Statens Lantbruksforsok Statens Husdjurs-
forsok Medd. No. 54. 1954.

(11) JONES, I. R. We like beet pulp as a grass silage preservative.
Hoard's Dairyman, 98:559. 1953.

(12) KROULIK, J. T., BURKEY, L. A., and WISEMAN, H. G. The microbial
populations of the green plant and of the cut forage prior to ensil-
ing. J. Dairy Sci., 38(3) :256. 1955.

(13) LANGSTON, C. W., IRVIN, HERBERT, GORDON, C. H., BOUMAN, Cecelia,
WISEMAN, H. G., MELIN, C. G., MOORE, L. A., and MCCALMONT, J. R.
Microbiology and chemistry of grass silage. USDA Tech. Bull. 1187.
Sept., 1958.

(14) LIGHT, M. R., and BOLIN, D. W. What about preservatives in mak-
ing legume silage? N. Dak. Bimonthly Bull., VIII(6) p. 222. July-
August, 1955.

(15) LOFGREN, G. P., and MEYER, J. H. A method for determining total
digestible nutrients in grazed forage. J. Animal Sci., 39:268. 1956.

(16) MARTIN, J., and BUYSSE, F. Some new chemicals in preparing sil-
ages. Chem. Abs. 48 906 g. 1954.

(17) McCULLOUGH, M. E. A study of factors associated with silage fer-
mentation and dry matter intake by dairy cows. J. Animal Sci.,
20(2) :288. 1961.

(18) MURDOCH, J. C. The effect of temperature on silage fermentation.
Proc. of the 8th Int. Grassland Congr., 502. 1960.







Nutrient Intake of Cows


(19) NILSSON, R., and RYDIN, C. The effect of malt enzymes on the
biochemical changes occurring during ensilage. Proc. of the 8th
Int. Grassland Congr., p. 493. 1960.

(20) OLSON, M., and VOELKER, H. W. Effectiveness of enzyme and culture
additions on the preservation and feeding value of alfalfa silage. J.
Dairy Sci., 44(6) :1204. 1961.
(21) PRATT, A. D., and CONRAD, H. R. Bacitracin as a preservative for
legumegrass silage. Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 893. 1961.
(22) RAMSEY, D. S., LUSKY, J. W., MILES, J. T. A comparison of silage
preservatives used with grass silage. Miss. Agr. Exp. Sta. Informa-
tion Sheet 639. 1959.

(23) REID, J. T., WOOLFOLK, P. G., HARDISON, W. A., MARTIN, C. M.,
BRUNDAGE, A. L., and KAUFMANN, R. W. A procedure for measur-
ing the digestibility of pasture forage under grazing conditions. J.
Nutr., 46:255. 1952.
(24) RUSOFF, L. L., BREIDENSTEIN, C. P., and FRYE, J. B. Value of bacit-
racin as a preservative for grass silage on milk production. J. Dairy
Sci., 42:929. 1959.
(25) RYDIN, C. Fermentation processes in silage. Starch as a source of
carbohydrate for the lactic acid fermentation. Arch. Mikrobiol., 27:
82-104. 1957.
(26) SCHOCH, W. Report on the quality of silage made by farmers using
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(27) SMITH, L. M., and RONNING, M. Comparison of fatty acid com-
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(28) WIERINGA, G. W. Some factors affecting silage fermentation. Proc.
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(29) WING, J. M., and WILCOX, C. J. Antibiotics preserve silage. Sun-
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