• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Plant parasitic nematodes
 Symptoms and effects of nematode...
 Nematode control
 Literature cited
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations ; No. 707
Title: Nematode control guide for vegetable production in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027217/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nematode control guide for vegetable production in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 17 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhoades, H. L
Winchester, J. A
Overman, A. J
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Plant nematodes -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 17.
Statement of Responsibility: H.L. Rhoades, J.A. Winchester, A.J. Overman.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027217
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929299
oclc - 18363631
notis - AEP0079

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Plant parasitic nematodes
        Page 3
    Symptoms and effects of nematode damage
        Page 4
    Nematode control
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Literature cited
        Page 17
    Back Cover
        Page 18
Full Text

































C'














r,
P.
0.












CONTENTS


Page
Introduction .- -- -------- - --.--.. -------...................... ...... .. 3

Plant Parasitic Nematodes .... ------------- --- --..-....-... 3

Symptoms and Effects of Nematode Damage 4
Below-Ground Symptoms 4
Above-Ground Symptoms 4....... .. .. ...---------- -....... 4

Nematode Control ---.----- -------........-- .. 5
Crop Rotation --. ---------------... -.. ---...... 6
Flooding and Fallow --------------............ 7
Chemical Control ... ----- ..... ... ..... ... .................. 8
Chemicals to Use ....... .-----------------.----. 8
Application Rate .....------------------- 9
Nematicide Efficacy .....- ..--- ... --- 9
Soil Preparation ------------..... .................... .. ... 10
Waiting Period 10
Methods of Field Application .----- ---............. 10
Seedbed Fumigation ---- ............... .. 14
Calibration of Liquid Nematicide Applicators --...- ... 15
Construction and Care of Liquid Nematicide Applicators -. 15
Caution ..---------------- ............ .. 16

Literature Cited -- --- ----------------................... ... 17




The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the ex-
clusion of others of suitable composition.




Cover: The onions on the left were grown in soil fumigated with a nematicide
to control sting and stubby-root nematodes. Those on the right were grown in
untreated soil.







NEMATODE CONTROL GUIDE FOR
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

H. L. Rhoades, J. A. Winchester, and Amegda J. Overman1


INTRODUCTION

Nematode control is important for high yields and quality that
a1e required by the high cost of modern vegetable production. This
especially true in Florida because of the intensive type of agri-
culture, moderate soil temperatures, and the long crop season
which allows year-around activity of nematodes. Drastic yield
reductions result from nematodes feeding on plant roots through-
out the growing season. Although no method for the eradication
of plant-parasitic nematodes is practical on a fiaed scale, several
means of economic control are available to vegetable growers to
protect their crops against loss.


PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES

The majority of vegetable growers are familiar with root-knot
nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) damage. However, Florida vege-
table crops are attacked by several other kinds of nematodes that
do not produce galls or knots, and the injury caused by these is
more difficult to recognize. Some other nematode pests that have
been found on Florida vegetables are as follows:


Sting nematodes
Stubby-root nematodes
Awl nematodes
Bud and Leaf nematodes
Lesion nematodes
Lance nematodes
Stunt nematodes
Ring nematodes
Spiral nematodes

Dagger nematodes


(Belonolaimus spp.)
(Trichodorus spp.)
(Dolichodorus spp.)
(Aphelenchoides spp.)
(Pratylenchus spp.)
(Hoplolaimus spp.)
(Tylenchorhynchus spp.)
(Criconemoides spp.)
(Helicotylenchus spp. and
Scutellonema spp.)
(Xiphinema spp.)


1Assistant Nematologist, Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford,
Florida; Assistant Nematologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, Florida; and Assistant Soils Microbiologist, Gulf Coast Experiment
Station, Bradenton, Florida.







NEMATODE CONTROL GUIDE FOR
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

H. L. Rhoades, J. A. Winchester, and Amegda J. Overman1


INTRODUCTION

Nematode control is important for high yields and quality that
a1e required by the high cost of modern vegetable production. This
especially true in Florida because of the intensive type of agri-
culture, moderate soil temperatures, and the long crop season
which allows year-around activity of nematodes. Drastic yield
reductions result from nematodes feeding on plant roots through-
out the growing season. Although no method for the eradication
of plant-parasitic nematodes is practical on a fiaed scale, several
means of economic control are available to vegetable growers to
protect their crops against loss.


PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES

The majority of vegetable growers are familiar with root-knot
nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) damage. However, Florida vege-
table crops are attacked by several other kinds of nematodes that
do not produce galls or knots, and the injury caused by these is
more difficult to recognize. Some other nematode pests that have
been found on Florida vegetables are as follows:


Sting nematodes
Stubby-root nematodes
Awl nematodes
Bud and Leaf nematodes
Lesion nematodes
Lance nematodes
Stunt nematodes
Ring nematodes
Spiral nematodes

Dagger nematodes


(Belonolaimus spp.)
(Trichodorus spp.)
(Dolichodorus spp.)
(Aphelenchoides spp.)
(Pratylenchus spp.)
(Hoplolaimus spp.)
(Tylenchorhynchus spp.)
(Criconemoides spp.)
(Helicotylenchus spp. and
Scutellonema spp.)
(Xiphinema spp.)


1Assistant Nematologist, Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford,
Florida; Assistant Nematologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, Florida; and Assistant Soils Microbiologist, Gulf Coast Experiment
Station, Bradenton, Florida.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


SYMPTOMS AND EFFECTS OF NEMATODE DAMAGE

Plant-parasitic nematodes are armed with a protrusible stylet
or spear which is inserted into plant tissues and through which
the cell contents are sucked out. Some nematodes actually enter
the tissues (endoparasites), while others feed from the outside
of the plant (ectoparasites).
Symptoms of nematode injury to vegetable plants vary accord-
ing to the kind and number of nematodes involved. Identification
of specific nematodes attacking a crop can be made only by
trained personnel. Growers may, by careful observation of the
crop plants, notice "abnormal" root or top growth and have the
soil analyzed for nematodes. They may in this way become familiar
with symptoms caused by specific nematodes.

Below-Ground Symptoms
Internal parasites such as the root-knot nematodes invade
roots and produce the familiar galls or knots (Fig. 1). The lesion
nematodes also internal parasites cause lesions, root brown-
ing, and necrosis. Symptoms caused by external feeders vary
according to the nematode species and crop attacked. These
symptoms range from a stubby-root condition (Fig. 2) resulting
from root-tip injury, sometimes with proliferation of short roots, to
browning, lesions, necrosis, and general root decay. Nematode
damage may also be complicated by root-rotting organisms which
enter the plant through the wound made by the feeding apparatus
of the nematode.

Above-Ground Symptoms
Where injury to the plant occurs below the ground, root sys-
tems are unable to absorb enough water or nutrients to support
vigorous plant growth. Above-ground symptoms usually resemble
those of any plant lacking sufficient water and nutrients. De-
ficiency symptoms, stunting, and wilting, are, therefore, quite
general. In newly infested fields, these symptoms may first be
evident in irregularly shaped areas. These areas may enlarge over
a number of seasons as the nematodes increase in number and
spread through the field. The amount of yield loss depends on
many factors, particularly the type of nematode associated with
the plant roots, the severity of the infestations, and the age of
the plant when exposed to high populations of nematodes. Young







Nematode Control Guide


Figure 1.-Root-knot nematode galling of cucumber roots.


seedlings may be destroyed by high populations, while older, well-
established plants are better able to tolerate heavy populations,
since they can continually initiate new roots to replace those in-
jured by nematodes. Some crops, such as celery, are sometimes
less seriously damaged because of their ability to form new roots.
Essentially, yield loss is due to the inability of the restricted root
systems to provide nutrients and moisture necessary for a vigorous,
high-yielding plant.

NEMATODE CONTROL
Numerous methods of nematode control are known, but their
costs and effectiveness vary greatly. The decision as to practicabil-
ity of control must be based upon the anticipated profit from such







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


figure 2.-Roots of a sweet corn plant showing symptoms of injury caused by
the stubby-root nematode.

treatment. While some treatments are very costly, they are never-
theless highly profitable on high value crops. Other treatments,
not as costly, are less effective but adequate for less profitable
crops.


I. Crop Rotation

In the absence of host plants, populations of parasitic nema-
todes tend to decline, rapidly at first and then more slowly. For
this reason rotations that include resistant or non-host plants can
be effective in reducing the damage caused by several nematode
species. It should be remembered, however, that no plants are







Nematode Control Guide


known to be resistant to all nematodes, and a rotation designed to
control one kind of nematode may result in an increase of another.
This is especially important in Florida where vegetables are in-
jured by a complex of several different nematodes.
Two crops that have shown considerable promise in reducing
certain nematode populations in Florida are pangolagrass (Digi-
taria decumbens) and showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis).
Pangolagrass, when grown for one year with good weed control,
has given excellent control of root-knot nematodes for tomato pro-
duction in South Florida (11)2.
Showy crotalaria, when grown in rows and kept free of weeds
by cultivation for 21/2 to 3 months in the summer, has been shown
to greatly reduce populations of root-knot (6, 10) as well as awl,
sting, and stubby-root nematodes (6). This crop is poisonous to
livestock, poultry, and game, however, and should be grown only
where it can be kept within bounds.


II. Flooding and Fallow
Where flooding can be practiced for at least 2 to 3 months
during the summer, a considerable reduction in root-knot nematode
populations can usually be obtained (2, 7, 9). Alternating flooding
with periods of drying appears to be of greater value than con-
tinuous flooding for both sand (3) and peat soils. Recent green-
house tests with muck soil have shown that one month of flooding
followed by one month of drying and another month of flooding
greatly reduced populations of root-knot nematodes (1).
Some of the benefits of flooding apparently are derived from
the control of weeds and other plant hosts of the nematode. The
practice of seeding sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), a known host of
the root-knot nematode, then flooding the land after the crop is
tall enough to prevent drowning is not recommended since the
nematodes are able to continue their development in the plant
roots.
Clean summer fallow appears to reduce root-knot nematode
populations about the same as flooding, but this practice is not
recommended for Florida because it depletes the organic matter
of the soil. This soil, when later planted to vegetables, may erode
severely, and drainage may be less effective than in soil main-
tained in a cover crop.
2Figures in parentheses refer to the Literature Cited.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Ill. Chemical Control

Soil fumigation with chemicals is an effective, quick method
of controlling nematodes which feed on crop roots. Chemicals
used to kill nematodes are called nematicides, and are usually
marketed and applied in liquid form; a few are available as gran-
ules. Nematicides presently recommended for vegetables, when
injected into the soil, volatilize into gases that disperse through-
out the spaces between the soil particles.


Chemicals to Use
For general field fumigation, four nematicides are recom-
mended:
Dibromochloropropane, "DBCP" (Nemagon, Fumazone)
Dichloropropenes (Telone)
Dichloropropene-dichloropropane mixtures (D-D Soil Fumi-
gant, Vidden D)
Ethylene dibromide, "EDB" (Dowfume W-85, Soilfume)

Those containing dichloropropenes and dichloropropanes may
be used on all vegetables, but those containing EDB or DBCP
cannot be used on certain crops because of either high bromide
residues accumulating in the crop or toxicity to the crop. Instruc-
tions on the label should be followed closely.
For seedbed fumigation, a number of soil fumigants possessing
activity against nematodes, fungi, weeds, and soil insects are recom-
mended. For the most part these are too expensive for general
field use, but some are used in band treatments and for certain
high income crops such as strawberries and trellised tomatoes.
Some of these compounds, with some of the trade names they are
sold under, are:
Chloropicrin (Larvacide, Picfume)
Dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate mixture (Vorlex)
Dimethyltetrahydro-thiadiazine-thione, "DMTT" (Mylone)
Methyl bromide (Dowfume MC-2, Bed-fume, Pestmaster)
Methyl bromide and chloropicrin mixture (Brozone)
Methyl bromide, chloropicrin, bromopropyne, and brominated
hydrocarbon mixture (Trizone)
Sodium methyldithiocarbamate, "SMDC" (Vapam, VPM)








Nematode Control Guide


Application Rate
For general field fumigation of the mineral (sandy) soils, the
rates recommended for "overall" or "broadcast" fumigation are
given below.


Application Ratet
Chemical Gal./A.
D-D or Vidden D 20-25
Ethylene dibromide (W-85) 4- 6
Nemagon or Fumazone 1- 11/2 (technical)
Telone 15-20
tFor organic (peat and muck) soils, rates of D-D, Vidden D, Telone, and EDB
should be increased 50 to 75 percent. At the present time, DBCP is not recommended
for use on muck soils.


For seedbeds on sand the following rates per 1200 square feet
are recommended:


Chemical Application Rate
Brozone 12 pounds
Chloropicrin 2 gallons
Methyl bromide 24 pounds"
Mylone (85W) 8 pounds$
Trizone 5 pounds
Vapam or VPM 3 gallons
Vorlex 1 gallonS
tApplied under tarpaulin.
tA 25 to 50 percent reduction in dosage may be used if the treated area is covered
with a tarpaulin.


Nematicide Efficacy
All nematodes attacking vegetables in Florida appear to be
readily killed by fumigation. However, stubby-root nematodes
have been found to re-establish themselves following fumigation
much quicker than the other plant parasitic species (5). About
one month after treating with highly volatile fumigants that leave
the soil rapidly (D-D, EDB, MC-2, etc.), these nematodes begin
to reappear and, on suitable hosts, increase rapidly. In many in-
stances this increase continues until the population in treated
areas is much higher than in untreated areas. In localities where
these nematodes are prevalent, it may be necessary to fumigate
before each susceptible crop in order to prevent extensive damage.

Nemagon and Fumazone, which tend to linger in the soil, re-
tard the rapid build-up of these nematodes, and in some instances
one application will provide protection for two crops.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Soil Preparation
Proper soil preparation is essential for maximum effectiveness
of preplant nematicides. The soil should be kept moist and culti-
vated often for several weeks before treatment to guarantee thor-
ough decomposition of previous crop debris. Undecayed plant
residues harbor nematodes which are protected from fumigant
penetration and also interfere with movement of the fumigation
equipment through the soil. The soil should be in excellent seed-
bed tilth when treated. Homogeneous texture permits uniform
dispersion of the gaseous state of the nematicide. Soil moisture
should approximate that desirable for seeding. If the soil is too
dry, the fumigants will escape too rapidly. If it is too wet, disper-
sion of the chemical in the soil will be poor. The temperature of
the soil at fumigation should be between 500 and 800 F. Below
50 F, the chemicals do not volatilize and spread throughout the
soil properly; above 800 F they tend to escape too rapidly from
the soil.

Waiting Period
Since most nematicides are toxic to plants, a waiting period
after application is required to allow the chemical to escape from
the soil before planting. To avoid plant damage when D-D, Vid-
den D, Telone, EDB, DMTT, SMDC, or Vorlex is used, at least
'two weeks should elapse between the time of treatment and the
time of planting. When temperatures are low or soil moisture is
high, escape of the chemicals from the soil will be retarded. Thus,
the waiting period must be extended to three weeks or even longer.
Seven to ten days following fumigation, the soil should be worked
at least once to a depth of several inches to speed up the escape
of the gas.
Since DBCP is not toxic to many crops, no waiting period is
required when those crops are to be planted. Chloropicrin, methyl
bromide, Brozone, and Trizone are so highly volatile that the area
treated with these chemicals should be covered with a gas tight
cover for 48 hours following the treatment. After the cover is
removed, there should be a 3 to 5 day waiting period before plant-
ing to permit the escape of the fumigant.

Methods of Field Application
Soil fumigants are usually applied under pressure through a
pump powered by the power take-off shaft of the tractor, by an







Nematode Control Guide


independent gasoline engine, or by a ground wheel. Pumps used
for nematicides are specially constructed for resistance to the cor-
rosive action of these materials. With a constant pressure on the
fumigant and a constant forward speed, the application rate can
be regulated by placing discs of noncorrosive metal with accurately
bored orifices in unions in the lines between the pump and the
outlets in the soil. Good screen strainers must be placed in the
suction line running to the pump as well as in front of each of the
orifice discs.
For simplicity and accuracy the ground-wheel drive pump has
much to offer. This pump is set according to calibration charts
for any desired rate; thus, regardless of the tractor speed, the ap-
plication rate will be uniform. With a good flow divider, no discs
are needed to regulate the delivery rate.
There are several types of gravity flow equipment available
which are simple, economical, and reasonably accurate. With these
units the tractor speed must be accurately regulated.
A heavy drag, roller, or cultipacker must be pulled behind the
applicator or by a second tractor to seal the openings made by
the machine and thus retard the escape of the gas.
Types of applicators commonly used are as follows:

Chisel Applicators.-Chisel or shank application equipment
(Fig. 3) has been used for several years for most large-scale fumi-
gation. Fumigants are injected from chisels or shanks spaced 8
to 12 inches apart and 6 to 8 inches deep. There are two kinds
of chisel applicators, one in which the machine is mounted directly
on a tractor and another in which it is mounted on a trailer. The
first type is easier to turn and better adapted for treating small
areas. With the second type, a tractor is not tied up with cumber-
some equipment.

Plow-Sole Applicators.-The plow-sole applicator (Fig. 4) is
one of the cheapest and simplest fumigating machines. It puts
the liquid fumigant, by gravity, through tubes to the bottom of
the furrow just in front of the plow or plows. The metering device
is composed of coiled copper tubing. This method of application
is not recommended if the soil readily forms clods or contains trash
that cannot be penetrated by the fumigant.

Blade Applicators.-Blade applicators (Fig. 5) have been
built in recent years to insure a more effective injection pattern
than can be obtained by the plow-sole or shank applicators (4).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


.... f .: *




Figure 3.-Rear view of shank or chisel type applicator.

With these applicators the fumigant is sprayed as a continuous
"sheet", avoiding some of the difficulties encountered in obtaining
lateral diffusion. The injection boom, adapted with fan type noz-
zles, is mounted in a protected recess beneath the blade and sprays
the entire width of the soil as it flows over the rear edge of the
blade. The soil must be in excellent condition and free of trash
for proper operation of these applicators. Results in Florida have
been only slightly better with the blade than with a chisel appli-
cator (8).

Granule Applicators.-Application of granular formulations
of DBCP may be made with a granule applicator or a fertilizer
distributor. If applied to the surface, the granules must be incor-
porated in the soil immediately by plowing, double disking, or roto-
tilling. The spreader may be adapted with special chisels to deliver
the material 5 to 6 inches beneath the surface.

In-Row Applicators.-For certain short term or wide-row
crops, such as cucumbers, cantaloupes, and ground tomatoes, in-
row fumigation is suggested. In this procedure the usual practice
is to apply a single stream or band of liquid fumigant with a chisel
injector or granular formulation of DBCP with a granule distribu-
tor 6 inches deep along the row where the plants are to stand.







Nematode Control Guide


Where the crops are to be grown on ridges, the soil can be thrown
by sweeps or disks into a ridge over the fumigant and compacted.
This method is economical since only a proportional amount
of the broadcast rate of the fumigant need be applied. It provides
a strip of treated area 1 foot or more wide in which young plants
start. Roots of most crops eventually penetrate into the untreated
area, but experience shows that the treated strip will give good
protection for a sufficient length of time for many crops.


/11ic


Figure 4.-Plow-sole applicator. After Mai, Lorbeer, and Sherf, 1964, in Cornell
Extension Bulletin 1133.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


-F--7 1


\--


Figure 5.-Rear view of blade applicator. Note spray pattern of flat-spray nozzles.

With this method, the treated area must be visibly and care-
fully marked for satisfactory results. There should be no cultiva-
tion to aerate the soil, since this will mix untreated soil into the
treated area. However, where ridges are used, the top of the ridge
may be skimmed off to destroy weeds prior to planting. This also
removes the portion of soil that is least affected by the fumigant.


Seedbed Fumigation
Methyl bromide is released under a gas-tight .cover, usually of
some plastic material, held above the soil a few inches by sup-
ports (Fig. 6). The edges of the tarp are buried. Methyl bromide
for this purpose is supplied in cans and is released under the tarp
by special applicators that puncture the can.
A special chisel-type applicator is used to inject Brozone or
Trizone 4 to 6 inches into the soil. Treated areas must be covered
with plastic film as soon as possible, preferably within 20 minutes
after fumigating, to prevent loss of fumigant. The film may be laid
either manually or with a mechanical tarp-layer. Cylinders con-
taining Brozone and Trizone are pressurized to expel this fumi-
gant, and pumps for additional pressure are not necessary during
application.
Vorlex and SMDC may be injected with conventional chisel


o








Nematode Control Guide


.

N


Figure 6.-Seedbeds covered with plastic film for fumigating with methyl bromide.

applicators, but the spacing of the chisels should be reduced to 6
to 8 inches. Injection depth should be approximately 6 inches.
Following application the soil should be firmed or, preferably,
sealed with water immediately.
SMDC may also be drenched on the area in 12 to 1 inch of
water. DMTT may be applied either dry or as a drench.


Calibration of Liquid Nematicide Applicators
To do a thorough job of fumigation with as little fumigant as
possible, the injector must be accurately calibrated. To calibrate,
the number of miles per hour or feet per minute at which the
machine will travel while operating should first be determined. If
the tractor does not have an accurate speedometer, this is easily
done with a tape measure and a watch. Next the rate of discharge
from the shanks should be determined by raising the machine and
catching the chemical in cans for an accurately measured period of
time. Application rates can be determined from Table 1.


Construction and Care of Liquid Nematicide Applicators
Since most of the fumigants are corrosive to metals, all piping,
fittings, etc., of the injector should be of brass, bronze, copper,








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Table 1.-Calibration data for fumigant application at varying tractor speeds.
Application Tractor Discharge from Each Outlet (12-inch spacing)
Rate Speed Per 100 ft. Per minute
(Gal./A.) (Ft./min.) (Mi./hr.) (ml.) (oz.) (ml.) (oz.)


40 176
40 264


2.8
4.1
5.5
8.1
8.2
12.2
10.9
16.2
13.8
20.5
16.4
24.7
18.9
28.4
21.7
32.6


2.0 305 10.8
3.0 305 10.8
2.0 350 12.3
3.0 350 12.3


stainless steel, or polyethylene tubing where possible; galvanized
pipe may be used. As soon as the fumigating job is completed,
the injector should be flushed and cleaned with either Diesel fuel
or a mixture of equal parts of mineral spirits and a light grade of
lubricating oil.


Caution
Soil nematicides are poisonous! If a nematicide contacts the
skin, it should be washed off immediately with soap and water.
Prolonged breathing of vapors (or dust from granules) can be
harmful. If a nematicide is splashed into the eye, flush with water
and consult a doctor immediately. Contaminated clothing or shoes
must be removed immediately to prevent burns.. Do not wear this
clothing again until it has been washed and thoroughly aired.








Nematode Control Guide 17


LITERATURE CITED

1. Fisher, D. W., and J. A. Winchester. Effect of flooding on root-knot
nematode survival in organic soil. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:
150-154. 1964.
2. Fransden. P. Eelworm parasites of plants. Monthly Bull. California
State Commission of Hort. 5:60-63. 1916.
3. Overman, A. J. The effect of temperature and flooding on nematode
survival in fallow sandy soil. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24: 141-
149. 1964.
4. Page, G., and H. Jensen. Soil fumigation equipment for nematode con-
trol. Oregon Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 555. 1956.
5. Perry, V. G. Return of nematodes following fumigation of Florida
soils. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66:112-114. 1953.
6. Rhoades, H. L. Effect of Crotalaria spectabilis and Sesbania exaltata
on plant nematode populations and subsequent yield of snap beans and
cabbage. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 77:233-237. 1964.
7. Rhoades, H. L. Effect of fallowing and flooding on root-knot in peat
soil. Plant Disease Reporter. 48:303-306. 1964.
8. Rhoades, H. L., E. S. Holmes, and W. T. Scudder. Comparative results
of soil fumigation with chisel and blade type soil applicators. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 22:147-152. 1962.
9. Thames, Walter H.. Jr., and Warren N. Stoner. A preliminary trial of
lowland culture rice in rotation with vegetable crops as a means of re-
ducing root-knot nematode infestations in the Everglades. Plant Disease
Reporter. 37:187-192. 1953.
10. Watson, J. R., and C. C. Goff. Control of root-knot in Florida. Fla.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 311, 22 pp. 1937.
11. Winchester, J. A., and N. C. Hayslip. The effect of land management
practices on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita acrita, in
South Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 73:100-104. 1960.








'




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs