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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: The composition of some of the concentrated feeding stuffs on sale in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027205/00001
 Material Information
Title: The composition of some of the concentrated feeding stuffs on sale in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 19 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Blair, A. W ( Augustine Wilberforce ), b. 1866
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1905
Copyright Date: 1905
 Subjects
Subject: Feeds -- Analysis   ( lcsh )
Feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: A.W. Blair.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027205
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN2250
oclc - 18159327
alephbibnum - 000921782

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Full Text




BULLETIN No. 80.--Special. APRIL, 1905.


FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
CHEMICAL DEPARTMENT




THE COMPOSITION OF SOME

OF THE CONCENTRATED

FEEDING STUFFS ON

SALE IN FLORIDA





A. W. BLAIR





The bulletins of this station will be sent free to any address
in Florida upon application to the Director of the
Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.



.ACKSONVIILE, FLORIDA:
THE H. & W. B. DREW COMPANY
19o5


















BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
GEO. TW. WILSON, President .................. Jacksonville.
C. A. CARSON, Vice-President .................. Kissimmee.
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary ..................... Brooksville.
F. E. HARRI ............. ............................. Ocala.
E. D. BEGc s ................................. Pensacola
J. R. PARROTT .......... ................... Jacksonville.
F. M. SIMOI'TON.. .............................. Tampa





STATION STAFF.

ANDREW SLEDD, A. M., Ph. D. .................... Director.
"C. M. CONNER, B. S. ...... Vice-Director and Agriculturist.
EDWARD R. FLINT, B. S., Ph. D., M. D ............ Chemist.
E. H. SELLARDS, M. A., Ph. D. ................ Entomologist.
F. M. ROLFS, M. S., ........... Botanist and Horticulturist.
CHAS. F. DAwsoN, M. D., D. V. S. ............ Veterinarian.
A. W. BLAIR, A. M. .................... Assistant Chemist.
R. A. LICHTENTHAELER, M. S............. Assistant Chemist.
F. C. REIMER, B. S. ............. Assistant Horticulturist.
W. P. JERNIGAN ................. Auditor and Bookkeeper.
H. T. PERKINS ............... StenogTapher and Librarian.
JOHN F. MITCHELL ................. Foreman Station Farm.
F. M. STEARNS ........ Gardener, Horticultural Department.
S. A. ROBERT, B. S............ Assistant in Field Experiments.
* Superintendent Farmers' Institutes.










THE COMPOSITION OF SOME OF THE CONCEN-
TRATED FEEDING STUFFS ON SALE IN FLORIDA.

By A. W. BLAIR.
The fact that Florida is largely a vegetable and fruit
growing State, has seemed to render necessary the importa-
tion, from other states, of large quantities of concentrated
feeding stuffs. I have no means of verifying the statement,
but I believe that I am safe in saying that in proportion to
the population, and the number of farm animals, no other
State in the Union imports such large quantities of these
materials for home consumption.

THE NECESSITY FOR A FEEDING STUFFS INSPECTION LAW.
The question as to the quality of these goods seems never
to have troubled us seriously. We have been content to take
what the manufacturer is pleased to send us, and if the
quality has been poor, either the animals have suffered or we
have been compelled to buy an additional quantity to com-
pensate for the inferior quality, or both. On the other hand
we have not been content thus to accept what the manufac-
turers of fertilizers were sending us, but have required them
to state the ingredients used in the. manufacture of the goods,
and guarantee that they will, on analysis, show a certain
percentage of the fertilizing constituents-plant food; and
we have further clothed the State Chemist with power to
collect and analyze samples and publish to the State the
results of his work, in order that the farmer and fruit grower
may be protected from the sale of adulterated goods.
But a large quantity, perhaps the largest quantity of
commercial fertilizers used in the State is manufactured here,
and to say to the fertilizer manufacturers of this State,
"You must make your fertilizers, which you furnish us for
growing our crops, come up to a definite guarantee," while
we say to the manufacturers of concentrated feeding stuffs
in other states (for practically all the ground products on
the market come from other states), "you may send to us for
feeding our stock whatever grade of goods you choose," does
not seem entirely just to the manufacturer of fertilizers.

3











It is, perhaps, true that greater loss would result from the
use of inferior fertilizers than from the use of inferior feeding
stuffs, and that it is easier to practice deception with the
former than with the latter, still this does not make it less
important that he who buys feeding stuffs should be protected
from inferior and fraudulent goods. The great variety of
mixed feeds, and proprietary feeds, makes it comparatively
easy to deceive, even those who have had considerable experi-
ence in handling such goods. How many of those who buy
feeding stuffs can say that they do not contain ground corn
cobs, rice hulls, corn bran, etc., any more than the farmer
can say that his fertilizers do not contain low grade materials
worth but little more than half the price asked for them?
The fact that the following States, viz: Maine, Vermont,
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New
Jersey, North Carolina, Maryland, Tennessee, Indiana, Wis-
consin, Pennsylvania, Louisiana and Ohio, now have feeding
stuff laws in operation, would seem to indicate pretty clearly
that there is need to guard against adulteration and fraudu-
lent practice. This fact in itself ought to be sufficient to
bring us to our senses; for we need not think for one moment
that the manufacturers will stop placing upon the market
inferior goods, so long as there are places like South Carolina,
Georgia, Florida, and Alabama to be used as dumping grounds
for what more than half the states east of the Mississippi
will not have.
I recently wrote to the State Chemist of North Carolina
to know if he thought the shutting out of adulterated goods
from some of the states would tend to increase their sale in
the states having no protection, and I herewith give his
answer:
"I feel sure that the shutting out of adulterated goods in
one State will increase their sale in others. We know of goods
which were formerly much adulterated and sold in this State
which now seek other markets."
To the same question the State Chemist of Maryland
replied:
"It is reasonable to suppose that the shutting out of
adulterated goods by inspection in some of the states would

4











tend to make such goods more abundant in other states
where there is no inspection. I am sure that the amount of
such goods is greatly decreased by inspection, but I have no
way of proving that the goods are simply diverted to other
channels."
With the mild climate and open winters which Florida
possesses it is to be regretted that we do not produce more
feeding materials at home, and thus to some extent, stop the
flow of money out of the State. It has been fully demonstrated
that crops can be grown here which will, to a considerable
degree, take the place of the imported feeding stuffs. Among
these may be mentioned velvet bean, cow pea, and beggar-
weed hay; rye for winter grazing; and alfalfa, in addition to
corn and oats.
In order to better understand the analytical results, it
will be necessary to consider briefly the composition of feed-
iug materials, and the terms used in discussing foods and
feeding stuffs.
CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDING STUFFS.
In a general way, feeding stuffs may be classified as
protein (nitrogenous) feeds; and starchy (carbohydrate)
feeds; though this distinction is only relative, since there is
no distinct dividing line between the two classes.
Nearly all contain both protein and carbohydrates, but
those high in protein, like cotton seed meal, linseed meal,
gluten meal, and a number of others, are usually classified
as protein feeds; while those low in protein and high in
carbohydrates, like corn, corn and cob meal, oats, barley and
others, represent the starchy or carbohydrate feeds.
Each class of substances has a distinct office to perform
in the animal organism, and it is important that the pur-
chaser should understand something of the.uses of these two
classes, and have a fair knowledge of the amount of each
contained in the various feeding stuffs, so that he may purchase
that which he most needs, and at the same time that which
is most economical.
TERMS USED IN DISCUSSING FOODS AND FEEDING STUFFS.
By chemical analysis, feeding stuffs are separated into
six classes of substance, viz: Water, ash, protein, fiber, nitro-
gen-free extract and fat.
5











Water is contained in all feeding stuffs, even the dryest
hays and grains, and varies from 8 to 15 per cent, in this class
to 80 per cent in silage, and 90 per cent in some roots.
Ask is left when the combustible part of a feeding stuff
is burned away. It consists chiefly of lime, magnesia, potash,
soda, iron, chlorine, and carbonic, sulphuric, and phosphoric
acids, and is used largely in building up the bony structure.
Protein (nitrogenous matter) is the name of a group of
substances containing nitrogen. Protein furnishes the mate-
rial for the lean flesh, blood, skin, muscles, tendons, nerves,
hair, bones, wool, casein of milk, albumen of eggs, etc., and
is one of the most important constituents of feeding stuffs.
Crude Fiber (cellulose) is the frame work of plants, and
is, as a rule, the most indigestible constituent of feeding
stuffs. The coarse fodders, such as hay and straw, contain a
much larger percentage of fiber than the grains, oil cakes, etc.
Nitrogen-Free Extract includes starch, sugar, gums, and
the like, and forms an important part of all feeding stuffs,
but especially of most grains.
Fat, or the materials dissolved from feeding stuffs by
ether, is a substance of mixed character, and may include,
besides real fats, wax, the green coloring matter of plants,
etc. The fat of food is either stored up in the body as fat or
burned to furnish heat and energy. The crude fiber and nitro-
gen free extract, taken together, make up what are known
as the carbohydrates. Fats and carbohydrates perform the
same office in the body--those of the production of heat and
force, or energy-that is, they keep the body warm and the
machinery running. For this purpose one pound of fat is
considered equivalent to about two and one-fourth pounds of
carbohydrates.

NECESSITY FOR HOME-GROWN FEEDING MATERIALS.
Feeding stuffs supplying these starchy substances, such as
corn, oats, velvet bean, cow pea, and beggarweed hay, can be
successfully grown in Florida; and when it becomes neces-
sary to supplement these, as in many cases it does, with
imported feed stuffs, only those should be imported which
are much higher in protein than the home-grown products.

6









Obviously, then. it is poor economy to import from other
sections of the country feeding stuffs low in protein-the most
expensive and important ingredient-when they can be
produced at home at less cost.
But that is just what Florida is doing. Many thousands
of dollars are being sent out of the State for feeding stuffs,
the equivalent of which can and should be produced within
our own borders; and many more thousands are being spent
for materials, which, when true to name, are fairly rich in
protein, but which come to us below the standard quality, and
which should, therefore, be subject to a law similar to that
which prevents the sale of inferior fertilizers in the State.

INVESTIGATION OF FEEDING STUFFS NOW ON THE MARKET.
Believing that this condition existed, the Chemical
departmentt of the Experiment Station began, last November,
an investigation with a view to ascertaining the exact extent
to which low grade and adulterated feeding stuffs are being
placed upon the market.
Samples were secured from the various sections of the
State, largely through students of the University who went
to their homes at the Thanksgiving and Christmas vacations.
They were instructed to secure samples of the different
concentrated feeds, which should, so far as possible, represent
the whole lot from which they were taken, and also to secure
the trade name, name and location of the manufacturer, and
the selling price per sack of 100 pounds, or per ton, in the case
of wholesale dealers. The names of dealers are reserved, since
it is not intended to work any hardship to the wholesaler or
retailer, so long as there is no law requiring them to maintain
a certain standard.
As a result of this, forty-three samples, representing a
considerable variety of feeding stuffs, and collected from dif-
ferent parts of the State, have been analyzed. It would have
been much better could the number of samples and localities
represented been greater, but the limited time and pressure of
other work did not permit this.
It is believed, however, that the work represents, fairly
well, the feeding stuffs on sale throughout the State.

7









In passing judgment on the quality of feeding stuffs, the
percentage of protein and fat serve as an index, in the
majority of cases, and in order that the results obtained may
be more intelligently studied, a table (Table 1) showing the
standard amounts of these substances in some of the more
important feeding stuffs, is given:
TABLE I.-FEED STANDARDS.*
FEED STUFFS. PER CENT PER CENT
FEED STUFPS. PROTEIN FAT
SBlood meal, 85 0.2
Cottonseed meal, 43 9
N. P. linseed meal, 38 2
O. P. linseed meal, 32 6
Gluten meal, 35 1
Gluten feed, 25 3
Germ oil meal, 25 10
Distillers' dried grains, 32 10
Protein Feeds. AMalt sprouts, 25 1
Brewers' dried grains, 22 5
Wheat middlings (flour), 18-20 5
Wheat middlings (standard), 17-19 5
Mixed feed, 16-18 4.5
Wheat bran, 15-17 4.5
Dairy feeds, 17-19 4-5
Oat middlings, 16 6
Rye feed, 15 3
Ground oats, 11 4
Ground wheat, 11 2
Barley meal, 11 1.5
Rye meal, 10 1.5
Starchy Corn meal, 9 3
(Carbohydrate) Hominy meal, 10.5 7.5
Feeds. Provender, 10 3.5
Corn and oat feed, 8-10 3-5
Fortified oat feed, 12-14 3-5
Oat feed, 5-8 2
Corn bran, 9 5
Dried molasses-beet-pulp, 9 0.3
(Meat scraps, 50 12-15
SMeat and bone meal, 35 10
SBone, 25
Pouly Feeds. Poultry mash and meal, 13-16 4-5
Chick and scratching grain, 9-11 2-3
SClover meal, 12 2

"*Bulletin No. 98, Massachusetts Experiment Station.
8









From this it will be seen that cotton seed meal, for
example, to be standard, should contain 43 per cent of protein
and 9 per cent of fat; that wheat bran should contain not less
than 15 per cent of protein and 4.5 per cent of fat; and that
ground oats should contain 11 per cent of protein and 4 per
cent of fat.
These standards have been made up from a large number
of analyses made by State Experiment Stations and the
United States Department of Agriculture, extending over a
period of several years. According to Dr. Langworthy of the
United States Department of Agriculture, 11,749 analyses of
feeding stuffs have been published since July 31st, 1900.
Table II gives the average composition of a number of
American feeding stuffs, and will further aid in the study of
the results obtained at this Station.






























9










TABLE Il.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF SOME AMERICAN FEEDING STUFFS.*

Nitro 'en-
Water Ash Protein Fiber free Fat
4 5 % Extract 1



By Products.
Cottonseed Meal................ 6.8 6.2 45.6 5 4 25 2 10.8
Linseed Meal, old process....... 8.3 5.3 35 7 7.5 36.0 7.2
Linseed Meal, new process ..... 10.0 5.2 36.1 8.4 36 7 3.6
W heat Bran.................... 11.9 5.8 15.4 9.0 53.9 4.0
W heat Middlings................ 10.0 3.8 17.4 5.2 58.0 5.6
W heat Shorts... ........... ..... 11.8 4.6 14.9 7.4 56.8 4.5
Brewers' Grains, dried.... ..... 8.2 3.6 19 9 11.0 51.7 5.6
Oat Feed ........................ 7.7 3.7 16.0 6.1 59.4 7.1
Oat Hulls ....................... 7.3 6.7 3.3 29.7 52.1 1.0
Gluten Feed .................... 7.8 1.1 24.0 5.3 51.2 10.6
Corn Bran .......... ... ... .. 9.1 1.3 9.0 12.7 62.2 5.8
Corn Cob .. ................ 10.7 1.4 2.4 30.1 54.9 .5

Mill Products.
Corn Meal.................... 15.0 1 4 9.2 1.9 68.7 3 8
Corn and CobMeal.............. 15.1 1.5 8.5 6.6 64.8 3.5
Ground Corn and Oats,equal parts 13.0 2.2 10.5 5.7 64.2 4.4

Grain and Other Seeds.
Corn ........................... 10:9 1.5 10.5 2.1 69.6 5.4
Cottonseed (whole with hulls)... 10.3 3.5 18.4 23.2 24.7 19.9
Cow Pea ....................:... 14.8 3.2 20 8 4.1 55.7 1 4
Velvet Bean .................... 11.5 3.2 22.7 7.5 48.5 6 6
Soy Bean........................ 10.8 4.7 34.0 4 8 28.8 16.9

Hay and Dry Coarse Fodder.
Timothy Hay ................... 13.2 4.4 5.9 29.0 45.0 2.5
Italian Rye Grass.............. 8.5 6.9 7.5 30.5 45.0 1.7
Crimson Clover ................. 9.6 8.(i 15.2 27.2 36.6 2.8
Alfalfa......................... 8.4 7.4 14.3 25.0 42.7 2.2
Cow Pea Hay .................. 10.7 7.5 16.6 20.1 42.2 2.2
Oat Straw....................... 9.2 5 1 4.0 37.0 42.4 2.3
Soy Bean Hay................ 11.3 7.2 15.4 22.3 38.6 5.2
Beggarweed Hayt...............10.2 10.9 21.7 24.7 30.2 2.3
Velvet Bean Hayf............... 7.2 5.7 14.7 29.7 41.0 1.7
Wire Grass Hayt................ 8.8 3.8 5 5 31.8 48 6 1.5


"*From W. H. Jordan's, The Feeding of Farm Animals.
tBulletin No. 60, Florida Experiment Station.
tUnpublished Analyses Florida Experiment Station.






10











The figures for the beggarweed hay, in Table II, represent
the average of three hitherto unpublished analyses of hay
grown on good soil and cut at the proper time to give the best
results. Other samples taken from the same plot, but cut at
different times, and also samples of hay from other lots, show
decidedly less protein-8 to about 16.5 per cent-though do-
not vary so much in fat content.
However, there seems little doubt but that with the
proper care, beggarweed hay can be grown that will yield 15
per cent protein and 2 per cent of fat, and this compares very
favorably with crimson clover and alfalfa.
The figures for velvet bean hay represent an analysis of
hay cut at the proper season, and the protein content, as in
case of the beggarweed hay, is somewhat higher than the aver-
age velvet bean hay would show. The analyses of these mate-
rials are given in order that their feeding value may be com-
pared with the feeding value of the concentrated materials
reported in this bulletin.


























11










TABLE III.-ANALYSES OF CONCENTRATED



ADDRESS OF
BRAND NAME NAME OF MANUFACTURER SAMPLE TAKEN AT
9 MANUrAOTURgR


"2 Wheat Bran.............. Cumberland Mills........ Nashville, Tenn .... Lake City........
13 ............... Ballard & Ballard........ Louisville, Ky....... ......
14 ......... L. liberty Mills............. Nashville, Tenn .. .. ...
16 . . . . .
"22 ........ Etowah Mills.............. artersville, Ga..... College Farm...
"26 ....... .Mountain City Milling Co. Chattanooga, Tenn.. Palatka ..........
"30 ...... .... . Jasper ..........
31 ............... *
39 ...... .. ..... Jacksonville......
"4 ............ Southern Milling Co....... Nashville, Tenn ..... Key West........
"37 ............... Cumberland Mills........ .....West Palm Beach
"31 ...............Etowah Milling Co........ artersville, Ga..... Kissimmee ......

15Shorts.................... Liberty Mills.............. Nashville, Tenn..... Lake City........
"25 ...... ............ Marcus Burnheimer....... St. Louis, Mo ....... Palatka ..........
29 ...... ..... Jasper .........
32 ...... ... ... Cumberland Mills......... Nashville, Tenn..... Jacksonville ...
Middlings................ Southern Milling Co....... ..... Key West........
8 Shorts..................... Lealman .........
09 .......... ............* *
30 .............. ...... Etowah Milling Co........ Cartersville, Ga..... Kissimmee......

18Purina Feed............... Tampa...........
4 ............. 'Ralston Purina Co........ St. Louis, Mo........ Jacksonville......
00 .. .. ... .. ....... ........ allandale ......
01 ...... ... ...... Dania...........
" ...... ........West Palm Beach
"28 ".. ......... ....... Kissimmee.....

17Victor Feed............... Tampa........
27 ............... American Cereal Co ....... Chicago, Ill........ Palatka ..........
victorr Corn and Oat Chops ............... Jacksonville......
8 Victor Corn and Oat Feed. ............... "

Miscellaneous Protein Feeds.
23Cottonseed Meal.......... 'Ga. Cotton Oil Co ......... Macon, Ga......... Palatka......
280rushed Cottonseed....... Jasper .........
36 Steam Cooked Feed.. .... American Steam Feed Co.. Nashville, Tenn..... Jacksonville.....
35Yellow Meal...... ...... Cotton Oil Company....... Jacksonville, Fla.... Key West........

Miscellaneous Carbohydrate Feeds.
Boss Feed ................ Tampa...........
0Parcell Feed ..............* *
21 Corn and Cob Meal........ Prepared on Station Farm. ............... ..... Station Farm ....
SShip Stuff................ Mountain City Mills....... Chattanooga, Tenn.. Palatka ........
SHudnut's Feed Meal. .... Jacksonville......
37 Mack's Mle Feed ......... Sample obtained of Broker .....
3Atlas Dairy Feed.......... Atlas Dairy Food Co....... New Orleans, La..... ......
SCow Feed ................. Southern Milling Co....... Nashville, Tenn ..... Key West........
SMarsden Food ............ Marsden Food Co.......... Chattanooga, Tenn.. Kissimmee.......

*Could not be obtained.









FEEDING STUFFS ON SALE IN FLORIDA.

S'ANMLYSfES
o---- Retail Price Price
per sack of Price
S Water Ash Protein CrudeFiber Nitrogen-free Fat p s.o per ton
3e Extract 1 lbs.


1702 12.85 6.23 14.38 9.19 53.08 4.27 $1.35 $26.00
1713 12.25 5.77 14.44 9.00 54.69 3.85 1.35
1714 12.34 6.76 14.56 9.38 53.09 3.87 1.25
,1716 12.20 6.30 14.88 9.35 52.76 4.51 1.40
1722 11.62 6.00 14.44 9.49 54.26 4.19 24.00
1726 12.32 6.89 12.81 12 21 52.16 3.61 21.00
1730 11.87 6.20 11.88 11.96 53 43 4.66 24.00
1731 12.09 6.13 12.38 12.60 52.78 4.02 1.25
1799 11.94 3.90 9.44 17.04 55.56 2.12 1.20 23.00
1804 12.01 6.10 14.94 6.67 55.94 4.34 1.50 23.00
1807 11.28 5 30 13.06 7.94 58.34 4.08 1.75 22.00
1831 12.88 5.24 13.75 9.36 55.20 3.57 22.50
Average 12.13 5.90 13.41 10.35 54.27 3.92 1.38 22.78

1715 12.81 4.37 17.75 5.24 54.14 5.69 1.50 *
1725 13.16 4.29 16.31 6.10 55.38 4.76 25.00
1729 12.62 3.19 15.31 3.43 61.77 3.68 1.35
1732 12.62 4.67 11.41 7.81 59.60 3.89 1.40
1802 12.72 3.90 16.50 5.15 56.14 5.59 1.85 27.00
1808 12.80 4.08 17.01 5.11 55.56 5.44 1.45
1809 11.35 4.20 17.98 5.35 54.70 6.42 1.45
P 1830 13.42 3.59 15.44 5.41 57.63 4.51 26.00
Average 12.68 4.03 15.96 5.45 56.86 5.00 1.50 26.00

1718 10.41 4.50 10.31 12.85 57.65 4,28 *
1734 10.97 4.24 10.41 10.43 60.29 3.66 1.35 26.00
1800 11.47 6.44 9.16 15.89 53.37 3.67 1.85 to 1.90
1801 11.24 7.20 8.47 16.72 53.03 3.34 1 85 37.00
1806 10.43 6.68 9.08 15.78 54.62 3.41 27.00
1828 10.81 6.46 9.15 15.57 54.11 3.90 28.00
Average 10.89 5.92 9.43 14.54 55.51 3.71 1.68 29.50

1717 10.85 3.66 7.75 14.61 60.63 2.50 *
1727 11.17 3.50 7.62 13.98 59.93 3.80 24.50
1735 10.70 3.87 8.03 12.99 61.97 2.44 1.35 25.00
1798 11.71 3.40 7.09 13.69 60.66 3.45 1.30 26.00
Average 11.11 3.61 7.62 13.82 60.80 3.05 1.32 25.16

"1723 10.33 5.68 41.87 7.43 25.71 8.98 *
1728 9.60 4.33 20.44 16.40 26.49 22.74 20.00
1736 11.51 6.05 25.16 9.33 43 70 4.25 1.40 *
1805 9.64 4.81 29.59 13.14 26.78 16.04 1.80 27.00
Average 10.27 5.22 29.26 11.57 30.67 13.00 1.60 23.50

1719 10.37 4.60 7.44 19.64 56.14 1.81 *
1720 11.79 2.90 10.50 7.76 63.16 3.89 *
172L 11.86 1.46 8.56 6.78 66.84 4.50 20.00
1724 12.33 7.55 13.00 13.01 50.46 3.65 25.00
1733 10.34 2.90 10.88 3.34 62.67 9.87 1.35 *
1737 9.60 7.91 6.47 22.25 52.27 1.50 1.30
1738 9.77 6.93 12.21 14.76 53.35 2.98 1.35 26.00
1803 11.78 2.90 10.38 6.06 60.90 7.98 1.80 25.00
1829 9.42 4.15 4.56 36.11 45.04 .72 16.20
Average 10.81 4.59 I 9.33 14.41 56.76 4.10 1.45 22.44
"*Could not be obtained.











DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.
In Table III will be found the results of the work done
at this Station. By referring to the column headed "address.
of manufacturer," -it will be seen. that of all the samples where
the address could be obtained, only one, number 1805, was
prepared in this State.
This is to be expected to a certain extent, since Florida is
not a grain-growing State, but it emphasises very clearly the
necessity for the greater home production of such grains and
hays as can be produced here. And especially is it necessary
if the State is to continue to be flooded with inferior goods,
that the markets north of us will not have.

BRAN.
Taking up first the brans and comparing their protein and
fat content with the standard in Table I, we find that all of
the samples examined fail to come up to the minimum stan-
dard requirement in protein-15 per cent; the closest approach
to this standard being number 1716, with 14.88 per cent pro-
tein, while the average protein for the twelve samples is 1.6,
per cent below the minimum standard, and 2 per cent below
the average of American feeding stuffs.
Only two samples, 1716 and 1730, come up to the stand-
ard in fat, while one of these, 1730, is 3 per cent below the-
minimum protein standard.
Number 1799 is very low in protein and fat, while the
fiber-the indigestible part-is over 17 per cent, whereas, in
good wheat bran it should not much exceed 9 per cent. It is
to be noted that the price in this case is somewhat lower than
the price of other goods which approach more nearly to pure
wheat bran, but if the price had been reduced in proportion
to the protein it would have been sold for eighty-five to ninety-
five cents per 100 pounds. This sample was highly adulterated
with ground corn cobs and screenings.
Number 1714 contained wheat chaff, corn bran, and vari-
ous pieces of foreign matter, indicating mill sweepings.
Numbers 1726, 1730, and 1731 contained corn bran; 1807, dirt
and oat chaff, and 1831, chaff, corn bran and other foreign
matter, probably mill sweepings. The average retail price-

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-for eight of the twelve samples is $1.38 per sack of 100 pounds,
-which is undoubtedly excessive when it is remembered that
not one of the samples comes up to the minimum standard for
pure wheat bran.

SHORTS.
With one exception, the seven samples of shorts examined
are of good quality, and three of them are sufficiently high
in protein and fat, to indicate that they may have been
middlings, though reported as shorts. The exception, 1732,
is adulterated with rice hulls, the effect of which is noticed
in the low protein and high fiber. Two other samples, 1725
and 1729. contained foreign matter; the first weed seeds and
the second ground corn. The sample reported as middlings
is of fair quality, though not up to the standard.


CORN AND OAT FEEDS.
Six samples of Purina, four of Victor and one each of
Boss, Parcell and Mack's Mule Feed, are corn and oat feeds,
and are composed of cracked corn, ground or crushed oats and
-oat hulls, the oat hulls in most cases predominating. These
are no doubt, the product of cereal food mills, and furnish a
means of disposing of the oat hull at a good profit. They
have a fair feeding value, though in most cases this is not in
proportion to the price asked for them. Certainly this can
be said of those obtained at Dania and Hallandale. By refer-
ing to Table II it may be seen that oat hulls contain only 3.3
per cent of protein and 1 per cent of fat.
The average protein content of the four samples of Victor
Feed is only 7.62 per cent, while the fat is. 3.05 per cent, and
in this connection it is interesting to note that five samples
-of Victor corn and oat feed manufactured by the American
Cereal Company and analyzed at the New Jersey Station. gave
.an average of 8.64 per cent of protein and 4.50 per cent of fat,
and five samples analyzed at the Connecticut Station gave 8.26
per cent protein and 3.93 per cent of fat, and sold at an
average price of $25.40 per ton. Both New Jersey and Connec-
ticut have inspection laws.

15











The sample of Mack's Mule Feed is very low in protein
and fat, and high in crude fiber and ash, indicating clearly the
predominance of oat hulls. Referring again to Table II, it will
be seen that ground corn and oats, equal parts, should con-
tain 10.5 per cent protein and 4.4 per cent fat.


MISCELLANEOUS FEEDS.

Number 1805, sold under the name of Yellow Meal, is cot-
ton seed meal adulterated with hulls, making the protein con-
tent about 13 per cent lower than it should be, for the price
asked--27.00 per ton.
Number 1736, Steam Cooked Feed, is malt sprouts, and,
judged by the high protein content, should be a good feeding
material.
Numbers 1733 and 1803, Hudnut's Feed Meal and Cow
Feed, respectively, are hominy meal, and have a slightly higher
feeding value than corn meal.
The cow feed is adulterated with a small amount of
ground corn cobs and the small ends of the grains.
The corn and cob meal, 1721, was analyzed in order that
it might be compared with other feeding materials.
Atlas Dairy Feed, number 1738, is a product of the sugar
factories, and is made by drying and grinding the bagasse,
soaking in molasses, and again drying. Its value, as a feeding
material, is probably not yet well established in this State.
Marsden Food, number 1829, is ground straw, probably
oat straw, and has about the feeding value of oat straw, see;
analysis Table II. The price, $16.20 per ton, is unreasonable.
The wire grass hay which grows abundantly in the pine
woods of Florida, contains more protein and more than twice
as much fat (see analysis Table II) as does this material, and
would no doubt be about as easily digested. But either beg-
garweed, cow pea, or velvet bean hay contains anywhere from
two to five times as much protein, and would certainly not
cost any more, if as much, as does this high-sounding "Mars
den Food."


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SUMMARY.

Judged by the samples examined, a large proportion of
the concentrated feeding stuffs on the Florida market is of
an inferior quality.

All of the samples of wheat bran examined are below the
minimum standard for good wheat bran.

Some materials, as "Marsden Food," are sold at unreason-
ably high prices.

The adulterants found where rice chaff, wheat chaff, oat
hulls, ground corn cobs, corn bran, screenings, weed seeds, dirt
and other foreign matter, indicating mill sweepings.

Practically all the concentrated feeding stuffs used in this
State are imported, and this constitutes a constant drain upon
the wealth of the State.

Florida can and should produce much more of her feeding
materials than she is producing, and thus save to the State
thousands of dollars. Where the farm crops furnish sufficient
carbohydrates, only feed stuffs rich in protein should be pur-
chased. The mixtures of corn and oats, containing, as they do,
large quantities of oat hulls, are not economical protein feeds.

There is so much profit in selling ground corn cobs, wheat
chaff, oat hulls, corn bran, rice hulls, etc., at the price of
wheat bran, that the consumer must ever be on the watch. A
careful examination with the eye or with the help of a small
magnifying glass will often reveal these adulterants.

Those who buy feeding stuffs should have the same protec-
tion as those who buy fertilizers. Such protection would pro-
mote the interests of the honest manufacturer and dealer,
diminish the sale of worthless materials, and instruct the peo-
ple in regard to the composition of feeding stuffs and their-
comparative value.


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METHODS OF ANALYSIS.
The methods of analysis followed were those adopted by
the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
I am greatly indebted to Mr. R. A. Lichtenthaeler, of this
department, for a large part of the analytical work reported
in this bulletin.



The following publications of the Florida Experiment
Station are available for free distribution, and may be secured
by addressing the director of the Experiment Station, Univer-
sity of Florida, Lake City, Fla.:

22 Fertilizers ............pp. 48 57 Top-working of Pecans pp.124
24 Annual Report ....... 32 58 Pomelos ............. 43
25 Leeches and Leeching 17 59 Cauliflower .......... 20
26 Big Head ............ 19 60 Velvet Beans ......... 24
27 Pineapple ............ 11 61 Two Peach Scales ... 32
28 Liver Fluke-Southern 62 Peen-to Peach Group 22
Cattle Fever ...... 15 63 Packing Citrus Fruits .Folio
29 The San Jose Scale ... 28 64 Texas Fever and Salt
30 The Culture of Tobacco 28 Sick ............... 31
32 Cotton and Its Cultiva- 65 The Kumquats ....... 14
tion ............... 4 66 The Mandarin Orange
33 Orange Groves ....... 33 Group .............. 32
34 Insect Enemies ....... 96 67 The White Fly ....... 94
36 Insects Injurious to 68 Pineapple Culture. I.
Grain .............. 31 Soils .............. 35
37 Pineapple ......... 15 69 Cultivation of Citrus
38 Tobacco in Florida .. 63 Groves ............. 30
39 Strawberries ......... 48 7C Pineapple Culture. II.
40 The Fall Army Worm 8 Varieties .......... 32
41 The San Jose Scale .. 30 71 Japanese Persimmons 48
42 Some Strawberry In- 72 Feeding Horses and
sects ....... 55 Mules on Home-Grown
43 A Chemical Study of Feed-Stuffs ......... ." 16
Some Typical Florida 73 The Honey Peach Group" 20
Soils .............. "128 74 Anthracnose of the
51 Some Common Florida Pomelo ........ ... 20
Scales ............. 24 75 Potato Diseases ...... 16
52 Baking Powders ...... 15 76 Insecticides and Fungi-
53 Some Citrus Troubles 35 cides ............. 44
54 Pecan Culture ........ 31 77 Equine Glanders and
55 Feeding With Florida Its Eradication .... 43
Feed Stuffs ........ 95 78 Forage Crops ........
:56 The Cottony Cushion, 79 Diseases of the Pecan "
Scale .............. 48





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PRESS BULLETINS.

1 Directions for Preparation of 24 Orange Mites.
Bordeaux Mixture. 25 Roup.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Ag- 26 Lumpy Jaw.
riculture. 27 Cover Crops.
3 Seed Testing. 28 Moon Blindness.
4 The White Fly. 29 Food Adulteration.
5 Basic Slag. 30 Dehorning Cattle.
6 Nursery Inspection (part I). 31 Food Adulteration-Coffee.
7 Nursery Inspection (part II). 32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Har- i 33 Red Soldier Bug or Cotton
vested in the Spring and Stainer.
Held for Fall Planting. 34 Ox Warbles.
9 Sore Head. 35 Food Adulteration-Butter.
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot. 36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
11 Vinegar. 37 Velvet Bean.
12 Seed Beds and Their Man- 38 Practical Results of Texas
agement. Fever Inoculations.
13 Treatment of San Jose bcale. 39 Lung Worms in Swine.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and 40 and 41 Glanders.
Cassava. 42 Food Adulteration-Spices
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests. and Condiments.
17 Preservatives in Canned 43 How to Feed a Horse.
Goods. 44 Tree Planting.
IS Cantaloupe Blight. 45 The Sugar Cane Borer.
19 Cut Worms. 46 Selecting Seed Corn.
20 Hog Cholera and- Swine 47 The Rabid Dog.
Plague. 48 Adulterated Drugs and Chem-
21 Parturient Paralysis. icals.
22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer. 49 Saw Palmetto Ashes.
23 Protection Against Drought. 50 Insect Pests to Live Stock.



























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