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Title: Comparative feeding value of dried citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn for fattening steers in drylot
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Title: Comparative feeding value of dried citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn for fattening steers in drylot
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Peacock, F. M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1959
Copyright Date: 1959
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027173
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: aen7748 - LTUF
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HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 616 December 1959

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus

Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped

Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot

FENTRESS M. PEACOCK and W. G. KIRK






















Fig. 1.-Steer fed citrus pulp ration in 1954.

TECHNICAL BULLETIN

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


























CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .............. -. ..-- ....- ... -- .... -- ....-...... ......- 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................ -- --------- ..--- ..-...---- ..---- 3

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE .............----- ......--..... ---.........-..... ....--- 5

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS .............---....--- ----..--- ---------------...-...- 9

TDN Per 100 Pounds Gain ...-.....-- ------..........--.. --...-.-- 9

Increase in Carcass Grade ..........----... ........---- -..-- ---- -------.. .. 9

Dressing Percent -- --... --.........................................-......-...-.... 11

DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ......---......................---..--- ....-- 11

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ---......--.......---.----... --. -...--.---..----. 11

LITERATURE CITED .. ---- --......... .---..-- ---......------ -..----...... 12

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......----... --.. ..- --...----..-----... ---.....----.....--- 12








Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus

Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped

Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot

FENTRESS M. PEACOCK and W. G. KIRK 2

The value of any fattening feed for beef cattle depends upon
nutritive composition, price and availability. Cattle fattening
operations in Florida require large quantities of feed which must
be produced in the state or shipped in from other areas. Ship-
ping costs increase the price, which in turn narrows the margin
a feeder receives from the finished animal.
The main energy feeds used in Florida are corn and by-pro-
ducts from the citrus industry. Corn, the standard used for
evaluating energy feeds, is grown in limited amounts, causing
most feeders to depend upon out-of-state sources for shelled
corn and ground snapped corn. By-products of the citrus indus-
try are citrus pulp, citrus molasses and a limited amount of
citrus meal, with citrus pulp being the most important. Large
quantities of citrus pulp are available each year for beef cattle
feeding, and on a laboratory analysis basis, it compares favor-
ably with ground snapped corn with respect to TDN (total digest-
ible nutrients).
The large supply of citrus pulp, along with its potential
nutritive value as a feed (7)3, warrants its being compared
with corn feed meal and ground snapped corn on a pound-for-
pound basis in the fattening ration.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Numerous feeding trials conducted in Florida to test rations
containing citrus feeds for fattening cattle under particular
conditions have produced satisfactory results.
Peacock and Kirk (8) fed weanling calves a ration consisting
of 25 parts cottonseed meal (41 percent protein), 5 parts alfalfa
leaf meal, 10 parts corn feed meal and 60 parts dried citrus pulp.
The animals gained an average of 1.99 pounds per day for 140
days and graded U. S. Good on 467 pounds TDN per 100 pounds
gain.
1 Corn feed meal fed was the whole kernel coarsely ground.
SAssistant Animal Husbandman and Vice-Director in Charge, Range
Cattle Experiment Station, Ona.
3 Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Baker (2) found that replacing an equal weight of ground
snapped corn with citrus molasses in steer fattening rations re-
sulted in higher feed consumption, larger and cheaper gains,
earlier finish and slightly higher carcass grades. Baker (3) also
reported that replacing one third of the ground snapped corn
with either dried citrus pulp or citrus meal in a ration of equal
parts corn and citrus molasses gave satisfactory results. He
stated that either citrus pulp or meal, if priced lower than corn,
is a satisfactory substitute for part of the corn in a ration con-
taining a relatively large quantity of molasses.
Kirk et al (7) reported that steers fed 120 days with ground
snapped corn as the energy feed gained 2.37 pounds per day and
required 539 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain When dried
citrus pulp was used, cattle gained 2.17 pounds per day and 466
pounds TDN were required. Addition of 2 pounds of ground
snapped corn daily per animal to the dried citrus pulp ration
resulted in steers gaining 2.53 pounds daily with a TDN require-
ment of 484 pounds per 100 pounds gain.
Some areas in Florida, particularly the Everglades section,
have quality pasture forage during most of the year. Chapman
et al (5), in comparing the feeding value of energy feeds with
steers on Roselawn St. Augustine pasture, found no significant
difference in animal gain or efficiency of feed utilization between
citrus pulp and ground snapped corn.
Fig. 2.-Steers fed citrus pulp ration in 1954.





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Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot 5

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
A study to determine the comparative feeding value of citrus
pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn in a steer fatten-
ing ration was initiated in the spring of 1953. The rations, which
were full fed, consisted of 70 parts of either citrus pulp, corn
feed meal or ground snapped corn plus 25 parts cottonseed meal
(41 percent) and 5 parts /4" cut alfalfa. In addition, steers on
all rations were fed an average of 4 pounds of pangola hay daily
and 2 ounces of cod liver oil weekly. Adequate protein was
provided in all rations. The average composition and TDN of
the feeds used are given in Table 1.

TABLE 1.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION AND TOTAL DIGESTIBLE
NUTRIENTS OF FEEDS.
Dry Crude i Crude ICrude
Feeds | Matter Protein Ash Fat Fiber r NFE* TDN

Pangola hay .... 89.51 7.23 4.89 2.36 30.38 44.65 42
Dried citrus
pulp** .........-- 90.63 16.67 5.20 3.82 11.46 53.49 70
Corn feed
meal** ... ...... 89.08 19.64 3.05 2.91 5.75 57.75 76
Ground snap-
ped corn** .- 89.06 17.46 3.63 3.07 9.69 55.38 68
Citrus molasses i64.68 4.26 3.88 0.17 39.78 50

Nitrogen-free extract.
** Consisted of either 70 parts dried citrus pulp, corn feed meal or ground snapped corn,
plus 25 parts cottonseed meal and 5 parts 3%" cut alfalfa.

Steers selected for the 3 140-day feeding trials were all from
the same herd of 60 grade cows kept on native pasture. Animals
for the first 2 trials were sired by purebred Brahman bulls and
for the third trial by a crossbred Shorthorn-Brahman bull. The
breeding of the steers is representative of the majority of steers
produced in central and south Florida where Brahman bulls are
used extensively. Steer calves after weaning in September and
October were wintered on a limited amount of concentrate feed
and sufficient roughage, consisting of hay and pasture. They
were placed on feed the following March when approximately 1
year of age. All animals were thrifty but in thin flesh at the
start of the different trials.
Steers were hand fed twice daily at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.,
receiving limited amounts of hay and citrus molasses and a full







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

feed of their particular concentrate ration. All animals were
exercised twice each week and weighed every 14 days. The cat-
tle were sprayed with DDT at each weighing to control hornflies.
Animals had access to fresh water and Range Station min-
eral at all times. The mineral mixture (4) consisted of 29
pounds steamed bonemeal, 29 pounds defluorinated phosphate,
33.89 pounds common salt, 3.39 pounds red oxide of iron, 0.68
pound copper sulfate and 0.04 pound cobalt chloride or sulfate,
2.00 pounds cane molasses and 2.00 pounds cottonseed meal. A
preliminary period of 7 to 10 days was used to get cattle on feed.
This study was conducted for 3 years, using a total of 11
steers for Lot 1 and 12 steers each for Lots 2 and 3. In 1953
only 3 steers were available for Lot 1, while each of the other
lots had 4 steers. In 1954 and 1955 all lots had 4 steers each.
Feeder and initial slaughter grades and weights were the criteria
used in selecting steers for the lots in each trial.
At the completion of each 140-day feeding trial the steers
were hauled 85 miles to Tampa and were slaughtered the fol-
lowing day. A federal beef grader for the area graded the car-
casses after 48 hours in the cooler.
The least squares solution for disproportionate frequency
distribution was employed for these data. The method of analy-
sis was the abbreviated Doolittle method from which estimates
of treatment effects were obtained and analyses of variance for
the treatment effects were determined (Anderson and Bancroft,
1952) (1).

Fig. 3.-Steers fed corn meal ration in 1954.


p. .








Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot 7


TABLE 2.-RESULTS OF FEEDING TRIAL COMPARING CITRUS PULP,
CORN FEED MEAL AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN-1953.
| Ground
Citrus Corn Feed Snapped
Pulp Meal Corn

Feeding period, days ......----...- 140 140 140
Number of animals ....-..--..- 3 4 4
Av. initial weight ---.........- 428 379 398
Av. final weight ............-.......... 773 720 744
Av. daily gain ......................- .. 2.46 2.44 2.47
Av. TND/100 pounds gain ...... 446 465 426
Av. initial grade* --...-..----------- 2 2 2
Av. final grade* ..-----...---..-----... 10 9 9
Av. dressing percent .-................ 57.44 58.89 56.59

U. S. slaughter grades: Cutter 2: Utility 3, 4 and 5; Standard 6, 7 and 8; Good 9,
10 and 11.


TABLE 3.-RESULTS OF FEEDING TRIAL COMPARING CITRUS PULP,
CORN FEED MEAL AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN-1954.
Ground
Citrus Corn Feed Snapped
Pulp Meal Corn

Feeding period, days .-........... 140 140 140
Number of Animals -............... 4 4 4
Av. initial weight .---....-....-.- 480 495 474
Av. final weight .--------------- 828 845 802
Av. daily gain ..................-- ... 2.49 2.50 2.34
Av. TDN/100 pounds gain ...... 440 469 473
Av. initial grade* --...........-........ 4 4 4
Av. final grade* .............-- ......... 9 11 11
Av. dressing percent .............. 57.80 59.10 59.04

U. S. slaughter grades: Cutter 2; Utility 3, 4 and 5; Standard 6, 7 and 8; Good 9,
10 and 11.


TABLE 4.-RESULTS OF FEEDING TRIAL COMPARING CITRUS PULP,
CORN FEED MEAL AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN-1955.
Ground
Citrus I Corn Feed Snapped
Pulp I Meal I Corn

Feeding period, days ..-.......... --- 140 140 1 140
Number of animals ..............- 4 4 4
Av. initial weight ..........--....... 449 428 433
Av. final weight --....---- ..-----...... 758 741 773
Av. daily gain ....... ...-........--- 2.21 2.24 2.43
Av. TDN/100 pounds gain ...... 457 482 437
Av. initial grade* .................... I 2+ 2+ 2+
Av. final grade* ........-..........-...... 9 10 9
Av. dressing percent .........- 59.54 59.63 59.68

*U. S. slaughter grades: Cutter 2; Utility 3, 4 and 5; Standard 6, 7 and 8; Good 9,
10 and 11.








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations



TABLE 5.-SUMMARY OF VALUE OF CITRUS PULP, CORN FEED MEAL AND
GROUND SNAPPED CORN IN STEER FATTENING RATION FOR THREE YEARS,
1953-55.
Ground
Citrus Corn Feed Snapped
Pulp Meal Corn

Feeding period, days .................. 140 140 140
Number of animals ..---... -----.............. 11 12 12
Age, years .----....................... ---........ 1 1 1


Av. weight, pounds:
Initial ... ---.............----.......... ---... 455 434 434
Final .... .............. ..........-- ...... 788 769 773
Gain .-.............................--...... -333 335 339
Daily gain ................................ 2.38 2.39 2.42


Av. daily ration, pounds:
Hay ---....---..--. --.........--.---. 3.83 3.78 3.61
Concentrate feed ..-----.......... 11.44 11.43 12.18
Citrus molasses ......... .-------. 2.00 2.00 2.00
Cod liver oil, ounces* ....--..... 0.29 0.29 0.29
Range mineral ..----............- 0.14 0.19 0.19


Total............................-- ... 17.41 17.40 17.98


Feed required for 100
pounds gain, pounds:
Hay ............-----....-........------... 160 157 149
Concentrate feed .................... 481 478 503
Citrus molasses ..................... 88 82 83
Cod liver oil, ounces* .........- 12 11.9 11.8
Range mineral .-----....................... 6 8 8


Total............--..-..........- ... 735 725 743


TDN/100 pounds gain ......... 448 472 446


Av. grades:**
Feeder ..............----............. .... 9 10 10
Initial slaughter ---....................-- 2 2 2
Final slaughter .................... 9 10 10
Carcass ........----..... ----...... ................ 9.2 9.7 9.5


Av. dressing percent ---...... 58.33 59.31 58.44

Cod liver oil not included in total ration and feed per 100 pounds gain.
** U. S. grades: See Tables 2. 3 and 4.







Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot 9

























Fig. 4.-Steers fed ground snapped corn ration in 1954.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Average results for each of the 3 feeding trials are given
in Tables 2, 3 and 4 and a summary of all trials in Table 5.
A summary of the analysis of variance is given in Table 6.
The adjusted mean square for gain of steers was non-significant.
The estimated effect, together with adjusted means for steer
gains on different rations, is given in Table 7.

TDN PER 100 POUNDS GAIN
The estimated effect of TDN per 100 pounds gain, together
with adjusted means, is shown in Table 8. The adjusted mean
square was non-significant when tested against year x ration
interaction for error. Sums of squares for individuals were not
calculated due to steers being group fed.

INCREASE IN CARCASS GRADE
The adjusted mean square for increase in grade was non-
significant when tested against year x ration interaction. The








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 6.-MEAN SQUARES AND SIGNIFICANT LEVELS FOR THE VARIOUS
MEASURES OF COMPARATIVE FEEDING VALUE OF DRIED CITRUS PULP,
CORN FEED MEAL AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN IN STEER FATTENING
RATION.
Increase
Source of Gain TDN/100 Carcass Dressing
Variability ID.F. Pounds Grade Percent
I Mn.Sq. I SL | Gain* Mn.Sq. i SL I Mn.Sq. I SL

Year .......... 2 661.00 NS 755.20 NS 3.25 NS 11.05 NS

Ration ...... 2 58.50 NS 2650.10 NS 1.65 NS 1.80 NS

Year x
Ration 4 1466.50 NS 1100.60 3.05 .05 2.83 NS


Within
(error) J 26 1499.30 -- [- .77 1.62 -
Individual sums of squares could not be calculated due to each lot being group fed.

TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF RATION ON GAIN OF STEERS IN A 140-DAY
FEEDING PERIOD, CORRECTED FOR YEARS.
I Number of Adjusted I Deviation from
Ration Steers Mean the Mean

Citrus pulp .........-----.. 11 333.6 1.7

Corn feed meal ........... 12 334.5 .8

Ground snapped corn .... 12 337.8 + 2.5


TABLE 8.-EFFECT OF RATION ON TDN PER 100 POUNDS GAIN ON STEERS,
CORRECTED FOR YEARS.
Number of Adjusted Deviation from
Ration Steers Mean the Mean

Citrus pulp --..--- 11 447.5 7.8
Corn feed meal .............. 12 472.5 +17.2

Ground snapped corn .... | 12 445.9 9.4


TABLE 9.-EFFECT OF RATION ON INCREASE IN CARCASS GRADE
OF STEERS, CORRECTED FOR YEARS.
Number of Adjusted I Deviation from
Ration Steers Mean I the Mean

Citrus pulp ................ 11 6.4 .6
Corn feed meal ............. 12 7.5 + .5

Ground snapped corn .... 12 7.1 + .1







Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot 11

year x ration interaction was significant at the .05 level of prob-
ability. The estimated effect of increase in grade, together with
adjusted means, is shown in Table 9.

DRESSING PERCENT
The adjusted mean square for dressing percent was non-sig-
nificant when tested against year x ration interaction. The
adjusted effect of dressing percent, together with adjusted
means, is shown in Table 10.

TABLE 10.-EFFECT OF RATION ON DRESSING PERCENT OF STEERS,
CORRECTED FOR YEARS.
Number of Adjusted Deviation from
Ration Steers Mean the Mean
Citrus pulp .................... 11 58.28 .39
Corn feed meal .- ...-- .. 12 59.25 + .58
Ground snapped corn .. 12 58.48 .19


DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Average results of the 3 feeding trials comparing citrus pulp,
corn feed meal and ground snapped corn are given in Table 5.
Differences between gain, TDN, improvement in slaughter grade
and dressing percent were non-significant.
Daily feed intake for all groups was approximately the same,
with ground snapped corn consumption being highest. Physical
characteristics, such as bulkiness of the ration, apparently had
no effect upon the amount of feed consumed by the steers.
The fecal discharge of the corn-fed cattle was firm, indicating
good digestive action. Cattle fed citrus pulp had loose feces,
but there was no scouring.
Grade Brahman steers 1 year of age are in a growing state
(8). A 140-day feeding period for this type and age of steer is
relatively short because the feed required for rapid growth re-
duces the nutrients available for fattening. However, slaughter
grade improved from U. S. Cutter to U. S. Good during the 140-
day trial.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Three drylot feeding trials, using grade Brahman short-
yearling steers, comparing citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground
snapped corn for 140 days, have been completed. The data from








12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

these trials show that there were no significant differences in
gain, TDN per 100 pounds gain, improvement in grade or dress-
ing percent between steers fed citrus pulp, corn feed meal and
ground snapped corn when combined with adequate protein and
other essential nutrients in a ration for young growing steers.

LITERATURE CITED

1. ANDERSON, R. L., and T. A. BANCROFT. Statistical theory in research.
1st Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1952.

2. BAKER, F. S., JR. Steer fattening trials in north Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Cir. S-89. 1955.

3. BAKER, F. S., JR. Citrus molasses, dried citrus pulp, citrus meal and
blackstrap molasses in steer fattening rations. N. Fla. Exp. Sta.
Mimeo Rept. 55-3. 1953.

4. BECKER, R. B., P. T. DIX ARNOLD, W. G. KIRK, GEORGE K. DAVIS and
R. W. KIDDER. Minerals for dairy and beef cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 513R. 1957.

5. CHAPMAN, H. L., JR., R. W. KIDDER and S. W. PLANK. Comparative
feeding value of citrus molasses, cane molasses, ground snapped corn
and dried citrus pulp for fattening steers on pasture. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 531. 1953.

6. KIRK, W. G., E. R. FELTON, H. J. FULFORD and E. M. HODGES. Citrus
products for fattening cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 454. 1949.

7. KIRK, W. G., and GEORGE K. DAVIS. Citrus products for beef cattle.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.

8. PEACOCK, F. M., and W. G. KIRK. Feed lot performance and carcass
grades of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn steers. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 597. 1958.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors appreciate the assistance of the following individuals in
gathering and preparing data for this bulletin: Eugene Mansolo, Sidney
Albritton, Ralph Durrance, W. C. Hines and 0. C. Coker in feeding and
caring for steers; Elver M. Hodges in taking pictures; Mrs. Richard Rob-
erts, Alice Faye Evers and Mrs. Zula Mercer in tabulating results and
typing manuscript.





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