• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Sorghum grain in silage ratios...
 NBR and BR sorghum grain in the...
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited
 Acknowledgement
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 765
Title: Sorghum grain for finishing beef steers in northwest Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027197/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sorghum grain for finishing beef steers in northwest Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 20 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Lutrick, M. C ( Monroe Cornealous )
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 19-20.
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand, M.C. Lutrick and L.S. Dunavin.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027197
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929864
oclc - 18631471
notis - AEP0667

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Sorghum grain in silage ratios for finishing feedlot steers
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    NBR and BR sorghum grain in the rations of finishing steers grazing tall fescue pasture
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Literature cited
        Page 19
    Acknowledgement
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
Bulletin 765


SORGHUM GRAIN FOR FINISHING BEEF

STEERS IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA

J. E. Bertrand, M. C. Lutrick, and L. S. Dunavin


Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
J. W. Sites, Dean for Research


May 1974
















CONTENTS


Page

In production ................................................................................... 1
Sorghum grain in silage rations for finishing feedlot steers ..... 1
Experiment 1. High-moisture sorghum grain versus
both high-moisture and dry corn................................ 1
Experiment 2. Feeding value of sorghum and corn,
both fed as high-moisture and as dry grain............ 5
Experiment 3. Dry non-bird-resistant (NBR) versus
dry bird-resistant (BR) sorghum grain...................... 8
Experiment 4. Feeding value of dry NBR sorghum
grain, dry BR sorghum grain, and dry corn ............. 10
Experiment 5. Feeding value of NBR and BR sor-
ghum grain, both fed as high-moisture and as dry
grain ..................................................................... 12
NBR and BR sorghum grain in the rations of finishing steers
grazing tall fescue pasture (Experiment 6).................. 14
Summary and conclusions ...................................................... 17
Literature cited.......................................... ......................... 19
Acknowledgem ents ................................... ............ ........ ..... 20






SORGHUM GRAIN FOR FINISHING BEEF
STEERS IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA
L J. E. Bertrand, M. C. Lutrick, and L. S. Dunavin1


INTRODUCTION
The beef cattle feeding industry in Florida would benefit
greatly if another high quality feed grain, in addition to corn,
was readily available. Sorghum has a good potential for the
production of grain in many areas of Florida. Grain sorghum
Sis not as limited to time of planting, is more tolerant to short
periods of drought, and will produce as much or more grain
per acre than corn (8)'.
The feeding value of sorghum grain varies widely and
appears to be associated with type, variety, geographical area
of production, soil fertility, soil moisture, method of process-
ing prior to feeding, etc. (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18).
Sorghum grain is generally considered to have a lower feeding
value for finishing beef cattle than corn (12, 13, 15).
This bulletin presents the results of six experiments con-
ducted from 1968 to 1973 at the Agricultural Research Center
(ARC), Jay, with sorghum grain for finishing beef steers.

SORGHUM GRAIN IN SILAGE RATIONS FOR FINISHING
FEEDLOT STEERS
Experiment 1. High-Moisture Sorghum Grain Versus
Both High-Moisture and Dry Corn
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the com-
parative feeding value of high-moisture sorghum grain with
both high-moisture and dry corn in forage sorghum silage ra-
tions for finishing feedlot steers. Forty-eight good quality
steers of British breeding were weighed and allotted as equally
as possible to six experimental groups of eight steers each.
The six experimental groups, utilizing two groups per treatment,
were started on the three feeding treatments listed in Table 1
on June 14, 1968. The composition of the concentrate sup-
plement (protein, mineral, and vitamin) used to balance the
rations is listed in Table 2.


1 Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Soils Chemist, and Associate Agrono-
mist, respectively, Agricultural Research Center, Jay.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






SORGHUM GRAIN FOR FINISHING BEEF
STEERS IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA
L J. E. Bertrand, M. C. Lutrick, and L. S. Dunavin1


INTRODUCTION
The beef cattle feeding industry in Florida would benefit
greatly if another high quality feed grain, in addition to corn,
was readily available. Sorghum has a good potential for the
production of grain in many areas of Florida. Grain sorghum
Sis not as limited to time of planting, is more tolerant to short
periods of drought, and will produce as much or more grain
per acre than corn (8)'.
The feeding value of sorghum grain varies widely and
appears to be associated with type, variety, geographical area
of production, soil fertility, soil moisture, method of process-
ing prior to feeding, etc. (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18).
Sorghum grain is generally considered to have a lower feeding
value for finishing beef cattle than corn (12, 13, 15).
This bulletin presents the results of six experiments con-
ducted from 1968 to 1973 at the Agricultural Research Center
(ARC), Jay, with sorghum grain for finishing beef steers.

SORGHUM GRAIN IN SILAGE RATIONS FOR FINISHING
FEEDLOT STEERS
Experiment 1. High-Moisture Sorghum Grain Versus
Both High-Moisture and Dry Corn
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the com-
parative feeding value of high-moisture sorghum grain with
both high-moisture and dry corn in forage sorghum silage ra-
tions for finishing feedlot steers. Forty-eight good quality
steers of British breeding were weighed and allotted as equally
as possible to six experimental groups of eight steers each.
The six experimental groups, utilizing two groups per treatment,
were started on the three feeding treatments listed in Table 1
on June 14, 1968. The composition of the concentrate sup-
plement (protein, mineral, and vitamin) used to balance the
rations is listed in Table 2.


1 Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Soils Chemist, and Associate Agrono-
mist, respectively, Agricultural Research Center, Jay.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.














Table 1

Rations fed in Experiment 1 (as-fed basis)-ARC, Jay (1968)


High-moisture
sorghum grain
ration

84 days 54 days
(%) (%)


to Ingredients


High-moisture
corn ration

84 days 54 days
(%) (%)


Dry corn
ration

84 days 54 days
(%) (%)


High-moisture sorghum grain(a) 25.1 54.9 ---- --- ---
High-moisture corn ---- ---- 22.4 51.2 -- -
Dry corn ---- ---- ---- ---- 19.8 47.3
Forage sorghum silage 70.7 41.6 73.3 45.0 75.7 48.6
Concentrate supplement 4.2 3.5 4.3 3.8 4.5 4.1


(a) A mixture of sorghum grain varieties (non-bird-resistant and bird-resistant)






Table 2


Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, and vitamin)fed in
drylot finishing rations ARC, Jay (1968-1971)

Ingredients % Lb./ton

Soybean meal (44% protein) 77.66 1553
Urea 45% N 5.52 111
Salt (trace-mineralized) 5.52 110
Defluorinated rock phosphate 11.04 221
Vitamin A supplement (a) 0.12 2.4
Antibiotic supplement (b) 0.14 2.8

100.00 2000.2

(a) Perma-Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 IU/g) added at the level of
32 7 million IU/ton or 16,350 IU/lb of concentrate supplement
(b) Baciferm 40(zinc bacitracin supplement containing 40 g of the antibiotic per pound)
added at the level of 112 g/ton or 56 mg/Ib of concentrate supplement

The high-moisture grain was crimped (rolled) into flat
flakes prior to mixing into the rations and feeding. The dry
grain was ground to a medium-fine state. The rations were fed
twice daily in an amount of feed that the steers would clean-up
between feedings. A complete mineral mixture and plain salt
were self-fed in a two compartment mineral box.
For the first 84 days on trial, each one of the three rations
contained approximately 40% grain, 51% forage sorghum silage,
and 9% concentrate supplement on a dry matter basis. For the
last 54 days on trial, each one of the three rations contained
approximately 70% grain, 24% forage sorghum silage, and 6%
concentrate supplement on a dry matter basis.
Performance, economic, and carcass data for the beef
steers on the three feeding treatments are presented in Table
3. It can be noted that steers on the high-moisture corn ration
had the largest gain (2.63 lb./head/day), followed in order by
the gain (2.48 lb./head/day) of steers on the dry corn ration,
and the gain (2.41 lb./head/day) of steers on the high-moisture
sorghum grain ration. These differences in gain were not sta-
tistically significant.
On a total ration dry matter basis, the steers receiving
high-moisture corn were 4.7% and 11.9% more efficient in
converting dry matter to gain than the steers receiving dry
corn and high-moisture sorghum grain, respectively. The ani-
mals receiving dry corn were 6.9% more efficient in con-
verting total ration dry matter to gain than the animals receiv-
ing high-moisture sorghum grain. The daily dry matter con-







Table 3


Performance, economic, and carcass data for beef steers
in Experiment 1. (138-daytest) ARC, Jay (1968) (1)

High-moisture High-moisture Dry
sorghum grain corn corn
Item ration ration ration


No. of animals 16 16 16
Avg initial wt, Ib. 570 570 574
Avg final wt, lb. 903 933 916
Total gain, lb. 333 363 342
Avg daily gain, Ib. 2.41 2.63 2.48
Feed/cwt gain (dry basis)(a) 885 791 828
Feed/animal/day, Ib. (dry basis)(a) 21.4 20.8 20.5
Feed cost/cwt gain(b) 0 20.79 $ 19.84 $ 20.55
Avg carcass grade (c) 14.8 15.1 14.5
Avg yield grade (d) 2.7 2.9 2.8
Avg slaughter wt, Ib. 903 933 916
Avg carcasswt, Ib.(e) 517 535 530
Avg dressing percent 57.3 57.3 57.9



(a) High-moisture sorghum grain, 70.29% dry matter; high-moisture corn, 75.77% dry matter; dry corn, 90.65% dry matter, forage sorghum silage,
31.47% dry matter; and concentrate supplement, 92.04% dry matter
(b) High-moisture sorghum grain cost $35.03/ton, high-moisture corn cost $42.76/ton, dry corn cost=$5000/ton, forage sorghum silage
cost = $10 00/ton, and concentrate supplement cost = $98.70/ton.
(c) 13=low good, 14= average good, 15=high good, 16= low choice, etc
(d) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5, with yield grade 1 representing the highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability)
and yield grade 5 the lowest.
(e) Paying weight, which was hot dressed weight less 3%






sumption of steers on the three feeding treatments did not dif-
fer appreciably.
The cost of gain was lowest for steers receiving high-mois-
ture corn and highest for steers receiving high-moisture sor-
ghum grain. The carcass characteristics of the steers on the
three feeding treatments did not differ significantly.

Experiment 2. Feeding Value of Sorghum and Corn,
Both Fed as High-Moisture and as Dry Grain

The purpose of this experiment was to further determine
the comparative feeding value of sorghum grain and corn,
both fed as high-moisture and as dry grain, in forage sorghum
silage rations for finishing feedlot steers. Sixty-four good quali-
ty steers of British breeding, treated with a 36 mg ear implant
of diethylstilbestrol each, were weighed and allotted as equally
as possible to eight experimental groups of eight steers each.
The eight experimental groups, utilizing two groups per treat-
ment, were started on the four experimental rations listed
in Table 4 on May 30, 1969. The composition of the concen-
trate supplement (protein, mineral, and vitamin) used to bal-
ance the rations was similar to the one used in Experiment 1
(Table 2).
The processing of the grain prior to feeding, the feeding
procedure, and the self-feeding of mineral and salt in this and
the following experiments were similar to those followed in
Experiment 1.
Each one of the four rations, on a dry matter basis, con-
tained approximately 71% grain, 23% forage sorghum silage,
and 6% concentrate supplement.
Performance, economic, and carcass data for the beef
steers on the four experimental rations are presented in Table
5. It can be noted that steers on the high-moisture corn ration
had the largest gain (2.60 lb./head/day), followed in order by
the gain (2.40 lb./head/day) of steers on the dry corn ration,
the gain (2.40 lb./head/day) of steers on the dry sorghum
grain ration, and the gain (2.36 lb./head/day) of steers on the
high-moisture sorghum grain ration. These differences in gain
were not statistically significant.
On a total ration dry matter basis, the steers receiving high-
moisture corn in their ration were 8.8%, 14.1%, and 24.9%
more efficient in converting dry matter to gain than the steers
receiving dry corn, high-moisture sorghum grain, and dry
sorghum grain, respectively. On the same basis, steers receiving
dry corn were 4.9% and 14.8% more efficient in converting dry














Table 4

Rations fed in Experiment 2 (as-fed basis) ARC, Jay (1969)

Sorghum grain rations Corn rations

High-moisture Dry High-moisture Dry
Ingredients (%) (%) (%) (%)

High-moisture sorghum grain (a) 50.2 ---- ---- ----
Dry sorghum grain (a) ---- 46.4 ---- ----
High-moisture corn ---- ---- 49.2 ---
Dry corn ---- --- ---- 46.0
Forage sorghum silage 46.1 49.6 47.0 50.0
Concentrate supplement 3.7 4.0 3.8 4.0


(a) A mixture of sorghum grain varieties (non-bird-resistant and bird-resistant).








Table 5


Performance, economic, and carcass data for beef steers in
Experiment 2. (146-day test) ARC, Jay (1969) (2)

Sorghum grain rations Corn rations

Item High-moisture Dry High-moisture Dry


No. of animals 16 16 16 16
Avg initial wt, Ib. 660 656 665 667
Avg final wt, lb. 1004 1007 1044 1018
Total gain, lb. 344 351 379 351
Avg daily gain, lb. 2.36 2.40 2.60 2.40
Feed/cwt gain (dry basis) (a) 834 913 731 795
Feed/animal/day, Ib. (dry basis)(a) 19.7 22.0 18.9 19.1
Feed cost/cwt gain (b) $ 21.50 $ 23.54 $ 20.05 $ 21.79
Avg carcass grade (c) 16.3a* 15.4a, b 15.9a 14.4b
Avg yield grade (d) 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.3
Avg slaughter wt, lb. 1004 1007 1044 1018
Avg carcass wt, lb.(e) 616 606 639 626
Avg dressing percent 61.4 60.2 61.2 61.5


(a) High-moisture sorghum grain, 75.73% dry matter, dry sorghum grain, 8903% dry matter, high-moisture corn, 7840% dry matter, dry corn,
90.71% dry matter; forage sorghum silage, 27.26% dry matter, and concentrate supplement, 90 67% dry matter
(b) High-moisture sorghum grain cost =$38.28/ton, dry sorghum grain cost $4500/ton, high-moisture corn cost =$43.22/ton, dry corn cost
$50.00/ton, forage sorghum silage cost =$10.00/ton, and concentrate supplement cost = $107.91/ton.
(c) 13= low good, 14 = average good, 15= high good, 16= low choice, etc.
(d) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5, with yield grade 1 representing the highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability)
and yield grade 5 the lowest.
(e) Paying weight, which was hot dressed weight.
* Denotes statistical significance at the 5% level Means followed by letter "a" are significantly different from those means not having "a" and those
followed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b"






matter to gain than the steers receiving high-moisture sorghum
grain and dry sorghum grain, respectively. Steers receiving
high-moisture sorghum grain were 9.5% more efficient in con-
verting dry matter to gain than steers receiving dry sorghum
grain. In each case, steers receiving the sorghum grain rations
consumed slightly more feed than steers receiving the corn
rations.
The cost of gain was highest for steers receiving the dry
sorghum grain ration and lowest for steers receiving the high-
moisture corn ration. Steers receiving the high-moisture sor-
ghum grain ration and steers receiving the high-moisture corn
ration had significantly (P< 0.05) higher grading carcasses
than steers receiving the dry corn ration. The other carcass
characteristics of the steers on the four rations did not differ
significantly.

Experiment 3. Dry Non-Bird-Resistant (NBR) Versus Dry
Bird-Resistant (BR) Sorghum Grain

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the
comparative feeding value of non-bird-resistant (NBR) and
bird-resistant (BR) sorghum grain in grain sorghum silage
rations for finishing feedlot steers. Forty good quality steers
of British breeding, treated with a 36 mg ear implant of
diethylstilbestrol each, were weighed and allotted as equally
as possible to four experimental groups of 10 steers each.
The four experimental groups, utilizing two groups per treat-
ment, were started on the two experimental rations listed
in Table 6 on November 5, 1969. The composition of the con-
centrate supplement (protein, mineral, and vitamin) used to
balance the rations was similar to the one used in Experiment
1 (Table 2).

Table 6

Rations fed in Experiment 3 (as-fed basis) ARC, Jay (1969-70)
Non-bird-resistant Bird-resistant
(NBR) sorghum (BR) sorghum
grain ration grain ration
Ingredients (%) (%)

NBR sorghum grain (DeKalb E-57) 46.0 ----
BR sorghum grain (DeKalb BR-64) ---- 46.0
Grain sorghum silage 50.0 50.0
Concentrate supplement 4.0 4.0







Each of the two rations, on a dry matter basis, contained
approximately 68% grain, 26% silage, and 6% concentrate sup-
plement.
Performance and economic data for the beef steers on the
two experimental rations are presented in Table 7. Steers fed
the BR sorghum grain ration gained more than those fed the
NBR sorghum grain ration (2.62 and 2.41 lb./head/day, re-
spectively). This difference was not statistically significant due
to the large variation in individual gain within treatment
groups. Steers fed the BR sorghum grain ration consumed more
dry matter, but were 8.2% less efficient in converting dry mat-
ter to gain than the steers fed the NBR sorghum grain ration.
Therefore, the cost of gain was higher for steers fed the BR
sorghum grain ration.
Because of a suspected difference in the quality of the two
types of sorghum grain due to environmental conditions exist-
ing at harvest, it was felt that this study did not adequately de-
termine the comparative feeding value of NBR and BR sorghum
grain in the ration of beef steers. A rainy period, which pre-
vented harvest at the optimum stage of maturity, caused some
of the NBR sorghum grain to sprout in the head and to be
light in weight. Since the BR sorghum grain matured two weeks
later, it was not damaged as much by rain.



Table 7

Performance and economic data for beef steers in
Experiment 3. (90-day test) ARC, Jay (1969-70)

NBR sorghum BR sorghum
Item grain ration grain ration

No. of animals 20 20
Avg initial wt, lb. 632 630
Avg final wt, lb. 849 866
Total gain, Ib. 217 236
Avg. daily gain, Ib. 2.41 2.62
Feed/cwt gain (dry basis) (a) 841 910
Feed/animal/day, Ib. (dry basis) (a) 20.2 23.9
Feed cost/cwt gain (b) $ 19.61 $ 21.49

(a) NBR sorghum grain, 91.06% dry matter; BR sorghum grain, 89.45% dry matter; grain
sorghum silage, 31.27% dry matter; and concentrate supplement, 93.78% dry matter.
(b) NBR sorghum grain cost = $42.00/ton, BR sorghum grain cost = $42.00/ton, grain
sorghum silage cost = $10.50/ton, and concentrate supplement cost = $100.31/ton.
Source: Bertrand, J. E.,and M. C. Lutrick 1970 Unpublished data.






Experiment 4. Feeding Value of Dry NBR Sorghum Grain,
Dry BR Sorghum Grain, and Dry Corn

The purpose of this study was to further determine the
comparative feeding value of dry NBR sorghum grain, dry
BR sorghum grain, and dry corn in forage sorghum silage
rations for finishing feedlot steers. Twenty-four good quality
steers of British breeding, treated with a 36 mg ear implant
of diethylstilbestrol each, were weighed and allotted as equally
as possible to three experimental groups of eight steers each.
The three experimental groups were started on the three
experimental rations listed in Table 8 on September 30, 1971.
The composition of the concentrate supplement (protein, min-
eral, and vitamin) used to balance the rations was similar to
the one used in Experiment 1 (Table 2).
Performance, economic, and carcass data for the beef
steers on the three experimental rations are presented in
Table 9. The steers fed the corn ration had a significantly
(P<0.05) greater rate of gain (2.831b. /head/day) than those
(2.47 and 2.19 lb./head/day, respectively) of steers fed the NBR
and BR sorghum grain rations.
Steers fed the corn ration, on a total ration dry matter
basis, were 20.9% and 56.2% more efficient in converting dry
matter to gain than the steers fed the NBR and BR sorghum
grain rations, respectively. On the same basis, steers fed the
NBR sorghum grain ration were 29.2% more efficient in con-
verting dry matter to gain than steers fed the BR sorghum
grain ration. Steers fed the corn ration consumed 5.9% less
dry matter daily than those fed the NBR sorghum grain
ration and 20.5% less than those fed the BR sorghum grain
ration.


Table 8

Rations fed in Experiment 4 (as-fed basis) ARC, Jay (1971-72)
NBR sorghum BR sorghum Corn
grain ration grain ration ration
Ingredients (%) (%) (%)

NBR sorghum grain (DeKalb E-57) 61.0 ---- -
BR sorghum grain (DeKalb BR-64) --- 61.0 ----
Corn ---- ---- 61.0
Forage sorghum silage 35.0 35.0 35.0
Concentrate supplement 4.0 4.0 4.0








Table 9


Performance, economic, and carcass data for beef steers
in Experiment 4. (128-day test) ARC, Jay (1971-72) (11)

NBR sorghum BR sorghum Corn
Item grain ration grain ration ration


No. of animals 8 8 8
Avg initial wt, Ib. 718 698 694
Avg final wt, Ib. 1034 978 1056
Total gain, lb. 316 280 362
Avg daily gain, lb. 2.47b* 2.19b 2.83a
Feed/cwt gain (dry basis)(a) 792 1023 655
Feed/animal/day, lb. (dry basis)(a) 19.6 22.3 18.5
Feed cost/cwt gain (b) $ 18.99 $ 24.33 $ 18.88
Avg carcass quality grade (c 17.0 16.0 17.0
Avg yield grade (d) 3.6a* 3.1b 3.7a
Avg slaughter wt, Ib. 1034 978 1056
Avg carcass wt, Ib (e) 639 587 661
Avg dressing percent 61.8a* 60.Ob 62.6a


(a) NBR sorghum grain ration, 62.60% dry matter; BR sorghum grain ration, 63 09% dry matter, and corn ration, 62 83% dry matter.
(b) NBR sorghum grain cost -$3700/ton, BR sorghum gram cost $37 00/ton, corn cost =$4700/ton, forage sorghum silage cost $10.00/ton,
and concentrate supplement cost =$102.65/ton.
(c) 14= average good, 15 = high good, 16 = low choice, 17 average choice, etc
(d) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5, with yield grade 1 representing the highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability)
and yield grade 5 the lowest.
(e) Hot dressed weight.
*Denotes statistical significance at the 5% level. Means followed by letter "a" are significantly different from those means not having "a"
and those followed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b"






The cost of gain was approximately the same for steers
fed the corn and NBR sorghum grain rations. However, the cost
of gain was somewhat higher for steers fed the BR sorghum
grain ration. The carcass characteristics of steers fed the
corn and NBR sorghum grain rations did not differ significant-
ly. However, steers fed the BR sorghum grain ration had
a significantly (P<0.05) lower average yield grade and dress-
ing percent.

Experiment 5. Feeding Value of NBR and BR Sorghum Grain,
Both Fed as High-Moisture and as Dry Grain
The purpose of this experiment was to further examine
the comparative feeding value of NBR and BR sorghum grain
and to determine the amount of improvement in the feeding
value of both NBR and BR sorghum grain resulting when
these two types were fed as high-moisture grain instead of dry
grain in forage sorghum silage rations for finishing feedlot
steers. Sixty-four good quality steers of British breeding, each
treated with a 36 mg ear implant of RALGRO (zeranol a
protein anabolic agent), were weighed and allotted as equally
as possible to eight experimental groups of eight steers each.
The eight experimental groups, utilizing two groups per treat-
ment, were started on the four experimental rations listed in
Table 10 on August 17, 1972. The composition of the concen-
trate supplement (protein, mineral, and vitamin) used to bal-
ance the rations is listed in Table 11.
Each one of the four rations, on a dry matter basis, con-
tained approximately 79% grain, 16% forage sorghum silage,
and 5% concentrate supplement.
The performance, economic, and carcass data for the beef
steers on the four experimental rations are presented in Table
12. It can be noted that the steers receiving high-moisture NBR
sorghum grain, dry NBR sorghum grain, and high-moisture
BR sorghum grain in their rations gained (2.37, 2.22, and 2.21
lb./head/day, respectively) significantly (P<0.01) more than
the gain (1.84 lb./head/day) of steers receiving dry BR sorghum
grain in their ration.
On a total ration dry matter basis, steers receiving high-
moisture NBR sorghum grain and dry NBR sorghum grain
converted dry matter to gain equally well. Steers receiving
NBR sorghum grain were 9.5% and 28.8% more efficient in
converting dry matter to gain than steers receiving high-
moisture BR sorghum grain and dry BR sorghum grain, re-
spectively. On the same basis, steers receiving high-moisture
BR sorghum grain were 17.6% more efficient in converting dry












Table 10

Rations fed in Experiment 5 (as-fed basis) ARC, Jay (1972-73)

NBR sorghum BR sorghum
grain ration grain ration

High-Moisture Dry High-Moisture Dry
Ingredients (%N) (%) () (%}


High-moisture NBR sorghum grain (a) 66.0
Dry NBR sorghum grain (a) ---- 61.0
High-moisture BR sorghum grain (b) -- --- 66.0
Dry BR sorghum grain (b) -- 61.0
Forage sorghum silage 30.5 35.0 30.5 35.0
Concentrate supplement 3.5 4.0 3.5 4.0


(a) DeKalb E-57
(b) DeKalb BR-64.






Table 11


Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, and vitamin) fed in
drylot finishing rations ARC, Jay (1972-73)



Ingredients % Lb./ton

Soybean meal (44% protein) 60.96 1219
Urea -45% N 7.17 143
Salt (trace-mineralized) 8.98 180
Defluorinated rock phosphate 22.43 449
Vitamin A supplement (a) 0.23 4.6
Antibiotic supplement (b) 0.23 4.6

100.00 2000.2

(a) Perma-Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 IU/g) added at the level of
62.6 million IU/ton or 31,300 IU/lb of concentrate supplement.
(b) Baciferm 40 (zinc bacitracin supplement containing 40 g of the antiobiotic per pound)
added at the level of 184 g/ton or 92 mg/lb. of concentrate supplement.

matter to gain than steers receiving dry BR sorghum grain.
The daily feed consumption per steer on a dry matter basis
was slightly higher for steers receiving the BR sorghum grain
rations.
The cost of gain was considerably lower for the steers
receiving the NBR sorghum grain rations when compared to
that of steers receiving the BR sorghum grain rations. The yield
grades of steers receiving the high-moisture and dry NBR
sorghum grain rations were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than
the yield grade of steers receiving the dry BR sorghum grain
ration. This was due to the more highly finished carcasses
and less lean meat from steers receiving NBR sorghum grain.
The dressing percent was significantly (P<0.01) higher for
steers receiving the high-moisture NBR sorghum grain than
for steers receiving the dry BR sorghum grain.


NBR AND BR SORGHUM GRAIN IN THE RATIONS OF
FINISHING STEERS GRAZING TALL FESCUE
PASTURE (EXPERIMENT 6)

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the com-
parative feeding value of NBR and BR sorghum grain in high-
energy finishing rations fed to beef steers grazing tall fescue
pasture. Thirty-two good quality steers of British breeding,
treated with a 36 mg ear implant of diethylstilbestrol each,





Table 12


Performance, economic, and carcass data for beef steers in
Experiment 5. (139-day test) ARC, Jay (1972-73)

NBR sorghum grain ration BR sorghum grain ration

Item High-moisture Dry High-moisture Dry

No. of animals 16 16 16 16
Avg initial wt, lb. 608 592 598 606
Avg final wt, Ib. 937 900 905 862
Total gain, lb. 329 308 307 256
Avg daily gain, lb. 2.37a** 2.22a 2.21 a 1.84b
Feed/cwt gain (dry basis)(a) 792 792 867 1020
Feed/animal/day, Ib. (dry basis)(a) 18.7 17.6 19.1 18.8
Feed cost/cwt gain(b) $ 21.77 $ 21.98 $ 24.45 $ 28.37
Avg carcass grade c) 17.4 16.6 17.0 16.6
Avg yield grade (d) 2.8a* 2.7a 2.5a, b 2.3b
Avg slaughter wt, lb. 937 900 905 862
Avg carcass wt, Ib.(e) 591 559 564 526
Avg dressing percent 63.1a** 62.1a,b 62.3a, b 61.0b

(a) High-moisture NBR sorghum grain, 76.15% dry matter, dry NBR sorghum grain, 8935% dry matter, high moisture BR sorghum grain,
73.63% dry matter; dry BR sorghum grain, 89 14% dry matter, forage sorghum silage, 31 52% dry matter; and concentrate supplement,
91.27% dry matter.
(b) High-moisture NBR sorghum grain cost =$41 30/ton, dry NBR sorghum grain cost -$4900/ton, high-moisture BR sorghum grain cost $41 30/
ton, dry BR sorghum grain cost =$49.00/ton, forage sorghum silage cost $11 00/ton, and concentrate supplement cost = $11617/ton.
(c) 15= high good, 16- low choice, 17= average choice, 18 high choice, etc
(d) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5, with yield grade 1 representing the highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability)
and yield grade 5 the lowest.
(e) Paying weight, which was hot dressed weight
Denotes statistical significance at the 5% level. Means followed by letter "a" are significantly different from those means not having "a" and those
followed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b"
** Denotes statistical significance at the 1% level.
Source: Bertrand, J. E., L. S. Dunavin. and M. C Lutrick. 1973. Unpublished data.













Table 13

Composition of the rations fed on tall fescue pasture ARC, Jay (1970-71)


NBR sorghum BR sorghum
grain ration (a) grain ration (b)
Ingredients (%) Lb./ton (%) Lb./ton

Sorghum grain 97.5 1950 97.5 1950
Urea 45% N 0.5 10 0.5 10
Salt (trace-mineralized) 0.5 10 0.5 10
Defluorinated rock phosphate 1.5 30 1.5 30
Vitamin A supplement (c) + + +
Antibiotic supplement (d) + + +


100.0 2000 100.0 2000

(a) The NBR sorghum grain was DeKalb E-57.
(b) The BR sorghum grain was DeKalb BR-64.
(c) Perma-Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 IU/g) added at the level of 3 million IU/ton or 1500 IU/lb. of ration.
(d) Baciferm 40 (zinc bacitracin supplement containing 40 g of the antibiotic per pound) added at the level of 8 g/ton or 4 mg/lb. of ration






were weighed and allotted as equally as possible to four ex-
perimental groups of eight animals each. Each group of eight
steers grazed a 1-acre pasture of tall fescue. The four experi-
mental groups, utilizing two groups per treatment, were started
on the two experimental rations listed in Table 13 on October
6,1970.
The performance and economic data of beef steers fed NBR
and BR sorghum grain in their rations on tall fescue pasture
are presented in Table 14. Steers fed the NBR sorghum grain
ration gained significantly (P<0.01) faster than steers fed the
BR sorghum grain ration (2.07 and 1.75 lb/head/day, respec-
tively). Also, steers fed the NBR sorghum grain ration were
19.6% more efficient in converting feed to gain than those
fed the BR sorghum grain ration. The amounts of feed con-
sumed daily by steers receiving the two rations were the same.
The cost of gain was considerably lower for steers receiving
the NBR sorghum grain ration.



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The results of research to determine the feeding value of
sorghum grain in finishing rations for beef steers in northwest
Florida have been presented. Sorghum grain can be utilized in

Table 14

Performance and economic data of beef steers fed NBR and BR sorghum grain
in their rations on tall fescue pasture ARC, Jay (1970-71) (3)


NBR sorghum BR sorghum
Item grain ration grain ration

No. of animals 16 16
Length of trial, days 134 134
Avg initial wt, lb. 631 641
Avg final wt, Ib. 909 875
Total gain, lb. 278 234
Avg dailygain. Ib. 2.07** 1.75
Feed/cwt gain (as-fed basis)(a) 974 1165
Feed/animal/day, lb. (as-fed basis)(a) 20.2 20.3
Feed cost/cwt gain(b) $ 25.16 $ 30.10

(a) Does not include the small amount of tall fescue forage consumed.
(b) Ration cost =$49.47/ton and the tall fescue pasture cost $23.93/acre(pro-rated for the length
of trial).
Significant at P<0.01






finishing rations for beef steers; however, the feeding value
is quite variable depending on type (NBR and BR sorghum
grain) and method of processing (rolled high-moisture and
ground dry sorghum grain).
Steers receiving dry corn in finishing rations containing
silage gain faster and are about 15% to 20% more efficient
in converting total ration dry matter to gain than steers re-
ceiving dry sorghum grain (a mixture of varieties) in similar
rations. Steers receiving high-moisture corn in finishing rations
containing silage gain faster and are about 12% to 14% more ef-
ficient in converting total ration dry matter to gain than steers
receiving high-moisture sorghum grain (a mixture of varieties)
in similar rations. In every instance, the daily dry matter
consumption is higher for steers receiving the sorghum grain
rations. This indicates that steers try to compensate for the
lower feeding value of sorghum grain when compared to corn
by increasing their consumption of the sorghum grain rations.
Steers receiving rolled high-moisture sorghum grain (a
mixture of varieties) in finishing rations containing silage are
about 10% more efficient in converting total ration dry matter
to gain than steers receiving ground dry sorghum grain.
There is a difference in the feeding value of NBR and BR
sorghum grain for finishing beef steers. Steers receiving
ground dry NBR sorghum grain in finishing rations contain-
ing silage, or high-energy finishing rations on tall fescue
pasture, gain faster and are 20% to 34% more efficient in
converting total ration dry matter to gain than steers receiv-
ing ground dry BR sorghum grain in similar rations. The feed-
ing value of BR sorghum grain is improved considerably by
feeding it as high-moisture grain instead of dry grain. Steers
fed rolled high-moisture BR sorghum grain are approximately
18% more efficient in converting total ration dry matter to
gain than steers fed ground dry BR sorghum grain. Palata-
bility does not appear to be the problem with BR sorghum
grain, because steers receiving this type of grain consume more
dry matter than steers receiving NBR sorghum grain.
The information obtained in these trials proves conclusive-
ly that corn is a more efficient feed grain for finishing beef
steers than the sorghum grain types currently available for
feeding in northwest Florida.
A farmer-feeder growing sorghum grain to feed to his
cattle should evaluate the two types (NBR and BR) of sorghum
grain from an agronomical, bird-damage, and nutritional stand-
point and grow the type which fits advantageously in his
total farm program. Since both types of sorghum grain







generally sell for the same price locally in northwest Florida,
the feeder buying sorghum grain to feed to his cattle would find
it considerably more profitable to buy NBR sorghum grain.





LITERATURE CITED

1. Bertrand, J. E. 1969. Programs for finishing cattle using sorghum silage,
high-moisture corn and grain sorghum, and pasture. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
WFES Mimeo. Rept. 69-2.

2. Bertrand, J. E., L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick. 1970. Comparative
value of corn and sorghum, both fed as high-moisture and dry grain,
for finishing beef steers. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. WFES Mimeo. Rept. 70-1.

3. Bertrand, J. E., and M. C. Lutrick. 1971. The feeding value of bird-resistant
and non-bird-resistant sorghum grain in the ration of beef steers. Sunshine
State Agr. Res. Rept. 16(3):16.

4. Cardon, B. P. 1964. High energy fattening rations. Wash. Cattle Feeders'
Assoc. 6th Annual Conf.

5. Driedger, A., and J. K. Riggs. 1972. Hybrid by location effect on digesti-
bility of grain. J. Anim. Sci. 35:263 (Abstr.)

6. Eng, K. S., B. E. Jeter, M. E. Riewe, and L. H. Breuer. 1965. Utilization of
sorghum grain protein as affected by variety and fertilization. J. Anim.
Sci. 24:880 (Abstr.).

7. Husted, W. T., S. Mehen, W. H. Hale, M. Little, and B. Theurer. 1968.
Digestibility of milo processed by different methods. J. Anim. Sci. 27:531.

8. Lutrick, M. C. 1971. Comparative production of corn and sorghum for grain.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 31:45.

9. McGinty, D. D., and J. K. Riggs. 1968. Variation in digestibility of sorghum
grain varieties. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1170 (Abstr.)

10. McGinty, D. D., J. K. Riggs, and H. O. Kunkel. 1969. Factors affecting
in vitro digestibility of sorghum grain. J. Anim. Sci. 29:165 (Abstr.)

11. Maxson, W. E., J. E. Bertrand, R. L. Shirley, J. W. Carpenter, and A. Z.
Palmer. 1972. Comparative value of corn, non-bird-resistant and bird-
resistant sorghum grain in silage rations for finishing feedlot steers.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mimeo. Rept. AL-1972-2 and WFES Mimeo. Rept. 72-3.

12. Morrison, S. H. 1971. Introduction to 1971-72 ingredient analysis and es-
timated feed value tables for beef and sheep rations. Feedstuffs 43(51).
pp. A3-A22.

13. Morrison, F. B. 1956. Feeds and Feeding (22nd ed.). The Morrison Pub-
lishing Company, Ithaca, N.Y.

14. Neuhaus, V., and R. Totusek. 1971. Factors affecting in vitro digestibility
of high-moisture sorghum grain. J. Anim. Sci. 33:1321.






15. N.RC. 1970. Nutrient requirements'of domestic animals. No. 4. Nutrient
requirements of beef cattle. National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
D.C.
16. Samford, R. A., G. D. Potter, L. W. Rooney, and J. K. Riggs. 1970.
Digestibility of sorghum grain from the world collection. J. Anim. Sci.
30:327 (Abstr.).

17. Sherrod, L. B., R. C. Albin, and R. D. Furr. 1969. Net energy of regular
and waxy sorghum grains for finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 29:997.
18. Withers, F. T., P. J. Patrick, W. A. Pund, and H. W. Essig. 1969. Utilization
of bird resistance and nonbird resistance milo silage. J. Anim. Sci. 28:127
(Abstr.).





ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The "oxygen limiting" units for the storage of the high-
moisture grain and the high-moisture grain roller mill were
donated by the A. O. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc., Arling-
ton Heights, Illinois. Also, their support in part by grants-
in-aid is gratefully acknowledged. The diethylstilbestrol im-
plants were donated by Charles Pfizer and Co., Inc., Chamblee,
Georgia. The RALGRO (zeranol) implants, Perma-Dual 30A,
and Baciferm 40 were donated by Commercial Solvents Cor-
poration, Terre Haute, Indiana. The corn and sorghum seeds
were donated by DeKalb Agricultural Associates, Inc., Coker
Seed Co., McNair Seed Co., Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., and Louisi-
ana Seed Co. of Alabama. The assistance of all these companies
is appreciated and acknowledged.




















Institut of Food and Agricultural Sciences


TEACHING I FAS
RESEARCH
EXTENSION


This public document was promulgated at an annual
cost of $969.87 or a cost of 19 per copy to present general
information and research data on the feeding value of
sorghum grain for finishing beef cattle in northwest Florida.




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