• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Experimental methods and proce...
 Results and discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 680
Title: Slaughter and carcass characteristics of Brahman amd Brahman-Shorthorn steers
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 Material Information
Title: Slaughter and carcass characteristics of Brahman amd Brahman-Shorthorn steers
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 12 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Carpenter, J. W
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Zebus -- Carcasses   ( lcsh )
Shorthorn cattle -- Carcasses   ( lcsh )
Zebus   ( lcsh )
Cattle breeds   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 12.
Statement of Responsibility: J.W. Carpenter ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027186
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929081
oclc - 18354492
notis - AEN9849

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Review of literature
        Page 2
    Experimental methods and procedures
        Page 3
    Results and discussion
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 11
    Literature cited
        Page 12
Full Text
















SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS
CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAHMAN
AND BRAHMAN-SHORTHORN STEERS

J. T'. Carpenter. .4. Z. Palmer, i'. G. Kirk,
F. MI. Peacock, M. Koger

University of Florida. Gainaestille
agriculturall Experiment .ialions
j. 1. Becken'lch. Director








Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics
of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn
Steers

J. W. CARPENTER, A. Z. PALMER, W. G. KIRK,
F. M. PEACOCK, AND M. KOGER

INTRODUCTION
The beef cattle population of Florida is represented by pure-
bred, crossbred, and grade animals. The quantity and quality
of beef produced by cattle of different breeding are of economic
interest to producers, processors, and consumers. Although the
efficient production of beef depends on prolificacy, rate of gain,
and efficiency of feed conversion, profitable production also de-
pends on the value or quality of the end product, beef.
Steers were available from a four-year study conducted at
the Range Cattle Station, Ona, which determined the feedlot per-
formance and carcass grade of Brahman and Brahman X Short-
horn steers. In that study which involved four 180-day calf
fattening trials, Peacock and Kirk (13)2 found that as Shorthorn
breeding increased, carcass grades became higher, while Brah-
man steers were most efficient in feed utilization for gain. These
steers of known feeding, age, and breeding were well suited for
this study of slaughter and carcass characteristics.
The objectives in this study were: 1, to determine the effect
of Brahman breeding on in-transit and overnight shrink of live
animals, dressing percent, and percent of head, feed, hide, pluck,
liver, and gastrointestinal tract and contents; 2, to determine
the relationship of Brahman breeding with carcass grade, length
of leg, circumference of round, thickness of chuck, yield of whole-
sale cuts, composition of 9-10-11 rib cut, and tenderness of
steaks and roasts.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The main reason for crossbreeding is to obtain hybrid vigor
and combinations of the desirable characteristics of each parent
breed used (Lewis, 11).
1 Carpenter, Assistant Meat Scientist; Palmer, Meat Scientist; Koger,
Animal Geneticist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville.
Kirk, Vice-Director in charge; Peacock, Associate Animal Husbandman,
Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona.
SFigures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics
of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn
Steers

J. W. CARPENTER, A. Z. PALMER, W. G. KIRK,
F. M. PEACOCK, AND M. KOGER

INTRODUCTION
The beef cattle population of Florida is represented by pure-
bred, crossbred, and grade animals. The quantity and quality
of beef produced by cattle of different breeding are of economic
interest to producers, processors, and consumers. Although the
efficient production of beef depends on prolificacy, rate of gain,
and efficiency of feed conversion, profitable production also de-
pends on the value or quality of the end product, beef.
Steers were available from a four-year study conducted at
the Range Cattle Station, Ona, which determined the feedlot per-
formance and carcass grade of Brahman and Brahman X Short-
horn steers. In that study which involved four 180-day calf
fattening trials, Peacock and Kirk (13)2 found that as Shorthorn
breeding increased, carcass grades became higher, while Brah-
man steers were most efficient in feed utilization for gain. These
steers of known feeding, age, and breeding were well suited for
this study of slaughter and carcass characteristics.
The objectives in this study were: 1, to determine the effect
of Brahman breeding on in-transit and overnight shrink of live
animals, dressing percent, and percent of head, feed, hide, pluck,
liver, and gastrointestinal tract and contents; 2, to determine
the relationship of Brahman breeding with carcass grade, length
of leg, circumference of round, thickness of chuck, yield of whole-
sale cuts, composition of 9-10-11 rib cut, and tenderness of
steaks and roasts.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The main reason for crossbreeding is to obtain hybrid vigor
and combinations of the desirable characteristics of each parent
breed used (Lewis, 11).
1 Carpenter, Assistant Meat Scientist; Palmer, Meat Scientist; Koger,
Animal Geneticist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville.
Kirk, Vice-Director in charge; Peacock, Associate Animal Husbandman,
Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona.
SFigures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics of Steers


Numerous workers have reported differences in dressing per-
cent and offal weights between cattle of British breeding and
cattle of varying proportions of Brahman blood. Black et al.
(2), Ittner (9), Woodward et al. (16), Carroll et al. (5), Holt (8),
and Butler et al. (4) found that Brahman crossbred cattle had
a higher dressing percent than British cattle. Black et al. (2)
and Butler et al. (4) reported Brahman crossbreds had smaller
digestive tracts, smaller heads, heavier hides, smaller livers,
and lighter shanks than British cattle.
King (10) reported Brahman-Hereford crossbred carcasses
had smaller forequarters, heavier hindquarters, heavier chucks,
lighter short loins, and heavier rounds than either Hereford or
Santa Gertrudis carcasses. Farris et al. (6) found that Brah-
man crossbred cattle produced carcasses with longer legs than
Herefords. Butler (4) reported crossbred cattle had lower grad-
ing carcasses, heavier rounds, a higher percentage of the com-
bined loin, rib, and round, and more lean and less fat than Here-
ford cattle.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES
Breeding of animals used was as follows: Breed group 1,
3 Shorthorn-~, Brahman; Breed group 2, 12 Shorthorn-/2 Brah-
man; Breed group 3, 1/ Shorthorn--', Brahman; Breed group 4,
purebred Brahman. The study was conducted over a four-year
period using four steer calves per breed group each year except
the first year, when only three 3/ Shorthorn-1/1 Brahman calves
were available.
The selection of animals, formulation of rations, feeding,
and management and other feedlot practices are discussed by
Peacock and Kirk (13). At the completion of each year's trial
the steers were weighed at the Range Cattle Station and trucked
196 miles to the University of Florida Meats Laboratory, Gaines-
ville. Upon arrival, the steers were weighed, fasted overnight
with access to fresh water, weighed again, and slaughtered.
Head, hide, feet, gastrointestinal tract and contents, liver,
and pluck were weighed and percentages calculated. Warm car-
cass weights were obtained as a basis for cooler shrink data.
Carcasses were chilled 48 hours at 34 to 36'F, weighed, ribbed,
and graded to the nearest 1," grade by a federal meat grader.
Measurements were made on the right side of each carcass
as described by Naumann (12). In addition, thickness of chuck
was measured at a point anterior and perpendicular to the first






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


rib. The left side of each carcass was broken into wholesale
cuts by the procedure described by Hankins and Howe (7) and
later outlined by Wellington (15).
Estimation of the physical composition of the carcass was
made by processing the 9-10-11 rib cut from the left side as de-
scribed by Hankins and Howe (7). Moisture, fat, and protein
determinations on the separated lean and fat mixture of the
9-10-11 rib cut were made as outlined in the A. 0. A. C. (1).
The 6-7-8 rib cut was roasted at 350F to an internal tem-
perature of 1650F, and the Longissimus dorsi (loin eye muscle)
was tested for tenderness by an eight-member panel. A 3-inch
roast of the 12th rib area was prepared in the same manner as
the 6-7-8 rib cut, cooled to room temperature, and l/2-inch cores
were removed for Warner-Bratzler (3) shear determinations.
The short loin was removed 48 hours after slaughter,
wrapped, frozen, and later cut into 1-inch steaks. Three steaks
from the anterior end of the loin were broiled to a medium well-
done degree (1600F), and the Longissimus dorsi was removed,
trimmed of exterior fat and connective tissue, and quartered for
a four-member taste panel. Three adjacent steaks were broiled,
cooled to room temperature, and cored for Warner-Bratzler shear
determinations. Four 1/2-inch cores an equal distance apart
were removed starting at the top and progressing downward
to the bottom of the eye. Two shear readings were made on
each core.
The data were coded and punched on cards for electronic
computation. Analysis of variance was determined according
to Snedecor (14).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Slaughter weight, in-transit and overnight shrink, average
daily gain, dressing percent, carcass grade, cooler shrink, and
percent hide and offal removed at slaughter are presented by
group averages in Table 1.
Differences among breed groups in slaughter weight, in-
transit and overnight shrink, average daily gain, and dressing
percent were not significant. Carcass grade varied significantly
between breed groups. The 1/ Brahman carcasses in Breed
group 1 averaged high Good plus, while the Brahman carcasses
in Breed group 4 averaged only high Standard plus. The car-
casses in Breed groups 2 and 3 averaged high Good and low
Good plus, respectively. The average grade for each breed group









TABLE 1.--BREED GROUP COMPARISONS 01 SLAUGHTER (CHARACTERISTICS.


Breed Group
1


Breeding of steers


No. of steers

Slaughter wt., lbs.$

Il-transit and overnight shrink, '

Av. daily gain, lbs.

Dressing percent

Carcass grade


Cooler shrink, %/

Head, %,
Feet, %

Hide, ;

Pluck, /,

G. I. tract and content, %
Liver, %;


% Sh.
', Bra.
15

772

4.1
1.94

62.1

High
Good-
1.0

3.0

1.7

7.7

1.7
14.9

1.4


Breed Group
2

SSh.
SBria.
10;

.15

1.1

2.00
60.5
High
Good

1.1

i.0

1.7


Breed Group
3

Si Sh.
:i Bra.
I ;

478


2.01

01.8
Low
Good+

1.1

3.0
1.!9


Breed Group
4

Brahman

14;

752
.1.2

2.01
60.!9

High
Standard

1.3

3.1
1.9

10.4

1.8

12.7

1.83


; n.s. indieates non-significant; **, sigrnificean at .01 level of probability.
:: Weight immediately before slaughter.


Statistical Z
Significance' ?
Co




II.S.




II.s.

n.s+
n.s.
CO

aa

ce



C,


II.S.
CC
'-..






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


shows a decrease in grade with each increase in percent Brah-
man blood. Although only two of the predominately Brahman
carcasses graded Choice or better, one %:! Brahman- /, Shorthorn
carcass graded low Prime.
Because breed groups differed significantly in carcass grade,
other differences hereinafter attributed to breed group may be
due at least in part to variation in carcass grade.
Cooler shrink during the 48-hour chilling period was low for
all breed groups and differences lacked significance. Differences
in percent head, pluck, and liver were small and insignificant.
Cattle of predominately Brahman breeding (groups 3 and 4)
had significantly heavier feet and hides and smaller gastro-
intestinal tracts than the 1/2 and 34 Shorthorn cattle.
Carcass cut out and measurement data are presented in
Table 2. Differences among breed groups in length of carcass
lacked significance. Brahman and 3/1 Brahman carcasses had
significantly greater length of leg and smaller circumference of
round than carcasses from the 1/3 and 14 Brahman breed groups.
As percent of Brahman blood increased, the thickness of
the chuck decreased; the thinner chucks were found in the Brah-
man and predominately Brahman cattle of Breed groups 4 and
3 and the thicker chucks in Breed group 1. Breed differences
were highly significant.
Carcass yields of chuck, brisket, rump, and short loin were
rather uniform; differences were small among breed groups.
The Brahman carcasses in Breed group 4 differed somewhat
in conformation from the % Shorthorn carcasses of Breed group
1 with significantly heavier forequarters and lighter hindquar-
ters. A part of the variation in percent forequarter was due
to a higher percentage of foreshank in the Brahman carcasses.
Differences in percent of wholesale rib, although highly signifi-
cant, should not be attributed to percent of Brahman or Short-
horn blood, since Breed group 2 cut the highest percent while
Breed group 1 cut the lowest and Breed groups 4 and 3 were
in between.
The cuts which normally show the highest deposition of fat
in higher grading animals, the plate, flank, and kidney knob,
were significantly heavier in the higher grading %4 Shorthorn
carcasses.
Breed groups 3 and 4 had higher percent of sirloin and
round than Breed groups 1 and 2. Part of this difference may
be explained by the longer leg of the predominately Brahman
carcass.










TABLE 2.-BREED GROUP COMPARISONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS.

Breed Group Breed Group Breed Group Breed Group Statistical
1 2 3 4 Significance l

Breeding of steers ; Sh. Sh. b Sh. Brahman u
i4 Bra. Bra. : Bra.
No. of steers 15 1( 1(; 16
Carcass length, in. 43.77 43.81 44.12 13.86 n.s.
Length of leg, in. 29.24 29.58 30.54 30.44
Circumference of round, in. 29.53 2!.01 28.9(; 28.92 9
Thickness of chuck, in. (.03 5.85 5.57 5.59
Forequarter, % 49.93 50.94 49.94 50.50
Hindquarter, %o 50.07 49.0(; 50.06 19.50
Chuck, % 25.38 2(;.22 26.03 2.18 n.s.
Foreshank, % 3.7( :3.77 3.99 4.11 **
Brisket, % 4.13 3.90 3.67 3.92 n.s.
Rib, % 9.25 10.29 ).57 9,.87 :
Plate, % 7.19 ;.;9 6.62 6.49
Round, % 18.30 18.41 18.89 19.88
Rump, % 5.93 5.90 6.11 5.82 n.s.
Sirloin, % 7.75 7.74 8.54 8.13
Short loin, % 6.55 .53 6.56 6.82 n.s.
Flank, % 6.09 5.78 5.38 5.2(; :
Kidney knob, % 5.09 4.19 4.08 2.84
Combined round, rib, and full loin, % 41.86 42.41 43.58 44.70 *
Co


i-n.s. indicates non-signiffinnt; **, significant at .01 level of prolbability : sinificInnl :I .05 level of proaliility.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The Brahman carcasses in Breed group 4 cut the highest per-
cent when the wholesale cuts of round, rib, and full loin were
combined, followed in decreasing order by Breed groups 3, 2,
and 1 as the percent of Brahman breeding declined.
Separable lean, fat, bone, and connective tissue content of
the 9-10-11 rib cut is presented in Table 3. Brahman and 3
Brahman rib cuts of Breed groups 4 and 3, respectively, had
more lean, less fat, and more bone than the 1/2 and 3, Shorthorn
rib cuts. There were no significant differences among breed
groups in the amount of connective tissue.
Moisture, ether extract, and protein values of the separable
lean and fat mixture from the 9-10-11 rib cut are shown in
Table 3. Ether extract was highest in Breed group 1 and de-
creased with increase in percent of Brahman blood. Moisture
and protein values were highest in the leaner, lower grading
carcasses of Breed group 4 and decreased with increase of car-
cass grade. Differences in moisture, ether extract, and protein
among groups were highly significant.
Tenderness of roasts and steaks is presented by breed groups
in Table 4. Roast tenderness, as determined by panel, differed
at a highly significant level among the breed groups. A pro-
nounced decrease in roast tenderness with each increase in per-
cent Brahman blood was observed for the first three years. Data
for the fourth year show that roasts in Breed group 3 were
more tender than the roasts in Breed group 2. Breed group 1
roasts were most tender for each of the four years, and Breed
group 4 roasts were the least tender.
Warner-Bratzler shear values were obtained on a roast from
each animal in the last three feeding trials. Shear data on
roasts agree closely with panel scores for Breed groups 1 and 4.
Breed group 1 roasts were most tender and Breed group 4 least
tender. Differences were significant only at the .05 percent
level.
Unaged short loin steaks of steers fed in the last two trials
were tested for tenderness by panel and shear test. Breed differ-
ences in tenderness were not significant by either taste panel
or Warner-Bratzler shear evaluation. Breed group 1 steaks
were most tender, and Breed group 4 steaks the least tender.
Breed groups 2 and 3 were similar in tenderness.












TABLE 3.--BREED GROUPP COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICAL AND (CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF THE 9-10-11 RIB CUT.


Breed Group
1


breedingg of steers


% Sh.
% Bra.


Breed Group
2

B Sh.
Bra..


No. of steers
Physical composition of 9-10-11 rib cut

Separable lean, ';
Separable fat, ';

Separable bone, ';
Connective tissue, '
Chemical composition of lema and fat

of 9-10-11 rib cut
Ether extract, O,,

Moisture, %
Protein, %


Breed Group
4

Brahman


' n.s. indicates inn-ionificant : **, significant at the .01 level of probability.


Breed Group
3

1/ Sh.
/, Bra.
1 ;


51.9i

:0.7
16.9

1.5




35.0
49.5

15.5


Statistical '
Significance -"





a
cB





S.



0.


*
C

rt
03















TABLE 4.-BREED GROUP COMPARISON OF TENDERNESS OF ROASTS AND STEAKS BY PANEL AND WARNER-BRATZLER SHEAR.

Breed Group Breed Group Breed Group Breed Group Statistical
1 2 3 4 Significancet

Breeding of steers % Sh. 12 Sh. 1i Sh. Brahman
14 Bra. 12 Bra. % Bra.

No. of steers 15 16 16 16
Panel Score-Roast $ 4.90 4.13 4.40 4.01 **

No. of steers 12 12 12 12
Shear Value-Roast 8.65 11.04 10.24 11.64 *

No. of Steers 8 8 8 8
Panel Score-Steaks : 4.84 4.07 4.08 3.64 n.s.
Shear Value-Steaks 8.81 10.02 9.64 9.89 n.s. C

Sn.s. indicates non-significant; **, significant at the .01 level of probability; *, significant at the .05 level of probability.
:i Panel scores are on a 1 to 6 scale with 1-very tough, 4-average tenderness, and 6-very tender.
Pounds pull to shear core %" in diameter.







Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics of Steers


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
A comparison of slaughter and carcass characteristics of four
breed groups composed of 34. Shorthorn-1/4 Brahman, 1/2 Short-
horn-i/ Brahman, 1/4 Shorthorn-/. Brahman, and purebred Brah-
man steers is presented.
Differences among breed groups in average daily gain, in-
transit and overnight shrink, slaughter weight, dressing per-
cent, cooler shrink, length of carcass, and percent head, pluck,
liver, chuck, brisket, rump, and shortloin were small and lacked
significance.
The %3. Shorthorn-'4 Brahman carcasses graded higher than
other breed groups and had the highest percent of fat and ether
extract along with the lowest percent of lean, moisture, and
protein of the 9-10-11 rib cut. Decreases in carcass grade, per-
cent fat, and ether extract as well as increases in percentages
of lean, moisture, and protein of the 9-10-11 rib cut were associ-
ated with increased Brahman breeding.
Brahman and 3i. Brahman cattle had higher percent feet
and shanks than 1,/ and : Shorthorn cattle. The 34 Shorthorn
cattle had the lightest hides, and as Brahman breeding in-
creased, percent of hide increased. Also, the percent of live-
weight removed as gastrointestinal tract and content was high-
est in the %3/ Shorthorn breed group and decreased with in-
crease of Brahman breeding.
The lower grading Brahman and % Brahman carcasses had
significantly longer legs and heavier rounds and foreshanks,
thinner chucks, and less plate, flank, and kidney fat than the
1/ and % Shorthorn breed groups.
Brahman and 3:' Brahman had heavier sirloins than the
1. and :!3 Shorthorn breed groups. Brahman carcasses had the
highest percent of the combined cuts of round, rib, and full
loin. As the Brahman breeding decreased, the percent of these
cuts also decreased. A highly significant difference of 2.84 per-
cent was found between the purebred Brahman and the 3%
Shorthorn breed groups.
Roasts from the :%3/ Shorthorn group were significantly more
tender than roasts from the Brahman breed group by taste
panel evaluation. Warner-Bratzler shear values showed the 3
Shorthorn roasts to be the most tender and the purebred Brah-
man roasts the least tender. The % Brahman roasts were
slightly more tender than the 1. Brahman roasts by both panel
and shear.







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


LITERATURE CITED

1. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 7th edition. Washing-
ton, D. C. 1950.
2. Black, W. H., A. T. Semple, and J. L. Lush. Beef production and qual-
ity as influenced by crossing Brahman with Hereford and Shorthorn
cattle. USDA Tech. Bul. 417. 1934.
3. Bratzler, L. J. Measuring the tenderness of meat by means of mechan-
ical shear. M.S. thesis Kansas State Univ. Manhattan, Kansas. 1932.
4. Butler, O. D., B. L. Warwick, and T. C. Cartwright. Slaughter and
carcass characteristics of shortfed yearling Hereford and Brahman X
Hereford steers. J. Animal Sci. 15: 93. 1956.
5. Carroll, F. D W C. R..d!li;.. and N R. Ittner. Brahman-Hereford
crossbreds and H,-r..f.-.l gapin-. ,.,',.1- yV4.i-. and carcass differences.
J. Animal Sci. 14 218. 1:'5.
6. Farris, H., Jr.. E N. H,-.rTfln, W. A. Sawyer. R Bn-nrt. and A. W.
Oliver. Erahija ii a H. .-ft! ...r.I ith H,!,;-f...rn.a c,,.,a' ri..nr. Oregon
Agr. Exp. taU. R.,l. 5-4',. 1:5'.
7. Hankins, O. G atli P E. Ho e. E-r.i.ati'.., of th, ...nl...- .tion of
beef carcass aid ,.-t. 1 LA T..,.i. Bul '. 2,'. !941i .
8. H olt, L. H. i.'r..l..,..-.l ir, r. t..e,-l lile. .1. A rm mal Sci 11:1185.
1955.
9. Ittner, N. E. Brarl-n an. Brafurd., Hert.f.r.ln ui..lerg., c: .niparati'.. win-
ter feeding- experiment... \\' .t-rn I.;'. t..',:k .1. Jai., l' .
10. King, G. T. C'attl- t\.r--i :s- they arfft'i:t the i..as- Pro.. th An.
Rec. Meat,. C'-iLf. Nai.:.nril Live-t.:.c k anl MI.at H..iar.l. 1`'54.
11. Lewis, R. Li. Betf Cattie ii,,vet;iati.n- in Texa,. liMn.l:1l. Texas
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 7"24. 1:'5t:.
12. Naumann, H. D. A r i'ornient.dd pr.c.'eEdure f...r rnra-i. i ni~! :n l ri adding
beef for carcass evalnuti.'in. Prue. 4th An RPe. MNat (-...ni National
Livestock and Meat Board. 89. 1952.
13. Peacock, F. M., and W. G. Kirk. Feed lot performance and carcass
grades of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn steers. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 597. 1958.
14. Snedecor, G. W. Statistical Methods. 5th edition. Iowa State College
Press, Ames, Iowa. 1956.
15. Wellington, G. H. Recommended procedure for cutting beef. Proc.
6th An. Rec. Meat Conf., National Livestock and Meat Board. 73.
1953.
16. Woodward, R. R., J. R. Quesenberry, R. T. Clark, E. E. Shelby, and
O. G. Hankins. Relationships between pre-slaughter and post-slaughter
evaluations of beef cattle. USDA Cir. 945. 1954.


COVER: U. S. Choice steer and carcass of %3 Shorthorn-14 Brahman steer.




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