• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Statement of sponsor
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Purpose
 Sources of data
 Federal Law
 State land
 County land
 Municipal land
 Semi-public land
 Private land
 Practices in public land owner...
 Summary














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 460
Title: Rural land ownership in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027175/00001
 Material Information
Title: Rural land ownership in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 75 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Alleger, Daniel E
Tharp, Max M ( Max Messick ), 1906-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1949
 Subjects
Subject: Land tenure -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Land use, Rural -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel E. Alleger and Max M. Tharp.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Publication no. 3 Southeast Regional Land Tenure Committee"--T.p.
General Note: "In cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture"--T.p.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027175
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925541
oclc - 18271727
notis - AEN6194

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Statement of sponsor
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Foreword
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
        Acknowledgments
            Page 8
    Purpose
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Sources of data
        Page 13
    Federal Law
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    State land
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 30
        Page 47
    County land
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 47
    Municipal land
        Page 51
        Page 50
    Semi-public land
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Private land
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Practices in public land ownership
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Summary
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 73
Full Text


Bulletin 460 June, 1949

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
HAROLD MOWRY, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




Rural Land Ownership in Florida

By DANIEL E. ALLEGER and MAX M. THARP





G E O R "A



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FLORIDA
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Publication No. 3. Southeast Regional Land Tenur. Committee

In Cooperation with the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of AgR~iculturc







BOARD OF CONTROL

J. Thos. Gurney. Chairman, Orlando
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee


EXECUTIVE STAFF

J. Hills Miller, Ph.D., President of the
University3
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agr.'
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editur3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor3
W. W. Mosher, Assistant E.litor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
Geo. F. Baughman, M.A., Business Manager3
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer3
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Engineer3
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineers
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineer2

AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.I., Agronomist1
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist3
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist3
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
S. C. Litzenberger, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
M. N. Gist, Collaborator2

ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V,M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M. Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.'
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionists
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.3
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asst. Poultry Hush.3
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
S John Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
WV A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.3
S P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
t. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
C. F. Winchester, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemista


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agri. Economist'
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agri. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Asst.
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., .Agr. Statisticians
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statisticians

ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D.. Biochemist

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Assistant
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist1
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist3
H. M. Reed, B.S., Chem., Veg. Processing
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
L. H. Halsey, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Forrest E. Myers, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist's
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist'3
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist2
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
R. A. Carrigan, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist3
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemists
J. B. Cromartie, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asso. Soil Surveyor
V. W. Cyzycki, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
R. B. Forbes, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, M.S., Asst. Chemist
Jean Beem, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor

SHead of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave.







BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. C. Rhoads, M.S., Entomologist

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, DeFuniak Springs
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, M.S., Plant Pathologist'
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
J. A. Granger, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Biochemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. N. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Joe P. Barnett, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. C. Bowers, B.S., Asst. Chemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Supervisory Chem.
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
L. W. Fayville, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. H. Wolf, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
C. B. Savage, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
D. L. Stoddard, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. H. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist


SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD

Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robt. A. Conover, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Milton Cobin, B.S., Asso. Horticulturist


W. CENT. FLA. STATION, BROOKSVILLE

William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
man in Charge2


RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Jones, B.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
H. E. Henderson, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD

R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, MILTON

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D. Agronomist'
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist



FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist

Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist'
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.

Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Hort. in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Robert 0. Magie, Ph.D., Gladioli Hort.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2

1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave.







Statement of Sponsor
This is the third of a series of specific studies dealing with
land tenure which are being sponsored by the Southeast Land
Tenure Committee. The purpose of these studies is to provide
basic information which will facilitate the solution of some of the
most difficult problems facing the American farmer.
The Southeast Land Tenure Committee is an official body
which was organized in May 1946 with the approval of the direc-
tors of the experiment stations of cooperating states. The com-
mittee as constituted consists of the following individuals:
B. F. Alvord, Alabama
C. V. Noble, Florida
W. T. Fullilove, Georgia (Experiment Station)
J. W. Firor, Georgia (University)
G. W. Forster, North Carolina, Chairman
G. H. Aull, South Carolina
C. E. Allred, Tennessee
W. L. Gibson, Virginia
H. N. Young, Virgina (Experiment Station), Committee Ad-
viser and Liaison Officer
Joseph Ackerman, Farm Foundation, Secretary
Max Tharp, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Executive Di-
rector

The activities of the committee are supported financially by
the several states and by a grant from the General Education
Board of New York. The Farm Foundation finances committee
and subcommittee meetings for the purpose of stimulating and
coordinating research activities and of reviewing results ob-
tained.
Two studies, "The Farm Tenure Situation in the Southeast"
and "Farm Inheritance and Settlement of Estates," have been
completed and the findings published in Bulletins 370 of the
South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station and 413 of the
Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, respectively. At pres-
ent there is under way a study of the "Effect of Mechanization
and Livestock Development on Landlord-Tenant Relations" and
a study of "Some Problems Associated with the Transfer and In-
heritance of Farm Property."






Contents
PAGE

STATEM ENT OF SPONSOR ...... .... .. ......... ............................ .... .... 4
F OREW ORD ................... ........ ........... .............. 6
INTRODUCTION .................................................. ....... ...... 7
PURPOSE ................. ...... ---- --...... 8
SOURCES OF DATA ........................................ .. .......... ........ 13
F EDERAL LAND ..................................... ... ............... .....- 13
Land Use Adm inistrating Agencies ................................ .............. 16
Departm ent of A agriculture ................... ............... ................ 16
U S. F orest Service ......................................... .... ........ 16
Soil Conservation Service ............. ................................. 22
Farmers Home Administration ... ........................... ................ 23
Agricultural Research Administration ...................................... 23
Department of the Interior ......................... ............... ........... 24
N national Park Service .................................. .. .. .......... .... 24
Fish and W wildlife Service .. ................... ................. ....... 26
Bureau of Indian Affairs ........... .............-.. ....... ......... .. 27
Bureau of Land M management ..... .. .......................................... 29
National Military Establishment ..................................... ........... 30
STATE LAND ................ ....................... ................. ---- .. 30
Swamp and Overflowed Land ... ........ ............... ................ 31
Swam p Indem nity Land ......................... .....................-..-- 31
Internal Improvement Lands ............... .........-.............-.. 32
State School Land ..................... ..................... .............. 37
School Indem nity Land .. ............................................ .............. 37
Land Granted to the State Specifically for Railroads ................ 37
Sovereignty Lands ..................... .............. 38
M urphy Act Land ................ ................... ...... ...... ....... ... 38
State Institutions ................................... .............. ..... 39
State H ighw ays .............. ............................................. 40
State Forests and Parks ........................ .... ... ......................... 41
The Florida Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish .....-.. 43
State Armory Board ....................... ............. 46
State Board of Education Land ................................... ....- 46
U classified State Land ........................................ ............. 46
COUNTY LAND .......... .............. ................ ...... ............ 47
M UNICIPAL LAND .................. ............................................. 50
SEMI-PUBLIC LAND ............................................... .. 51
P RIVATE L AN D .............. ................................. .............. ...... ... .... 52
Public Service Corporation Land .............................. ...... ......... 52
Farm Land .................................. ..... ... .. ... --- -....... 61
N onfarm Rural Land ........-........ ... ............... .............. 61
PRACTICES IN PUBLIC LAND OWNERSHIP ..................................--...------- 67
Validity of Ownership ..........................-....-......... ....... ..... 68
Reservation of Mineral Rights .............. .....-...------.......... 68
Oil and Gas Leases ............. ....... ...... .............. ...........- 69
Grants to Riparian Owners .............................................. 69
Proceeds of Sale of State Land Reserved for State School Fund 70
N national Forest Fund ................ .. ...................... .............. 70
Public Land and Taxation ........... ..-...... ... .... ..- .... ...... 71
SUM M ARY .................... ......................................... ............. .. 73





Foreword
Since World War I both federal and state governments have
been consistently under pressure to meet new demands for rev-
enue. Local governments have come to expect federal and state
aid as a matter of course. As a consequence, the consideration
and extent of public land resources and their contribution to so-
ciety are matters of critical importance. Out of this has come a
new interest in the ownership of rural land, particularly that
publicly owned. Many officials and educators in Florida, as in
other states, have expressed the need for a current appraisal
and mobilization of facts on the ownership of rural land. This
report is an outgrowth of that expressed need.
In recent months several publications relating to rural land
ownership have been released by the federal government and
state agricultural experiment stations. The Florida report dif-
fers from others published to date in that not only statistical
facts were assembled and compiled but information was obtained
on the acquisition, use and alienation policies of land-owning
governmental agencies below the federal level.
In preparing this report for publication the authors recognized
the importance of "rights" in land. The distribution of these
rights involves a consideration of the manner and degree in
which society makes rights available to private individuals or to
groups as determined by law and custom. Thus they vary from
outright public ownership, under which individuals hold no
rights except those granted by society, to exclusive private
ownership under which the public holds no rights except those
reserved by society. As regards the latter, society has reserved
for itself three limited but important rights. They are (1) the
right to tax, (2) the right to police and (3) the right to acquire
property for public use. The rights of private owners, on the
other hand, are exceedingly broad. Generally speaking, they in-
clude the right to use, to buy and to sell, to bequeath and to in-
herit, to subdivide and to enlarge, to mortgage and to foreclose.
It is in the interest of all citizens of Florida that rural prop-
erty rights be held and transferred in a manner that conserves
rural land resources, and augments the wellbeing of rural peo-
ple and their communities. This report presents the rural land
situation as it now exists. Any implication as to problems in-
volved is incidental to the study. Since the descriptive text has
been kept to a minimum, many citations in footnotes have been
made to references and laws. This will assist the reader to lo-
cate original sources of information or the legal basis for land
use or operating policy. Illustrations have been selected to il-
lustrate land use and not to support any policy or use.









Rural Land Ownership in Florida

By DANIEL E. ALLEGER AND MAX M. THARP'

Introduction
Title to more than 1,135,000 acres of land patented to Florida
by the federal government or conveyed to the state by special
acts of Congress remains with the state today (Fig. 1). Ap-
proximately a million acres of this land is classified as swamp
land. Vested in the federal government at present are titles to
about 2.8 million acres (Table 1). The most productive use of
many thousands of Florida's rural acres in both public and pri-
vate ownership is as yet unknown.

'Agricultural Economist, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. U.S.D.A,


Fig. 1.-Distribution of publicly owned land as a proportion of the
total land area in Florida, by counties, 1946.


PERCENT
E 0-15
i16-30
~ 31- 45
46 60
S 61 and over


. 04,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Of the 34,727,680-acre land area of the state, approximately
586 thousand acres are in incorporated urban areas, 444 thou-
sand acres are in roads and railroads, and about 33.7 million
rural acres are left for other uses (Table 2). The 1945 total
area of crop land was nearly 3 million acres; pastured land,
other than crop land or woodland, 4 million acres; woodland on
farms, 5.8 million acres, of which 4.5 million acres were pas-
tured. The remainder, about 21 million acres or nearly 60 per-
cent of the land area of the state, is available for such extensive
purposes as timber growing, grazing, and development of wild-
life. This report is concerned chiefly with the 98 percent of land
in the state that is classed as rural.
Acknowledgments.-This study could not have been conducted with-
out the cooperation of numerous individuals and federal and state agencies
Credit is due to Dr. C. V. Noble, Head, department of agricultural eco-
nomics, the University of Florida, for his many proposals and suggestions;
the various federal agencies for cooperating with the Bureau of Agricul-
tural Economics, USDA, in the tabulation of federal lands; to J. E.
Straughn, Executive Secretary to Hon. Millard F. Caldwell, Governor of
Florida; C. M. Gay, Comptroller of the State of Florida; and other of-
ficials of the various state agencies for permitting the use of their records
and for data given. Appreciation is also due the tax assessors and other
county officials in all counties for their assistance; the officials of the
various privately owned public utility organizations who supplied necessary
data, and to numerous others who aided in many ways. The helpful com-
ments of members of the Southeast Regional Land Tenure Committee who
reviewed the data before publication are also acknowledged.

Purpose

The purpose of this report is to provide current information
on the total rural land resources of the State of Florida by class-
ification of ownership. Information summarized consists of
(a) physical area in rural lands; (b) approximate acreage
owned, by ownership classification, for the state as a whole and
for each county separately; and (c) nature and purposes of
ownership.
The material provides quantitative data that will be of value
to both public officials and private citizens. Increasing demands
upon the land for agricultural purposes, changes arising from
technological advances, and reductions in the agricultural labor
force, have affected the intensity of use and the productivity of
the land. Hence, this land inventory helps to appraise the exist-
ing situation in Florida.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Of the 34,727,680-acre land area of the state, approximately
586 thousand acres are in incorporated urban areas, 444 thou-
sand acres are in roads and railroads, and about 33.7 million
rural acres are left for other uses (Table 2). The 1945 total
area of crop land was nearly 3 million acres; pastured land,
other than crop land or woodland, 4 million acres; woodland on
farms, 5.8 million acres, of which 4.5 million acres were pas-
tured. The remainder, about 21 million acres or nearly 60 per-
cent of the land area of the state, is available for such extensive
purposes as timber growing, grazing, and development of wild-
life. This report is concerned chiefly with the 98 percent of land
in the state that is classed as rural.
Acknowledgments.-This study could not have been conducted with-
out the cooperation of numerous individuals and federal and state agencies
Credit is due to Dr. C. V. Noble, Head, department of agricultural eco-
nomics, the University of Florida, for his many proposals and suggestions;
the various federal agencies for cooperating with the Bureau of Agricul-
tural Economics, USDA, in the tabulation of federal lands; to J. E.
Straughn, Executive Secretary to Hon. Millard F. Caldwell, Governor of
Florida; C. M. Gay, Comptroller of the State of Florida; and other of-
ficials of the various state agencies for permitting the use of their records
and for data given. Appreciation is also due the tax assessors and other
county officials in all counties for their assistance; the officials of the
various privately owned public utility organizations who supplied necessary
data, and to numerous others who aided in many ways. The helpful com-
ments of members of the Southeast Regional Land Tenure Committee who
reviewed the data before publication are also acknowledged.

Purpose

The purpose of this report is to provide current information
on the total rural land resources of the State of Florida by class-
ification of ownership. Information summarized consists of
(a) physical area in rural lands; (b) approximate acreage
owned, by ownership classification, for the state as a whole and
for each county separately; and (c) nature and purposes of
ownership.
The material provides quantitative data that will be of value
to both public officials and private citizens. Increasing demands
upon the land for agricultural purposes, changes arising from
technological advances, and reductions in the agricultural labor
force, have affected the intensity of use and the productivity of
the land. Hence, this land inventory helps to appraise the exist-
ing situation in Florida.







TABLE 1.-PUBLIC RURAL LAND BY KIND OF OWNERSHIP AND ADMINISTER-
ING AGENCY, FLORIDA, 1946'


Ownership Classification Acres
Federal land total: ...................................... 2,838,297.0

Department of Agriculture:
Forest Service ........................................ 1,058,498.0
Soil Conservation Service ....................... 302,290.0
Farmers Home Administration ............. 16,579.0
Agricultural Research Administration 2,141.0
Department of the Interior:
National Park Service ............................ 271,341.0
Fish and Wildlife Service .................... 223,744.0
Bureau of Indian Affairs ....................... 78,928.0
Bureau of Land Management ................ 24,532.0
National Military Establishment:
Departments of the Army and Air
Force
M military land ..................................... 736,775.0
Civil land ........................................ 30,913.0
Department of the Navy ...................... 86,256.0
Department of the Treasury:
Coast Guard .......................................... 2,309.0
Land in other agencies ............. ................ 3,991.0
State land total: ....................... ............... 1.855,960.2


Trustees of the Internal Improvement
Fund:
State swam p .....................
Internal im provem ent ............................
Murphy Act (tax-forfeited land) ......
Board of Education:
State school ................. .... ... .......
B oard of Control ......................... ......
Commissioners of State Institutions:
Industrial schools ...................................
State prisons ........ ...............
State hospitals .................................
Florida Farm Colony ...........................
Seminole Indian Reservation .............
State Road Department:
Land in highways ..................................
Board of Forestry and Parks:
State forests ........................
State parks ........ ...............................
Land in other agencies:
Game and Fresh Water Fish
Com m mission .............................. .....
State Armory Board ...........................
U classified .................................
County land total: ............... ................
C county land ....................... ...... ... ... ... ... ..
County road rights of way ....................
M municipal : ............. ....... .....................

Other land (religious, fraternal, etc.): ......
T total public land ................... .................
Percent of total rural land area publicly
ow n ed ............................. ........ .. ..... .... .....


1,006,354.8
1,706.5
300,146.5

126.920.5
13.189.9

1,845.0
21,517.7
8,480.2
4,528.6
104,800.0

104,933.0

25,903.5
46.960.9


56.920.0
31,246.0
507.1

355,940.2
117,853.2
238,087.0
31,910.8

34,595.9


19.67
0.03
5.87

2.48
0.26

0.04
0.42
0.16
0.09
2.05

2.05

0.50
0.92


i 5.116,704.1 100.00


15.00


'See Federal and State tabulations for exceptions to the 1946 date.


Percent
55.47


20.69
5.91
0.32
0.04

5.30
4.37
1.54
0.48



14.40
0.60
1.69

0.05
0.08
36.27









TABLE 2.-SUMMARY, LAND AREA IN URBAN AND RURAL USE AND RURAL LAND IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE OWNERSHIP BY
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, 1946.


Ownership Division of
Acres


County

The State ....
Alachua ........
Baker ........ .
B ay ......... .
Bradford .
Brevard .
Broward .
Calhoun ....
Charlotte ...
Citrus ........
Clay .............
Collier ........
Columbia ....
D ade ............
DeSoto ......
D ixie ............
Duval ..........
Escambia ....
Flagler .......
Franklin ......
Gadsden....
Gilchrist ....
Glades ........
G ulf ......... ..


Total
34,727,680.0
570,880.0
374,400.0
481,920.0
187,520.0
660,480.0
779,520.0
356,480.0
451,200.0
364,800.0
382,720.0
1,300,480.0
503,040.0
1,314,560.0
414,720.0
440,320.0
497,280.0
424,320.0
309,120.0
348.160.0
325,120.0
216,960.0
477,440.0
356,480.0


Rural Lands
[ Proportion in Percent


Acres
Urban
585,782.0
10,620.0
400.0
8,680.0
2.300.0
16,890.0
34,340.0
1,680.0
1,600.0
18,850.0
11,190.0
14,820.0
2,560.0
49,445.0

640.0
31,690.0
4,790.0
4,170.0
2,334.0
4,460.0
880.0
640.0
5,805.0


Rural
34,141,898.0

560,260.0
374,000.0
473,240.0
185,220.0
643,590.0
745,180.0
354,800.0
449,600.0
345,950.0
371,530.0
1,285,660.0
500,480.0
1,265,115.0
414,720.0
439,680.0
465,590.0
419,530.0
304,950.0
345,826.0
320,660.0
216,080.0
476,800.0
350,675.0


Public
5.116,704.1
24,490.3
84,238.1
54,217.3
17,846.5
26,438.8
428,861.6
4,244.5
75,487.8
65,495.5
88,525.6
38,520.8
92,055.4
663,160.8
6,585.1
4,715.6
44,366.4
20,452.2
10,067.1
29,850.1
13,912.2
4,484.1
42,447.7
7,937.9


Private
29,025,193.9

535,769.7
289,761.9
419,022.7
167,373.5
617,151.2
316,318.4
350,555.5
374,112.2
280,454.5
283,004.4
1,247,139.2
408,424.6
601,954.2
408,134.9
434,964.4
421,223.6
399,077.8
294,882.9
315,975.9
306,747.8
211,595.9
434,352.3
342,737.1


Public
15.0
4.4
22.5
11.5
9.6
4.1
57.6
1.2
16.8
18.9
23.8
3.0
18.4
52.4
1.6
1.1
9.5
4.9
3.3
8.6
4.3
2.1
8.9
2.3


Private
85.0
95.6
77.5
88.5
90.4
95.9
42.4
98.8
83.2
81.1
76.2
97.0
81.6
47.6
98.4
98.9
90.5
95.1
96.7
91.4
95.7
97.9
91.1
97.7







Ownership Division of Rural Lands
Acres
County Acres Proportion in Percent
Total Urban Rural Public Private Public Private
Hamilton .......... 328,960.0 1,940.0 327,020.0 7,058.5 319,961.5 2.2 97.8
Hardee ............ 403,200.0 3,440.0 399,760.0 7,694.0 392,066.0 1.9 98.1
Hendry ......... 759,680.0 3,420.0 756,260.0 109,159.6 647,100.4 14.4 85.6
Hernando ......... 312,320.0 640.0 311,680.0 56,902.9 254,777.1 18.3 81.7
Highlands .......... 666,240.0 7,985.0 658,255.0 72,361.4 585,893.6 11.0 89.0
Hillsborough .... 665,600.0 17,105.0 648,495.0 46,276.6 602,218.4 7.1 92.9
Holmes ........... 309,120.0 720.0 308,400.0 10,696.2 297,703.8 3.5 96.5
Indian River .. 327,040.0 5,216.0 321,824.0 19,788.2 302,035.8 6.1 93.9
Jackson ....... 602,880.0 8,210.0 594,670.0 29,450.8 565,219.2 5.0 95.0
Jefferson ..... 382,720.0 1,440.0 381,280.0 24,611.3 356,668.7 6.5 93.5
Lafayette ........ 347,520.0 560.0 346,960.0 3,626.7 343,333.3 1.0 99.0
Lake ............... 637,440.0 24,290.0 613,150.0 100,773.5 512,376.5 16.4 83.6
Lee .................... 503,040.0 5,152.0 497,888.0 24,058.9 473,829.1 4.8 95.2
Leon ............... 438,400.0 2,130.0 436,270.0 123,317.1 312,952.9 28.3 71.7
Levy ............... 705,920.0 3,370.0 702,550.0 15,847.8 686,702.2 2.3 97.7
Liberty .......... 536,320.0 ........ .... 536,320.0 272,976.4 263,343.6 50.9 49.1
Madison ........ 449,280.0 2,920.0 446,360.0 8,635.2 437,724.8 1.9 98.1 _3
Manatee 448,640.0 7,500.0 441,140.0 20,111.5 421,028.5 4.6 95.4
Marion ............ 1,034,880.0 5,240.0 1,029,640.0 287,179.9 742,460.1 27.9 72.1
Martin ............ 357,760.0 1,740.0 356.020.0 33,427.3 322,592.7 9.4 90.6
Monroe ............. 636,160.0 2,464.0 633,696.0 398,908.0 234,788.0 62.9 37.1
Nassau ............ 416,000.0 2,810.0 413,190.0 27,600.0 385,590.0 6.7 93.3
Okaloosa .... 600,320.0 13,363.0 586,957.0 329,883.6 257,073.4 56.2 43.8
Okeechobee .... 499,200.0 2,480.0 496,720.0 8,313.3 488,406.7 1.7 98.3
Orange ......... 586,240.0 20,272.0 565,968.0 14,323.3 551,644.7 2.5 97.5













TABLE 2.--SUMMARY, LAND AREA IN URBAN AND RURAL USE AND RURAL LAND IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE OWNERSHIP BY
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, 1946 (Continued).


County

Osceola ........
Palm Beach ....
Pasco ...........-
Pinellas ............
P olk ....................
Putnam .............
St. Johns ............
St. Lucie ............
Santa Rosa ........
Sarasota ..........
Seminole ...........
Sumter ..............
Suwannee ...........
Taylor ..............
Union ...............
Volusia ..............
Wakulla ...........
Walton .............
Washington ......


Total
848,000.0
1,265,920.0
480,640.0
168,960.0
1,191,040.0
513,920.0
389,760.0
376,320.0
655,360.0
375,040.0
205,440.0
359,040.0
433,280.0
660,480.0
153,600.0
713,600.0
392,960.0
669,440.0
382,080.0


Acres
Urban
3,560.0
39,787.0
7,390.0
38,260.0
41,890.0
10,834.0
3,420.0
6,600.0
720.0
8,920.0
9,280.0
5,040.0
1,580.0
640.0
960.0
27.390.0

1,200.0
5,120.0


Rural
844,440.0
1,226,133.0
473,250.0
130,700.0
1,149,150.0
503,086.0
386,340.0
369,720.0
654,640.0
366,120.0
196,160.0
354,000.0
431,700.0
659,840.0
152,640.0
686,210.0
392,960.0
668,240.0
376,960.0


Ownership Division of Rural Lands


Acres
Public
10,695.5
262,097.2
18,088.8
7,888.4
95,374.6
36,833.7
15,438.8
7,247.8
205,560.1
25,028.0
16,440.2
39,356.2
8,929.4
9,496.2
12,842.2
36,365.0
228,312.2
168,609.1
10,717.3


Private
833,744.5
964,035.8
455,161.2
122,811.6
1,053,775.4
466,252.3
370,901.2
362,472.2
449,079.9
341,092.0
179,719.8
314.643.8
422,770.6
650,343.8
139,797.8
649,845.0
164,647.8
499,630.9
366,242.7


Proportion in Percent


Public
1.3
21.4
3.8
6.0
8.3
7.3
4.0
2.0
31.4
6.8
8.4
11.1
2.1
1.4
8.4
5.3
58.1
25.2
2.8


Private
98.7
78.6
96.2
94.0
91.7
92.7
96.0
98.0
68.6
93.2
91.6
88.9
97.9
98.6
91.6
94.7
41.9
74.8
97.2






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


Sources of Data
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, compiled data relating to Federal owner-
ship. State departments and agencies at Tallahassee supplied
data relating to state-owned land. In addition, much personal
correspondence was conducted with various individuals to verify
results of tax roll searches, and finally statistical summaries
were compiled.
Public utility corporations2 operating in Florida were re-
quested by letter to list their rural land holdings. Nearly all
companies responded promptly and very few interviews were
required.
Total area in rural land was calculated for each county by de-
ducting from the approximate land area,' areas in incorporated
towns and cities. Areas in towns and cities were determined by
planimeter readings from the Florida State Road Department of-
ficial road maps.4 Results were checked with the Florida State
Board of Conservation, Division of Water Surveys and Research,
and when differences were found, more recent data were sub-
stituted.
Utmost care was exercised to avoid error and when differences
of record were found the latest data of the administering agency
were used. Moreover, because of limitations as to time and per-
sonnel, all sources of data are not of the same date. Compara-
bility of data, however, has not been seriously affected and re-
sults furnish reliable statistics for public information and use.

Federal Land

Sovereignty over the present land area of 1,905 million acres
of the United States was acquired by the federal government
through a series of international agreements and treaties.5 How-
ever, the United States did not actually gain title to all of this

-Excludes municipal plants but includes Rural Electrification Adminis-
tration borrowers.
'As given by the United States Census of Agriculture, 1945.
4General Highway and Transportation Maps, prepared by the Florida
State Road Department, Division of Research and Records, in cooperation
with the Federal Works Agency, Public Roads Administration, 1936, re-
vised January, 1945.
zSee Federal Rural Lands, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., June, 1947.






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


Sources of Data
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, compiled data relating to Federal owner-
ship. State departments and agencies at Tallahassee supplied
data relating to state-owned land. In addition, much personal
correspondence was conducted with various individuals to verify
results of tax roll searches, and finally statistical summaries
were compiled.
Public utility corporations2 operating in Florida were re-
quested by letter to list their rural land holdings. Nearly all
companies responded promptly and very few interviews were
required.
Total area in rural land was calculated for each county by de-
ducting from the approximate land area,' areas in incorporated
towns and cities. Areas in towns and cities were determined by
planimeter readings from the Florida State Road Department of-
ficial road maps.4 Results were checked with the Florida State
Board of Conservation, Division of Water Surveys and Research,
and when differences were found, more recent data were sub-
stituted.
Utmost care was exercised to avoid error and when differences
of record were found the latest data of the administering agency
were used. Moreover, because of limitations as to time and per-
sonnel, all sources of data are not of the same date. Compara-
bility of data, however, has not been seriously affected and re-
sults furnish reliable statistics for public information and use.

Federal Land

Sovereignty over the present land area of 1,905 million acres
of the United States was acquired by the federal government
through a series of international agreements and treaties.5 How-
ever, the United States did not actually gain title to all of this

-Excludes municipal plants but includes Rural Electrification Adminis-
tration borrowers.
'As given by the United States Census of Agriculture, 1945.
4General Highway and Transportation Maps, prepared by the Florida
State Road Department, Division of Research and Records, in cooperation
with the Federal Works Agency, Public Roads Administration, 1936, re-
vised January, 1945.
zSee Federal Rural Lands, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., June, 1947.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


land." Title to about 505 million acres remained vested in the
individual states and their political subdivisions or in private
owners, and title was not relinquished.
Federal land in Florida was originally acquired by the pur-
chase of Louisiana from France in 1803, and by a treaty with
Spain in 1819 whereby Spain ceded East and West Florida to the
United States. In 1821 the treaty was ratified and in 1845
Florida became a state.
Of Florida's 58,666 square miles of area, nearly 4,000s square
miles are water surface. Approximately 30,000 lakes dot the
state between Gainesville (Alachua county) and Lake Okeecho-
bee. The Everglades, immediately south of Lake Okeechobee,
contain about 4,470 square miles or 2.9 million acres. Here drain-
age is so poor that water stands on a large portion of the surface
during part of the year.
The original policy of the federal government was to pass the
public land into private ownership as rapidly as possible.9 In
more recent years, a policy of encouraging conservation has de-
veloped and reservations were made setting aside areas needed
for forests, parks, fish and wildlife conservation, and other
uses. In the development of this latter policy, land has been re-
served from the public domain or acquired by purchase or gift."'
Considerable areas also have been set aside from the public do-
main or purchased for national defense establishments.
In 1934, as part of the conservation movement, the Congress
of the United States authorized the classification and manage-
ment of all unreserved public domain land in the United States.
Practically all of this land has been withdrawn from location,
settlement and entry, pending its classification according to the
uses to which it is most suited." It can no longer be disposed of,

6For purposes of this report, lands reported under "Bureau of Indian
Affairs" for Broward, Glades and Hendry counties, which are not public
lands but are held in trust by the United States, are treated as federal
land.
'Numerous Spanish Grants in Florida were "Confirmed Claims."
'Unpublished data, Florida State Board of Conservation, Division of
Water Surveys and Research.
"See "State Land," this report, for discussions of land acquired from the
federal government.
O"An example is the establishment of the Everglades National Park,
whereby the State of Florida gave $2,000,000 and about 400,000 acres of
land to the federal government for the establishment of the park.
"By executive order dated December 8, 1924, the United States Govern-
ment reserved from settlement all islands belonging to the government
situated in the waters off or in the coastal waters of Florida. The reason
for the order was to prevent the islands from being acquired by private






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


unless classified by the Department of the Interior as suitable
for disposition.
All federal land is held for public purposes, but the exclusive
use of some areas is granted for stated periods to individuals or
groups under leases and permits.12
Forest management and range management differ in such
elements as allocations of leases and permits to private users,
rates and fees charged, revenue shared with local governments,
and tenure given to users.
Conserving wildlife and meeting the recreational needs of the
public are noteworthy aspects of our national life (Fig. 2). Mul-
tiple-use values are found, especially in the forested parts of the
Federal land, where land serves not only for production of timber
but also for the propagation of wildlife, the conservation or con-
trol of water and recreation.
Many of these multiple uses are made possible through public
ownership and management. Private ownership would tend to
narrow and restrict many of them. A large percentage of the
federal land in Florida, as well as in the United States proper, is

individuals for land speculative purposes. According to the order, they
were withdrawn from settlement, location, sale, entry and all forms of ap-
propriation under the then existing land laws, and were to be classified and
subject to new legislation for future disposition. (Twenty-Sixth Biennial Re-
port, the Florida Department of Agriculture, 1941, p. 47.)
"As an example of use, an individual may be given a lease to graze
livestock on public land.

Fig. 2.-On protected areas of public land Florida's bird life flourishes.














r ;0 -- .
S.* : a "
i~ililj^^^Bilttt~iil~d,, '.., ^ '"*iif i^.jt J





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of relatively low value per acre. It is unsuited to profitable opera-
tion under private ownership .

Land Use Administering Agencies
Certain federal acreages are under joint administration. Usual-
ly one agency has primary administrative responsibility or cus-
todianship. The second agency may administer specific uses of
the land.
Surface rights on 99 percent of the public domain, for the
United States as a whole, are under the primary administrative
responsibility of six agencies: Bureau of Land Management,1'
Forest Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the
Army, National Park Service and Bureau of Reclamation. In
Florida these agencies, excluding the Bureau of Reclamation
(which administers no land in Florida), control nearly 76 percent
of the total federal land (Table 3).
In this report only those agencies which administer the major
land holdings in Florida are considered in detail. Problems in the
management of public land have been omitted intentionally, as
this report deals primarily with an inventory of public land in
Florida.
Department of Agriculture
The Department of Agriculture is the biggest federal land
holder in Florida. Land held by this Department is administered
by four agencies, Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service,
Farmers Home Administration and Agricultural Research Ad-
ministration.
U. S. Forest Service.-The national forests are administered
by the Forest Service in the interests of the national economy.
Public acquisition is aimed toward land unsuited for private own-
ership or upon which private owners have been unable to develop
sustained-yield forestry. Inherent public values for watershed
protection, flood control, water supplies, recreation and protec-
tion of dependent communities also are considered. As it is now
evolved, public policy attempts to encourage and promote the
production of timber on privately owned land.
When the system of national forests was established Florida
was the only Southern state east of the Mississippi River which

"Effective July 16, 1946, the functions of the Grazing Service and the
General Land Office, of the Department of the Interior, were consolidated
into the Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior. (Federal
Rural Lands, p. 18.)





Rural Land Ownership in Florida


included in its boundaries any large tracts of public domain. As
a result it became the first state in the Southeast to have a na-
tional forest. In 1947 three national forests, totaling over a mil-
lion acres, were in operation (Table 4). The Choctawhatchee
National Forest"1 and the Ocala National Forest were proclaimed
by President Theodore Roosevelt in November, 1908, from the
public domain land.
After the passage in 1924 of the Clarke-McNary Act, which
amended the Weeks' law of 1911, the Forest Service bought
waste land and began restoration systematically to reclaim it. As
reported by the Forest Service,- "A demonstration forest large
enough to insure economical administration was needed in the
South Atlantic and Gulf Coast region." In 1931, therefore, the
Osceola National Forest in northeastern Florida was proclaimed
by President Hoover, from a purchase unit acquired in 1929. An-
other area, the Apalachicola National Forest, established near
the Gulf Coast for the same purpose, was proclaimed by Presi-
dent Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936.
Whenever a national forest is created a protection and im-
provement system is planned and inaugurated. An attempt is
made on each national forest to keep timber costs down to a
commercial basis to encourage private owners to employ conser-
'The Choctawhatchee National Forest has ceased to exist as a unit of
the Federal Forest Service and is no longer under its administration.
"Florida National Forests, U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Washington, 1939.
p. 5.

Fig. 3.-Florida's forests offer cover and food for the conservation of
wildlife. (Florida Park Service photograph.)







TABLE 3.-ACREAGE OF FEDERAL RURAL LAND, BY ADMINISTRATING AGENCIES, BY COUNTIES, FLORIDA, 1945.

Depart- 'g
mert of
Department of Agriculture Department of the Interior Natiounal Millitar Establishment the
Treasury '
Cou nty Delepartment uf the .9

S .2 g C. 0| .ilitat C Armly and Air Force
SEntc LZ__ ZI1 llg| I 2 G3U~ Tlotal Lan d taCt il 0d c
Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Ac.es Acres Acres Acres Acrecrecres Acres IAres Acres
A lachl a .. ... ........ .. ...... ....... ...... .80 8 8 808 ....... 500 ....... 1 847
Baker .. ...... ... 9,05 ....... 3(60 ...... ......643 ........ ... 8 ,318
B ay ........ .......... ............. ........ ........ ..... ....... ........ ... .... ..... 1 00 3 04 32,188 2,116 ........ 6' ,312
B radford ...... ........... .. ........ ........ ..... ........ 120 1 5 1,:15 ...... ........ ...... ....... 1,435
Brevard ............. ....... ...... .. .. 12 -. 707 16.. ....... 16 4,214 651 6 0. ,6
B row ard ................... .. ..... ........ 81 ...... ........ ....... 47 ........ 804 804 18,558 17 .... 19,93
C alhoun .................. ... ........ ...... ........ ....... .... ........ ..... 46 ... .... ..... ......... 40 68fi
Charlotte ................. ........ ..... .. ..... 11,100 24 40 40 ....... 11,386
C itrus ........................... ........ 41,051 ....... ..... 2,987 1,709 .. .. 45,747
Clay ................. ........................ 718 42, 42,622 .. 6,702 50,042
Collier ................. .... ........ .. ...... ...... ....... .......... 10 1 770 1,613 157 1. 58 3" ,838
Colum bia ............... ...... 77,803 .. ...... .... ........ ........ ........ 124 ....... ........ ........ 1,172 ...5 79,4
Dade ............. ..... ...... ... 150 9. 116,7944 111,922 3,503 3,407 0 7,362 21 168 24 ,01
D eSoto .......................... 1 8 1,282 1,282 ... 1,41
D uval ............ ...... ... ... ..... .. ..... 4 193 693 2.500 19,593 2 22,802
2ti94t9 2 7 ,,20 I 6
E scam bia .... ................ .......... .... 7,081 1 7I i ,
Flagler 2'i7 83 2,747 1,917 159 I .,84 "
Franklin ............... 21.816 ..8 5 2.8 5 18 24,729
Gadsden ......... 87. 3,57 31 1 ,26 .. ..... .. .661
G ilchrist ......... ........ .. .... .. ... .. ..... .. ....... ........ .. .
G lades ............................... ............... ....... ........ ...--.... 90 486 ,7
G ulf .. ............................. ........ ---- ... .... ........ ...... .............. 2346 5,83 3,620 51,729 .. ... 5,725. .-
H am ilton ................... ....... ) ....... ....... ........ 77....... ........ .
H ardernando ................ .... ....... .. 2,03 ....... 4,93 ..... 4 2.51 2 14 ...... ........ ........ ........
Hernando 7,430 2,W81 4933 40 2.514 2,514 46,951
Highlands. ....... .. ..... 454 54,304 541.: 04 ... 54,758
H illsborough ............. ..... .. .. ,132 22, 1 29 22,41
HIolm es ........ .... ........ 468 .. .. ........ .... 4
Indian R iver ........... ....... .... ........ ........ 15 40 ..... ........ 3,194 .. 3,249
Jackson ...... ....... ........ ...... ...... 172 7,827 7,827 ...... 7,99
aJefferson .................... 70.2 8. ........ ........ 8 180 ........ 3 .... 2........ 37
L a fa y e tte 7 :.2.i 8 :.. ....... ....... ... .... .... 2:6 'i '' :8
te.e .................. ... -. -- ..2,475 .24 2,60 1 535 485 .. 138 5.916
Leon .10.949 469 12 8208 8,208 820 110,458
Lesvy 39 1.525 1.751 1751 n19 6..4
Liberty ...... .......... 264. '53 I2 264.790




TABLE 3.-ACREAGE OF FEDERAL RURAL LAND, BY ADMINISTRATING AGENCIES, BY COUNTIES, FLORIDA, 1945 (Concluded).


County





Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin .
Monroe ..
Nassau ..
Okaloosa .
Okeechobee
Orange ...
Osceola ...
Paint E'aelh
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk .
Putnam
St. Johns
Pt. Lucie
Santa Rosar
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter ...-
Suwannee ..
Taylor .. ...
Union .....
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
1 ashinti-n
Total


Department of Agriculture



7cm 9 o- 7 .. -



Acres Acres Airets A
.. ... 2. 18

278.646


........ ------
....... 601 2 12.7
-.....--- ...













... 31,90









221.8 2 290 17


1As of jlune :;., 1918.
Re lpolrtedl Iby l assessor of Bay Countty, AuIIlst 5, 1948.
tAs of Sellptllier -., 1948. U. S. DepartItment of m('moill ire.
4Owneld iro.i ill lh Everglades Nationlil P irk is >2711. 8 na res. The 11li,7 1 Irt's shown f D[ide "'niilty Ilil 15. ,21- le'sC of the 11..:101 ;llr s
shown for MiInroie ('Couty are estimates only. Tet'efr to Taible 5.
5Does not include 3:;5,3S7 acres under lense in I;lll a nd Monroe rounlies
6As of March 5. 1948. The county tax assessor on August 9, 1918, r (por-t id ..111 .lilirii'ii.;If( .ar';, rf ;h:2, lI!7 :11 'r1s. The differ'nye in ar"a is the ap-
proximate airenuce of the "Old Hendricks' Field" Military Reservation
'As of March i. 1948.
8As of August in. 1948. See Table 6.
OAs of June 30, 1910, except for the 6 acres reported in Bay County. The June :;1, 19110, acreage rlepirted 1y Federal sources was 661 for Bay
County.


Depart-
'10-111 ii
Ileparts eIt of the Interior National Military .salt ilh ten c tlte







cres ~ AK Arf.s Acrs Art s Acs A 120 .




... .. ~ I I i 17





1211
t1l 2 n
.. !' 10 ii, .87 I 77 118

.. .. ,l7l. I/ I
2811 '.8171 5.2 $1.1
211 21172 12/ 1 '.11 I





1211




.17218 I I 1.181

I. li 1.5G,2 1 15. .2.t it

71. 7 I I781.8L 1707,, ... 8 ..


L

ru


i, A Iti
2, 1G8
70



217::7 17
1 17


1; 1 li
2,06;8
,171




,88
7.181)





$1 1.7 1
221, 117
'.721







17.8T,814
9'2:


2'


I




















Unit



Apalachicola


Grc
Ar
(Aci


638,



441


Ocala


Osceola ...............- 161


Total.. .. ............... 1,241

Source: Compiled from table


TABLE 4.-RURAL LAND IN NATIONAL FOREST AREAS, FLORIDA, 1947.

a nt Ud Area Under Forest Service A
Area not Under
ea Forest Service Acquired
ea IAdministration _
S (Acres I County Acres Total

217 80,993 Franklin 21,816
Leon 102,259
Liberty 264,053
Wakulla 163,924 552,052

,925 87,964 Lake 70,268
Marion 258,646
Putnam 22,325 351,239

,814 4,605 Baker 79,305
Columbia 77,855 157.160

,956 173,562 1,0 1 060,451 1,060,451

les in Natrional Forest Area's, Forest Service, United States Depal
30, 1947, and miscellaneous data.


administrationn
Approved for
Acquisition but Total
Unacquired




5,172 557,224



2,722 353,961

49 157,209
7,943 1,068,394

rtment of Agriculture, June





Runral Land Ownership in Florida 21

ovation measures. Opportunities for recreation and development
of wildlife also are stressed. In the Ocala National Forest, for
example, vacation facilities are excellent. All national forests
are refuges for wildlife, both fish and game1 (Fig. 3).
Among Florida's original trees were longleaf pine, slash pine
and cypress, some hardwoods, loblolly pine and a few other minor
species. Vast stands of slash and longleaf pines gave rise to the
turpentine industry which flourished over millions of acres.
Even today, approximately one-fifth of the nation's turpentine
and rosin output comes from Florida. At present, since graz-
ing of cattle in forest areas is widespread, a conflict is created
over the question of whether cattle should be raised or trees
should be grown on some two or three million acres which by
one classification are forest land and, by another, wild pasture.17
Florida's forests support a stand of over 17 billion board feet
of commercial saw-timber plus millions of cubic feet of growing
trees which are under saw-timber size." More than a million
cords of wood are consumed annually by a young and growing
pulp industry. Gum farming and turpentining, aided by govern-
ment incentive-payments for not working trees below nine inches
in diameter, have made recent rapid advances in wood techniques
and management.
Today, as Florida's timber resources are decreasing in stand,
the need for conservation of forests is recognized.-' In this, the
Forest Service assumes an active role. From the standpoints of
area, value and use, national forests are now among the most
important of all federal lands in Florida. Public ownership of
classified forest land exists at three levels-federal, state, and
local. The acreage of public forests owned at local levels is com-

"As reported by the U. S. Forest Service, the wildlife species to be de-
veloped in the Florida forests are white-tailed deer, black bear, squirrel,
other fur animals, and turkey, and such fish as large-mouthed black bass
and other warm-water species indigenous to the lakes. Control of preda-
tory animals and predatory fish species is planned.
"About 66 percent of Florida's gross land area, or nearly 23 million
acres, is forest land, which includes farm woodland.
"See Florida's Forest Are Different, By Ed. R. Linn. American Forests,
Feb., 1948.
"As of June 30, 1948, 6,952,822 acres of private and state-owned forest
land were receiving organized fire protection. More than 100,000 acres are
in privately owned planted demonstration forests. Most of the required
seedlings have come from the state forest nursery at Olustee. Also, the
University of Florida at Gainesville has the Austin Cary Memorial Forest
of several thousand acres for research (Table 12).





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


paratively limited.20 The federal government administers about
98 percent of Florida's public forest land.
Soil Conservation Service.-Land submarginal for agricultural
use was acquired from 1935 through 1945 under the National In-
dustrial Recovery Act, the Emergency Relief Act of 1935, and
Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937. The
acreage obtained under these acts totaled about 11.3 million
acres, distributed among 45 states." In 1945 over 300 thousand
acres were under the administration of the Soil Conservation
Service in seven Florida counties (Table 3). The largest holding
of SCS land, an area of 122 thousand acres, is located in Santa
Rosa county and is leased to the state. It lies within the Black-
water River State Forest.
The 117,476 acres in Citrus, Hernando, Sumter and Pasco
counties are operated by the Soil Conservation Service as the
Withlacoochee Land Utilization Project. Activities on this project
are grazing, timber harvest and naval stores operations. Grazing
land is leased to private cattle owners and timber and naval
stores operations also are conducted by private interests under
leases or permits from the Soil Conservation Service. It is the
purpose of SCS in this area to demonstrate three broad phases
of correct land use-(1) reforestation and forest management,
(2) range and grazing improvement and (3) rebuilding and im-
proving food and habitat for wildlife and fish. The area also has
considerable value for recreation, these facilities being made
available to residents by the SCS.
The use of leased SCS land is demonstrated in the manage-
ment of the Welaka Wildlife Forest. Of the 2,233 acres in Put-
nam county about 2,075 acres are leased by the University of
Florida for use by the department of biology and the School of
Forestry.2 The biology department has exclusive use of 374
acres of this land and the School of Forestry is using its acreage
for a forest inventory and growth study. Utilization is proceed-
ing according to a sustained yield plan. A fire tower has been
erected for protective purposes. Wildlife interests are paramount
throughout the whole area.

"Under State law, Fla. Stat. (1941) sec. 591.18, counties, cities, towns
or school districts may establish community forests within the county em-
bracing the county, city, town, or school district, subject to specific con-
servation requirements.
2'Federal Rural Lands, p. 42.
"-Unpublished data obtained from the School of Forestry, University of
Florida.





i vral L'and OicuoCrswip in Florida


Farmers Home Administration.-The Farmers Home Admin-
istration is intended to help farm tenants, sharecroppers and
farm laborers achieve farm ownership; to help owners to en-
large farms that are too small for efficient operation, and to as-
sist war veterans who have agricultural experience to become
farmers. The latter now have preference under the law for all
the Farmers Home Administration loans.
Under the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937, amended
in 1946 to enlarge the program, the federal government assists
borrowers in locating, certifying and submitting necessary forms
to purchase farms, but the government does not actually buy the
land. Loans advanced under the act are serviced by the Farmers
Home Administration until they are repaid.
Titles to land reported owned by the Farmers Home Admini-
stration in 1945 were actually vested in the government. The
683 acres lying within Broward, Dade and Palm Beach counties
were bought for labor camps (Table 3). The underlying titles
remain with the federal government. The 3,166 acres located in
Jefferson, Leon and Madison counties were purchased by the
government under the "Florida Scattered Farms" program. Orig-
inal purchases amounted to 8,210 acres, which were divided into
farm units for sale. In 1948, one farm of 82 acres in Leon county
and seven farms in Madison county totaling 305.2 acres re-
mained. Of the Okaloosa holdings only 74.7 acres were in federal
ownership in September 1948, and these were in process of sale
under deed and mortgage.
Agricultural Research Administration.-The Agiicultural Re-
search Administration owned a total of 2,205 acres in Florida in
1947,': 64 acres more than it owned in 1945 (Table 3). Most of
this land, 2,033 acres located in Hernando County, was adminis-
tered by the Bureau of Animal Industry. The Bureau of Plant
Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering controlled 161
acres. The remaining 11 acres were under the jurisdiction of the
Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry. Rural land
owned by the Agricultural Research Administration is used for
experimental purposes. Any agricultural production which re-
suits from crop or pasture experiments is incidental to the re-
search projects under way.

"Data furnished by the Agricultural Research Administration.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Department of the Interior
About 21 percent of the federal land in Florida is controlled by
the Department of the Interior. This land is administered by the
National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau
of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Land Management.
National Park Service.-Rural land administered by the Na-
tional Park Service in Florida contributes directly little, if any,
to the agricultural production of the state.24 Park land is spe-
cifically set aside to "promote and regulate" the public use of
the areas. A further objective of the National Park Service is to
"conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and
the wildlife therein, and to provide for the enjoyment of the
same in such manner and by such means as will leave them un-
impaired for the enjoyment of future generations."2'
In Florida in 1948, 271,341 acres of federal land were admin-
istered by the National Park Service (Table 5). Of this amount,
271,008 acres were in the newly created Everglades National
Park and the remaining 331 acres were in three National Monu-
ments: Castillo de San Marcos, Fort Jefferson and Fort Matan-
zas.26
The State of Florida transferred ownership to the federal gov-
ernment of all state land within the "Everglades Park Area."
The gross area totaled more than 1,200,000 acres of both public
and private land, in Dade and Monroe counties. However, the
present Everglades National Park, established in 1947, encom-
passes only a part of the "park area" and contains only 454,400
acres, of which about 183 thousand acres, or 40 percent, are in
non-federal ownership.2 In addition to the grant of all state
lands situated within the designated boundary of the park, the
state also provided $2,000,000 to be used by the federal govern-
ment to buy private land encompassed within the park boun-
daries.2"
Acquisition of private land within the gross park area may
take considerable time. Although the bulk of the private land

24Victor H. Cahalane, writing for Nature Magazine, December, 1947,
says of the Everglades National Park, "This area had no agricultural
value," p. 516.
"Quoted from an act of Congress, August 25, 1916, Public Law No. 235,
establishing the National Park Service.
"Data obtained from the files of the National Park Service, U. S. De-
partment of the Interior, Washington, D. C.
'The National Park System, U. S. Department of the Interior, Wash-
ington, D. C., June 30, 1947, p. 47.
"Fla. Laws 1947, c.23616 (No. 2).






Rural Land Ownership in Florida 25

TABLE 5.-RURAL LAND ADMINISTERED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,
FLORIDA, 1948.

Acres
Name of Area County Federal Non-
SFerap Federal Gross
Ownership Ownership

Castillo de San Marcos
National Monument........... St. Johns 18.51 1.39 19.90
Fort Jefferson National
Monument........................... Monroe 86.82 86.82
Fort Matanzas National
M onument.............................. St. Johns 227.76' 227.76

Everglades National Park... Dde 271,007.802 183,392.20 454,400.00

Total ........................................... 271,340.89 183,393.59 454,734.48

'Includes 209.42 acres added by proclamation on March 24, 1948. The
National Park System, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C.,
June 30, 1947, and from data obtained from the files of the National Park
Service.
At various times other acreages have been reported from miscellaneous
sources. Differences arise from the interpretation of data available. A. B.
Manly, Acting Land Acquisition Project Manager, The Everglades Nation-
al Park, on August 12, 1948, advised the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations as follows: "1947 Minimum Area Boundary, approved by Sec-
retary Krug on April 2, 1947, for Park Establishment, 'Government owner-
ship and without leases 204.160 acres; Government ownership but
streams included under oil leases ... 46,080 acres; total 250,240 acres'."
By way of explanation Mr. Manly stated, "The limits of the park have been
changed from time to time, a considerable part of it was never surveyed,
hiatuses among existing surveys produce uncertainties, lands under tidal
waters have to be considered and, in general, our computations of areas
are necessarily subject to revision as additional data are developed. Under
these circumstances, there have been many misapprehensions as to what
the figures, published from time to time, correctly represent."

is owned by four large companies, much of their land is subject
to oil leases which complicate outright purchase. In addition,
many scattered small holdings which constitute a considerable
acreage are held by unknown owners. Private holdings located
within park boundaries often create major problems in admini-
stration and management of National Park Service lands. The
service has no control over the use of non-federal lands and
frequently hazards are created from the standpoint of wildlife
protection and fire control. In some instances these privately
owned lands may be used in such a way as to detract from the
scenic beauty of the park.
The Everglades National Park is situated in the only sub-
tropical area in the United States. Extensive water courses and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


abundant bird and other wildlife are found in the area. Much of
the land is in mangrove forests and saw-grass prairies, but it
has little, if any, potential agricultural value for forest and graz-
ing uses.
Fish and Wildlife Service.-The Fish and Wildlife Service of
the Department of the Interior held 223,744 acres of land in
Florida as of June 30, 1948, (Table 3). This land was distributed
among 17 refuges located in 15 counties. About 59 percent of the
acreage was in the Everglades refuge. Dade County, with 111,-
922 acres, accounted for about half the total land held by the
Fish and Wildlife Service in the state. In addition to the land
held outright, the service also had about 335,000 acres under
lease.
These lands are used for the conservation and propagation of
our native wild animal, bird and fish resources. They are man-
aged as part of a nationwide system of refuges. Land used for
these purposes is acquired by reservation of the public domain,
by purchase and by gift.

Fig. 4.-Timber grazing in the slash pine-palmetto type, at the St.
Marks Refuge, Jefferson County, Florida. (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
photograph.)






R.?o-al L~ ad Cia~ne (o, ii) i? Floi~jda


Some of the land in the St. Marks Refuge, located in Jeffer-
son, Taylor, and Wakulla counties, is suitable for grazing (Fig.
4). Timber is produced on limited areas of land in the refuges.
As provided by law, 25 percent of the net revenue received dur-
ing each fiscal year from the sale and other disposition of sur-
plus wildlife or of timber, hay, grazing or other products of the
soil from refuge lands is paid to the county or counties in which
the refuge is located. These funds are to be used for public
schools and roads.2 The minor importance of wildlife refuges
for agricultural production is emphasized by the small amount
of net revenue returned to the counties. In the fiscal year 1948
the 25 percent of net revenue returned to the counties amounted
to less than $200. However, this was an increase of 19 percent
from the previous year.3"
Bureau of Indian Affairs.-Although Indian land is under the
jurisdiction of the federal government, this land generally is not
owned by the public. The 78,928 acres of Indian land in Florida
belong to the Seminole tribe, and in 1947 it was in three reser-
vations near the boundaries of the Everglades National Park
(Tables 3 and 6).31 Most of this land is used for grazing and
forestry. All the acreage in the Seminole reservations is tribal
land. It is held in trust by the federal government for the bene-
fit and use of the Indians.
Under government trusteeship, neither the tribe nor an in-
dividual Indian can sell or otherwise dispose of Indian land with-
out the consent of the Secretary of the Interior, who exercises
the trust. The Bureau of Indian Affairs provides agricultural
guidance for the conservation and improvement of Indian land,
through planned land use, forestry management and develop-
ment of natural resources. The purpose of the bureau is "to aid
the Indians to become economically independent through the
use of their own resources and skills, and to re-settle Indians in
communities off the reservation where employment can be
had."32

"'Federal Rural Lands, p. 45.
"Unpublished figures obtained from Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S.
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C.
"Statistical Supplement to the Annual Report of the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., June
30, 1945. Acreage figures were revised to 1948 from unpublished data ob-
tained from the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington. D. C., and the
Superintendent of the Seminole Indian Agency at Fort Myers, Florida.
3From "Functions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs," a mimeographed
release of the Department of the Interior. Washington, D. C.









00



TABLE 6.-FEDERAL RURAL LANDS ADMINISTERED BY TIE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, BY TYPE OF USE, FLORIDA, 1948.


Seminole Indian Total -
Reservation County Area' Dry Open Forest and Barren Waste
Farming Grazing Woodland and Other
Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres

Big Cypress.............-................ Hendry 42,663 7 30,000 7,651 5,005
Brighton................................... Glades 35,790 29 24,806 9,020 1,935
Dania ................ ....... ....... Broward 475 ... 235 200 40
78,928 36 55,041 16.871 6,980

'As of August 10, 1948. Data supplied by Kenneth A. Marmon, superintendent, Seminole Indian Agency, Fort Myers,
Florida.
"Calculated from Statistical Supplement to the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, U. S. Depart-
ment of the Interior, Washington, D. C., June 30, 1945, and from unpublished data on file in the Bureau of Indian Affairs,
1947, and adjusted to 1948 acreages.
'In addition to the land held in trust by the federal government, the State of Florida set aside a state reservation of e
104,800 acres (Table 8). The reservation is located in west Broward County alongside the Big Cypress Reservation. A
state reservation was created under an act passed in 1917, and located in Monroe County. A 1935 amendment authorized
exchange of state for federal or private lands, and, thereafter, the reservation was established at its present location. Fla.
Stat. Ann. (1943) c.285; (Fla. Laws 1917, c.7210; 1933, c.16175; 1935, c.17065; 1945, c.22858 sec. 7). The title, in behalf of S"
the Indians, was placed in the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions to be held for the perpetual use and benefit of
the Seminole Indians, and as a reservation for them. The United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs,
exercises jurisdiction in regard to trespassing, grazing and hunting.






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


About 70 percent of the acreage in the Seminole reservations
is classified as open grazing land. Another 21 percent of the
land is in forest and woodland, and most of the remainder is bar-
ren and waste land (Table 6). In 1947 about 21.5 percent, or 16,-
980 acres, of the Seminole reservations were leased to non-
Indians.
In 1944 Indians on the federal Seminole reservations owned
3,330 head of beef cattle (Fig. 5) and also some hogs and chick-
ens. It was estimated that the livestock owned by Indians was
worth $240,105 and that in 1944 they sold $13,977 worth of
livestock and livestock products. Only about 30 acres of the In-
dian land were used for harvested crops. Crop sales amounted
to $951. In addition to the cash sales of farm products, the
Indians used in their homes in 1944 an estimated $3,985 worth
of products grown on the reservations.33
Bureau of Land Management.-The Bureau of Land Manage-
ment acts as "agent" for the federal government in most matters
connected with the public domain. In this capacity, the bureau
has charge of cadastral surveying, issuance of patents and cer-
tifications, sales and exchanges of land. It also handles all types
of withdrawals for public purposes and numerous types of sur-
face and mineral leases, permits and licenses.
Most of the land administered by the Bureau of Land Man-

"3Statistical Supplement to the Annual Report of the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, U. S. Department of the Interior, for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1945, pp.72-73.

Fig. 5.-Seminole Indians herd their cattle on the Brighton reserva-
tion. In 1944 the Seminoles owned over 3,000 head of cattle. (U. S. Indian
Service photograph.)


.-a.,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


agement in Florida is in small acreages distributed over 57 of
Florida's 67 counties. The holdings range from three acres in
Jefferson County to 1,709 acres in Citrus County.

National Military Establishment
Three departments constitute the National Military Establish-
ment, namely, Army, Air Force and Navy. The Army and Air
Force departments hold land in two principal categories, civil
land and military land. Civil land under Army administration is
largely used for flood control, navigation and similar purposes,
and is under direction of the Army engineers. Military land is
used for defense purposes. In Florida approximately 31 thousand
acres are in civil land, 737 thousand in military land, and 86
thousand in Navy Department land (Table 3).
In general, not much of the land in Florida held by the De-
partment of the Army (formerly the War Department) has po-
tential use for agriculture. However, where conditions permit,
this department may lease land to farmers for crops or pasture.
Ultimately, the acreage of land held for national defense will be
considerably reduced, but for the next few years the acreage will
',i...l1. I',' remain substantially larger than in prewar years.
Public land used for military purposes during World War II
is returned to the original administrative agencies as it becomes
war surplus. Department of the Army land inventoried here
does not include land reported by other agencies, even though it
may be used for military purposes. Land used by the Navy
which is secured by temporary lease and permit is likewise
omitted. The use of public land for national defense in time of
war saves a very great public expenditure in both money and
time and causes less disturbance to established private enter-
prises.
State Land
Land was granted to the State of Florida under various acts of
Congress. Much of this land was then conveyed by the state to
private parties under various acts of the Legislature of Florida.
Perfect titles to such land are of the greatest importance to pur-
chasers or present owners. Valid titles for state swamp and in-
ternal improvement land are from the trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund of Florida and from the Board of Education
of the State of Florida for state school land. Such titles must not






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


be confused with a tax title, which is a statutory title issued to
land sold to the state for taxes.34
Land records, which show the original title to over 22 million
acres, or more than two-thirds of all the land in Florida, are on
file in the Land Division of the Florida State Department of Ag-
riculture.35 Land approved and patented by the United States
to the State of Florida is known as swamp and overflowed land
and swamp indemnity land. Land granted to the State of Flor-
ida by special acts of Congress is known as internal improvement
land, school land, school indemnity land, seminary land and land
granted to the state specifically for railroads.
Swamp and Overflowed Land.-By action of Congress, Act of
September 28, 1850 (Chapter LXXXVI), the State of Arkansas
was enabled to construct necessary levees and drains to reclaim
swamp and overflowed land within its borders. Under Section
4 of this act, each of the other states of the Union in which
swamp and overflowed land was situated was conferred the
same benefits. This enabling legislation provided that title to
swamp and overflowed land which was unfit for cultivation, and
which remained unsold as of the date of passage of this act,
should be granted to the states in which such land was situated.
The act further specified that proceeds of this land, whether by
sale or by direct appropriation in kind, were to be applied ex-
clusively, as far as necessary, to the purpose of reclamation by
means of levees and drains, as provided for in the act.
As of July 1, 1946, over one million acres of swamp land re-
mained in the state (Table 7). About 93 percent of this land
lies in nine of the 10 counties within the latitude of Lake Okee-
chobee and southward. The remaining 7 percent is distributed
throughout the state. Approximately 54 percent of the acreage
vested in the state is classified as swamp land (Table 8).
Swamp Indemnity Land.-The federal government was em-
powered by Congress (Acts of Congress, March 2, 1855, and
March 3, 1857) to grant indemnity to a state or states equal to
the amount of purchase money paid for land which was "swamp
lands within the true intent and meaning of the act," upon due
proof, by the authorized agent of the state or states. If such
land had been located by warrant or script, the states concerned
were authorized to locate an area of like amount, upon any of
"~See Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report of the Department of Agriculture
of the State of Florida, Land and Field Note Divisions, July 1, 1941, Talla-
hassee, Florida, p. 6. 2
"Ibid., pp. 8-10.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the public land subject to entry, at one dollar and a quarter per
acre or less. Patents to such land were issued only when the
Secretary of the Interior of the United States approved the de-
cision of the federal General Land Office. Land which was
swamp or overflowed subsequent to the Act of 1857 did not come
under the benefits of this act.
According to the Florida Department of Agriculture, "-no
lands sold, or in any way conveyed by the United States govern-
ment, that are swamp, and overflowed, since the Act of 1857,
come under the benefits of this act. Such lands are a clear loss
to the state, as the federal government in no case reimburses the
state.""3
Internal Improvement Lands.-"Internal improvement lands
proper" are lands granted to the states for purposes of internal
improvement.3 By Act of Congress, September 4, 1841, 500
thousand acres of land were granted to each state for these pur-
poses. The act provided that these lands must be within the
limits of the respective states and "located in parcels conform-
ing to sectional divisions and subdivisions, of not less than 320
acres in any one location on any public land" not specifically re-
served from sale, and "in such manner as the legislatures there-
of shall direct."
The Legislature of Florida in 188338 directed that all internal
improvement lands should be set apart and the proceeds from
their sale be applied to the payment of certain bonded indebted-
nesses of the counties which had issued bonds for aid in build-
ing certain railroads in the state.
Some counties profited by this measure and liquidated their in-
debtedness. Other counties stopped the levy of their tax for pay-
ment of the bonds and continued with bonds outstanding. As a
result, distribution of funds to the counties from the sale of in-
ternal improvement lands was stopped. By an act of the Flori-
day Legislature in 191539 the trustees of the Internal Improve-
ment Fund were directed to use all funds, to the amount neces-
sary, to reimburse the City of Jacksonville and certain bonded
counties for the amount paid and satisfied on said bonds, or for
"Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report, Florida Department of Agriculture,
p. 11.
"'Internal Improvement Lands Proper" should be carefully distin-
guished from other lands in Florida which are also administered by the
trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund.
"Fla. Laws 1883, c.3474.
"Fla. Laws 1915, c.6972.







Rural Land Ownership in Florida


TABLE 7.-SPECIAL STATE LAND ACQUIRED FROM THE FEDERAL GOVERN-
MENT, FLORIDA, AS OF JULY 1, 1946.


County




Alachua ..............

Baker ..............
B ay ............ ....
Bradford ............
Brevard ..............
Broward ............

'Calhoun ..............
Charlotte ..........
Citrus .................
Clay ...................
C ollier ................
Columbia ............

D ade ................
DeSoto ................
D ixie ....................
D uval ................

Escambia ..........
Flagler .............
Franklin .....

Gadsden ............
Gilchrist ............-
Glades ........-...
G ulf ............. ..

Hamilton .........
Hardee ............
Hendry ......... ..
Hernando ........
Highlands .........
Hillsborough .....
Holmes ......
Indian River ......

Jackson ......
Jefferson ........

Lafayette .....
Lake ............
L ee ...............
Leon .............
Levy ...........
Liberty ..............
Madison ..............
Manatee ..........
Marion -...........
Martin .............


Kind of Land
Internal
Swamp Improve-
Land ment Land
Proper


Acres

.......... 322.7

.......... 95.4
........ 3,648.0
.......... 325.9
.......... 301.6
.......... 221,583.0
.......... 40.0
.......... 628.4
.......... 9,709.9
.......... 178.7
........ 3,556.5
.......... 1,408.5

..... 353,724.7
.......... 1,421.7
.......... 40.0
...... 1,433.4

....... 596.5
.. .. 40.2


Acres



320.1


State
School
Land

Acres


68.5
6.8
120.5
1,714.6
9,600.0


......... 957.5
... 1,024.9
......... 400.7
........ 22,335.9
......... 18.2

......... 22,264.4

59.9 1,351.7
......... 883.8


36.9


313.1
2,257.9
269.5


40.0
28,904.1
46.7
4,160.1


72.7


9,184.6

S 986.5
2,747.9
S 4,170.0
4,294.8

39.9

80.1
-- - -.- ---- -


40.1


292.4



640.0




10,306.1

2,920.0

410.6

651.2


321.4

297.8
767.8
1,036.1
264.7
1,276.9

237.6
5.0
679.9
5,335.2


--I


Total

Acres

322.7

163.9
3,974.9
446.4
2,016.2
231,183.0

40.0
1,585.9
10,734.8
579.4
25,892.4
1,426.7

375,989.1
1,421.7
1,451.6
2,317.2

596.5
369.5


313.1
2,897.9
269.5


40.0
39,210.2
46.7
7,080.1

493.1

723.9


9,546.1

297.8
1,754.3
3,784.0
4,434.7
5,571.7

277.5
926.8
760.0
5,335.2


...
...






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 7.-SPECIAL STATE LAND ACQUIRED FROM THE FEDERAL GOVERN-
MENT, FLORIDA AS OF JULY 1, 1946 (Concluded).

Kind of Land
Internal State
County Swamp Improve- School T
Land ment Land Land Total
Proper
Acres Acres Acres Acres
Monroe ...- .........-......... 191,355.7 ...-........ 11,505.3 202,861.0
Nassau ....................... 524.8 80.3 1,559.0 2,164.1
Okaloosa ...................... 80.0 ......... 160.0 240.0
Okeechobee .................. 232.0 ... ..... .. .. .- 232.0
Orange .......................... 572.5 40.1 602.2 1,214.8
Osceola ........................ 559.7 .......... 481.0 1,040.7
Palm Beach ............... 130,249.1 ........... 18,857.7 149,106.8
Pasco .......................... 80.3 40.0 445.3 565.6
Pinellas .................. 234.0 ........ .. ..... .. ..... 234.0
Polk .................... ...... 1,276.6 ..........- 236.3 1,512.9
Putnam ....................... 208.2 .........- 32.7 240.9
St. Johns .................... 4,614.9 .........- 179.8 4,794.7
St. Lucie ...................... 373.7 ............ 1,401.2 1,774.9
Santa Rosa ................. 149.5 ........ ............ 149.5
Sarasota .................... 985.8 -........-. 80.7 1,066.5
Seminole ................... 2.385.0 ..........- 40.4 2,425.4
Sumter .... ... ..... ......- 40.1 -.......... 440.2 480.3
Suwannee .................. ........... ..... 258.7 .............. 258.7
Taylor ..... ... ....-........ 79.2 ........... 1,602.6 1,681.8
Union .... ...- ........- 872.9 229.0 .............. 1,101.9
Volusia ..................... 13,422.7 438.5 1,995.8 15,857.0
W akulla ..................... ........... .. 40.0 ........ .... 40.0
Walton ...... ......... 233.0 40.4 795.5 1,068.9
W ashington .............. 280.3 .......... 314.6 594.9
State 1946 ......-... 1,006,354.8 1,706.5 126,920.5 1,134,981.8
State 1940 .......... 1,149,438.2 2,645.0 173,831.3* 1,325,914.5

*Does not include 1,457.53 acres of School Indemnity Land.
From the Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report of the Florida State Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
Source: Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report of the Department of Agricul-
ture, State of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida, 1946.

paying off and satisfying bonds which remained unpaid to the
limit of the availability of funds.
Of the 500,000 acres of internal improvement lands proper
originally granted to the state, only about 1,700 acres remained
as of July 1, 1946 (Table 7). This land was situated in 13 coun-
ties, but 54 percent of the total was in Suwannee, Union and
Volusia counties.









TABLE 8. STATE OWNED RURAL. LAND, BY OWNERSHIP \NI BY COUNTIES, F'LORII)A.


]or 'st lil41 'l ks


I I g I.
114'I .l.













I; i 4 ver
I dldl .
I .', ... ...
F '' .1 4,11 1 .







I llIin ll ..




,:ill-u lll :;Hih .
-II.II I .







1: I fi .1 444 1
II 11 .. ...







l,: ft't t e ....
1.4'4 ..


( ',I ]II I .

( ,im, i,,J


j ;:111l l







I Lt I


2:;I, 1 .1











2,i 7 I






117
1,121.











I
7l. 1





,.-71.7


81 ':, t
. '11ll l l
14. 4d1


\Stair


I 1: 4' 1
11,14 tI 4,,

SIht'4tl44.


t ( 'Ontllis' I'l n

llnstltl tIli






C H..Sl. i"
1AI77 Iv,}
144 ,Nn 6


Al.l>; 1.11 l
,.4 ,,I


A,4.7' I







l'.irti.
S12.1














S115
48


7


1.711 22
2 1 1, 7 I.
G2. 7


172 I;








II :'4


1,li40 I

1,21 I 1

H,22.: 4

I ,4.7,


-,8 14 .7

:'111.8
:11G.4


i ';rks

2111.4)

7538.0
f L.4
71''.S,'


lit, ; ,n
ITO:;0

I I ,-4.


1.711,.






1191T
41'', 1.4

1. 111 11



l I ::.
91 1:1 ,4


iII7 I4


774,4'


N| : I I

1 ,4-'H .4




N9I 44
:1, I I 4


'_'15P,.n


I 1 d
1:0, I- d







.












I 1 I
1l l (H


IFo ,t"s





1 1.0t






11.(1



1.0






"4I.44
.2 44









I )


1.44


I;. I':;. I
1,177.







I I I





111.1








1.1:10 i
li ,I(II
I_* I ; 4; ,44





7 '44 1t. '.


: I1 41 I


1'll[



i-, I, N 2
1, 70 2;
I1 .lll'd.


11,1111.



I '



1 .'', I
itt 9
8, ;(11, T








1,44,44 I
0', 7 'i

1.12H .







11,871"
I.I (414,



I7.41i1.4

7.14 .1


.1 ''4


,27. I 1)











TABLE 8.-STATE OWNED RURAL LAND, BY OWNERSHIP AND BY COUNTIES, FLORIDA (Concluded).


Board of
Forestry and Parlks
Forests Parks
A-te.s Aerrs
17.ii 8.

.1 1 ,00011.11
2.11 ..-


County



Liberty ........
Madison ....
Manatee ....
lM arion .........
M martin ........
Monroe
Nassau ..........
Okaloosa ....
Okeecholee .
Orange
)sceola
Pallll each ...
Pasco ...... ....
Pinellas .......
P olk .......... .
Putnam ...
St. Johns .
St. Lucie .......
Santa Rosa ...
Sarasota ...
Se inole ......
Sumter .....
Suwannee ....
Taylor .....
U nion ........ .
Volusia .....
Wakulla ....
Walton ..
DVashington ....
Total
Date of data


State
I.and

Acres

277.5
1261.8


7)i. 1l.i
2,164.1
241.10
2:'2. o
1,214 8
1,04'.7
1419, 1l6.8




4,794.7
1,771 .9
149..5
1,0dt)..
2,-'42:.4
4811 :
258.7
1,681.8
1, 101.9
15.8 17.11
411.)I
L.(1i18.!l
)594.9
1,1: 1,1'81 .8
7I -46


MLurphy Act
Land'!

.\ rules
4, 514.4
74. I
441)."'
1,7111.8
4,87:l6.
7,8:411 1
11,486.2

3,674,7
427.(*
1,(168.;',


1.28i .:
71.2*
1,196, '

7114.''
927.7
2,471.:;
876.00


277.6
1,1191.2



88:.::
1,218',
1.467.5
S :;ii 14<..
'41 tax rolls


Comlis'ners
of State
Institutions
A'rles



18.) Io
.. l- ..q .




21,2 1t;.


State Road
Department
(II ghways)
Acres

1,275.0






1,828 )

2,21)6.0
1,4 iji.'


















1ltig.l
21,5611m
I 4.i8


1.'5'.O
1,41 .1

1,24:;.1




8.2'1.0




12 :11-46


Game and
V'resh Wa ter
Visht
Commission
A. "en.
Acres



1,28 4.n


State Unclassified
Board of State Land
Education


State
Armory
Board
Aerrsa




-- -




























,1,24)11
...

















..


'See Ttable 7.
'Tax-reverted land administered by the trustees of the Internal Ilnprlov enent Fund. Tile F'lorida Keys were excluded from these tabulations.
1Locationa of State Hatcheries.
4As of Novenilier 1, 11917, the Comlmissioln -\i's negotiating fol the purchase of approximately 5Ilnl)o l acres.
Locations of :1 state convict camps. colprising alout :;nI0 ov ned acres. Not includedl in sumlmaries.
*Exceptions to the 1941 county tax roll record,: 1rn1\ard, 1947 county tax roll; Dade, 8-22-48; Duval., 1H--47: Hillshorou'h'tl, 12-;:1-47; Indlian River,
1947 county tax roll; Manatee, 2-26 -48; OIrnnge, 5-21i-48; PIalm He.i'ch, 8-18- 18: Pinells, 5 -25-48; Sarasota, 2-25-18.


2,289. l








11.0



84 .
2 11.0 11








56.11
-1,47.










1,72-)1.1
.5,903.5



-101--


Il,2 :;: .


11,121.11

1 l86.'0


7...... ..




41i, f1 1149 ,90.
9-21-48 11-4-47


141,171.5
5-17-47.


Acres


14,5.4









825.4


14:1.5














15.11

1:,189- 9
'n...


Total
State
Land
Acres
li,5::8.4
1,171.6
14,2'".7
7,573.8
22."71.8
212,256.1
18,217.6
7,181.6
4,886.7
:1.890 4
4,227.-1
222.950.9
:,706. 1
1.967.2
61895 8
5,229.19
8,4o5.1i
:1,8.1'.2
5,:;49.8
10.175.5

4,869.4
2,420.::
4,0U4.0
9,642.2
21,7:;6.9
1,756.:;
4,'57.9
4,971.4
1,855,- 0.0.2


7.Ai
---....f

5.3I

.....

22.4



1.4t
4 o11

14.44.

------ :

... ...








5i7.1
'46 tax roll!






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


State School Land.-Under an act of Congress of March 3,
1845,'0 the state received 5 percent of the proceeds from sales
made by the United States government of government land in
Florida. Under the same act the state was granted "seminary
lands," the proceeds arising from the sale of which were to be
applied to the benefit of the University of the State of Florida,
located at Gainesville, and the Florida State College for Women
at Tallahassee.41
Additional concessions were made to Florida by the act of
March 3, 1845. Eight entire sections of land were granted for
the purpose of fixing the seat of government. For the support
of schools, section 16 in every township was set aside for the
benefit of the inhabitants of the respective townships. Also
two entire townships were granted, in addition to two town-
ships previously reserved, for the two seminaries of learning,
as they were called at that time."2
There remained about 127 thousand acres in state school land
on July 1, 1946 (Table 7). Approximately 81 percent of this
land was in Area 4 (Fig. 1).
School Indemnity Land.-Rights of settlers were recognized
by acts of Congress, February 26, 1859,4' and February 28,
1891, which provided indemnity to the states in which settle-
ments, with a view of pre-emption, had been made before a sur-
vey of land in the field. When sections 16 and 36 were found
subject to the pre-emption claims of any settler, and when such
sections were pledged for the use of schools or colleges, other
land of like quantity was appropriated in lieu of land patented
by pre-emptors. Also when sections 16 and 36 were fractional
in quantity, or were mineral lands, or were included within any
Indian, military or other reservation, compensation for deficien-
cies was provided. Only 1,458 acres of school indemnity land re-
mained in state owernship in 1940.
Land Granted to the State Specifically for Railroads.-Every
alternate section of land designated by odd numbers, for six sec-

"5 Stat. 778 (1845).
4By an Act of the Florida State Legislature of 1947 (Chapter 23669)
the name was changed to the Florida State University at Tallahassee. This
Act also authorized coeducation, at both Tallahassee and Gainesville.
"A township is an area of 36 square miles (36 sections of 640 acres
each) and contains 23,040 acres.
I11 Stat. 385 (1859).
"26 Stat. 796 (1891).






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tions in width on each side of certain proposed railroads and
branches,4" was granted to the State of Florida by act of Congress
of May 17, 1856,"4 for the purpose of aiding in the construction
of railroads. Rights of pre-emption for settlement were recog-
nized, and substitution of land was permitted, subject to the ap-
proval of the Secretary of the Interior of the United States. Dis-
posal of land was permitted only as the work of railroad con-
struction progressed.
As of July 1, 1940, 1,225,955 acres had been deeded to rail-
roads which received no deeds to swamp and overflowed land,
except in alternate sections in 6 and 20-mile limits. Altogether
railroads were deeded over nine million acres in swamp and over-
flowed land. Canal and drainage companies also were deeded
nearly 2.8 million acres of swamp and overflowed land as of the
above date.
Sovereignty Lands.-All tidal lands and land under navigable
streams in Florida vested in the State of Florida under its sov-
ereign rights when admitted into the Union as a state in 1845
are "sovereignty lands."
All sovereignty lands are vested in the trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund of Florida, with power to sell. This embraces
large acreages of submerged lands, much of which are unsur-
veyed.
Murphy Act Land.-Two years from the date the Murphy Act
became a law, the fee simple title to all land in Florida against
which outstanding tax certificates remained, which on the date
the Murphy Act went into effect were more than two years old,
became absolutely vested in the state.4 By this procedure,
every right, title or interest of any nature or kind whatsoever
of the former owner was terminated. The state, acting through
the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, was authorized
to sell such lands to the highest and best bidder for cash, accord-

"For aiding in the construction of railroads from Jacksonville to Pensa-
cola, and from Amelia Island, on the Atlantic, to the waters of Tampa Bay,
with a branch to Cedar Keys on the Gulf of Mexico; and also a railroad
from Pensacola to the state line of Alabama, in the direction of Montgom-
ery.
11 Stat. 15 (1856).
""All sales of tax certificates authorized by Chapter 18296, Acts of
1937, advertised in weekly newspapers dated May 26, June 2, and June 9,
1939, and notices advertised in such newspapers on the above dates, shall
be construed as fulfilling the purpose and intent of the first paragraph of
Section 3 of said Chapter 18296, Acts of 1937." Fla. Stat. (1941) sec.
192.39.






Rural Land Ou'ership in Florida


ing to such rules and regulations as were adopted from time to
time by said trustees."
The right to bring suit for recovery, which previously was for-
bidden, was granted former owners under chapter 23827, Acts of
1947. Under the amended law, former owners, or others who
have liens thereon through or under former owners, are allowed
a period of one year from the date the deed for Murphy Act
land was recorded in the county in which the land was situated
to bring suit for recovery.4" Failure to assert such right within
the limits of the time specified forever bars and forecloses
claims against such land. Thereafter, no Florida court, federal
or state, may entertain any suit brought by a former owner for
the purpose of questioning, litigating or contesting the title to
the state or its grantee, except upon the grounds that the taxes
for which the deed was issued were not assessed, were not due
or had been paid.
More than 300 thousand acres of Murphy Act land were on the
1946 tax rolls (Table 8). During the past several years much or
all of the Murphy land in many central or northern Florida
counties has been returned to private ownership. As of the
dates of data, 63 percent of the Murphy land lay in Area 4. Much
of this land cannot be sold to private owners. Bids are subject
to satisfaction of drainage-tax liens before the state will grant a
clear title. In addition, some Murphy land has been dedicated to
public use and has been withdrawn from sale.
State Institutions.-Land belonging to state institutions, ex-
cluding land owned by the State Board of Education, is adminis-
tered by the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions.5,
The commissioners are empowered and authorized to exercise
the right of eminent domain for the acquisition of private prop-
erty, when it cannot be acquired by agreement satisfactory to
the board.5,

"By an Act of the Legislature of the State of Florida in 1945, known
as the Veterans' Homestead Act, Chapter 22860, honorably discharged vet-
erans o' World War II may make "Homestead Entry" on public state or
county land, of not more than 40 acres, by complying with the statute and
with the rules of the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund of the
State of Florida. These public lands include Swamp and Overflow Lands,
Internal Improvement Lands, and tax forfeited lands.
"Fla. Laws 1947, c.23827, sec. 3, granted former owners a period of one
year from the date Chapter 23827 became a law to bring suit for recovery
of lands for which deeds were executed in the preceding five years to sat-
isfy tax liens.
SoSee Fla. Const. Art. IV, Sect. 17.
"Fla. Stat. (1941) sec. 73.22.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Among the duties assigned by statute to the Board is that of
directing the management of affairs of the Florida Industrial
School for Boys, located near Marianna, the Florida Industrial
School for Girls, near Ocala, the Florida State Hospitals, the Flor-
ida Farm Colony, near Gainesville, and the state prisons.
About 75 percent of the rural land under the management of
the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions is in a state
reservation for the Seminole Indians (Tables 8 and 9). Titles to
this land are held in trust by the Board. Thus, this land is not
properly state owned. The remaining land is in correctional
schools, prisons and state hospitals.

TABLE 9.-RURAL LAND UNDER THE MANAGEMENT OF THE BOARD OF COM-
MISSIONERS OF STATE INSTITUTIONS, FLORIDA, 19471

Institution County Number of Acres
Seminole Indian Reservation2-.................. Broward 104,800.0
State Prison Properties:
Raiford...--.............................. Bradford 10,771.0
Raiford........................................... Union 7,540.0
Belle Glade................--- --................... Palm Beach 3,526.7s
Florida State Hospital-..........-- .................. Gadsden 2,572.2
Florida State Hospital.............................. Jackson 5,614.0'
Florida State Hospital (Proposed site). Highlands 294.0
Florida Farm Colony .................... ......... Alachua 4,528.6
Florida Industrial School for Girls......... Marion 185.0
Florida Industrial School for Boys.......... Jackson 1,660.0
Total-.......... ....- .. .. .....-- .. .......... 141,491.5

'As of May 17, 1947.
-Land titles are held in trust for the perpetual use and benefit of the
Seminole Indians.
'Of this land 320 acres are leased State School Land and are used for
the cultivation of ramie.
'An additional 2,129.9 acres lie in Decatur County, Georgia.

State Highways.-The power of eminent domain is vested in
the State Road Department.-" The several counties of the state
may furnish the State Road Department necessary rights of way
for state roads in their respective counties, subject to specific
restrictions.3 Titles to all land so acquired shall be vested in the
State of Florida. Leasing and disposal of land also are permitted.

"The State Road Department consists of five members, one from each
congressional district as defined and limited on June 9, 1937. Members are
appointed by the governor and confirmed by the state senate. Terms of
office run concurrently with the regular term of office of the governor.
"Fla. Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.) c.341.






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


The State Road Department collects data and information re-
garding all roads in the state, prepares maps and plats when
practicable, and supplies information to local governing bodies
and citizens, among other duties.
Over 100 thousand acres are owned by the state for road pur-
poses5' (Table 8). Additional small acreages, totaling about
9,100 acres, are used for roads by other agencies. This area is
calculated from the following: national park, 0.4 miles; national
forest development, 736.1 miles; national military, 354.4 miles;
other national reservations, 35.2 miles; and state parks, 12.8
miles.
State Forests and Parks.-The Florida Board of Forestry and
Parks, composed of five members appointed by the governor for
four-year terms, was created by the state to gather and dis-
seminate information in regard to forests, to enforce all laws
pertaining to forests and woodlands and to perform certain other
duties.
The board, on behalf of the state and subject to certain restric-
tions,- may acquire land suitable for state forest and park pur-
poses, by gifts, donations, contributions or otherwise, and may
enter into agreements with the federal government, or other
agency, for acquiring by gift, purchase or otherwise such land
as is, in the judgment of the board, suitable and desirable for
state forests and parks.
More specifically, the Florida Forest Service owns lard in
order to demonstrate proper forest practices, to maintain rec-
ords of costs and to illustrate the practical value of reforesta-
tion and management. State forest areas serve as training
grounds for forestry students. The Forest Service also owns
land for tower and headquarters sites used in forest fire control,
nurseries for raising seedlings, for reforestation, as well as areas

"Data supplied by the State Road Department for the year ending
December 31, 1946. Acreages are calculated from actual linear mileage
and 1CO foot average rights of way for state roads. However, the range
in width of rights of way varies considerably with locations or as a result
of operating policies and regional planning. The words or terms, "road,"
"public road," or "highway," and "railroad" or "railway" include the road-
bed, rights of way and all culverts, drains, retaining walls, tunnels, bridges,
etc., necessary for the maintenance of travel, and dispatching of freight and
communications between individuals and communities.
'The board has no power to pledge the credit of the state, or to obligate
it in any manner whatsoever. It is limited to use of specific funds set
aside for acquisition, use, custody, management, and development or im-
provement of forest and park lands vested in or subject to control of the
Board. Fla. Stat. (1941) sec. 589.08.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


for administration sites, central repair shops for service equip-
ment and other miscellaneous purposes.
The largest single area, 14,558 acres, is the Myakka River
State Forest. However, the state operates and maintains 182,-
305 acres in the Blackwater River State Forest on land leased
from the federal government (Table 10). Fire towers, forestry
headquarter sites and an 80-acre school forest are located on 96
small land parcels (Table 8).
The Florida Park Service acquires, develops and operates lands
for use as state parks which may be scenic, historical, recreation-
al or scientific. They are for the pleasure and education of Flor-
ida citizens and visitors (Fig. 6). On September 21, 1948, 17
parks were in operation, ranging in size from 180 acres in the
Hugh Taylor Birch Park to 12,233 acres in Myakka River State
Park- (Table 11).
In addition to state-owned parks, eight other areas maintained
for the public receive state aid or recognition. However, the
56For detailed description, see Florida's State Parks, Florida Board of
Forestry and Parks, Tallahassee, Florida, 1947.

Fig. 6.-Florida state parks provide a variety of recreational outlets.
This scene is at Gold Head Branch State Park. (Florida Park Service
photograph.)






Rica 1 La ad Oc icr.*/ip in Flo)rida


TABLE 10.-STATE FORESTS, FLORIDA, 1947.*

Present Location and Area
State Forest
Acreage County Acreage
All State Forests........................ 207,236
Okaloosa 60,486
Blackwater River'............ 182.305 Santa Rosa 121,819
Manatee 9,118
Myakka River ........ .......... .... 14.558 Sarasota 5,440
Bay 5,240
Pine Log...... ......... .......... 6,960 W ashington 1,720
Duval 1,130
Cary ................. ................ 3,413 Nassau 2,283
*As of September 21, 1948.
'Situated on Federal land leased to the state by the Soil Conservation
Service.

Board of Forestry and Parks is not responsible for their care
and upkeep. These are the Royal Palm State Park sponsored by
the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Dade Memorial Park,
Stephen Foster Memorial, Battle of Marianna Memorial, Olustee
Monument Battle Site, Natural Bridge Memorial, DeFuniak
Springs Confederate Monument and Port St. Joe Memorial.".
Florida Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish.-The
Florida Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish consists of
five members who serve without compensation and are appointed
by the governor.- Its duties include establishment and mainte-
nance of state game refuges upon national, state or private land
with and by the consent of the proper authorities or persons.
The commission also, with the approval of the governor, may ac-
quire in the name of the state, lands and water suitable for the
protection and propagation of game, fish, non-game birds or fur-
bearing animals, or for other specific legal uses. The purchase
price of such land may not exceed ten dollars ($10.00) per acre,
and it is not exempt from state, county or district taxation.
The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission owns 55 thou-
sand acres of land in Charlotte County, 1,280 acres in Marion
County and 640 acres in Lake County (Table 8). In addition, the
commission has hatcheries on small holdings located in Polk and
Gulf counties. Also, the commission was negotiating for the pur-
chase of approximately 50 thousand acres in Palm Beach County
as of November, 1947.
As of April 12, 1947.
"Fla. Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.) c.372.









TABLE 11.-STATE PARKS, FLORIDA, 1947.*


Name of State Park

All State Parks
Collier-Seminole
DeSoto Beach

Florida Caverns

Fort Clinch


Gold Head Branch

Highlands Hammock

Hillsborough River

Hugh Taylor Birch

Jupiter State Park
Lake Griffin

Myakka River


Year Present
Acquired Acreage


1934-47
1944
1946

1935

1935

1935

1935

1935

1942

1947

1946

1934


46,961

6,423
216

1,131

1,086

1,318

3,800

2,637

180

11,124
726

12,233


Location and Area


Nearby City


Everglades
Titusville
Beach
Marianna

Fernandina

Keystone
Heights
Sebring

Zephyrhills

Ft. Lauderdale

Hobe Sound
Leesburg

Sarasota


County Acreage


Collier 6,423
Brevard 216

Jackson 1,131

Nassau 1,086

Clay 1,318

Hardee 120
Highlands 3,680
Hillsborough 2,637

Broward 180

Martin 11,124
Lake 726


Manatee 2,000
Sarasota 10,233


Recreational Facilities



Undeveloped
Partial Acquisition
Undeveloped
Underground cavern trails, picnicking
and fresh water fishing
Picnicking, bathing, and salt water
fishing, camping and nature trails
Fresh water sports, outdoor facilities,
cottages and play fields

Picnicking, tenting, and nature trails
Picnicking, fresh water sports, camp-
ing, play fields and nature trails
Picnicking, bathing, and salt water
fishing
Undeveloped
Partial Acquisition
Undeveloped
Picnicking, fresh water fishing, boat-
ing, camping, cottages, nature trails
and play fields















Name of State Park

O'Lena Recreation


Pan-American

Suwannee River

St. Andrews

Tomoka

Torreya


Year
Acquired

1934


1938

1936

1946
1938

1935


TABLE 11.-STATE PARKS, FLORIDA, 1947* (Concluded).

Location and Area
Present A Recreational Facilities
Acerage Nearby City County Acreage

1,387 Lake City Alachua 210 Picnicking, fresh water sports, camp-
Columbia 1,177 ing, cottages, nature trails and play
fields
270 Ft. Lauderdale Broward 270 Undeveloped
Hamilton 1,113
1,740 Ellaville Madison 20 Undeveloped
Suwannee 607
758 Panama City Bay 758 Undeveloped
834 Ormond Flagler 109
Volusia 725 Undeveloped
1,098 Bristol Liberty 1,098 Picnicking, fresh water fishing, camp-
ing and nature trails


*As of September 21, 1948.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Strltii,,


State Armory Board.-The Armory Board of the State of Flor-
ida is charged with the supervision and control of all state mili-
tary buildings and real property applied to military uses.3- The
board may exercise the right of eminent domain. It is also au-
thorized to receive donations of land from counties, municipalities
and other sources. Any property so donated is held as other prop-
erty for the use of the State of Florida. When land held by the
Armory Board is not needed for any military uses, the Armory
Board is authorized to convey, lease or release such land to the
State Road Department for any lawful purposes.30
As of January 1, 1946, the State Armory Board owned 31,246
acres of land in Clay County (Table 8). Most of this land is in
one parcel, comprising that part of Camp Blanding owned by the
state. One or two small tracts are located slightly north of Camp
Blanding.
State Board of Education Land.-The State Board of Educa-
tion holds title to all land and interest in land under the direction
of the State Board of Control, and all land granted to or held by
the state for educational purposes.' The board may adopt what-
ever policies are necessary to preserve the land from trespass or
injury, and may fix the terms of sale and policies relating to
their rental or use.
In addition to the 127 thousand acres vested in the state by
grants from the federal government, known as state school land
(Table 7), the Board of Control exercises jurisdiction over an-
other 13 thousand acres of rural land (Table 12). Nearly 9 thou-
sand acres are used by the main Agricultural Experiment Station
in the vicinity of Gainesville and 11 branch stations distributed
throughout the state. Of the 4,321 acres remaining, 2,261 acres
are in the University of Florida, 1,220 acres in the Florida State
University at Tallahassee, 605 acres in the Florida School for the
Deaf and the Blind, 220 acres in the Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical College, and the remainder, 15 acres, is held by the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service.
Unclassified State Land.-The unclassified state rural land
(Table 8) includes sites of clay or gravel pits, wayside parks and
maintenance and repair shops of the State Road Department.

"Fla. Stat. (1941) sec. 250.48.
"GFla. Stat. (1941) sec. 250.75.
"Fla. Stat. (1941) sec. 229.08. The Board of Education consists of the
governor, the secretary of state, the attorney general, the state treasurer,
and the state superintendent of public instruction who acts as secretary
and executive officer.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


agement in Florida is in small acreages distributed over 57 of
Florida's 67 counties. The holdings range from three acres in
Jefferson County to 1,709 acres in Citrus County.

National Military Establishment
Three departments constitute the National Military Establish-
ment, namely, Army, Air Force and Navy. The Army and Air
Force departments hold land in two principal categories, civil
land and military land. Civil land under Army administration is
largely used for flood control, navigation and similar purposes,
and is under direction of the Army engineers. Military land is
used for defense purposes. In Florida approximately 31 thousand
acres are in civil land, 737 thousand in military land, and 86
thousand in Navy Department land (Table 3).
In general, not much of the land in Florida held by the De-
partment of the Army (formerly the War Department) has po-
tential use for agriculture. However, where conditions permit,
this department may lease land to farmers for crops or pasture.
Ultimately, the acreage of land held for national defense will be
considerably reduced, but for the next few years the acreage will
',i...l1. I',' remain substantially larger than in prewar years.
Public land used for military purposes during World War II
is returned to the original administrative agencies as it becomes
war surplus. Department of the Army land inventoried here
does not include land reported by other agencies, even though it
may be used for military purposes. Land used by the Navy
which is secured by temporary lease and permit is likewise
omitted. The use of public land for national defense in time of
war saves a very great public expenditure in both money and
time and causes less disturbance to established private enter-
prises.
State Land
Land was granted to the State of Florida under various acts of
Congress. Much of this land was then conveyed by the state to
private parties under various acts of the Legislature of Florida.
Perfect titles to such land are of the greatest importance to pur-
chasers or present owners. Valid titles for state swamp and in-
ternal improvement land are from the trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund of Florida and from the Board of Education
of the State of Florida for state school land. Such titles must not







Rural Land Owinership in Florida


Also, areas for state farmers' markets and the Florida highway
patrol offices and radio stations which are not otherwise sum-
marized are included. Thirty-one convict camps are maintained
by the State Road Department, of which 28 are owned by the
state and the others are leased. The area of the owned camps
amounts to about 300 acres. Camp sites range from 5 to 15 acres
in size.
County Land

The right of eminent domain is granted to all counties in Flor-
ida. Counties may appropriate property, except state or federal,

TABLE 12.-RURAL LAND ADMINISTERED BY THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF
EDUCATION, 1948.'


Item

University of Florida
C am pus.................... .....- ... .. .....
Austin Cary Memorial Forest.................
Biological Laboratory Newnans Lake
F ossil B ed.................................... ... ....
Y.M.C.A. Tract Lake Wauberg............
Florida State University at Tallahassee........
Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind.
Florida A. and M. College............
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Main Stations
Gainesville (Campus)............
H ague (Dairy) ....................... ...
Waldo Road (Beef Cattle i........ ...
Branch Stations
Central Florida Station........ .........
Citrus Station......................................
Everglades Station................. ......
Marianna Field (Mobile Unit ... ...
North Florida Station........................
Potato Laboratory.. ......... ........
Range Cattle Station....................
Sub-Tropical Station................ ....
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ............
Watermelon Laboratory....................
West Florida Station..............
Agricultural Extension Service
Florida National Egg Laying Test......
T otal ........... .. ....... ...........


County


Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Gilchrist
Alachua
Leon
St. Johns
Leon


Acres

89.0'
2,083.0
9.0
40.0:'
40.0
1,220.0'
605.0
219.6'


Alachua 1,340.0
Alacnua 1,089.4
Alachua 640.0


Seminole
Polk
Palm Beach
Jackson
Gadsden
St. Johns
Hardee
Dade
Manatee
Lake
Santa Rosa


34.5
143.5
825.4
345.0
978.2
60.3
2,360.0
170.0
145.4
97.6
640.0


Washington 15.0
13,189.9


Land under the direction of the Board of Control. See Table 7 for other
State Board of Education land known as "State School Land."
Excludes 344 acres within the Gainesville city limits.
'Cooperative agreement with the director of the Museum of Compara-
tive Zoology of Harvard college.
'Excludes 69 acres within the Tallahassee city limits.
"Excludes 178 acres within the Tallahassee city limits. This institution
is a standard "class A" college for Negroes.






48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 13.-COUNTY-OWNED RURAL LAND, FLORIDA, 1946.

County County County Total
Landl Roads2 To
Acres Acres Acres
Alachua .............- ........ 345.2 5,205.0 5,550.2
Baker ...................................... 23.3 2,825.0 2,848.3
Bay .............................. ......... 2,694.0 3,474.0 6,168.0
Bradford ..........-.....-............ 139.7 1,892.0 2,031.7
Brevard ................. .. ...... 3,681.1 4,750.0 8.431.1
Broward ................ ....... .... 11,226.1" 1,633.0 12,859.1
Calhoun ........-...... .. ............. 23.8 2,538.0 2,561.8
Charlotte .................................... 3,199.3 1,240.0 4,439.3
Citrus ...................................... 102.5 2,287.0 2,389.5
Clay ................-..-- ...-- ........-..-.. 531.2 1,927.0 2,458.2
Collier ........ ..................-----.. 8.0 648.0 656.0
Columbia ....... ..-.............. 40.6 5,118.0 5,158.6
Dade ........ ............ ..... 4,452.2* 9,222.0 13,674.2
DeSoto ........................ ... 26.0 1,675.0 1,701.0
D ixie ----------- -...........- .............. 258.0 1,334.0 1,592.0
Duval ........................ ........ 2,200.6* 6,335.0 8,535.6
Escambia ... ..--...--------- .... .. ..... 2,189.2 5,394.0 7,583.2
Flagler ............... --................ 756.8 1,864.0 2,620.8
Franklin ............. .........-.......... 1,169.3 1,013.0 2,182.3
Gadsden ........................-............ 1,030.4 3,956.0 4,986.4
Gilchrist ............................. 191.0 2,470.0 2,661.0
Glades ......... ......... ................ 1,103.8 1,110.0 2,213.8
Gulf ........... ............................ 7.0 1,082.0 1,089.0
H am ilton ................... ................. 832.6 3,386.0 4,218.6
Hardee ......- ......-...-.-.. .......... 144.0 3,875.0 4,019.0
H endry ............---- .......... ...- -..... 751.9 622.0 1,373.9
Hernando -.................-.. ......... 1,667.8 2,646.0 4,313.8
Highlands ............................ 152.3 2,579.0 2,731.3
Hillsboro .............. ........ .. 1,892.1* 13,537.0 15,429.1
H olm es ................. .................... 3,516.7 4,110.0 7,626.7
Indian River ........................ 2,539.5* 2,057.0 4,596.5
Jackson ....................... .......... 380.6 9,397.0 9,777.6
Jefferson ........... ............-.... 545.5 2,783.0 3,328.5
Lafayette ................. .... ....... 21.6 2,109.0 2,130.6
Lake .......................... ....... .. 9,778.1 3,378.0 13,156.1
Lee .... ......-.. ... ................. 1,029.9 2,043.0 3.072.9
Leon ......... ....... .............. 197.3 4,079.0 4,276.3
Levy ......-. ......-.......... ....... ...... 527.7 3,451.0 3,978.7
Liberty ................................. 47.0 1,601.0 1,648.0
M adison ............................... 11.6 4,694.0 4,705.6
M anatee .................. ............. 1,133.3* 4,245.0 5,378.3
Marion .................... ........... 4,978.1 6,937.0 11,915.1
M artin ................. ............ 874.5 1,418.0 2,292.5
M onroe ....-........................ ............. 520.0 520.0
N assau -.......-..-......-....-..- ....... 4,206.4 2,545.0 6,751.4







Rural Land Ownership in Florida


TABLE 13.-COUNTY-OWNED RURAL LAND, FLORIDA, 1946 (Concluded).


County


Okaloosa ...
Okeechobee
Orange ........
Osceola ........
Palm Beach
Pasco ..........
Pinellas ......
Polk .........
Putnam ....
St. Johns .
St. Lucie ...
Santa Rosa
Sarasota ....
Seminole ....
Sumter ........
Suwannee
Taylor .....
Union .......
Volusia ....
Wakulla ...
W alton .......
Washington
State total


County
Land'
Acres
27.0
543.6
897.8*
1,733.9
24,854.4*
32.4
1,694.4*
5,069.8
118.3
483.3
1,621.6
43.3
2,485.9
5,290.7
208.8
83.1
479.2
13.0
1.230.1
3.9
259.2
51.9


117,853.2 238,087.0 355,940.2


Source: 1946 County tax rolls.
-As of December 31, 1946.
'Data subsequent to 1946 substituted.


for any county purpose. Fee simple titles to such property so
taken and acquired are vested in the respective counties, except
when a county seeks to condemn a particular right or estate in
such property. The intended use to which lands sought by coun-
ties are to be put, or the circumstances under which land acquisi-
tion is mandatory, determine the legal rights and methods that
are involved.
Counties acquire property for airports, roads and highways,
for the use of the general public, or other purposes, and through
forfeiture for non-payment of taxes. As a rule more acreage has
recently accrued to the several counties through nonpayment of
property taxes than through purchase.62 However, land acquired

"All unpaid taxes upon real estate become delinquent on April 1st of
the year following the year in which taxes were assessed and not pre-
viously paid. Delinquent taxes bear interest from such date at the rate of


County
Roadsn
Acres
3,806.0
815.0
5,205.0
3,175.0
2,070.0
5,738.0
2,447.0
10,492.0
4,322.0
2,910.0
1,658.0
6.294.0
1,649.0
2,621.0
2,199.0
6,143.0
2,217.0
1,880.0
8,565.0
2,435.0
5,788.0
4.654.0


Total

Acres
3,833.0
1,358.6
6,102.8
4,908.9
26,924.4
5,770.4
4,141.4
15,561.8
4,440.3
3,393.3
3,279.6
6,337.3
4,134.9
7,911.7
2,407.8
6,226.1
2,696.2
1,893.0
9.795.1
2,438.9
6,047.2
4,705.9






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


through tax delinquency is returned to private ownership as
rapidly as it can be disposed of.
The counties owned about 356 thousand acres of rural land in
1946 (Table 13). Of this land, 238 thousand acres were in county
roads and the remainder was in miscellaneous county uses. Tax-
forfeited land accounted for the largest part of this miscellaneous
acreage, and land used for school and county government pur-
poses was of secondary importance from an acreage standpoint.
Other miscellaneous uses include small acreages in community
centers, 4-H clubs, county farms, convict camps, clay pits and
airports.
Disposals of tax land from 1946 to the present have involved
considerable acreages. In some counties nearly all of the land for-
feited for taxes has been returned to private ownership. In sev-
eral south Florida counties considerable acreages of tax-forfeited
lands have been dedicated to the public for water control and con-
servation. Titles remain with the counties but the land may not
be sold as long as it is used for the purposes intended.

Municipal Land
Municipalities, incorporated as such under the law, own rural
areas chiefly for airports, recreational areas or other purposes
related to the operation of the city governments. The total
amounts to approximately 32 thousand acres (Table 16). Gen-
erally, powers granted to municipalities for the acquisition and
use of rural land do not differ from the powers granted to the
several counties.
On August 1, 1948, 46 of Florida's 323 municipalities were not
functioning, although they had not been legally abolished.63
Nearly 600 thousand acres lie within the legal limits of the 277

18 percent per annum for the first year and 8 percent per annum for the
time after the first year.
Land is sold for nonpayment of taxes, including interest from April 1st
to date of sale, on or before June 1st of each year. When there are no
bidders, land is bid off for the county.
Any owner, or agent thereof, may redeem land sold for taxes any time
after a tax sale and before a tax deed has been issued. A tax deed is is-
sued by the clerk of the circuit court after two years have elapsed from
the date of the certificate issued at the tax collector's sale, and after a
bill of complaint has been filed in the circuit court and after the right of
redemption was not exercised, as provided by law. Fla. Stat. (1941 and
Cum. Supps.) c.194.
"Unpublished data compiled by the Division of Water Surveys and Re-
search, Florida State Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, Florida, as of
August 1, 1948.







Rural Land Owinership in Florida


Also, areas for state farmers' markets and the Florida highway
patrol offices and radio stations which are not otherwise sum-
marized are included. Thirty-one convict camps are maintained
by the State Road Department, of which 28 are owned by the
state and the others are leased. The area of the owned camps
amounts to about 300 acres. Camp sites range from 5 to 15 acres
in size.
County Land

The right of eminent domain is granted to all counties in Flor-
ida. Counties may appropriate property, except state or federal,

TABLE 12.-RURAL LAND ADMINISTERED BY THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF
EDUCATION, 1948.'


Item

University of Florida
C am pus.................... .....- ... .. .....
Austin Cary Memorial Forest.................
Biological Laboratory Newnans Lake
F ossil B ed.................................... ... ....
Y.M.C.A. Tract Lake Wauberg............
Florida State University at Tallahassee........
Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind.
Florida A. and M. College............
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Main Stations
Gainesville (Campus)............
H ague (Dairy) ....................... ...
Waldo Road (Beef Cattle i........ ...
Branch Stations
Central Florida Station........ .........
Citrus Station......................................
Everglades Station................. ......
Marianna Field (Mobile Unit ... ...
North Florida Station........................
Potato Laboratory.. ......... ........
Range Cattle Station....................
Sub-Tropical Station................ ....
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ............
Watermelon Laboratory....................
West Florida Station..............
Agricultural Extension Service
Florida National Egg Laying Test......
T otal ........... .. ....... ...........


County


Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Gilchrist
Alachua
Leon
St. Johns
Leon


Acres

89.0'
2,083.0
9.0
40.0:'
40.0
1,220.0'
605.0
219.6'


Alachua 1,340.0
Alacnua 1,089.4
Alachua 640.0


Seminole
Polk
Palm Beach
Jackson
Gadsden
St. Johns
Hardee
Dade
Manatee
Lake
Santa Rosa


34.5
143.5
825.4
345.0
978.2
60.3
2,360.0
170.0
145.4
97.6
640.0


Washington 15.0
13,189.9


Land under the direction of the Board of Control. See Table 7 for other
State Board of Education land known as "State School Land."
Excludes 344 acres within the Gainesville city limits.
'Cooperative agreement with the director of the Museum of Compara-
tive Zoology of Harvard college.
'Excludes 69 acres within the Tallahassee city limits.
"Excludes 178 acres within the Tallahassee city limits. This institution
is a standard "class A" college for Negroes.






Rural Land Owner.sxhip in Florida


TABLE 14.-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF URBAN AREAS AND POPULATION
FLORIDA, 1945.

Urban Areas Number of Persons
Area-
Number Acres Urban I Rural
1 35 60,652 145,719 219,790
2 72 126.114 361,901 221,936
3 108 245.608 513,434 244,161
4 62 153,408 415,372 127,748
Total 277' 585,782 1,436,426 813.635

See Figure 1 for areas.
Urban centers functioning as municipalities on August 1, 1948.
'Source: The seventh census of the State of Florida, 1945.
All incorporated towns are classed as urban.

TABLE 15.-SEMI-PUBLIC LAND, FLORIDA. 1946.

Ownership Classification Number of Acres
Educational Institutions or Agencies' 23,543.2
Fraternal and Welfare' 2,801.5
Youth Groups3 1,467.4
Societies and Clubs4 1,023.1
Religious Groups or Organizations' 908.6
Unclassified' 4,852.1
Total 34,595.9

'College, university, and other educational agency lands not owned by
the state or its political civil subdivisions.
'Lands of "Homes for the Aged," orphanages, benefit associations, etc.
3Y.M.C.A., Boy Scout, Girl Scout lands and tax exempt boys' camps.
4Land owned by clubs, such as country clubs or women's organizations,
which are tax exempt.
'Land owned by a religious order or organization and excluding churches
and church cemeteries.
'Public parks, public golf courses, and civic organization lands.

active municipalities. About 68 percent of this land is located in
the southern half of the state (Table 14).

Semi-Public Land

Most of the semi-public land is owned by educational institu-
tions which receive no financial support from the state or by
religious or other non-profit groups. Although this land is not
public land in the true meaning of the word, most of it is tax
exempt.34 Table 15 lists the relative ownership classification of
such land.
"For information relating to property exempt from taxation see Fla.
Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.) c.192.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


through tax delinquency is returned to private ownership as
rapidly as it can be disposed of.
The counties owned about 356 thousand acres of rural land in
1946 (Table 13). Of this land, 238 thousand acres were in county
roads and the remainder was in miscellaneous county uses. Tax-
forfeited land accounted for the largest part of this miscellaneous
acreage, and land used for school and county government pur-
poses was of secondary importance from an acreage standpoint.
Other miscellaneous uses include small acreages in community
centers, 4-H clubs, county farms, convict camps, clay pits and
airports.
Disposals of tax land from 1946 to the present have involved
considerable acreages. In some counties nearly all of the land for-
feited for taxes has been returned to private ownership. In sev-
eral south Florida counties considerable acreages of tax-forfeited
lands have been dedicated to the public for water control and con-
servation. Titles remain with the counties but the land may not
be sold as long as it is used for the purposes intended.

Municipal Land
Municipalities, incorporated as such under the law, own rural
areas chiefly for airports, recreational areas or other purposes
related to the operation of the city governments. The total
amounts to approximately 32 thousand acres (Table 16). Gen-
erally, powers granted to municipalities for the acquisition and
use of rural land do not differ from the powers granted to the
several counties.
On August 1, 1948, 46 of Florida's 323 municipalities were not
functioning, although they had not been legally abolished.63
Nearly 600 thousand acres lie within the legal limits of the 277

18 percent per annum for the first year and 8 percent per annum for the
time after the first year.
Land is sold for nonpayment of taxes, including interest from April 1st
to date of sale, on or before June 1st of each year. When there are no
bidders, land is bid off for the county.
Any owner, or agent thereof, may redeem land sold for taxes any time
after a tax sale and before a tax deed has been issued. A tax deed is is-
sued by the clerk of the circuit court after two years have elapsed from
the date of the certificate issued at the tax collector's sale, and after a
bill of complaint has been filed in the circuit court and after the right of
redemption was not exercised, as provided by law. Fla. Stat. (1941 and
Cum. Supps.) c.194.
"Unpublished data compiled by the Division of Water Surveys and Re-
search, Florida State Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, Florida, as of
August 1, 1948.






Rural Land Owner.sxhip in Florida


TABLE 14.-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF URBAN AREAS AND POPULATION
FLORIDA, 1945.

Urban Areas Number of Persons
Area-
Number Acres Urban I Rural
1 35 60,652 145,719 219,790
2 72 126.114 361,901 221,936
3 108 245.608 513,434 244,161
4 62 153,408 415,372 127,748
Total 277' 585,782 1,436,426 813.635

See Figure 1 for areas.
Urban centers functioning as municipalities on August 1, 1948.
'Source: The seventh census of the State of Florida, 1945.
All incorporated towns are classed as urban.

TABLE 15.-SEMI-PUBLIC LAND, FLORIDA. 1946.

Ownership Classification Number of Acres
Educational Institutions or Agencies' 23,543.2
Fraternal and Welfare' 2,801.5
Youth Groups3 1,467.4
Societies and Clubs4 1,023.1
Religious Groups or Organizations' 908.6
Unclassified' 4,852.1
Total 34,595.9

'College, university, and other educational agency lands not owned by
the state or its political civil subdivisions.
'Lands of "Homes for the Aged," orphanages, benefit associations, etc.
3Y.M.C.A., Boy Scout, Girl Scout lands and tax exempt boys' camps.
4Land owned by clubs, such as country clubs or women's organizations,
which are tax exempt.
'Land owned by a religious order or organization and excluding churches
and church cemeteries.
'Public parks, public golf courses, and civic organization lands.

active municipalities. About 68 percent of this land is located in
the southern half of the state (Table 14).

Semi-Public Land

Most of the semi-public land is owned by educational institu-
tions which receive no financial support from the state or by
religious or other non-profit groups. Although this land is not
public land in the true meaning of the word, most of it is tax
exempt.34 Table 15 lists the relative ownership classification of
such land.
"For information relating to property exempt from taxation see Fla.
Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.) c.192.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Among the more important owners are the University of
Miami, Florida Southern College, West Virginia Training School,
Inc., Order of St. Benedictine, Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts
of America, United Brotherhood, and the Royal Palm State Park.
Many of the areas are extremely small, but taken in the aggre-
gate about 35 thousand acres are involved (Table 16).
A conservative estimate indicates that a total of about 4,400
acres is in rural church and rural cemetery properties. This ex-
cludes cemetery land owned by counties or municipalities. This
estimate is based on a 10-county sample, in which it was found
that church and cemetery lands were about 1.5 times the areas
in rural schools.
Private Land
Utilization of land falls into all categories of activity in which
people are interested. Rural private land owned by public service
corporations is summarized in Table 17. The distribution of farm
land by counties also is given. The remaining private land was not
classified in any manner.
Rural land owned by railroads was estimated from the number
of linear miles owned by railroads in rural areas.-5 All public serv-
ice corporation land, excluding municipal, was compiled from data
supplied by operating utility companies.-" Land in farms was
taken from the 1945 United States Census of Agriculture. The
remainder, or "all other," is the difference between rural land
used by public service corporations and in farms and the total
area of land privately owned.
Public Service Corporation Land.-Railroads control over 100
thousand acres for main line uses; electric light and power com-
panies control 51 thousand acres; gas and water companies, 23
acres; and telephone and telegraph companies, very small parcels
in several rural areas (Table 17). Florida topography precludes
extensive development of hydro-electric power. However, one
large development has been proposed. Public Law 525, 79th
Congress of the United States, authorized a dam, to be known as
the Jim Woodruff Dam, to be located near Chattahoochee, Flori-
"Compiled from data in the Office of the Railroad Assessment Board,
Tallahassee, Florida, as of December 31, 1946. Based on linear main line
rural mileage and 200-foot rights of way.
"Names of private utility corporations were furnished by the McGraw-
Hill Publishing Company, New York; REA borrowers by the Rural Elec-
trification Administration, Washington; and the Southern Bell Telephone
and Telegraph Company, Jacksonville, supplied information regarding their
own land and a list of connecting telephone companies in Florida, together
with the operating heads of each, and the location of their principal offices.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Among the more important owners are the University of
Miami, Florida Southern College, West Virginia Training School,
Inc., Order of St. Benedictine, Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts
of America, United Brotherhood, and the Royal Palm State Park.
Many of the areas are extremely small, but taken in the aggre-
gate about 35 thousand acres are involved (Table 16).
A conservative estimate indicates that a total of about 4,400
acres is in rural church and rural cemetery properties. This ex-
cludes cemetery land owned by counties or municipalities. This
estimate is based on a 10-county sample, in which it was found
that church and cemetery lands were about 1.5 times the areas
in rural schools.
Private Land
Utilization of land falls into all categories of activity in which
people are interested. Rural private land owned by public service
corporations is summarized in Table 17. The distribution of farm
land by counties also is given. The remaining private land was not
classified in any manner.
Rural land owned by railroads was estimated from the number
of linear miles owned by railroads in rural areas.-5 All public serv-
ice corporation land, excluding municipal, was compiled from data
supplied by operating utility companies.-" Land in farms was
taken from the 1945 United States Census of Agriculture. The
remainder, or "all other," is the difference between rural land
used by public service corporations and in farms and the total
area of land privately owned.
Public Service Corporation Land.-Railroads control over 100
thousand acres for main line uses; electric light and power com-
panies control 51 thousand acres; gas and water companies, 23
acres; and telephone and telegraph companies, very small parcels
in several rural areas (Table 17). Florida topography precludes
extensive development of hydro-electric power. However, one
large development has been proposed. Public Law 525, 79th
Congress of the United States, authorized a dam, to be known as
the Jim Woodruff Dam, to be located near Chattahoochee, Flori-
"Compiled from data in the Office of the Railroad Assessment Board,
Tallahassee, Florida, as of December 31, 1946. Based on linear main line
rural mileage and 200-foot rights of way.
"Names of private utility corporations were furnished by the McGraw-
Hill Publishing Company, New York; REA borrowers by the Rural Elec-
trification Administration, Washington; and the Southern Bell Telephone
and Telegraph Company, Jacksonville, supplied information regarding their
own land and a list of connecting telephone companies in Florida, together
with the operating heads of each, and the location of their principal offices.







TABLE 16.-GENERAL SUMMARY OF TITE RURAL LAND, BY OWNERSHIP CLASSIFICATION, FLORIDA, 1946.*


County


The State

Alachua
Baker ...
Bay ...... .
Bradford
Brevard ..
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus ...
Clay -
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie ....
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf ....


ge by Ownership Classification


Land Area in Acres Public Rural Acrea

Total Rural Federal State County

34,727,680.0 34,141,898.0 2,838,297.0 1,855,960.2 355,940.2

570,880.0 560,260.0 1,847.0 16,538.1 5,550.2
374,400.0 374,000.0 80,318.0 1,070.8 2,848.3
481,920.0 473,240.0 35,312.0 12,402.3 6,168.0
187,520.0 185,220.0 1,435.0 14,029.8 2,031.7
660,480.0 643,590.0 6,600.0 11,140.1 8,431.1
779,520.0 745,180.0 19,935.0 394,251.0 12,859.1
356,480.0 354,800.0 686.0 955.7 2,561.8
451,200.0 449,600.0 11,386.0 59,658.5 4,439.3
364,800.0 345,950.0 45,747.0 17,350.5 2,389.5
382,720.0 371,530.0 50,042.0 35,154.2 2,458.2
1,300,480.0 1,285,660.0 3,838.0 34,026.8 656.0
503,040.0 500,480.0 79,454.0 5,981.4 5,158.6
1,314,560.0 1,265,115.0 240,015.0 403,447.9 13,674.2
414,720.0 414,720.0 1,410.0 3,168.1 1,701.0
440,320.0 439,680.0 960.0 2,163.6 1,592.0
497,280.0 465,590.0 22,802.0 10,335.7 8,535.6
424,320.0 419,530.0 7,394.0 3,248.1 7,583.2
309,120.0 304,950.0 5,084.0 2,008.0 2,620.8
348,160.0 345,826.0 24,729.0 2,858.8 2,182.3
325,120.0 320,660.0 3,661.0 5,259.7 4,986.4
216,960.0 216,080.0 581.0 1,080.1 2,661.0
477,440.0 476,800.0 36,276.0 3,957.9 2,213.8
356,480.0 350,675.0 5,725.0 1,120.5 1,089.0


Munic-
ipal

31,910.8

507.0

325.0
45.0
252.4
1,475.2

4.0




1,461.4
2,166.4
306.0

2,467.1
2,184.9
223.0
80.0
5.1


Semi- Total Total
Public Public Private

34,595.9 5,116,704.1 29,025,193.9

48.0 24,490.3 535,769.7 9
1.0 84,238.1 289,761.9
10.0 54,217.3 419,022.7
305.0 17,846.5 167,373.5 t
15.2 26,438.8 617,151.2
341.3 428,861.6 316,318.4
41.0 4,244.5 350,555.5 0
75,487.8 374,112.2
8.5 65,495.5 280,454.5 a
871.2 88,525.6 283,004.4
38,520.8 1,247.139.2
92,055.4 408,424.6
3,857.3 663,160.8 601,954.2
.... 6,585.1 408,134.9
4,715.6 434,964.4
226.0 44,366.4 421,223.6
42.0 20,452.2 399,077.8
131.3 10,067.1 294,882.9
...... 29,850.1 315,975.9
13,912.2 306,747.8
162.0 4,484.1 211,595.9
42,447.7 434,352.3
3.4 7,937.9 342,737.1 ,










TABLE 16. -GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE RURAL LAND, BY OWNERSHIP CLASSIFICATION, FLORIDA, 1946* (Continued).


Land Area in Acres


Public Rural Acreage by Classification


County


Hamilton ....
Hardee .....
Hendry ......
Hernando ....
Highlands .
Hillsborough
Holmes ....
Indian River
Jackson ....
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake ...
Lee .........
Leon .. ...
Levy .........
Liberty .....
Madison ..
Manatee .
Marion .......
Martin ........
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee


Total Rural Federal State County unic- Sei- Tblc

328,960.0 327,020.0 377.0 2,390.7 4,218.6 .......... 72.2 7,058.5
403,200.0 399.760.0 ....... 3,500.3 4,019.0 160.0 14.7 7,694.0
759,680.0 756,260.0 44,032.0 63,753.7 1,373.9 ........ .-.......- 109,159.6
312,320.0 311.680.0 46,951.0 5,619.1 4,313.8 ... 19.0 56,902.9
666,240.0 658,255.0 54,758.0 12,546.1 2,731.3 2,053.3 272.7 72,361.4
665,600.0 648,495.0 22,141.0 6,401.7 15,429.1 2,199.0 105.8 46,276.6
309,120.0 308,400.0 468.0 2,601.5 7,626.7 ....... .... 10,696.2
327,040.0 321,824.0 3,249.0 11,871.2 4,596.5 53.0 18.5 19,788.2
602,880.0 594,670.0 7,999.0 11,663.5 9,777.6 10.7 ........ 29,450.8
382,720.0 381,280.0 8,832.0 12,450.8 3,328.5 ......... .. 24,611.3
347,520.0 346,960.0 280.0 1,216.1 2,130.6 ........ ......... 3,626.7
637,440.0 613.150.0 71,637.0 15,674.0 13,156.1 206.3 100.1 100,773.5
503.040.0 497,888.0 5,916.0 8,005.7 3,072.9 7,005.5 58.8 24,058.9
438,400.0 436,270.0 110,458.0 7,914.1 4,276.3 648.5 20.2 123,317.1
705,920.0 702,550.0 3,764.0 8,105.1 3,978.7 ........... .......- 15,847.8
536,320.0 536,320.0 264,790.0 6,538.4 1,648.0 -........ ....... 272,976.4
449,280.0 446.360.0 2,168.0 1,671.6 4,705.6 10.0 80.0 8,635.2
448,640.0 441,140.0 79.0 14,200.7 5,378.3 32.8 420.7 20,111.5
1,034,880.0 1,029,640.0 267,651.0 7,573.8 11,915.1 ........ 40.0 287,179.9
357,760.0 356,020.0 8,722.0 22,271.8 2,292.5 141.0 ..-...._ 33,427.3
636,160.0 633,696.0 179,969.0 212,256.1 520.0 ......... 6,162.9 398,908.0
416,000.0 413,190.0 556.0 18,217.6 6,751.4 2,075.0 ........ 27,600.0
600,320.0 586.957.0 318.869.0 7,181.6 3,833.0 ...... 329,883.6
499,200.0 496,720.0 2,068 0 4.886.7 1,358.6 8,313.3


Total
Private

319,961.5
392,066.0
647,100.4
254,777.1
585,893.6
602,218.4
297,703.8
302,035.8
565,219.2
356,668.7
343,333.3
512.376.5
473,829.1
312,952 9
686,702.2
263,343.6
437,724.8 C
421,028.5 "
742,460.1
322,592.7
234,788.0
385,590.0
257,073.4
488,406.7











County


Orange ....
Osceola ......
Palm Beach
Pasco ......
Pinellas ...
Polk
Pultnamn .
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
W alton .....
Washington


Land Area in Acres Public Ri

Total Rural Federal State

586,240.0 565,968.0 2,474.0 3,890.4
848,000.0 844,440.0 588.0 4,227.4
1,265,920.0 1,226,133.0 11,332.0 222,950.9
480,640.0 473,250.0 7,681.0 3,706.1
168,960.0 130,700.0 1,538.0 1,967.2
1,191,040.0 1,149,150.0 53,145.0 6,895.8
513,920.0 503,086.0 26,256.0 5,229.9
389,760.0 386,340.0 3,249.0 8,405.0
376,320.0 369,720.0 80.0 3,833.2
655,360.0 654,640.0 193,873.0 5,349.8
375,040.0 366,120.0 1,640.0 19,175.5
205,440.0 196,160.0 1,610.0 6,609.1
359,040.0 354,000.0 32,079.0 4,869.4
433,280.0 431,700.0 123.0 2,420.3
660,480.0 659,840.0 2,754.0 4,046.0
153,600.0 152,640.0 1,307.0 9,642.2
713,600.0 686,210.0 4,716.0 21,736.9
392,960.0 392,960.0 224,117.0 1,756.3
669,440.0 668,240.0 157,844.0 4,557.9
382,080.0 376,960.0 920.0 4,971.4


'Other dates substituted are identified in previous tables


ural Acreage by Ownership Classification
Munic- Semi- Total
County ipal Public Public

6,102.8 1,732.4 123.7 14.323.3
4,908.9 32.0 939.2 10,695.5
26,924.4 698.6 191.3 262,097.2
5,770.4 108.3 823.0 18,088.8
4,141.4 30.7 211.1 7,888.4
15,561.8 1,837.0 17,935.0 95,374.6
4,440.3 868.5 39.0 36,833.7
3,393.3 391.5 15,438.8
3,279.6 9.3 45.7 7,247.8
6,337.3 205,560.1
4,134.9 77.0 0.6 25,028.0
7,911.7 252.4 57.0 16,440.2
2,407.8 39,356.2
6,226.1 160.0 8,929.4
2,696.2 9,496.2
1,893.0 .. 12,842.2
9,795.1 47.0 70.0 36,365.0
2,438.9 228,312.2
6,047.2 160.0 168,609.1
4,705.9 120.0 10,717.3


Total
Private

551,644.7
833,744.5
964,035.8
455,161.2
122,811.6
1.053,775.4
466,252.3
370,901.2
362,472.2
449,079.9
341,092.0
179,719.8
314,643.8
422,770.6
650,343.8
139,797.8
649,845.0
164,647.8
499,630.9
366,242.7









TABLE 17.-SUMMARY OF PRIVATE RURAL LAND FOR FLORIDA.


Public Service Corporation


County



The State ....
Alachua .....
Baker ........
B ay ..............
Bradford ...
Brevard ......
Broward .....
Calhoun ......
Charlotte ...
Citrus ..........
Clay ............
Collier ..........
Columbia ....
Dade .........
DeSoto ........
Dixie ......
Duval ........
Escambia ....
Flagler ........
Franklin ......
Gadsden .....
Gilchrist ......
Glades ..........


Total
Private
Land

Acres
29,025,193.9
535,769.7
289,761.9
419,022.7
167,373.5
617,151.2
316,318.4
350,555.5
374,112.2
280,454.5
283,004.4
1,247.139.2
408,424.6
601,954.2
408,134.9
434,964.4
421,223.6
399,077.8
294,882.9
315,975.9
306,747.8
211,595.9
434,352.3


Gas
and
Water
Acres
22.6


Tel. &
Tel.

Acres
1.5


Railroads

Acres
101,038.0
4,130.0
1,236.0
754.0
1,216.0
1,638.0
486.0
352.0
1,574.0
1,654.0
865.0
1,385.0
1,698.0
1,611.0
1,419.0
601.0
2,467.0
2,277.0
916.0
736.0
1,586.0
849.0
1,015.0


Farms'


Electric
Light and
Power
Acres
50,988.0
11.7



1.3

142.0

----------

2,172.5

----------
173.3
82.5







19,741.1
159.9


Total
Cropland

Acres
2,877,194.0
168,108.0
14,151.0
3,821.0
22,275.0
19,577.0
41,339.0
28,788.0
14,951.0
19,543.0
17,540.0
2,326.0
93,121.0
51,176.0
13,788.0
6,334.0
11,773.0
29,913.0
6,735.0
119.0
81,327.0
48,320.0
3,989.0


Woodland

Acres
5,801,860.0
143,769.0
17,915.0
16,919.0
61,121.0
59,088.0
29,281.0
39,612.0
12,654.0
110,928.0
79,651.0
20.0
55,027.0
8,024.0
28,019.0
86,941.0
42,843.0
29,950.0
223,525.0
6,839.0
138,320.0
40,488.0
4,772.0


Other

Acres
4,404,447.0
32,534.0
4,589.0
3,455.0
3,648.0
121,144.0
37,491.0
10,043.0
245,716.0
20,536.0
6,520.0
331,282.0
11,693.0
18,431.0
348,776.0
4,439.0
11,522.0
6,386.0
2,028.0
55,130.0
14,631.0
9,490.0
70,360.0


All
Other


Acres
15,789,642.8
187,217.0
251,870.9
394,073.7
79,112.2
415,704.2
207,579.4
271,760.5
99,217.2
125,621.0
178,428.4
912,126.2
246,712.3
522,629.7
16,132.9
336,649.4
352,618.6
330,551.8
61,678.9
253,151.9
51,142.7
112,289.0
354,216.3





TABLE 17. SUMMARY OF PRIVATE RUlt.L, LAND FOR FLORIDA


Public Service Corporations


Electric Gas
Railroalds I .'ili and Innl
Pow(,er Water


County



Gulf .....
Hamilton
Hardee ..
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake ... ..
L ee .............
Leon ..
Levy ......
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion ...
Martin ...
Monroe ...
Nassau
Okaloosa.


Teil. & T5)t
Tel. CroplandI


Total
Private
L;ind

A cres
342,737.1
319,961.5
392,066.0
647,100.4
254,777.1
585,893.6
602,218.4
297,703.8
302,035.8
565,219.2
356,668.7
343,333.3
512,376.5
473,829.1
312,952.9
686,702.2
263,343.6
437,724.8
421,028.5
712,460.1
322,592.7
234.788.0
385,590.0
257,073.4


A cres
218.0
1,002.0
951.0
604.0
1,297.0
1,521.0
4,696.0
782.0
796.0
1,778.0
1,14.8.0
583.0
2,932.0
1,858.0
1,068.0
1.825.0
881.0
1,720.0
1,5148.0
3,512.0
1,136.0

2,591.0
1,099.0


Acres IAcres Ac res Acre's
.2,2) 79.0
.3 63,079.0
4.0 28,329.0
35,0)5.0
.3 12,127.0
S2,808.0
84.9 .9 I 52.693.0
6.300.0
.. 23,375.0
410. 209,515.0
.2 8. 2,008.0
47,362.0
1.0 4.0 58,263.0
5.0 .14,125.0
12,772.7 66,091.0
1,504.4 .. 1.277.0
66.5 7,024.0
115,453.0
3.0 .1 20,93(.0
13,128.5 131,0,16.0
.... 38,527.0
1.5 896.0
S6,928.0
27,628.0


Farms-'




Acres
8,05.1.0
74,865.0
192,418.0
82,789.0
12,3577.0
123,310.0
13 7,20(1.0
60,335.01
15,251.0
133,326.0
66,06-4 .0
20,810.0
77,585.0
32,172.0
71,727.0
131,4,17.0
33,919.0
74,415.0
251,904.0
235,572.0
121,904.0
16.0
30,220.0
28,(958.0


Other

Acres
24,995.0
11.234.0
112,698.0
214,368.0
12,088 .
37,360.0
71,584.0
1.,043.0
112,061.0
34,745.0
32,022.0
6,993.0
62,782.0
57,767.0
15,687.0
30,646.0
993.0
28,036.0
6,308.0
37,947.0
15.251.0
861. .
5,912.0
10,031.0


All
Other


Acres
307,161.1
169,781.2
57,666.0
284,244.4
216,907.8
80,894.6
335,955.6
152,243.8
150.552.8
185,444.8
175,126.5
261,585.3
310,809.5
367,902.1
145,607.2
440,002.8
220,460.1
218,100.8
137,329.4
321,234.6
145,474.7
233,013.5
339,939.0
189,357.4









TABLE 17.-SUMMARY OF PRIVATE RURAL LAND FOR FLORIDA (Concluded). Cn
PbicSeieorortir__s_____ 0c
Public Service Corporations' Farms2
Total
Total Electric Gas All
County Private Railroads Light nd Te& Woodland Other Other
Land Power Water Tel. Cropland
Power Water
Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres '
Okeechobee .... 488,406.7 1,552.0 ......... ...... 1,294.0 35.0 263,413.0 222,112.7
Orange .......... 551,644.7 2,410.0 9.0 ... 59,348.0 77,915.0 284,113.0 127,849.7
Osceola ............ 833,744.5 1,551.0 ........ 4,728.0 622,283.0 186,039.0 19,143.5 Q
Palm Beach .... 964,035.8 2,058.0 .5 125,099.0 82,484.0 70,507.0 683,887.3
Pasco ................ 455,161.2 2,717.0 11.3 44,372.0 176,009.0 47,055.0 184,996.9
Pinellas ............ 122,811.6 1,038.0 4.5 .4 16,926.0 25,580.0 6,444.0 72,818.7 "
Polk ................ 1,053,775.4 5,748.0 73.8 3.2 .. 161,851.0 395,704.0 402,254.0 88,141.4
Putnam ............ 466,252.3 2,263.0 .8 18,597.0 91,856.0 23,229.0 330,306.5
St. Johns .......... 370,901.2 1,212.0 15,201.0 84,007.0 17,336.0 253,145.2
St. Lucie ........ 362,472.2 434.0 10.0 23,826.0 ....... 268,480.0 69,722.2
Santa Rosa .... 449,079.9 612.0 .49,495.0 50,685.0 14,463.0 333,824.9
Sarasota .......... 341,092.0 1,126.0 12.4 .1 13,661.0 15,842.0 209,034.0 101,416.5
Seminole .......... 179,719.8 1,782.0 11.3 22,299.0 140,579.0 9,746.0 5,302.5
Sumter ........... 314,643.8 1,783.0 7.0 42,734.0 66,300.0 60,143.0 143,676.8
Suwannee ..... 422,770.6 1,875.0 1.5 ....... .... 180,117.0 84,739.0 19,700.0 136,338.1
Taylor .........-.... 650,343.8 1,792.0 .... ... 18,771.0 55,782.0 4,398.0 569,600.8
Union ................ 139,797.8 816.0 .......... .... 25,580.0 51,861.0 4,119.0 57,421.8
Volusia ............ 649,845.0 2,847.0 391.0 20,756.0 76,246.0 137,476.0 412,129.0 .
Wakulla .......... 164,647.8 233.0 .3 .. .16,185.0 20,786.0 530.0 126,913.5
Walton ............ 499,630.9 581.0 3.0 38,560.0 70,100.0 7.099.0 383,287.9
Washington .... 366,242.7 267.0 ...... 45,596.0 51,739.0 8,613.0 260,027.7

'Railroad acreage as of December 31, 1946. Other public service corporations as of July, 1948.
'Source: 1945 U. S. Census of Agriculture.
'Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company and connecting companies only.






Rural Land Ownersh.ip in Florida


-K
-s

2 ,j


GENERAL FAR
S 1. Esca
2. North
S Pi
3. Gad,
4. Mad
S 5. Nor
6. Nor
ta
CITRUS
7. St.
8. Cen
9. Indi


'-I .-
71--










eanuts .-- y- -. -
osbia- Potatoes

sden-Shade Tobacco
ison-Shade Tobacco '
th Florida-Flue-cured Tobacco, Cotton -
th Central Florida-Watermelons, Po-
toes, other truck; some citrus

Johns River "
trail Florida-some truck
an River ,


i 10. Lower Indian River-some truck
11. Gulf Coast
12. Peace River Flatwoods-considerable truck
S13. Ridge
TRUCK
14. it1 r.... i i Cabbage
15. .. 1--. ibbage
16. Oviedo-Celery
17. Zellwood-Celery
18. Plant City-Strawberries
19. lanatee-Tomatoes; some citrus
20. Sarasota-Celery
21. Caloosahatchee River-some citrus
22. Collier-Tomatoes
23. Lake Okeechobee-Beans, Celery, Cabbage,
Potatoes, Sugar Cane
24. Pompano-Beans, Peppers
25. Lower East Coast-Tomatoes; some citrus
26. Dade-Tomatoes, Potatoes, Beans, Avo-
cados; some citrus
OTHER
S 27. Jacksonville-Dairy, Poultry, Market Gar-
dens (adjacent to large towns and cities)
LL 28. Fell Imere-Sugar Cane
UNSHADED AREAS- Little Agriculture; forest;
marsh; cut over land; range for cattle and hogs

-" '- ---- --

I -


p .
' i t -

'- -::_ :



",



5 '1- -- ,-


-i


Fig. 7.-Extensive forests, marshes and cut-over lands provide grazing
for cattle and hogs. Florida's three million crop land acres are concen-
trated in localized type-of-farming areas.


r-'



p -


-i~p-~





60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

da." The proposed dam will cover an extensive area in Florida
and Georgia along the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee and Flint
Rivers. Three million dollars were appropriated for work on the
dam during 1948-49. Proposed plans would include the develop-
ment of hydro-electric power, subject to the approval of the Sec-
retary of War and the Federal Power Commission. The acreage
involved in this development has not been determined. If suf-
ficient funds are forthcoming from Congressional appropriations
to permit construction of the dam at a normal pace, the dam and
reservoir will be completed in 1952.es




'7" .AREA I







DISTRIBUTION OF FLORIDA FARMS OF 1,000 ACRES r0 ,,",iii !i;.
MORE BY SELECTED GEOGRAPHICAL ACRES, 1945. ''


Area f 11111 1 I11 '
S Ii N ill 'I
1 1,838,848 508,916 3,029 27.7 ii
2 3,295,133 1,494,396 4,836 45.4


State 13,083,501 8,629,940 6,779 66.0

Source: Compiled from data in the 1945 U. S. Cen- -
sus of Agriculture.


Fig. 8.-Geographical Distribution of Florida Farms
of Large Size, 1945.



"60 Stat. 634 (1946, Part 1) c.595.
"Information supplied from the War Department, Corps of Engineers,
Mobile District, Mobile, Alabama, in a letter to the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations, dated April 5, 1948.





Riral Land Ownership in Florida


Farm Land.-Areas of specialized agricultural production are
widely scattered (Fig. 7). Much of the state is in forest, swamp
and cut-over land, which is used extensively for grazing cattle
and hogs.
In 1945 the U. S. Census of Agriculture reported 61,159 farms
comprising slightly over 13 million acres. This farm land was
operated under various tenure arrangements. About half of the
land was operated by full owners-farmers who owned all the
land they operated. Another 27 percent of this land was farmed
by part owners-farmers who owned part and rented part of the
land they operated. Tenants and share-croppers farmed about 6
percent of the land under lease or share-cropping agreements.
Thus, the owners had contracted away part of their rights in the
land. Managers operated about 3 percent of the farms, but these
farms contained about 17 percent of all farm land. Managers are
paid a salary and sometimes a percentage of the income from the
farm for their services. Actually, they have little or no rights to
the land they manage, as these rights are retained by the owner.
Although the average size of farm was 214 acres in 1945, 2
percent of the farms contained 8.6 million acres or 66 percent of
the state's total farm land. As a proportion of the total farm
land in each area, farms of 1,000 acres or larger accounted for
over 80 percent of the total farm acreage in Areas 3 and 4 (Fig.
8). In both of these areas the production of beef cattle is of in-
creasing economic importance. The proportion of crop land in
farms of 1,000 acres or more is small but about 89 percent of the
land is used for pasture (Fig. 9).
Crop sales in the "citrus belt" (Area 3), as reported by the
U. S. Census of Agriculture in 1945, represented nearly 86 per-
cent of the total farm income."" Many citrus groves are under the
supervision of cooperative producer organizations.
Commercial production of sugarcane in Florida is concentrated
largely in the Everglades (Area 4).;" As of 1941, about 35,000
acres of sugarcane were under cultivation there (Fig. 10).
Non-farm Rural Land.-All privately owned rural land except
that classified as farms7 is rural non-farm land. Public utilities
"Indicators of Florida Farm Prosperity, New Series, Bul. No. 129,
State Department of Agriculture, Florida, p. 5.
"'Florida's Sugar Bowl, New Series, Bul. No. 94, State Department of
Agriculture, Florida.
"As defined by the 1945 U. S. Census of Agriculture: "A farm, for
census purposes, is all the land on which some agricultural operations are
performed by one person, either by his own labor alone or with the as-
sistance of members of his household, or hired employees."





Florida Agricultutral Experiment Station


own more than 150,000 acres. The remainder includes waste and
marsh land, productive forests and land used for unincorporated
towns, villages, crossroad settlements and city fringe areas. The
amount of land used for rural non-farm homes is unknown, but it
is particularly high in Area 3 (Table 14).
In nearly all Florida counties, and particularly within a radius
of several miles around many towns and cities, thousands of
urban or rural lots have reverted to the county in which they are
located or to the state for non-payment of property taxes. In
prior years, numerous subdivisions were mapped in sparsely set-
tled areas for speculative purposes. The expense of handling the
numerous records of small tax-forfeited lots of little value is high.
Valuations for assessment purposes in many cases are dispropor-
tionate to the actual value.
The creation of subdivisions is relatively simple. However,
these subdivisions may be vacated and returned into acreage only
when an applicant owns the fee simple title to the entire tract to
be vacated. Also, all state and county taxes must be paid before
an application for vacating is entertained."2 As, after a period of
See Fla. Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.) cs. 177 and 192.

Fig. 9.-Improved pastures of large size are aiding the beef cattle in-
dustry of Florida. A purebred Brahman herd, Osceola County, rests in
the shade of palms. (USDA Extension Service photograph.)






RF tral Laiid Ou'?iicrship iii Florida


_V .- P


Fig. 10.-Huge rectangular fields lie on the edge of Lake Okeechobee.
The rich muck soils yield abundant crops of winter vegetables and sugar-
cane. Here farming is highly mechanized and many of the farms are under
corporation control.


time, entire tracts seldom remain in one ownership, the provisions
of the law are difficult to meet. As a result many isolated areas
now platted cannot be returned to acreage readily even though
that course seems most desirable.
Rural non-farm land is used for a wide variety of purposes, in-
cluding airports, drainage systems, resorts, private recreational
areas and other business enterprises. Only rough estimates can
be made of the acreage used for some of these purposes. How-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ever, it is known that about 87 thousand acres are utilized by
airports alone and that another 30 thousand acres are estimated
to be in drains that service nearly 6 million acres in organized
drainage enterprises (Tables 18 and 19).
Each municipality"7 of Florida, through its governing body, is
permitted by state law"7 to acquire property required to estab-
lish and operate airports and landing fields. Municipal airports
or landing fields may be within or without the geographical
limits of the owning municipality and within or without the
state. Title to such real property may be held in fee simple, "or
any lesser interest ." such as by lease.
Municipal airports or other air navigation facilities are public.
They must be operated for the benefit of the public. Property
so used is exempt from taxation to the same extent as other
property used for public purposes. When the right to lease land
for air navigation facilities is exercised by a municipality, the
term of the lease may not exceed 30 years.
The capital invested in 128 Florida drainage enterprises in
1930 amounted to over 39 million dollars and covered 5,780,698
acres of land. Eighteen enterprises, covering 174,236 acres, re-
ported their works incomplete." In 1940 the total investment
was 43.3 million dollars and land in drainage enterprises dropped
to 5,699,022 acres.
As compensation for drainage work completed, nearly 2.8 mil-
lion acres of swamp and overflowed lands were conveyed by the
state to canal and drainage companies on or by July 1, 1938."
Most of the land drained is subject to drainage taxation which is
frequently not paid. Today thousands of acres are encumbered
with liens for non-payment of drainage taxes. As an example,
on August 22, 1948, about 9,600 acres in Dade County were de-
linquent in drainage taxes to the Everglades Drainage District,
and an additional 23 thousand acres had reverted jointly to the
state and the Everglades Drainage District.
The U. S. Census in 1940 reported the total area delinquent in
Florida exceeded five million acres. This figure, however, is
"As herein used and defined by law, "municipality" means any county,
city, town or village of the State of Florida. Throughout this report, when
otherwise referred to, the term "municipality" applies to incorporated
urban centers, regardless of size.
"Airport Law of 1945. Fla. Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.) c.332; (Fla.
Laws 1945, c.22846).
7 Drainage of Agricultural Lands, Fifteenth Census of the United States,
1940.
"Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report, Florida Department of Agriculture,
p. 25.







Rural Land Ownership in Florida 65


TABLE 18.-RURAL LAND IN AIRPORTS, BY OWNERSHIP CLASSIFICATION, BY
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, SEPTEMBER 29, 1948.

County State County City Total
Acres Acres Acres Acres
Alachua ........................... ......------- ---. 635 635
B ak er ... ....... ............... .....
B ay ........ ................... ........ ... 600 600
Bradford .. ......... ...........
Brevard .............................. ........ 160 2.080 2,240
Brow ard ...... .................. -------- -------- 700 700
C alhoun ... .....................
Charlotte ............................ ........ 1.720 ....... 1,720
C itrus ........... .... ....... ........ 80 -.. -.... 80
Clay .... ................. 1,200' 1,200
C ollier ... .................................. 6102 .......... 610
Columbia ............... ----- --------- 1,016 1,016
D ade .................................. .... -- 4,461 82 4,543
D eSoto ... ...............------.. 154 154
D ixie ............ ........................ 2,082 .......... 2,082
D uval ................................ -.... .... 4,095 4,095
E scam bia ..... ...................... ...- 1,045 1,045
Flagler .............................. ....-.. 1.145 .......... 1,145
F franklin ... ...... ............... .. .... 800 .......... 800
Gadsden .......................... ......... 208 208
G ilch rist ................................
G lad es ....... ........... ............
Gulf
H am ilton ............................................
H ardee .........- .................. -- -.......... .....
H endry ............................ -- 2,560 .... .. --.-.... 2,560
H ernando .......... ............. ---.-..--- 2,660 2,660
H ighlands ........ ..... ... ..... ........ -....... 1.660 1,660
Hillsborough ............................ 2,135 1,910 4,045
H olm es ................ ................
Indian River ............ ..........- ------ .. 2,136 2,136
Jackson .. 4,300 4,300
Jackson ............................. ........ -------- 4,300 4,300
J efferso n ........... ........... .................. .. .. .. ....
Lafayette ................
Lake ........ ........- .---- ------ ------ -------. 1,027 1,027
Lee -............-... ---.. 8,3003 ..--- .. 8,300
L eon ..................................... ........ ----.... 600 600
L evy .....................................-........ 65 1,705 1,770
L ib erty .....................................................
M adison ...................................... ....
75 75
M anatee ................. ............ ........- .-- 75 75
M arion ............................... .. 3,818 364 4,182
M artin ...... ................. -- -.....- 950 .------.. 950
Monroe .............-....- ..--- .- 113 1,793. .------ 1,906
N assau ....................-- ........ ..........1,116 1,116







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 18.-RURAL LAND IN AIRPORTS, BY OWNERSHIP CLASSIFICATION, BY
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, SEPTEMBER 29, 1948 (Concluded).

County State County City Total

Acres Acres Acres Acres
Okaloosa .........-- .....
Okeechobee ......................... ... 1,060 ..... 1,060
Orange .............. ..----- ..- ....... .... 2,310 2,310


Osceola ------
Palm Beach -
Pasco ...........
Pinellas ........
Polk .........--
Putnam .........
St. Johns .......
St. Lucie .....
Santa Rosa ..
Sarasota ......
Seminole ....
Sumter ......
Suwannee ...
Taylor ..........
Union .......
Volusia ..........
Wakulla .........
Walton .....
Washington
State Totals
Percent .........


40





















2,713
3.1


2,568"

1,063

397

1,637
480
711


1,334






37,369
42.8


960

928
530
5,069
680
310


1,817
1,198





3.869

127
120
47,286
54.1


960
2,608
928
1,593
5,069
1,077
310
1,637
480
2,528
1,198


1,334

3,869

127
120
87,368
100.0


Information taken from card files of Civil Aeronautics Administration,
Washington, D. C.
'Located partly in Bradford County.
'Owned by Collier County and the City of Naples.
'Owned by Lee County and the City of Fort Myers.
'Owned by Marion County and the U. S. War Department.
"Owned by Monroe County and the U. S. Navy.
"Owned by Palm Beach County and the U. S. War Department.
'Owned by Sarasota and Manatee counties.

misleading, since the same land is frequently reported delinquent
in two or more enterprises.
Drainage enterprises utilize good agricultural land, as well as
unreclaimed land or land unsuited to agriculture. Effort is made
to provide suitable outlets into which the farms of a district may
be drained and to afford relief from overflow for the district as
a whole.
Actual acreage of land employed by canal and drainage rights
of way runs into many thousands of acres, the exact amount of






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


TABLE 19.-DRAINAGE SUMMARY FOR FLORIDA. 1940.
Area in Drainage Enterprises
Item Acres
Land in drainage enterprises 5,699,022
Improved land 685,859
Unimproved land
Woodland 1,196,322
Other 3,816,841
Source: Drainage of Agricultural Lands, Florida, Sixteenth Census
of the United States. 1940.

which is unknown.'7 Some drainage authorities estimate that
about one acre in every 40 of improved farm land in the Ever-
glades is required for the ditches and waterways necessary to
drain it. Nearly 13 thousand acres lie in canal rights of way of
the Everglades Drainage District, which drain an area of ap-
proximately seven thousand square miles.
In 1930 over 50 percent of the total drainage ditches of the
state and over 80 percent of the canals and levees were in the
Everglades. The remainder of the organized drainage enter-
prises were scattered from Duval County in northeastern Flori-
da to Lake Okeechobee on the northern edge of the Everglades.
Any estimate as to the extent of farm drainage ditches con-
structed would be misleading, as many drainage companies are
no longer active but rights of way have not reverted to private
ownership.

Practices in Public Land Ownership
Special acts of the legislature have been necessary to delimit
reserved rights and regulatory measures retained by the state
and to restrict rights in land which may be ceded to private
owners. Although public lands are bought and sold on a spatial
basis in surface measurements, the State of Florida has reserved
for itself mineral, petroleum oil and gas, and riparian rights,
found either upon or under the surface of certain lands. Also, in
some instances, proportions of receipts derived from the sale or
use of public lands are reapportioned to the counties in which
they were originated.

"The Florida State Legislature, in 1947, (Fla. Laws 1947, c.24283) ap-
propriated 150 thousand dollars for the biennial period beginning July 1,
1947, for the purpose of making survey and research of and into ground
and surface water conditions of the whole of the State of Florida. When
the survey is completed, the acreage of land utilized for water control
may be known.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Validity of Ownership.,8-Many deeis of conveyance from the
state to individuals have never been recorded in the different
counties, nor are the patents and approved lists issued under the
different acts of Congress on record in the several counties. It
is the duty of the land division, Florida State Department of Ag-
riculture, to perfect such titles and to issue certificates upon re-
quest.7
Deed records prior to 1877 are very imperfect. Some of them
disappeared during reconstruction days. Many transactions re-
garding the old legislative grants and old conveyances to rail-
road and canal companies made just after the Civil War are un-
written.
Some land records go back to the time when Florida was in
the hands of the Spaniards, or even to the time when it belonged
to England. Old Spanish claims are divided into bundles of "Con-
firmed" and "Unconfirmed" claims. These claims are most num-
erous up and down the east coast of Florida, along the St. Johns
River and near Pensacola. In 1821, when Florida was purchased
from Spain by the United States, "Confirmed" claims were rec-
ognized. Many of the "Unconfirmed" claims have since been
found valid and confirmed by different acts of Congress.
The land division of the Florida State Department of Agricul-
ture has prepared, or is preparing, abstracts which correct all
errors of all conveyances of land by the United States and by the
state. The seal of "The Department of Agriculture of the State
of Florida" is required to be affixed on all deeds conveying land
sold by the State. All deeds with said seal attached are valid
and no witnesses are required.-o
Titles to land which has reverted to the state and the various
counties through tax delinquency are subject to specific restric-
tions by legislative statute. Necessarily, valid titles to private
conveyances rest upon thoroughness of search and authenticity
of data.8l
Reservation of Mineral Rights.-The state reserves specific
mineral rights in all contracts and deeds in sales of public land
executed by the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund and
the State Board of Education. In these sales, the state retains
an undivided three-fourths interest in all phosphate minerals and
"For detailed information see Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.
"See Fla. Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.) sec. 92.16.
OFla. Stat. (1941) sec. 19.22.
"See "Adverse Possession," Fla. Stat. (1941) c.95, for limitations.






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


metals that are in or may be in, on or under such public land. The
state also retains an undivided half interest in all petroleum and
reserves the right to develop it. These reserved privileges do not
apply to contracts of sale made before the effective date of these
restrictions.8
Oil and Gas Leases.-The state, through its duly authorized
agencies, is authorized to negotiate, sell and convey lease-hold
estates.- It makes, executes and delivers lease contracts, com-
monly known as petroleum oil and gas leases. The terms and
conditions are those agreed upon between the State Board ex-
ecuting the lease and the lessee.-
In addition, each of the respective agencies is empowered to
sell petroleum oil and gas interests or any other mineral of any
kind whatsoever. Such conveyances are by royalty deeds be-
tween the state board and buyers, subject to certain specified
legal requirements.'
Grants to Riparian Owners.-The state has divested itself of
all riparian rights to land covered by water lying in front of land
owned by the United States or by any person, natural or arti-
ficial, upon any navigable stream or bay of the sea or harbor, as
far as the edge of the channel. These rights are subject to any
inalienable trust under which the state holds all submerged land
and water privileges within its boundaries.'"
Riparian proprietors have full rights and privileges to build

"Fla. Stat. (1941) sec. 270.11 (Fla. Laws 1911, c.6159: 1939, c.19355,
sec. 1095).
"Subsequent to June 4, 1941, the Board of Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund, the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions, and
the State Board of Education became the legal leasing agencies.
'This authority when it concerns tidelands or submerged coastal lands,
has been challenged by the United States Supreme Court. See "Problems
in Florida and Other Coastal Waters Caused by the California Tidelands
Decision," by Julius F. Parker. 1 U. of Fla. L. Rev. 44 (1948). The supreme
court of the United States in United States vs. California. 67 Sup. Ct. 1658
(1947), held that California "is not the owner" to submerged coastal waters
commonly referred to as "tidelands" and extending three statute miles
seaward from the low water mark on the California Coastlands. The cur-
rent effect of this decision in Florida will be to cloud titles to numerous
coastland areas on which millions of dollars have been invested. Titles
to these lands were derived from the trustees of the Internal Improve-
ment Fund under the belief that the State of Florida was the rightful
owner. Until the question of the sovereignty of tidelands has been def-
initely established, the legality of leasing agreements for the removal of
products from in or under the sea, including oil and minerals, will be
seriously questioned also.
8"For example, the drilling of at least one test well every 21, years.
Refer to Fla. Stat. (Cum. Supp. 1947) sees. 253.51 to 253.63 (Fla. Laws
1945, c.22824).
"'Effective date: December 27, 1856. Fla. Stat. (1941).






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


wharves or other buildings into the streams or waters of the
bays or harbors, providing channels are not obstructed. Full
space must be left for the requirements of commerce. Riparian
owners may maintain action of trespass in any court of compe-
tent jurisdiction in the state for any interference with such
property.
These rights do not extend to swamp or overflowed lands.
Rights are limited to those persons and corporations owning land
actually bounded by, and extending to, high water mark on such
navigable streams, bays and harbors. S Also, the state reserves
all natural oyster beds upon, and all minerals and oils in or under,
the submerged land until it shall be filled in and improved by
the owner.
Proceeds of Sale of State Land Reserved for State School
Fund.-The trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, pur-
suant to constitutional provision, set aside and pay into the state
school fund 25 percent of the proceeds derived from the sale,
lease or rental of land held or administered by them. This pro-
vision also applies to receipts from the sale of any products in,
on or under all state lands vested in the trustees.s These pro-
visions do not apply to tax-forfeited land, title to which is
vested in the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, until
all costs required by law have been paid.
National Forest Fund.-All moneys credited to the National
Forest Fund are distributed to counties upon request according
to their interests as determined by the state comptroller. The
amounts paid to each county are based upon receipts and the
forest acreage in that particular county. The funds so appor-
tioned must be divided equally between the county current school
fund and the general road fund of said counties unless otherwise
amended.'-
From three of the four state forests located in eight counties,
10 percent of the gross receipts are apportioned to the respec-
tive counties. They are the Myakka River State Forest in Sara-
sota and Manatee counties, Pine Log State Forest in Washing-
ton and Bay counties, and Cary State Forest in Nassau and
Duval counties. The Blackwater River State Forest, located on
land in Santa Rosa and Okaloosa counties, is owned by the fed-

'Excludes all lakes except tide water lakes, and beaches customarily
used by the public as bathing beaches.
Fla. Stat. (1941) sees. 270.12-270.15.
"'Fla. Stat. (19411 sec. 254.02.






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


eral government and leased to the Florida Board of Forestry and
Parks. In this instance, 12 percent of the gross receipts are set
aside and returned to the counties in which they originated.9o
Public Land and Taxation.-Approximately 15 percent of the
land in Florida is publicly owned. The proportion of public land
varies considerably from county to county (Table 1). Public ac-
quisition is aimed toward land of low productivity, suitable for
recreation, production of wildlife and conservation of natural re-
sources, among which are forestry projects, watershed protec-
tion, flood control and drainage.
In counties where public land ownership is high the amount of
real estate available for taxation is correspondingly low, as
publicly owned land is not on the tax rolls. However, for certain
types of land the federal government makes contributions to the
state from revenues derived from use of the land. For example,
25 percent of the receipts from national forests are paid to states
for the benefit of counties in which national forests are situ-
ated.o- These contributions are to be used for schools and roads.
Similar contributions are made from receipts from conservation
and land-utilization projects under the Bankhead-Jones Farm
Tenant Act.9, Likewise, the Fish and Wildlife Service contrib-
utes 25 percent of net revenue derived from refuges, disposi-
tion of surplus wildlife or sale of timber, hay, grass or other
products of the soil to the counties in which refuges are lo-
cated.93
Homeowners are benefited by the state constitutional right of
homestead exemption,-9 which entitles the person permanently
residing on real property to an exemption from all taxation, ex-
cept for assessments for special benefits, up to an assessed valu-
ation of $5,000.-9 Consequently, in many counties comparatively
few homes are subject to real estate taxation. As this large real
estate base, like that of publicly owned land, is also exempt
from taxation, the funds received to operate county govern-

90As of April 12, 1947.
"16 U.S.C.A. sec. 500 (1939, Supp. 1947).
"'7 U.S.C.A. sec. 1012 (1939).
1316 U.S.C.A. sec. 715A (1939).
"Fla. Const., Art. X.
"Exempts homesteads up to 160 acres of rural land, or the one-half of
one acre within the limits of any incorporated city or town, owned by the
head of the family residing in Florida, together with $1,000 worth of per-
sonal property. Also widows, and residents who have lost a limb, or who
were disabled in war or by misfortune, are granted limited exemptions from
property taxation.









72 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station




COUNTY PERCENT OF TOTAL COUNTY RECEIPTS
0 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
UNION
WAKULLA
GILCHRIST
JEFFERSON
FLAGLER
FRANKLIN
SUMTER
COLLIER
LAFAYETTE
OKEECHOBEE
HERNANDO
OSCEOLA
BAKER
CITRUS
OKALOOSA
SANTA ROSA
GLADES
HENRY
HAMILTON
CALHOUN
BRADFORD
JACKSON
HARDEE
MADISON
LIBERTY
CLAY
WASHINGTON
HIGHLANDS
IHODIAN RIVER
CHARLOTTE
PUTNAM
DIXIE
SUWANNEE
DE SOTO
ST. JOHNS
TAYLOR
WALTON
COLUMBIA
SEMINOLE
HOLMES
ALACHUA
PASCO
NASSAU
BAY
MONROE
GADSDEN
MARION
BREVARD
LAKE
MARTINOWAR
GULF
MANATEE
ST. LUCIE
LEON
ORANGE
ESCAMDIA

LEVY

PALM BEACH

PINELLAS
DUVAL
DADE
BROWARD
HILLSBOROUGH
SARASOTA


Fig. 11.-Proportion of total county finance received from Racing
Commission funds for Florida counties for the year ended September 30,
1946.






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


ments must be derived in part from other sources. This loss in
tax revenue is partially offset by receipts from State Racing
Commission funds.
The extent that Racing Commission funds9" support county
government, in lieu of real estate or other local taxation, is
shown in Fig. 11. Each county in Florida received 898,000 from
racing funds in 1946 and $90,900 in 1947. In some instances,
however, funds derived from racing are distributed to the Board
of Public Instruction of a particular county. The boards of
county commissioners in those counties do not show, therefore,
said funds on their financial reports, as required under Chapter
128, Florida Statues of 1941.
Counties that have a low population density and few urban
centers derive large shares of their total operating funds from
federal and state sources.97 In some instances the local real es-
tate assessment valuations and tax collections based upon these
valuations are very low. As a consequence, salaries of county
tax assessors and county tax collectors often drop below the
minimum required for the effective execution of their duties.98
Low taxes or exemptions from taxation are indirect negative
methods to promote the conservation of natural resources, to at-
tract industries9 or to stimulate home ownership. Resident
home owners in Florida are in a particularly favorable position
in respect to tax exemption, as previously referred to. At pres-
ent there is no state tax on land.

Summary

Public rural land is held chiefly by federal, state and county
governments. Municipal governments also own a limited acre-
"The State Racing Commission consists of five persons appointed by
the Governor. The commission fixes and sets dates for racing, makes such
rules and regulations as are required, and must make an annual report to
the Governor showing its own actions, and receipts derived. Moneys are
paid to the State Treasurer who distributes the apportioned amounts
among the several counties.
"To cite but one case in point, for the year ending September 30, 1946,
county revenue receipts from taxes in one county amounted to $4,252.69 as
compared to total receipts from all sources, including Federal and State, of
$66,524.09. From Report of the Comptroller of the State of Florida of
County Finances, 1946, Schedule 2-D-1, pp. 18-19.
"An outgrowth of this situation was brought to the attention of the
public in 1947 when the State Legislature acted to provide minimum com-
pensation for tax assessors and tax collectors in certain counties. Fla.
Laws 1947, c.23649, c.23927, c.24128, c.24137, c.24138, c.24188, c.24259,
c.24355.
"Fla. Const., Art. IX, sec. 12.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


age. Most of the balance of rural land is in private ownership.
However, small tax-exempt areas are owned by organizations of
a semi-public nature, examples of which are youth organizations
and fraternal and religious groups.
On the basis of ownership classification, the leading holders
of federal land are: (a) the Forest Service and the Soil Conser-
vation Service of the United States Department of Agriculture;
(b) the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service
and the Bureau of Indian affairs of the Department of the In-
terior; and (c) the Department of the Army, the Department
of the Air Force and the Department of the Navy of the Nation-
al Military Establishment.
Most state land has been acquired by conveyance from the fed-
eral government, by purchase for conservation purposes or pub-
lic uses and through forfeiture for non-payment of taxes. Much
of the tax-reverted land has now been returned to private owner-
ship.
The trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund administer 1.3
million of the 1.8 million acres owned by the State. The other
important holders of state-owned land are the State Board of
Education, the Commissioners of State Institutions, the State
Road Department, the Board of Forestry and Parks, the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission and the State Armory Board.
The bulk of county-owned rural land is in tax-reverted land
and county roads. Approximately 36 thousand acres are in coun-
ty airports. Altogether about 356 thousand acres of rural land
are in county ownership.
Municipalities that own rural land acquired it usually for air-
ports, parks, water supplies and other uses. The extent of munic-
ipally owned rural land is comparatively limited.
Although over five million acres of Florida's rural land are
publicly owned, this represents but 15 percent of the total rural
land area. Title to large acreages of the non-farm rural land is
held by corporations for such uses as pulpwood, timber or naval
stores. Also many thousands of acres surrounding cities and
towns are required for rural non-farm residence. In some coun-
ties canals and drains also utilize large acreages.loo School prop-
erties withdraw from private ownership limited acreages in each
county. Of the land now remaining in public ownership, very
little is suitable for agricultural purposes.
'ooSee laws relating to drainage, Fla. Stat. (1941 and Cum. Supps.)
c.298; also see Fla. Laws 1947, c.24283.




Rural Land Ownership in Florida


Public lands contain a variety of resources and values, many
of which are of an inter-related and multiple-use nature, such as
forestry, water control and recreation. The basic policy in the
administration of public land, as advanced in legislation and ad-
ministrative pronouncements, is service of the public interest.
Public ownership in itself, however, is no guarantee that natural
resources will be preserved. To cite one example, tax-reverted
land in Florida is usually without any management whatsoever,
except where this land has been dedicated to public use.
Private interests control 85 percent of the rural land area of
Florida. Of this, 37.7 percent is classified as farm land and the
balance is employed in other uses. In general, a land owner may
do as he wishes with his own land except that he may not use it
to the injury of others. His rights to land are exclusive and not
absolute, but he may not be deprived of it "without due process
of law."
Recent trends in the rural land ownership in Florida indicate
a changing economic situation among the rural population. From
1925 to 1945 the average size of farm increased from 99 to 214
acres.'" Some of this increase represents land used for grazing
which is now reported as farm land. Concurrently the rural
population has declined as a proportion of the state total, even
as the population of the state grew rapidly. The increase in the
urban population and in rural non-farm living created a demand
for many additional acres of rural land. Technological changes
also have affected land use in agricultural areas, the full force
of which is not yet understood.
The impact of these changes has political, economic and social
consequences. Who owns the land, therefore, becomes a matter
of public interest. Every citizen will continue to have a stake in
land ownership and in the uses to which public and private land
is put. Each landowner is concerned with his rights as they are
determined by contract, custom and private practices effected
within the broader framework of our laws and institutions.


"'The United States Census of Agriculture, 1945.






Rural Land Ownership in Florida


ments must be derived in part from other sources. This loss in
tax revenue is partially offset by receipts from State Racing
Commission funds.
The extent that Racing Commission funds9" support county
government, in lieu of real estate or other local taxation, is
shown in Fig. 11. Each county in Florida received 898,000 from
racing funds in 1946 and $90,900 in 1947. In some instances,
however, funds derived from racing are distributed to the Board
of Public Instruction of a particular county. The boards of
county commissioners in those counties do not show, therefore,
said funds on their financial reports, as required under Chapter
128, Florida Statues of 1941.
Counties that have a low population density and few urban
centers derive large shares of their total operating funds from
federal and state sources.97 In some instances the local real es-
tate assessment valuations and tax collections based upon these
valuations are very low. As a consequence, salaries of county
tax assessors and county tax collectors often drop below the
minimum required for the effective execution of their duties.98
Low taxes or exemptions from taxation are indirect negative
methods to promote the conservation of natural resources, to at-
tract industries9 or to stimulate home ownership. Resident
home owners in Florida are in a particularly favorable position
in respect to tax exemption, as previously referred to. At pres-
ent there is no state tax on land.

Summary

Public rural land is held chiefly by federal, state and county
governments. Municipal governments also own a limited acre-
"The State Racing Commission consists of five persons appointed by
the Governor. The commission fixes and sets dates for racing, makes such
rules and regulations as are required, and must make an annual report to
the Governor showing its own actions, and receipts derived. Moneys are
paid to the State Treasurer who distributes the apportioned amounts
among the several counties.
"To cite but one case in point, for the year ending September 30, 1946,
county revenue receipts from taxes in one county amounted to $4,252.69 as
compared to total receipts from all sources, including Federal and State, of
$66,524.09. From Report of the Comptroller of the State of Florida of
County Finances, 1946, Schedule 2-D-1, pp. 18-19.
"An outgrowth of this situation was brought to the attention of the
public in 1947 when the State Legislature acted to provide minimum com-
pensation for tax assessors and tax collectors in certain counties. Fla.
Laws 1947, c.23649, c.23927, c.24128, c.24137, c.24138, c.24188, c.24259,
c.24355.
"Fla. Const., Art. IX, sec. 12.




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