• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Preface
 Main
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 609
Title: Comparative costs of alternative methods for performing certain handling operations in Florida citrus packing houses
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027170/00001
 Material Information
Title: Comparative costs of alternative methods for performing certain handling operations in Florida citrus packing houses
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 69 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Capel, George L ( George Lafayette ), 1923-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Handling -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Costs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 56.
Statement of Responsibility: by George L. Capel.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "In cooperation with Marketing Research Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture"--T.p.
General Note: "A study conducted with funds provided by the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946"--T.p.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027170
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000927035
oclc - 18299241
notis - AEN7738

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 3
    Preface
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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    Back Cover
        Page 68
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.





Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 609


June 1959


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
JOSEPH R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
in cooperation with
Marketing Research Division
Agricultural Marketing Service
United States Department of Agriculture










Comparative Costs of Alternative Methods

For Performing Certain Handling

Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses


By GEORGE L. CAPEL
Assistant Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, and Agricultural Economist, Marketing Organization and Costs
Branch, Marketing Research Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,
United States Department of Agriculture









A study conducted with funds provided by the
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










CONTENTS
Page

P RE F A CE .................... ........ ...................... ...... ....... ... .. .. .. ...... .-- 4
IN TRODU CTION ................. ...... .. ........... ... .......... --- ---- -..... ... ..... 5
Relationship Between Packinghouse Costs and All Costs ....-- ..-- 6
Purpose of Study ............ .. ..- ..- ...... -... ... ....... ....- 7
M ethod of Study ........- .. .- -... .- .......- .... ..... .... ...- ... 7
UNLOADING AND STORING WIREBOUND Box MATERIALS -...... ........... 10
D description of M ethods ...........- ...... ...- .....--.. ....... .. ... -...-.. -.--.-..- 10
Analysis of M methods ....................... -- ........ -- ... .. 11
ASSEMBLING AND SUPPLYING WIREBOUND BOXES TO PACKERS .....---- .. 15
D description of M methods ................... ........ ............................ .... --..- 15
A analysis of M ethods ......- ..- .. ..... ...- ..- .... ...-. .... ..... 16
CLOSING, TRANSPORTING AND LOADING WIREBOUND BOXES .... .... ....... 20
Description of M methods ----. -..- .....-- ...- ....-.... ... ... .. -- 21
A analysis of M methods -.... ... -......- .... ... -- -- .. .. ........ .. 23
CLOSING, TRANSPORTING AND LOADING STANDARD NAILED BOXFS .......... 30
Description of M ethods ...........-. .-.. ...---- ----- ... ..- 30
A analysis of M methods ........ -. .. -- .........- ... .... .. ..... .. .. 31
TRANSPORTING AND LOADING CONSUMER BAGS .. --....... ... ... .............- 37
D description of M ethods ...... .... ........... .... ........... -.- 37
A analysis of M ethods ........ ..... ............. .. ........ .- 40
HANDLING /-BUSHEL FIBERBOARD BOXES ... .... ... ... ..................... 47
D description of M methods ..... ....... ........................... ...... 48
A analysis of M ethods -..-..- .. .... ..-. ...... -...- ...- .. .. -- -....- .. 49
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .. ..... .... .. ............. ......... ........ -. .. 53
L ITERATURE C ITED ............ ... ...... ... ............ .... ..... .... .....-.- ...---- ...- 56
A PPEN DIX .................... .... .. .. ... .... ... -..... .- ...... .......- .--.. 57





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is highly appreciative of the cooperation extended by the
managers and owners of citrus packinghouses which served as a source
of information for this study. Special credit is due also to Dr. Eric Thor,
formerly Associate Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, for his assistance and guidance in planning and conducting
the study. Others who merit particular recognition are: Dr. H. G. Hamil-
ton, Head, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida
and Loyd C. Martin, Head, Horticultural Crops Section. Market Organiza-
tion and Costs Branch, Marketing Research Division, Agricultural Marketing
Service, for administrative direction and support; Dr. Alden C. Manchester,
Agricultural Economist, Horticultural Crops Section, Market Organization
and Costs Branch, Marketing Research Division, Agricultural Marketing
Service, for helpful suggestions in the preparation of the report; and Mrs.
Betty Heron for cheerfully performing the statistical computations and
typing the manuscript.










CONTENTS
Page

P RE F A CE .................... ........ ...................... ...... ....... ... .. .. .. ...... .-- 4
IN TRODU CTION ................. ...... .. ........... ... .......... --- ---- -..... ... ..... 5
Relationship Between Packinghouse Costs and All Costs ....-- ..-- 6
Purpose of Study ............ .. ..- ..- ...... -... ... ....... ....- 7
M ethod of Study ........- .. .- -... .- .......- .... ..... .... ...- ... 7
UNLOADING AND STORING WIREBOUND Box MATERIALS -...... ........... 10
D description of M ethods ...........- ...... ...- .....--.. ....... .. ... -...-.. -.--.-..- 10
Analysis of M methods ....................... -- ........ -- ... .. 11
ASSEMBLING AND SUPPLYING WIREBOUND BOXES TO PACKERS .....---- .. 15
D description of M methods ................... ........ ............................ .... --..- 15
A analysis of M ethods ......- ..- .. ..... ...- ..- .... ...-. .... ..... 16
CLOSING, TRANSPORTING AND LOADING WIREBOUND BOXES .... .... ....... 20
Description of M methods ----. -..- .....-- ...- ....-.... ... ... .. -- 21
A analysis of M methods -.... ... -......- .... ... -- -- .. .. ........ .. 23
CLOSING, TRANSPORTING AND LOADING STANDARD NAILED BOXFS .......... 30
Description of M ethods ...........-. .-.. ...---- ----- ... ..- 30
A analysis of M methods ........ -. .. -- .........- ... .... .. ..... .. .. 31
TRANSPORTING AND LOADING CONSUMER BAGS .. --....... ... ... .............- 37
D description of M ethods ...... .... ........... .... ........... -.- 37
A analysis of M ethods ........ ..... ............. .. ........ .- 40
HANDLING /-BUSHEL FIBERBOARD BOXES ... .... ... ... ..................... 47
D description of M methods ..... ....... ........................... ...... 48
A analysis of M ethods -..-..- .. .... ..-. ...... -...- ...- .. .. -- -....- .. 49
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .. ..... .... .. ............. ......... ........ -. .. 53
L ITERATURE C ITED ............ ... ...... ... ............ .... ..... .... .....-.- ...---- ...- 56
A PPEN DIX .................... .... .. .. ... .... ... -..... .- ...... .......- .--.. 57





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is highly appreciative of the cooperation extended by the
managers and owners of citrus packinghouses which served as a source
of information for this study. Special credit is due also to Dr. Eric Thor,
formerly Associate Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, for his assistance and guidance in planning and conducting
the study. Others who merit particular recognition are: Dr. H. G. Hamil-
ton, Head, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida
and Loyd C. Martin, Head, Horticultural Crops Section. Market Organiza-
tion and Costs Branch, Marketing Research Division, Agricultural Marketing
Service, for administrative direction and support; Dr. Alden C. Manchester,
Agricultural Economist, Horticultural Crops Section, Market Organization
and Costs Branch, Marketing Research Division, Agricultural Marketing
Service, for helpful suggestions in the preparation of the report; and Mrs.
Betty Heron for cheerfully performing the statistical computations and
typing the manuscript.














PREFACE
This study was made cooperatively by the Department of Agri-
tural Economics, Agricultural Experiment Station, University
of Florida, and the Marketing Research Division, Agricultural
Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
It is a portion of an over-all study of efficiency in handling and
packing citrus fruits from the grove through the packinghouse.
Other segments of the over-all study were published as:
1. "Cost of Moving Citrus from Tree onto Highway Trucks
as Related to Methods of Handling," Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station Bulletin 547, September 1954, by Eric Thor
and Luke D. Dohner.
2. "Cost Analysis of Bulk Handling Methods for Fresh Cit-
rus," Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Department of
Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 55-1, September 1954, by
Eric Thor.
3. "The Use of Packing Labor in Florida Citrus Packing-
houses," Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Department
of Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 57-8, June 1957, by
George L. Capel.
4. "Economies of Scale in the Operation of Florida Citrus
Packinghouses," Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bul-
letin 606, January 1959, by Eric Thor.
This study is also a part of Southern Regional Marketing
Project SM-4, Increasing Efficiency in the Marketing and Pricing
of Fresh and Processed Citrus Fruits.









Comparative Costs of Alternative Methods

For Performing Certain Handling

Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses

By GEORGE L. CAPEL

INTRODUCTION
The cost of preparing Florida citrus fruit for shipment to
distant markets has received the careful attention of research
workers for many years. In 1929 results of the first such re-
search were published (2).1 This study dealt with packinghouse
costs and with factors affecting the level of costs. The average
cost was $0.95 and S1.04 per box in 1924-25 and 1925-26, re-
spectively. Factors affecting cost were (a) the investment in
plant per box of fruit handled, (b) volume, (c) volume in rela-
tion to capacity, (d) volume per grower and (e) arrangement
of the packinghouse.
In 1934 a revision of the earlier report was issued and data
for the 1931-32 season were added (3). Emphasis was given
to the effect of investment upon costs and the interrelationships
of seasonal volume, investment and costs. The authors showed
that average costs decreased rapidly up to a seasonal volume
of 150,000 boxes per plant, but were relatively constant beyond
that point. The data included observations for packinghouses
handling up to 400,000 boxes per year. Other factors affecting
costs were (a) the percent of capacity at which packinghouses
operated, (b) the percentage of the total volume which was
grapefruit and (c) the arrangement of the packinghouse facilities.
The 1931-32 costs were based upon a sample of 125 packing-
houses-a larger number than was used in the earlier study.
The packinghouses in the study handled about 68 percent of
the total volume of fruit packed in Florida during the season.
In 1946 the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, in co-
operation with the Farm Credit Administration,2 United States
Department of Agriculture, undertook a continuing study of
packinghouse costs. Data on costs have been collected from a
large sample of packinghouses ranging from 77 in 1950-51 to 42
Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, page 56.
Now the Farmer Cooperative Service.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in 1956-57.3 This study has been a dependable yardstick of costs
over a series of years. Costs, as computed in this study, show
a gradual increase. In 1946-47 the cost per 1%-bushel wire-
bound box was $0.83; it rose to $0.96 in 1955-56. The costs of
packing in other containers rose similarly (Table 1).
TABLE 1.-TRENDS IN THE COST OF PACKING AND SELLING FLORIDA
FRESH CITRUS FRUITS, 1946-47 TO 1955-56.*

Oranges Grapefruit
1 1%-Bushel 1%-Bushel
Season 1%-Bushel Standard 1%-Bushel Standard
Wirebound Nailed Wirebound Nailed
Boxes Boxes Boxes | Boxes
Dollars Dollars I Dollars Dollars
1946-47 0.83 ** 0.75 **
1947-48 .. 0.84 1.14 0.73 1.04
1948-49 .. 0.83 1.16 0.74 1.08
1949-50 .. 0.88 1.14 0.80 1.03
1950-51 0.92 1.21 0.82 1.09
1951-52 .. 0.91 1.25 0.85 1.19
1952-53 0.95 1.27 0.85 1.17
1953-54 .. 0.94 1.37 0.84 1.19
1954-55 ._ 0.89 1.40 0.80 1.22
1955-56 .. 0.96 1.45 0.87 1.30

These data were adapted from a series of reports published annually since the 1946-47
season by the Department of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station.
** Comparable data not available.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACKINGHOUSE COSTS AND ALL COSTS
A study of the marketing margins for Florida grapefruit for
the 1949-50 season in Pittsburgh and Cleveland shows that
"shipping-point services" accounted for 13.3 percent and 12.1
percent, respectively, of the total retail price (5). In addition
to the packinghouse costs, advertising, inspection and selling
were included in shipping-point services. In 1951-52 and 1952-53
packinghouse costs made up 9.8 percent and 9.4 percent, respec-
tively, of the retail prices of Florida oranges sold in the New York
market. These figures are the proportion that the cost of pack-
ing 1%-bushel wirebound boxes (11, 12) made of the average
price in New York (6, 4). Using costs for other types of con-
tainers, the percentage of packinghouse costs for the retail price
would probably be higher, since the costs for 1l%-bushel wire-
bound boxes are lower than for others.
Data in Table 2 show the relationship of packinghouse costs
to other marketing costs up to the point of sale at the New York
3 The reports on this study have been published annually in mimeographed
form by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 7

auction market. Also, the costs are shown as a percentage of
the average auction price for the 1954-55 season. Packinghouse
costs make up a larger percentage of the retail price for fruit
shipped from the Indian River section, because of the higher
costs for standard nailed boxes.

TABLE 2.-PROPORTION THAT SPECIFIC COSTS PER 1%-BusHEL EQUIVALENT
MAKE OF THE AVERAGE AUCTION PRICE OF FLORIDA ORANGES AND GRAPE-
FRUIT, WIREBOUND AND STANDARD NAILED BOXES, 1954-55 SEASON.


Orai

Item 1%3-Bushel
Wirebound
Boxes

Dollars %
Picking and
hauling (9) .......... 0.39 9.8
Packinghouse
operation (13) .... 0.89 22.4
Transportation:
Freight (8) .......... 1.20 30.2
Refrigeration (8).. 0.12 3.0
Unloading (7) ...... 0.08 2.0
Total .................. 1.40 35.3
Auction charges (8)-- 0.25 6.3
Auction price (1) .... 3.97


nges_
| 1%-Bushel
Standard
Nailed
Boxes

Dollars I %


8.71
31.2
24.31
2.81
1.81
28.71
6.51
--


Grapefruit
I 1%-Bushel
1%-Bushel I Standard
Wirebound I Nailed
Boxes I Boxes

Dollars % Dollars %



0.80 25.2 1.22 30.3
1.08 34.0 0.98 24.3
0.12 3.8 0.12 1 3.0
0.08 2.5 0.08 2.0
1.28 40.3 1.18 29.3
0.21 6.6 0.26 6.5
3.18 4.03 -


PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purposes of this study are (a) to measure the physical
input-output relationships in a number of specific packinghouse
operations and (b) to use these relationships to show the rela-
tive costs of alternative work methods under a range of output
rates. The report should be useful to management in choosing
methods for performing the following: unloading and handling
box materials, closing boxes and transporting and loading packed
fruit. This analysis does not cover all operations. Among those
excluded are receiving, dumping, washing, waxing, coloring and
polishing, grading and packing. Some of these operations are
analyzed elsewhere (see Preface).

METHOD OF STUDY
Sample Selected.-The sample of packinghouses used in this
study was selected from the sample used in the study of costs
by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the Farm
Credit Administration. Packinghouses in that study were






Florida Agricultzural Experiment Stations


divided into four numerically equal groups according to their
index of average costs.4 Within these four groups, three further
classifications were made according to annual volume of fruit
handled. These were (a) under 200,000 boxes, (b) 200,000 to
600,000 boxes and (c) over 600,000 boxes. The three volume
classifications and the four cost groups made a total of 12
groups.
From each of these 12 groups, one house was selected so
that important methods of operation were included. For example,
packinghouses with and without an automatic dumper, with
various degrees of mechanization of in-plant transportation of
boxes or bagged fruit and with various procedures for box load-
ing and shipping were included. As data collection progressed,
it became apparent that additions to the sample were needed
for studying certain operations. These additional packinghouses
used methods in some operations that were not in use in the
original sample. Only the operations using the different methods
were studied.
Collection of Data.-Work sampling and time studies were
used to collect data on labor requirements. A work sampling
study is simply a work status analysis based on many random
observations of the worker over a period of time. Work sampling
studies were used in studying packinghouse functions involving
workers in fixed locations doing a repetitive job which had
relatively few elements and a measurable output (i.e., boxes
packed). Frequent observations were made of each worker and
the job element that was being performed was noted.
The sample observations on work status were accompanied
by other data, such as the total span of time for which observa-
tions were made, the number of workers employed in the oper-
ation and output of the workers observed in the time period.
Data were recorded also on length and cause of interruptions
in packinghouse operation.
Analysis of Data.-The work sampling and time studies were
used to compute the amount of working time required to do
specific jobs. An allowance for incidental duties and personal
rest time was added to the working times to estimate the labor
requirements for each job. In most cases the allowance was
10 percent, but for more difficult jobs resulting in more fatigue,
the allowance was larger.

Indexes of costs, rather than averages, were required because of the
variation among packinghouses in type of fruit and containers packed.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 9

The labor requirements then were used to set up hypothetical
crews for the alternative work methods. In some cases jobs
could be combined so that one or two workers could perform
many jobs. An example of this is in box assembling and supply-
ing. In others, a worker was required for a specific job. An
example of this is the box closer, who is required to remain at
a fixed location to close boxes as they come to him from packing.
Once the hypothetical crew was established, the labor re-
quirements were used to determine the maximum hourly out-
put. This was done by determining the hourly output possible
by all workers in the job or jobs assigned them. The maximum
possible output for the crew was that of the worker with the low-
est output. For example, if a two-man crew was assigned to jobs
so that one worker could turn out 200 units per hour and the
other 250, then the maximum output of the crew was 200. In
this example the next crew would be three workers, with two
assigned to the first job or jobs (assuming no reassignment of
jobs was made) and the maximum output would become 250
units per hour. Next, an additional man would be assigned to
the second job and the maximum output would become the 400
units, which the other two workers could perform on the first
job or jobs.
When the various crews were established, the labor costs per
hour were computed for each crew, using the appropriate hourly
wage rate. For most jobs the assumed wage rate was $1.00
per hour, but in a limited number of jobs a rate of $1.10 per
hour was used. In addition, computations were made with an
assumed wage rate of $1.25 to show the relative effect of this
higher rate upon costs.
The crew size determines the requirements for equipment.
Therefore, at each output rate the required items of equipment
were determined. Depreciation charges, interest, taxes and in-
surance costs were computed for each item of equipment. In
addition to fixed costs associated with ownership, certain vari-
able costs are associated with using the equipment. These are
repairs and electric power. Repairs were charged on equipment
at a rate 1/2 percent of the replacement cost per 100 hours of
operating time. Power costs were charged at 3 cents per horse-
power hour.
Total costs for the different methods were computed by com-
bining the fixed cost for each rate of output with the labor and
direct equipment costs. This computation was based upon the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


summary of fixed costs and direct costs. Total costs were esti-
mated for specific seasonal volumes and hourly rates of output.
It was assumed that packinghouses operated a minimum of 400
hours and a maximum of 1,200 hours. Therefore, data on total
costs for most operations are presented only for the volumes
which can be attained with the applicable hourly rate of output.
For example, if the hourly output rate is 500 boxes, then it is as-
sumed that the appropriate volume levels are between 200,000 and
600,000 boxes. Operations which are performed intermittently,
such as handling of fruit in consumer bags, may be performed
a fewer number of hours and, therefore, data are presented for
lower seasonal volumes.
A detailed example of the methods for making the cost an-
alyses presented in this study is given in the appendix.

UNLOADING AND STORING WIREBOUND
BOX MATERIALS
Wooden box materials arrive at packinghouses unassembled.
Wirebound boxes are in one piece, with top, bottom, sides and
end pieces held together by the wiring. The unassembled wire-
bound boxes are in bundles of 6 to 12, with 10 the most common.
Rail shipment is used almost exclusively. The number of un-
assembled boxes in a carload ranges between 6,000 and 7,000,
depending upon container type and loading practices of the
manufacturer. The loaded rail car of wirebound box materials
is stationed on the rail siding at the designated unloading point.

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS
The unloading point is determined by the location of the
equipment for transporting the box materials from the main
floor to the box balcony. This equipment is usually one elevator,
made up of an inclined plane with a chain conveyor at each side
to pull the bundles to the top of the elevator. Workers in the
rail car take the bundles from the car and place them on the
bottom of the elevator. At the top of the elevator, the bundles
(a) are taken off by hand and placed on four-wheel dollies (dolly
method: see Figure 1) or (b) fall directly onto a conveyor belt
(conveyor method). If the dolly method is used, the loaded
dollies are pushed to the storage area and unloaded and the
empty dolly is pushed back to the elevator. If the conveyor
method is used, the bundles are transported individually on the







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 11

conveyor belt to the storage area and workers stationed in the
storage area take the bundles from the belt and place them in
stacks.
ANALYSIS OF METHODS
Labor Requirements.-Data in Table 3 give the labor require-
ments for unloading wirebound box materials. All the jobs
except loading dollies involve a considerable amount of walking.
In unloading the rail car the worker must carry the bundles
from the car to the elevator. In placing boxes into storage from
a dolly little walking is required, but the loaded dolly must be
pushed from the loading point to the unloading point. The
worker assigned to store bundles of box materials from a con-
veyor belt must carry them from the belt to storage.

Fig. 1.-Removing bundles of box materials from the box materials
elevator and placing them on a four-wheel dolly for transportation to
storage.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 3.-LABOR REQUIREMENTS FOR UNLOADING AND STORING 1% -BUSHEL
WIREBOUND BOX MATERIALS PER BUNDLE, ACCORDING TO TWO WORK
METHODS, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.

Work Methods
Job
Dolly Conveyor

Man Minutes Man Minutes
Take bundles from rail car and place on
elevator ................................. ............. 0.39 0.39
Take bundles from elevator and place
on dolly ............................................. 0.15 *
Push dolly to storage and unload ............ 0.37 *
Place bundles in storage from con-
veyor belt ................... .. _. ....... ..... 0.42

This job does not have to be performed in this work method.

Costs.-Data in Table 4 and Figure 2 show that, at hourly
output rates of 1,538 and 3,077 boxes, the dolly method has the
lowest cost for all seasonal volumes. The differences in costs
are not large, however. At output rates of 1,429 and 2,857 boxes
the conveyor method has lower costs in the higher seasonal
volumes than can be achieved with the dolly method at any
output rate.

TABLE 4.-TOTAL COSTS FOR UNLOADING AND STORING 1%-BUSHEL WIRE-
BOUND Box MATERIALS, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.

Output Total Costs (Dollars) for Season Volume of:
Work per
Method Hour 100,000 300,000 500,000 700,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes

Boxes
Dolly ............. 1,538 455 861 1,267 1,673
1,622 506 1,014 1,522 2,030
3,077 442 776 1,110 1,444
Conveyor ........ 1,429 482 786 1,090 1,394
1,538 536 948 1,360 1,772
2,857 476 768 1,060 1,352
3,077 498 834 1,170 1,506


Fixed costs are higher for the conveyor method, because of
the higher cost of the conveyor belt (see Appendix Table 2).
Direct costs are lower for this method, because of the lower labor
requirements. The output of one man working in the rail car




1. 1538 boxes per hour


~0
0



I.0


Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


Fig. 2.-Total season cost for two methods of unloading and storing 1%-bushel wirebound box materials accord-
ing to season volume and output per hour, Florida citrus packinghouses, 1954.


2. 307bxsprhu







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


is about equal to one man stacking materials in the box balcony.
Therefore, the crew can be doubled-two men in both places-
and little change will result in direct costs to unload a specific
volume. In the dolly method one worker removing box materials
from the elevator is about equal to two men pushing and unload-
ing dollies or working in the rail car. Therefore, when the crew
is enlarged from three to five workers, direct costs decrease
from $2.03 to $1.67 per 1,000 boxes.
Packinghouses paying wages of more than $1.00 per hour
for this work could expect the relative advantage of the con-
veyor method to increase. For example, using a wage rate of
$1.25 per hour, rather than $1.00, the direct costs per 1,000
boxes would increase from $1.67 to $2.07 for the dolly method
at an output per hour of 3,077, and from $1.46 to $1.81 for the
conveyor method at 2,857 boxes per hour. The increase in
direct costs is 40 cents for the dolly method and 35 cents for
the conveyor method per 1,000 boxes. This results in a small
relative cost increase for the dolly method over the conveyor
method.
Evaluation.-Unloading box material does not have to be
integrated with other packinghouse operations in terms of out-
put rate. Workers usually are assigned to unload box materials
during slack periods in other operations. The materials are in-
variably stored and used from storage. This means that a
packinghouse manager can assign a crew to unload box materials
at the rate which results in lowest costs. Data in Appendix Table
2 show that these crew assignments would include five workers
for the dolly method and either two or four for the conveyor
method. Average costs for a four-man crew would be slightly
lower than for a two-man crew. With either of these crews, the
conveyor method would result in lower costs for packinghouses
with a volume of about 500,000 boxes or more.
The data in Appendix Table 2 show little basis for selecting
either method in preference to the other in terms of the cost
comparison in this analysis-selection should rest primarily upon
other factors. Important among these is flexibility. Once in-
stalled, the conveyor method necessitates a fairly rigid pattern
for handling materials. If it becomes necessary to store ma-
terials in a different place, the packinghouse management is
faced with the necessity of moving the conveyor belt or leaving
it unused. The dolly method, on the other hand, is very flexible.
Some packinghouses, however, may have the storage area for







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 15

box materials located so that it is difficult to push a dolly to it,
or it may be very distant from the elevator. In either case a
conveyor belt probably would be advisable.

ASSEMBLING AND SUPPLYING WIREBOUND
BOXES TO PACKERS
Assembling shipping containers and getting them to the point
of use is an integral part of packinghouse operation. In the
previous section it was pointed out that box materials usually
are stored in a box balcony above the main floor. This same
balcony is used for assembling boxes.

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS
The jobs involved in assembling and supplying boxes to pack-
ers include (a) getting materials from storage to the assembly
area, (b) assembling, (c) labeling, (d) stacking assembled boxes,
(e) stamping, (f) transporting the boxes to storage, or to a
point where they can be delivered to the packers and (g) supply-
ing boxes to packers.
Unassembled box materials are either transported from
storage to the assembly area on four-wheel dollies or assembled
in the storage area. The next job, assembling, is usually done
by two workers in two distinct steps. First, one worker gets
the bundles of box materials from stacks or from the dolly.
The bundle of box material is placed on a working table about
21/2 feet high. One of the workers cuts the twine or wire bind-
ing the bundle and disposes of it. The second part of the job
involves shaping the box and securing the wire loops from the
end pieces onto other wires on the bottom and sides. The top
of the box is held closed by securing one of the five wire loops
which are used to hold it closed after it is packed. The box is
then set off for the next operation.
In many cases labeling is the next operation. When labeling
is to be done immediately, the assembler sets the box on end
so that the labeler may place the label on the exposed end. Label-
ing may be done also after packing.
The boxes are then transported to the area from which they
are supplied to packers. If hand trucking is used, the boxes
are stacked after assembling or labeling. If a conveyor belt is
used, the boxes are not stacked; or if storage is required prior
to delivering to packers, they are stacked at the storage area.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The boxes may be stamped while they are in stacks or as
they are being supplied to packers. The information stamped
on the box here identifies the type of fruit which will be packed
in the box.
The boxes are supplied to packers by placing them in chutes
which allow the boxes to move down to the packers by gravity.
The manner of performing this job depends upon the method
used to transport the boxes to the supplying area. If hand
trucking is used, all boxes are taken from stacks and placed in
chutes. If a conveyor belt is used, some of the boxes are taken
from the belt and placed in the chutes. Others are taken from
the belt and placed in stacks for later use. The number of boxes
supplied directly to packers, or stacked and supplied later, de-
pends upon the rate of output of the assembly crew and the
packers. During a period of high packer output, all of the cur-
rent output of the assembly crew may be supplied directly and
an additional number taken from storage and delivered to the
packers. During a period of low packer output, a large propor-
tion of the boxes being assembled will be stacked for later use.

ANALYSIS OF METHODS
Three basic work methods for assembling and supplying 135-
bushel wirebound boxes to packers were analyzed in this study.
In the first the materials are brought to the assembly area on
dollies as needed by the crew. Here the boxes are assembled,
labeled, stamped and placed on a conveyor belt. Other members
of the crew remove the assembled boxes from the conveyor belt
and place them in the chutes or in stacks for storage near the
chutes. This method is designated the stationary area-conveyor
method (see Figure 3).
In the second the job of moving the unassembled boxes to
the assembly area is eliminated. The crew moves along the
storage area as the box materials are used. The crew assembles,
labels, stamps and stacks the boxes. The boxes are placed into
stacks of 12 and hand trucked to the chute area. This method
is designated the movable area-hand truck method.
The third method is different from the movable area-hand
truck method as the assembly area is fixed. The unassembled
boxes are transported on dollies from storage to the point of as-
sembly. There they are assembled, labeled, stamped and stacked.
The stacks are hand trucked to the chute area and used as needed.
This method is designated the stationary area-hand truck method.








Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 17


Fig. 3.-Supplying a box to the packers by placing it in the box chute.
Note the conveyor belt for transporting the boxes from the assembly area
to the chute area.


TABLE 5.-LABOR REQUIREMENTS PER Box FOR ASSEMBLING AND SUPPLYING
1% -BUSHEL WIREBOUND BOXES TO PACKERS ACCORDING TO THREE WORK
METHODS, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.

Work Method
Job | Stationary Movable Stationary
I Area- Area- Area-
Conveyor Hand Truck Hand Truck

Man Minutes Man Minutes Man Minutes

Get materials .............. 0.04 | 0.04
Assemble ..........-.. ...... 0.41 0.41 0.41
Label ............................ 0.14 0.14 0.14
Stam p .......................... 0.05 0.05 0.05
Stack .......... ...... ...... 0.09 0.09
Place on belts ............. 0.05 *
Truck to chute area .... 0.06 0.06
Place in chutes ............ 0.13 0.10 0.10

This job does not have to be performed in this work method.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Labor Requirements.-Labor requirements for performing
each job in the three methods are presented in Table 5. The data
given include the basic working time plus a uniform allowance
of 10 percent for incidental duties and personal time. The con-
veyor method eliminates the hand trucking and stacking time,
although the chute man must spend some time in stacking. This
method requires some time in placing boxes on the conveyor.
The movable area method eliminates the "get material" job, but
requires work in stacking and hand trucking, as does the sta-
tionary area-hand truck method.
Costs.-The data in Table 6 and Figure 4 show that, in gen-
eral, cost differences for the three methods analyzed are small.
Fixed costs for all three methods are low (see Appendix Table 3).
Direct costs are somewhat lower for the stationary area-conveyor

TABLE 6.-TOTAL COSTS FOR ASSEMBLING AND SUPPLYING 1%-BUSHEL WIRE-
BOUND BOXES TO PACKERS, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.
Out-
W put Total Costs (Dollars) for Season Volume of:
Work perI
Method Hour 100,000 200,000 1300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes

Stationary 189 1,774 3,409 *
area- 269 ** 3,179 4,699 *
conveyor 315 ** 3,371 4,987 *
428 ** 2,985 4,408 5,831 7,254 *
476 ** 3,117 4,606 6,095 7,584 *
539 ** ** 4,642 6,143 7,644 9,145 *
631 ** ** 4,462 5,903 7,344 8,785 10,226
Movable 142 1,436 *
area-hand 207 1,475 2,929 *
truck 260 ** 3,105 4,647 *
294 ** 3,429 5,133 *
404 ** 2,997 4,485 5,973 *
442 ** 3,193 4,779 6,365 7,951 *
521 ** ** 4,632 6,169 7,706 9,243 *
590 ** ** 4,602 6,129 7,656 9,183 10,710
631 ** ** 4,779 6,365 7,951 9,537 11,123
Stationary 136 1,529 *
area-hand 202 1,539 3,034 *
truck 260 ** 3,136 4,682 *
294 ** 3,458 5,165 *
382 ** 3,196 4,772 *
442 ** 3,220 4,808 6,396 7,984 *
522 ** ** 4,652 6,188 7,724 9,260 *
590 ** ** 4,631 6,160 7,689 9,218 10,747
618 ** ** 4,907 6,528 8,149 9,770 11,391

Seasonal volume cannot be achieved within the practicable limit of 1,200 hours of
operating time. For example, a rate of 189 boxes per hour, the practical seasonal output
limit is about 226,800.
** Seasonal volume would be exceeded at the assumed minimum hours of operation.





1. 200 boxes per hour


Legend: B
A--Stationary area-conveyor
9 9 method 11
B--Movable area-hand truck A
method 10
C--Stationary area-hand truckC 10
method B
7- 7 A 9


8- 6- 6 8-
0
-o 7

5- 5 7-


04' A 4- 6


3- 3 5


2- 2 42



1 13
0 0 I 0
0 100 300 100 300 500 300 500 700
Boxes per season Boxes per season Boxes per season ae
(1, 000 boxes) (1, 000 boxes) (1,000 boxes)

Fig. 4.-Total season cost for the three methods of assembling 1%-bushel wirebound boxes, labeling, stamping
and supplying to packers according to season volume and output per hour.


3. 600 boxes per hour


2. 400 boxes per hour







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


method at the higher hourly rates of output. This advantage
in direct costs makes the total costs of the conveyor method
about $600 to $1,000 less than the other two methods for rates
of output over 300 boxes per hour at seasonal volumes of 500,000
to 700,000 boxes.
Increasing the wage rate to $1.25 per hour would raise the
cost of the conveyor method relatively less than the other two
methods. For example, at 400 boxes per hour, direct costs per
1,000 boxes would increase $3.50 for the conveyor method and
$3.71 and $3.96 for the movable area-hand truck and stationary
area-hand truck methods. Total costs increase in the same
relationship.
Evaluation.-Box assembly, unlike unloading box materials,
is a job which must be integrated in rate of output with other
packinghouse operations. To a certain extent, rate of output
may vary from that in other operations by storing a quantity
of boxes during certain periods and depleting the stockpile at
other times. This may be done by working different hours from
other packinghouse workers or by working at different rates.
But the extent of this variation is limited by the amount of
storage space. This means that the crew for box assembly and
supply must be organized so that the output of boxes approxi-
mates the rate of output in other packinghouse operations.
The use of a conveyor causes the first method to be the least
flexible. If the pattern of handling changes, conveyor belts can-
not be adapted. This is not true for equipment used in the other
methods. For example, hand trucks may be used readily in
other packinghouse operations.

CLOSING, TRANSPORTING AND LOADING
WIREBOUND BOXES
After the fruit has been placed in shipping containers by the
packers, the containers must be securely closed, transported to
a loading point and placed in a rail car or motor truck for ship-
ment. This section and the two which follow are devoted to a
description, analysis and evaluation of methods for performing
these related jobs.
Packinghouses follow a variety of practices in handling these
jobs. Some houses transport the fruit from the packing area
directly to the load. Others transport a portion of the fruit to
storage and later load out the shipments selectively, on the basis
of orders for specific quantities of various grades and sizes of






Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 21

fruit. It was not practicable to analyze all the possible practices
regarding the portion of the packed output which was stored
prior to loading. Therefore, for wirebound boxes one analysis
was made assuming no storage and a second assuming storage
of one-half the boxes. These two analyses provide a basis for
estimating relative costs of most storage practices.

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS
Closing a wirebound box consists of (1) inspecting the ar-
rangement of fruit in the box to be sure that none is out of place
and thereby in danger of being damaged from the pressure of
the lid, (2) pushing the lid down by hand as near as possible
to the closed position and (3) fastening the wire loops on the
box securely by an especially designed tool called a lidding ham-
mer. This tool pulls the loops on the side of the box through
the loops on the lid and bends the side loops down, all in one
operation.


Fig. 5.-Preparing to hand truck a stack of packed 1%-bushel wirebound
boxes to storage or the loading station.

Boxes may be closed in a number of locations in the packing-
house. One widely used procedure is to have the box closer
stationed at the end of each packing aisle. The boxes are moved






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to this station on chain conveyors which stop moving when a
box reaches the end of the conveyor. Workers close the boxes
and set them off into stacks. Some packinghouses move the
open boxes on a conveyor belt to one central location where they
are closed. Several workers are stationed at this location and
each closes a portion of the loops on each box. The boxes con-
tinue to move along the conveyor during the closing operation.
Packed boxes are transported by hand trucks and conveyor
belts (see Figures 5 and 6). Hand truck transportation can be
adapted to changes in the handling pattern. For example, using
hand trucking the destination of the flow of packed boxes can
be changed readily. Also, different sizes may be sent to different
storage points to facilitate the loading out of specific orders.
Hand trucking can be used to supplement a conveyor belt system
when flexibility is needed. One disadvantage is that the boxes
must be stacked in piles of four before being hand trucked, re-
quiring extra labor.


Fig. 6.-A conveyor system for handling packed boxes.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 23

Conveyor belt systems are an efficient method of transport-
ing packed boxes under some situations, such as when little
storage of boxes is required, or when the storage area is rela-
tively distant from the packing operation.
All types of boxes are loaded the same way, regardless of
method of transportation. The loader is or loaders are stationed
in the motor truck or rail cars. Boxes arrive there either on
conveyor belts or in stacks which are hand trucked. The loader
takes the box from the conveyor or the stack and places it in
the load so that the boxes will not move excessively.
The primary problem in maintaining a loader's efficiency is
to coordinate his work with the other packinghouse operations.
Generally he is stationed in one place. If there is a steady flow
of boxes to the loader, little delay will result. If boxes come to
him irregularly or at a low rate, then more time is spent waiting.
In general, a more even flow of work can be achieved for the
loader when the boxes are loaded from storage rather than from
the packing line.
ANALYSIS OF METHODS
Three methods were analyzed for handling 1%-bushel wire-
bound boxes after packing. In the first, the most commonly used,
the boxes are closed at the ends of each packing aisle, stacked
and hand trucked away. This is designated the aisle closing-
hand truck method. In the second a conveyor belt system cen-
tralizes the boxes in one place where they are closed, stacked
and trucked away. This is designated the centralized closing-
hand truck method. In the third the centralizing conveyor belt
system is used and extended for the initial transporting of the
boxes after closing. This is designated the centralized closing-
conveyor method. All three methods were analyzed under two
distinct situations: (a) the boxes moved directly from closing
to loading and (b) 50 percent moved directly to loading and the
remainder moved to storage for loading out later.
Labor Requirements.-The labor requirements per 135-bushel
wirebound box for closing the lid are as follows:
Method Man Minutes per Box
One man working alone ...........-..-- .. ........ 0.39
Team of three men ........--- .. ..... ......... ....... ..... 0.29

The advantage of three men working in a specialized team is
apparent. The data show that three men working together ap-
proximate the work of four working separately.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The method used to organize the box closer's work cannot be
selected without reference to the other packinghouse procedures.
Central box closing, necessary under the team method, is possible
only if all the boxes move from the packers on a conveyor sys-
tem to a central closing station. Additional conveyors are re-
quired for this process; therefore, the box closing labor saved
must be evaluated along with the additional cost of conveyors.
Stacking and hand trucking are two jobs which must be per-
formed in certain methods of moving packed boxes from the
packing area to the loading area. The labor requirements for
stacking and for hand trucking certain selected distances are
as follows:
Job Man Minutes per Box
Hand stacking ... --.. ....-....---.......--. ---.... 0.12
Hand trucking:
50 feet ...-.......... ...- ...-- ... ------........ .19
100 feet .......-........ .... ---. ---- .....- .27
150 feet ....--...---- --... ----...- ..----- ------ ..-- 0.34
These labor requirements have more meaning if related to the
work method. With no storage of packed boxes, neither of these
jobs must be performed if the packinghouse uses conveyor belt
transportation. Both must be performed if the packinghouse
uses hand truck transportation. If packed fruit is stored, both
are necessary for all three methods.
The labor requirement for loading 1%-bushel wirebound boxes
is 0.13 man minutes per box.
Costs of Handling Without Storage.-When all the boxes move
directly to the load without storage, conveyor belt transporta-
tion has a relative advantage. Data in Table 7 and Figure 7
show that the centralized closing-conveyor method has an ad-
vantage in costs, especially at higher seasonal volumes and out-
put rates. Lower direct costs explain the differences (see Ap-
pendix Table 4). This method eliminates a considerable amount
of labor-five to six men at the higher output rates-as compared
with the other methods using hand trucking. No stacking or
hand trucking is required. Thus, the direct cost per 1,000 boxes
is several dollars lower for the centralized closing-hand truck
method than for the other two. The aisle closing-hand truck
method has somewhat lower fixed costs, but the difference is
small in comparison with the lower direct costs at higher seasonal
volumes for the other two methods.
It should be kept in mind that this analysis assumes that all
packed boxes move directly from the packing aisles to the load-







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 25

ing point and are loaded without regard to size or grade of fruit.
For the costs as computed here, none of the boxes are selected
according to grade or size of fruit for storage and loading later.

TABLE 7.-TOTAL COSTS, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FOR TRANSPORTING
1%-BUSHEL WIREBOUND BOXES FROM THE PACKING AISLES TO THE LOAD-
ING POINT, CLOSING BOXES, AND LOADING, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKING-
HOUSES, 1954.
Out- I
put I Total Costs (Dollars) for Season Volume of:
Work per
Method Hour 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes

Aisle closing- 123 2,654 *
hand truck 246 1,863 3,570 5,277 *
262 ** 4,249 6,260 *
369 ** 3,639 5,338 7,037 *
396 ** 4,014 5,865 7,716 *
456 ** 3,979 5,806 7,633 9,460 *
492 ** 4,159 6,076 7,993 9,910 *
531 ** ** 6,324 8,300 10,276 12,252 *
615 ** ** 6,014 7,882 9,750 11,618 13,486
Centralized 123 3,507 *
closing- | 156 3,128 *
hand truck 262 ** 4,440 6,486 *
414 ** 3,571 5,124 6,677 *
452 ** 3,909 5,571 7,233 8,895 *
515 ** ** 6,196 8,062 9,928 11,794 *
615 ** ** 5,916 7,654 9,392 11,130 12,868
Centralized 123 2,121 *
closing- 156 2,144 *
conveyor 246 1,972 3,407 4,842 *
369 ** 2,645 3,631 4,617 *
414 ** 2,624 3,532 4,440 *
456 ** 2,911 3,955 4,999 6,043 *
492 ** 3,205 4,396 5,587 6,778 *
615 ** ** 3,875 4,847 5,819 6,791 7,763
Seasonal volume not attainable at this output per hour.
** Seasonal volume would be exceeded at the assumed minimum hours of operation.

Costs for Handling with Storage of 50 Percent of the Boxes.-
When a large portion of the fruit must be selected and placed
in temporary storage, the costs are modified. Figure 8 and
Table 8 show that the aisle closing-hand truck method has the
lowest costs at lower rates of output. At about 400 boxes per
hour there is little difference in costs among the three methods.
At higher rates the centralized closing-conveyor method has the
lowest costs, but the difference is not as large as when all boxes
move directly to the loading points.
The change in the relative positions results from changes in
direct costs (see Appendix Table 5). For the two methods using






1. 200 boxes per hour


0?
6 0
S S6

5 -


-4


3


2





0


2. 400 boxes per hour

Legend:
A--Aisle closing-hand truck
method


O'
100 300
Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


3. 600 boxes oer hour


B
13


12


II -


10-


9


8 C


7-


6


5


4-


300 500 700
Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


Fig. 7.-Total season cost of three methods of transporting 1%-bushel wirebound boxes from the packing aisles
to the loading point, box closing and loading, according to season volume and output per hour.


I
100 300
Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 27

hand trucking, the extra labor for storage is in handling the
boxes from storage to loading. In the conveyor method, how-
ever, two extra men must be added to stack the stored boxes
and hand truck them to the exact storage spot. The workers
on these jobs must be stationed at one place. One man is able
to handle each of these jobs for the output rates considered in
this analysis. This means that two men are relatively idle at
low output rates. Furthermore, the rate of output can be in-
creased five-fold (from 123 to 615 boxes per hour) without
doubling the man hours of labor per hour of operating time. As
a result, direct costs per 1,000 boxes fall rapidly as the rate of
output increases.

TABLE 8.-TOTAL COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING 13/5-BUSHEL WIREBOUND BOXES
FROM THE PACKING AISLES TO THE LOADING POINT, WITH INTERMEDIATE
STORAGE, CLOSING BOXES AND LOADING, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD,
FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.
Out-
put Total Costs (Dollars) for Season Volume of:
Work per I
Method I Hour 1100,000 200.000i300,000 400,000 500,000 600,0001700,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes | Boxes

Aisle closing- 123 2,914 *
hand truck 246 2,132 4,108 *
369 ** 4,175 6,142 8,109 *
422 ** 4,322 6,327 8,332 10,337 *
492 ** 4,247 6,208 8,169 10,130 *
567 ** ** 6,168 8,092 10,016 11,940 *
615 ** ** 6,284 8,242 10,200 12,158 14,116
Centralized 123 3,767 *
closing- 156 3,397 *
hand truck 246 2,795 5.242 *
275 4,792 7,014 *
369 ** 4,487 6,498 8,509 *
414 ** 4,107 5,928 7,749 *
478 ** 4,263 6,102 7,941 9,780 *
492 ** 4,594 6,592 8,590 10,588 *
515 ** ** 6,358 8,278 10,198 12,118 *
615 ** ** 6,186 8,014 9,842 11,670 13,498
Centralized 123 4,020 *
closing- 156 3,708 *
conveyor 246 3,067 5,583 *
369 ** 4.280 6,077 7,874 *
414 ** 4,139 5,798 7,457 *
492 ** 4.121 5,763 7,405 9,047 *
615 ** ** 5,127 6,512 7,897 9,282 10,667

Seasonal volume not attainable at this output per hour.
** Seasonal volume would be exceeded at the assumed minimum hours of operation.

The extra work required in hand trucking and loading the
boxes which have been placed in storage can be done with rela-






2. 400 boxes per hour


10 10 14 method /
B--Centralized closing-hand
9 9 131 truck method
C--Centralized closing-
12 conveyor method
8- 8- 12-


.7 7 11 C

i 0 CB
0c 6 6 10-
eo

- 5- A 5- 9-


4 4 8


3 3 7


2 2- 6-


1 1 5 0


0 0 0
100 300 100 300 500 300 500 700
Boxes per season Boxes per season Boxes per season
(1, 000 boxes) (1, 000 boxes) (1, 000 boxes)

Fig. 8.-Total season cost for three methods of transporting 1%-bushel wirebound boxes from the packing aisles
to the loading points, with intermediate storage, box closing and loading, according to season volume and out-
put per hour.


1 200 boxes per hour


3. 600 boxes per hour







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 29

tively efficient use of labor. The number of men hand trucking
can be varied according to the distance between the storage point
and the loading point, so that delay time for the loader is mini-
mized. This cannot always be done when the boxes are moved
directly to the load without storage. At low rates of output, the
loader will be idle a large part of the time.
Costs for the centralized closing-conveyor method increase
less with higher wages than for the other two methods, because
less labor is required. In the no-storage situation, such a change
would simply increase the clear advantage this method has, at
the wages assumed in the analysis. When storage is required,
direct costs per 1,000 boxes are increased $3.31, as compared
with $3.89 and $4.43 for the centralized closing-hand truck method
and aisle closing-hand truck method, respectively, at an output
rate of 400 boxes per hour. This results in upward shifts in
the total costs for all methods, but a relatively smaller one for
the conveyor method. For example, at a season volume of 400,000
boxes, this method has costs $524 lower than the next lowest
cost method, as compared with a difference of $292 shown in
Table 8.
Evaluation of Methods.-The previous two analyses show
total seasonal costs for three methods of closing, transporting
and loading 13/5-bushel wirebound boxes without storage and
with storage of half the output. Costs were increased in all
three methods when the storage factor was added. The amount
of increase was not uniform among the methods, however. In
the aisle closing-hand truck method, storage increased total
season costs from $7,633 to $8,332, at an output of 400 boxes
per hour and a seasonal volume of 400,000 boxes. For the cen-
tralized closing-hand truck method, at the same rate of output
and seasonal volume, the increase was from $6,677 to $7,749.
For the centralized closing-conveyor method, the increase was
from $4,440 to $7,457.
These cost differences give a measure of the cost of a flexible
method of handling packed boxes. The first two are the most
flexible in terms of the pattern of handling after the boxes are
closed. Fruit can be carried with ease elsewhere in the packing-
house with hand trucks. With conveyor belts, however, when the
fixed pattern is changed, important cost changes result. This
flexibility in operations comes at a higher cost for higher rates
of output and seasonal volumes, as shown by the first analysis.
Comparison of costs in the two analyses shows the cost involved






30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in making a simple change in the handling patterns. The least
flexible method had the greatest increase in costs.
In addition to short-run changes in practices, there are long-
run uncertainties which affect the decision about which work
method to use. There is always the possibility that radical
changes in packinghouse procedures may make present equip-
ment obsolete, or obsolete in its present use. Conveyor belts
are relatively more expensive and generally more costly to adapt
to changes in procedures. Hand trucks, on the other hand, are
used in many packinghouse operations and may be shifted readily.
New technology may be such that conveyor belt systems will be
useful with slight modifications and hand trucks may become
useless. However, the risk of loss from obsolete inventories of
capital equipment is larger with larger investments.

CLOSING, TRANSPORTING AND LOADING STANDARD
NAILED BOXES 5

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS
Closing a standard box is a machine operation requiring
manual attention. The standard box comes to the closing ma-
chine without the lid. The operator pushes the box into the
machine on the track or rollers. The box is stopped in the
machine by a catch which positions it for nailing. The operator
places the lid in a slot above the box, and when ready, steps on
a foot pedal that actuates the machine. The machine brings
the top down into contact with the rest of the box. It applies
pressure to the sides to bring the box back to its proper size,
since, usually, the sides of the box are somewhat extended by
the pressure of the fruit. Metal straps are extended over the
lid at the ends and center of the box and are nailed securely to
the sides. This completes the actual closing operation and the
machine returns to an idle position.
After the box clears the machine, it is checked for proper
closing and, if necessary, corrections are made by hand nailing.
Then the box is ready to be stacked immediately or to move along

The use of 1%-bushel standard nailed boxes has been eliminated in the
Indian River section, where its use predominated when this study was made.
The analysis of costs for handling this container is included because (1)
the industry may return to the use of the nailed box, (2) the data may be
useful to groups elsewhere and (3) the analyses include volume situations
typical to the volume of 1%-standard nailed boxes handled by some packing-
houses in the interior area.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 31

a conveyor belt for stacking at some other location in the packing-
house.
Hand nailing is an older and considerably slower method for
nailing the lids on boxes. The box closer hand nails the lid and
straps. A foot-operated machine holds the straps tightly across
the box and presses the lid down at each end. The strapping is
fed from a continuous roll and must be cut after nailing.
Standard boxes may be closed at a central location or at the
ends of the packing aisles. If the box closer and the machine
have a stationary location, all the unlidded boxes must be moved
to this area by conveyor belts, as is the case in centralized closing
of wirebound boxes. A system of conveyor belts may be used
to transport the boxes or they may be stacked at the closing
machine.
In some cases, usually in smaller packinghouses, closing
machines are installed on tracks and are moved between the
packing aisles. The closer and his helper push the machine on
tracks along the ends of the packing aisles. The boxes are trans-
ported from the packers to the machine on conveyors along each
aisle. When the machine is directly in line with the chain con-
veyor, it is locked in place by a bracket on the floor. At each
stop there is a socket for the power line to the electric motor
on the machine. The machine operator must plug in this con-
nection and unplug it at each stop. After all boxes on the con-
veyor are closed, the machine is moved to the next packing aisle.
Standard nailed boxes are transported and loaded by the same
method as wirebound boxes.

ANALYSIS OF METHODS
Four work methods were analyzed in this study. In the first
manual nailing and hand trucking are used. The second utilizes
a movable box closing machine and hand trucks. The other two
utilize a stationary box closing machine at a centralized loca-
tion, followed by hand truck and conveyor belt transportation,
respectively.
Labor Requirements.-The labor requirements per 1/-bushel
standard nailed box for nailing on the lid using mechanical lid-
ding machines are shown in Table 9. These data show the time
for moving the machine and also the extra time required in
operating a movable machine. Hand nailing requires consider-
ably more labor than the other two methods.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The choice of the method to close standard nailed boxes de-
pends, to some extent, upon the method of transporting the
boxes after closing. If conveyor belt transportation is used, the
boxes will be centralized on one belt, making a stationary ma-
chine feasible. If hand trucking is used, then a movable lidder
may be desirable.

TABLE 9.-LABOR REQUIREMENTS PER BOX FOR CLOSING 1%-BUSHEL
STANDARD NAILED BOXES.

Man Minutes per Box
Job Element Movable Stationary
Machine Machine Hand Nailing
Operating machine ...... 0.16 0.14 -
Moving machine .......... .03 -
Hand nailing ............. 1.00
Total ...................... 0.19 0.14 1.00

The differences in capacity between the two methods of clos-
ing standard nailed boxes may be a determining factor in some
situations. For example, the maximum rate of operation for
the movable lidding machine is about 2,500 boxes per eight-hour
day and for the stationary machine, about 3,600 boxes.
Labor requirements for stacking, hand trucking and loading
are the same as for wirebound boxes.
Costs for Handling Without Storage.-The stationary ma-
chine-conveyor method is cheaper for all rates of output, except
at extremely low seasonal volumes (Table 10). The advantage in
costs for this method is especially large, up to 436 boxes per
hour, because of the low labor requirements (see Appendix
Table 6). One man can operate the box closing machine and
one man can place the boxes in the load. Above this rate of
output, an extra box closing machine (and a worker to operate
it) and a second loader are required. This raises direct costs
and, consequently, the total seasonal costs increase sharply.
Costs for the stationary machine-hand truck method are affected
in the same way. This method has a considerable advantage
in costs over the movable machine method at output rates not
in excess of 436 boxes per hour. In increasing the rate beyond
this level, four workers must be added to the crew in the sta-
tionary machine-hand truck method. This increases direct costs
from $13.30 to $18.83 per 1,000 boxes. Thus, costs for both







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 33

the movable machine- and the stationary machine-hand truck
methods are very nearly the same at the output rate of 545 boxes
per hour.

TABLE 10.-TOTAL COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING 13/ -BUSHEL STANDARD NAILED
BOXES FROM THE PACKING AISLES TO THE LOADING STATION, CLOSING
BOXES AND LOADING ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACK-
INGHOUSES, 1954.


Work Method


Foot press





Movable machine




Stationary machine-
hand truck




Stationary machine-
conveyor


| Out-
put Total Costs (Dollars) for Seascn Volume of:
per I I
Hour 1100,000 200,000 300,000 400,0001500,000 600,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes
55 *
110 4,171 i *
165 3,605 6,987 *
197 3,713 7,134 *
220 3,824 7,342 *
275 ** 6,848 10,084 *
218 2,706 4,775 *
313 ** 4,287 6,070 *
394 ** 5,364 7,379 9,394 *
436 ** 5,453 7,506 9,559 11,612 *
545 ** ** 6,998 8,853 10,708 12,563
109 4,668 *
218 2,920 5,048 *
262 ** 4,500 6,302 *
327 ** 4,407 6,156 *
436 ** 3,673 5,003 6,333 7,663 *
545 ** ** 7,240 9,123 11,006 12,889
109 3,110 *
218 2,270 3,559 *
327 ** 2,908 3,804 *
436 ** 2,651 3,351 4,051 4,751 *
545 ** ** 4,906 5,921 6,936 7,951


Seasonal volume not attainable at this output per hour.
** Seasonal volume would be exceeded at this assumed minimum hours of operation.

The foot press method is more costly than the other three
methods, except at very low seasonal volumes. Figure 9 indi-
cates that a packinghouse with a seasonal volume of a few
thousand standard nailed boxes could handle them with lower
costs by using this method. This is true because of the sub-
stantially lower fixed costs (see Appendix Table 6). The labor re-
quirements are high and, with only one man closing boxes per
packing aisle, a relatively low rate of output is attainable. There-
fore, a comparison of this method with the other three only at
the output rate of 200 boxes per hour was made in Figure 9.
Costs for Handling with Storage of 50 Percent of the Boxes.-
Table 11 and Figure 10 show the relative costs of the four work






1. 200 boxes per hour


Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


2. 400 boxes per hour

Legend:
A--Foot press method
2 B--Movable machine method
C--Stationary machine-hand
truck method
1 D--Stationary machine-
conveyor method
0-


9-


8-


7


6-


5-
0
4


3-


0 100 300 5(
Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


3. 500 boxes per hour


Boxes per season "
(1,000 boxes)


Fig. 9.-Total season cost for four methods of transporting 1%-bushel standard nailed boxes from the packing
aisles, box closing, and loading, according to season volume and output per hour, Florida citrus packinghouses, 1954.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 35

methods, assuming that 50 percent of the boxes move directly
from closing to the load and 50 percent are placed in storage
for later loading. At output rates of about 200 boxes per hour,
there is little difference between the last three methods. For
output rates of about 400 boxes per hour, the two stationary
machine methods have an advantage over the movable machine
method, especially at larger seasonal volumes. This is because
the attainable hourly output rates per machine are lower with the
movable closing machines. Fixed and direct costs rise, therefore,
with extra equipment and labor (see Appendix Table 7). When
the output is increased above the output rate for one stationary
machine, the advantage of the machine is lessened.

TABLE 11.-TOTAL COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING 13%-BUSHEL STANDARD NAILED
BOXES FROM THE PACKING AISLES TO THE LOADING POINT, WITH INTER-
MEDIATE STORAGE OF 50 PERCENT OF THE BOXES, CLOSING BOXES AND
LOADING ACCORDING TO WORK METHODS, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES,
1954.
Out- I
put Total Costs (Dollars) for Season Volume of:
Work Method per I
Hour 100,000 200,000i300,000 400,000j500,000 600,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes I Boxes Boxes | Boxes Boxes

Foot press 55 *
110 4,435 *
165 3,871 7,519 *
220 4,088 7,870 *
275 ** 7,242 10,675 *

Movable machine 218 2,972 5,307 *
313 | ** 4,817 6,865 *
422 ** 5,632 7,781 9,930 12,079 *
436 ** 5.989 8,310 10,631 12,952 *
545 ** ** 7,196 9,117 11,038 12,959

Stationary machine- 109 4,934 *
hand truck 218 3,186 5,580 *
275 ** 4,866 6,851 *
327 ** 4,945 6,963 *
436 ** 4,211 5,810 7,409 9,008 *
545 ** ** 6,886 8,651 10,416 12,181

Stationary machine- 109 5,224 *
conveyor 218 3,471 5,948 *
327 ** 4,689 6,469 *
436 ** 4,118 5,545 6,972 8,399 *
545 ** ** 6,218 7,666 9,114 10,562

Seasonal volue not attainable at this output per hour.
** Seasonal volume would be exceeded at the assumed minimum hours of operation.

The data show that with extremely low output rates and
seasonal volumes, the foot press method is lower in costs than






I. 200 boxes per hour


Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


2. 400 boxes per hour

Legend:
A--Foot press method
B--Movable machine method
C--Stationary machine-hand
truck method /
D--Stationary machine-
conveyor method


4- /


3 -


0
100 300 5(
Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


3. 500 boxes per hour


Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes)


Fig. 10.-Total season costs for four methods of transporting 1%-bushel standard nailed boxes from the pack-
ing aisles to the loading points, with intermediate storage of 50 percent of the boxes, box closing and loading,
according to season volume and output per hour, Florida citrus packinghouses, 1954.


U0-
c -0
w 0
-5

-:0







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 37

the other methods. Since the attainable output rate with this
method is comparatively low, costs comparisons can be made
only at the low output rates.
Higher wages increase the cost advantage of the two sta-
tionary machine methods and favor the conveyor method be-
cause it uses less labor. Assuming uniform wages of $1.25 per
hour, direct costs per 1,000 boxes at an output rate of 436 boxes
per hour increase $2.36 for the stationary machine-conveyor
method, as compared with $2.93 for the stationary machine-
hand truck method and $4.43 for the movable machine method
(assuming that 50 percent of the boxes are stored). This results
in a moderate increase in the cost difference between the two
stationary machine methods and a larger increase between the
stationary and movable machine methods. When storage is
not involved, the higher wages increase the large advantage
in costs enjoyed by the stationary machine-conveyor method
under most situations.
Evaluation of Methods.-The two situations analyzed for
handling standard nailed boxes show the superiority of a cen-
tralized box closing station in packinghouses designed for an
output rate of 300 to 500 boxes per hour. Furthermore, the
analysis shows that when no boxes are stored, transporting by
a conveyor system is cheapest. When storage is introduced,
the cost advantage is eliminated, except at high seasonal volumes.
Thus, the stationary machine-conveyor belt method is superior
to the others for most situations.
Some packinghouses, in which most of the output is shipped
in wirebound boxes and bags, occasionally pack a small quantity
of fruit in nailed boxes-the foot press method has a place in
such situations.

TRANSPORTING AND LOADING CONSUMER BAGS
DESCRIPTION OF METHODS
Bagged fruit may be transported in boxes by hand trucks,
loose or in boxes on conveyor belts, in specially constructed up-
right crates by hand trucks, and on overhead chain conveyors
(see Figures 11, 12 and 13). Modified field boxes are used for
handling bagged citrus fruits. The packers place bags in these
boxes as they are filled. They may then be stacked for hand
trucking or may be transported on conveyor belts. Hand truck-
ing is required, in either case, to return the empty boxes to the





Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


packers. Bags may be stored in stacked boxes. The advantages
of transporting bags in boxes by hand trucking or on conveyor
belts are the same as for other boxes, except the empty boxes
must be returned to the packers.


-
Fig. 11.-The box closer placing bags of oranges into an upright crate.
Upright crates are used to hold bags for transporting and
storing from the ends of the packing aisles to the loading point.
Bagged fruit is stacked in the crates by the box closer. Usually,
the crates are built to hold five 1%-bushel equivalents of fruit,
and must be moved by hand trucks. They may be stored readily,
but require hand filling the crates with bags, as well as hand
loading.
Overhead chain and conveyor belts are equipment-intensive
methods of transporting bagged fruit that work well in some
situations. The two methods are similar. Packers hang bags
on hooks which move along the packing aisles on a chain con-
veyor. In the former the chain conveyor carries the fruit to






Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 39

points where rail cars and motor trucks are loaded. In the latter
the aisle chains carry the fruit to conveyor belts, which in turn
move it to the loading points. At these loading stations the bags
are tripped off the hooks on the chain conveyors or are pushed
off the conveyor belts by boards placed across the belts. In
either case the bags fall onto portable conveyor belts or metal
slides which carry the fruit into the motor truck or rail car.
No labor is required from the time the bag leaves the packer
until it is in the rail car or motor truck, unless temporary stor-
age is required.


Fig. 12.-The box closer stacking boxes of bags of grapefruit.

Bagged fruit can be loaded from (1) upright crates, (2) boxes
and (3) chain or belt conveyors. Loading from crates requires
hand placing each bag in the load. Loading from boxes of bags
requires hand placing and also restacking the empty boxes for
return to packers or to storage. Loading from belts or chains






40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

requires hand placing bags and also (1) setting up metal chutes
into the truck or car and (2) moving the bags along the slides.

ANALYSIS OF METHODS
Five methods were analyzed for transporting and loading
bagged fruit: upright crate, overhead chain, overhead conveyor,
field box-hand truck and field box-conveyor.
Labor Requirements.-The jobs pertinent in analyzing of
costs of transporting packed bags from the packing aisle to
loading points are (1) stacking bags into upright crates, (2)
stacking boxes of bagged fruit and (3) hand trucking stacks of
boxes of bagged fruit or hand trucking upright crates. Over-
head chain and overhead conveyor belt systems require none of
these jobs when the fruit is not stored. When storage is in-

Fig. 13.-Bags moving to the loading station on an overhead
chain conveyor system.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 41

volved, at least two of these three jobs must be performed with
all of the methods, depending upon the method used.
The labor requirements for the various jobs are as follows:
Job Man Minutes per
Box Equivalent
Stacking eight-pound bags in crates .................... 0.62
Stacking boxes of bags .----....... ................----..... 0.12
Hand trucking crates of bags:
50 feet -........ .... ... -----.. -.. .....-- ..-- ... ..... 0.15
100 feet ..............................-- .......- ................... .. 0.21
150 feet ................ ... ........ ............ .... 0.27
Hand trucking boxes of bags:
50 feet .....-..-....- ..................-- --.... -..... ......................... 0.19
100 feet ...............................- .......-- ..................... 0.27
150 feet ............. ..-..---- ....- ..- ...................... 0.34

The labor requirements for hand trucking are for specified
distances. There are time differences between trucking crates
and trucking boxes, because a crate holds five 13/-bushel equiva-
lents of fruit in bags and four boxes of bagged fruit are in one
stack.
The labor requirements for loading eight-pound bags are as
follows:
Loading from Man Minutes per
Box Equivalent
Crates .......... -. -..- ...--- .- -- .. ....- ... 0.53
B oxes ..............-.- ...-.- ... --- ....... ....-. --. .- 0.63
Chutes ................--.. ....... .... 0.77

Extra time is required in loading bags from boxes because the
empty boxes must be stacked.
Costs of Handling Without Storage.-The analysis of the
cost of handling bags was made in a similar manner to that of
handling boxes. The five work methods were analyzed under
conditions of (a) transportation of the bags from the packing
area directly to the loading points and (b) transportation to
storage with later loading.
The field box-conveyor method has lower costs at the three
lower rates of output (see Table 12 and Figure 14). The use of
this method is contingent upon using a conveyor belt system
for transporting all boxes in the packinghouse. The field box-
hand truck method is next lowest in costs. The overhead chain
method has high fixed costs and, consequently, is at a disad-
vantage at low rates of output and low volume (see Appendix
Table 8). However, when the rate of output is 340 box equiva-
lents per hour or higher and the total volume packed is high, the
lower direct costs offset this disadvantage. Direct costs are high-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


est for the upright crate method and fixed costs are highest for
the overhead conveyor method.

TABLE 12.-TOTAL COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING EIGHT-POUND BAGS FROM THE
PACKING AREA TO THE LOADING POINT AND LOADING, ACCORDING TO WORK
METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.


Work Method



Upright crates




Overhead chain




Overhead conveyor




Field box-hand
truck




Field box-conveyor


Out-
put
per
Hour
Boxes

85
170
255
340
425

85
170
255
340
425

85
170
255
340
425

85
170
255
340
425

85
170
255
340
425


Total Costs (Dollars) for Season Volume of:*


50,000 100,000 150,000
Boxes Boxes I Boxes

1,499 2,952 **
1,545 2,998 4,451
1,592 3,045 4,498
1,476 2,767 4,058
1,552 2,873 4,194

1,724 3,083 **
1,554 2,584 3,614
1,802 2,910 4,018
1,698 2,542 3,386
1,828 2,642 3,456

1,800 3,194 **
1,736 2.809 3,882
2,094 3,256 4,418
2,086 2,985 3,884
2,314 3,183 4,052

1,125 2,219 **
1,158 2,255 3,352
1,188 2,284 3,380
1.218 2,313 3,408
1,250 2,346 3,442

1,064 2,052 **
1,180 2.206 3,232
1,242 2,279 3,316
1,323 2,382 3,441
1,404 2,489 3,574


200,000 250,000 300,000
Boxes I Boxes I Boxes


**
5,904
5.951
5,349
5,515
**
4,643
5,126
4,230
4,270
**
4,956
5,581
4,782
4,922
**
4,449
4,476
4,504
4,539
**
4,259
4,354
4,500
4,658


**
**
7,404
6,640
6,836
**
**
6,234
5,074
5,084
**
**
6,744
5,680
5,792
**
**
5,572
5,600
5,635
**
**
5,392
5 559
5,742


**
**
8,857
7,931
8,157
**
**
7,342
5.918
5,898
**
**
7,906
6,579
6,661
**
**
6,668
6,695
6,732
**
**
6,429
6,618
6,827


Output expressed in 1 3/5-bushel equivalents of fruit.
** Seasonal volume not attainable at this output per hour.

Higher wages cause the cost for the overhead chain method
to increase relatively less than the other methods. This means
that, at output rates of 340 and 425 135-bushel equivalents per
hour, this method will have cost equal to, or lower than, the
two field box methods at a lower season volume. The change
is not large, however, and does not affect the relative cost levels
at the lower hourly output rates.
Costs for Handling with Storage.-The same five basic
methods for handling packed bags were analyzed, with 'the addi-
tional requirement that all the bags be placed in storage before







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


loading. This means that the final step in transporting bags is
by hand truck with the bags placed in a container. The number
of containers used to hold bags must be increased for those
methods using containers with direct movement. The overhead
methods, which required no containers without storage, require
containers when storage is required, representing a new item
of fixed costs for these two methods.

TABLE 13.-TOTAL COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING EIGHT-POUND BAGS FROM THE
PACKING AREA TO THE LOADING POINT AND LOADING, WITH INTERMEDIATE
STORAGE, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES,
1954.


Work Method


Upright crates




Overhead chain




Overhead conveyor




Field box-hand
truck



Field box-conveyor


Out-
put
per
Hour
Boxes

85
170
255
340
425
85
170
255
340
425
85
170
255
340
425
85
170
255
340
425
85
170
255
340
425


Total Costs (Dollars) for Season Volume of:*

50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes

1,971 3,465 ** ** ** **
2,086 3,557 5,028 6,498 ** **
2,208 3,661 5,114 6,567 8,020 9,473
2,346 3,797 5,248 6,700 8,152 9,603
2,479 3,925 5,371 6,817 8,263 9,709
2,307 3,819 ** ** ** **
2,523 3,976 5,429 6,882 ** **
2,760 4,178 5,596 7,013 8,430 9,848
3,028 4,439 5,850 7,260 8,670 10,081
3,296 4,700 6,104 7,507 8,910 10,314
2,402 3,955 ** ** ** **
2,724 4,224 5,724 7,224 ** **
3,070 4,542 6,014 7,487 8,960 10,432
3,439 4,905 6,371 7,837 9.303 10,769
3,808 5,268 6,728 8,188 9,648 11,108
1,331 2,525 ** ** ** **
1,378 2,566 3,754 4.942 ** **
1,430 2,616 3,802 4,989 6,176 7,362
1,478 2,661 3,844 5,026 6,208 7,391
1,534 2,717 3,900 5,084 I 6,268 7,451

1,962 3,738 ** ** ** **
1,804 3.318 4,832 6,347 ** **
1,794 3,224 4,654 6,083 7,512 8,942
1,854 3,257 4,660 6,063 7.466 8,869
1,932 3,333 4,734 6,135 7,536 8,937


Output expressed in 1 3/5-bushel equivalents of fruit.
** Seasonal volume not attainable at this output per hour.

The data in Table 13 and Figure 15 show that, with the stor-
age requirement, the field box-hand truck method has a clear
advantage in costs over all other methods. This is true at all
seasonal volumes and all rates of output. The next lowest cost






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


method for most situations is the field box-conveyor method.
Fixed costs rise substantially for the first three methods, but
the increases in fixed costs for the field box methods are modest
(see Appendix Table 9). The increases in direct costs for the
field box-hand truck method are small.
Recomputing the costs with higher wages simply increases
the cost advantage of the field box-hand truck method, since the
labor used in this method is lowest of all five methods.
Evaluation of Methods.-Those packinghouses which custo-
marily store a large portion of the fruit packed in bags may
benefit from either field box method. On the other hand, those
packinghouses which have a higher output of bagged fruit and
place relatively little of it in temporary storage can use an
overhead chain conveyor to advantage. It should be kept in
mind that this method has lower costs than some of the others
only at higher seasonal volumes. The point at which it becomes
less expensive than the field box-conveyor method, for example,
is at about 150,000 box equivalents of bags per year. This is a
sizeable output of fruit in bags. In a recent study of 42 packing-
houses, the average output of consumer bags was 62,855 13/5-
bushel equivalents (10). Presumably, there is considerable vari-
ation in the volume of bags between packinghouses. Hence, a
limited number of packinghouses may actually pack a volume
of fruit in bags in the range where the overhead chain method
has lower costs.
Packinghouses have considerable latitude in the rate of out-
put of packed bags. The required output of bags per day may
be packed over different time periods. The only limitations are
the maximum rate of output attainable and the lowest rate of
output which will result in the required volume during the day's
run. Considerations concerning the rate of output of bags are
(a) frequent, short periods of intensive bag packing cause vari-
ation in the number of packers required and (b) slow rates of
output generally can be used only if the major portion of the
output is placed in storage. It is not possible to place a cost
on the first consideration. Indeed, in a single packinghouse the
manner in which packing labor is used may have little effect
on its cost. The opportunity for lower relative piece rates for
packing most likely will come only with large numbers of pack-
inghouses offering more constant earning opportunities. Storage
cost can be determined from these analyses, however.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 47

Data in Table 14 show a comparison of low and high rates
of output with storage and without storage. For volumes of
50,000 and 100,000 13/-bushel equivalents in bags, the comparison
was made between 85 and 425 boxes per hour. For 150,000
volume the rate of output of 170 per hour was selected because
a rate of 85 per hour will not attain 150,000 1%-bushel equiva-
lents per season. The comparison shows that, for the field box-
hand truck method, costs are very nearly the same-slower rates
with storage do not increase costs substantially. The compari-
son for all other methods shows important increases in costs
when bagged fruit is stored temporarily.

TABLE 14.-A COMPARISON OF TOTAL COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING AND LOAD-
ING EIGHT-POUND BAGS WITH HIGH RATES OF OUTPUT AND No STORAGE
AND Low RATES OF OUTPUT AND STORAGE.


Boxes
Work 85
Method Boxe
per
Hou
and
Stora

Upright crates [ 1,97
Overhead chain 2,30
Ooverhead con-
veyor ............. 2.40
Field box-hand
truck .............. | 1,33


Field box-con-
veyor .............


1,96


Total Costs (Dollars) for Volume of:
50,000 100,000 15(
s per Season* Boxes per Season* Boxes p<
425 85 425 j 170
s Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes
'per per per per
r Hour Hour Hour Hour
and No and and No and
ge Storage I Storage Storage Storage

1 1,552 3,465 2,873 5,028
7 1,828 3,819 2,642 5,429

2 2,314 3,955 3,183 5,724

1 1,250 2,525 2,346 3,754

2 1,404 3,738 2,489 4,832


0,000
er Season*
425
Boxes
per
Hour
and No
Storage

4,194
3,456

4,052

3,442

3,574


Output expressed in 1 3/5-bushel equivalents of fruit.

HANDLING 4%/-BUSHEL FIBERBOARD BOXES

The use of %-bushel fiberboard boxes has increased sub-
stantially in recent years. Handling methods for these new con-
tainers have been patterned after the methods used for wooden
boxes in many packinghouses. Other packinghouse operators
utilize handling methods which are substantially different from
conventional methods and more suited to the new type of con-
tainers.






48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS
Four-fifth bushel fiberboard boxes arrive at packinghouses
in a partly assembled, flat form, in bundles of 20 boxes (10 135-
bushel equivalent boxes). The unassembled boxes may be stored
on the main floor or in the box balcony. If the materials are
stored on the main floor, they are loaded on dollies, the dollies
pushed to a storage area and the bundles stacked. If the ma-
terials are to be stored in the box balcony, they are unloaded

Fig. 16.-A three-worker crew assembling %-bushel fiberboard boxes.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 49

onto the box materials elevator and loaded on dollies in the
balcony for transportation to storage.
Two different methods may be used to assemble boxes. In
one method a crew of workers assembles the boxes (see Figure
16) ; in the other the packers assemble the boxes as needed for
packing. Jobs performed when fiberboard boxes are readied
for use in the box balcony are (a) labeling and stamping, (b)
shaping from a flat position, (c) stapling the bottom of the box,
(d) closing the top, (e) stacking, (f) transporting to storage
and (g) supplying to the packers.
It is advantageous to apply the label first, while the box is
in a flat position. After labeling, the other functions revolve
around the stapling machine. One worker takes the flat boxes
from the stack and shapes them so that the sides and ends are
approximately in place. The bottom flaps are then folded in and
the boxes handed to the machine operator. The operator staples
the bottom with the required number of staples and passes the
box to a stacker who folds in the top flaps and places it in a stack.
Other workers carry the stacks of boxes away to the storage
points or to the chute area. The boxes are supplied later to the
packers down the same chutes used for wirebound or standard
nailed boxes. The packers take boxes from the chute as needed.
In the other method the boxes are supplied to the packers
unassembled. One or more workers label and stamp the boxes
and then transport them to the packing stations. As packers
need boxes for packing, they take one unassembled box from
the supply stored near them and assemble and pack it.
Box closing varies with the method of assembly. Boxes which
have been stapled on the bottom require only closing the tops.
This is done by the box closer, stationed at the end of each
packing aisle or at a centralized closing station. The workers
fold in the top flaps securely and staple them with a hand stapler.
The boxes which packers assemble require both top and bot-
tom sealing. Boxes from a number of packing aisles are central-
ized on one conveyor system leading to the sealer. The sealing
machine operates with relatively little manual attention.
ANALYSIS OF METHODS
Two methods have been analyzed: the packer assemble and
the crew assemble.
Labor Requirements.-The labor requirements for unloading
fiberboard box materials onto the main floor of packinghouses







50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

(packer assemble method) is 0.80 man minute per bundle of 20
boxes, or 10 13/-bushel box equivalents. The requirements for
unloading a bundle into the box balcony (crew assemble method)
is 0.97 man minute.

TABLE 15.-LABOR REQUIREMENTS PER 1%-BUSHEL BOX EQUIVALENT FOR
ASSEMBLING AND SUPPLYING 4-BUSHEL FIBERBOARD BOXES TO PACKERS,
ACCORDING TO TWO WORK METHODS, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES,
1954.

Job Work Method
Packer Assemble Crew Assemble
Man Minutes Man Minutes
Labeling and stamping ............1 0.24 0.24
Transporting ...-........ --................ 0.06 0.08
Assembling ..-............................. 0.22 0.24
Stapling .. .... ......................... 0.27
Fold top and stack .................... 0.27
Place in chutes ........................... 0.18

These jobs are not necessary in this method.

The labor requirements for assembling, labeling, stamping
and supplying to packers are shown by data in Table 15. For
the packer method the total is 0.52 man minute per box equiva-
lent. The time for assembling, 0.22 man minute, is the time the
packer spends in shaping the unassembled box for packing. The
labor requirements for these jobs using the crew method total
1.28 man minutes. There is some "crew delay" in this method
because of the differences in the requirements, but this is allowed
for in the cost analysis.
The labor requirement for closing 1%-bushel box equivalent
of fiberboard boxes is 0.44 man minute.
Costs.-The data in Table 16 show that the packer assemble
method has considerably lower costs at all except the extremely
low seasonal volumes. The direct costs for this method are con-
siderably lower than for the crew method (see Appendix Table
10). This is due primarily to the elimination of the assembling
crew. This is true even though an allowance is made for the
extra time which packers must spend in assembling boxes.
Much of the equipment used to handle fiberboard boxes is
used also to handle other boxes. In this analysis it was assumed
that the output of fiberboard boxes would make up 25 percent
of the total output of the packinghouse. On this basis 25 per-
cent of the annual fixed costs of equipment used for other boxes
was charged to fiberboard box handling.







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 51

TABLE 16.-TOTAL COSTS FOR UNLOADING, STORING, ASSEMBLING, SUPPLY-
ING TO PACKERS AND CLOSING 4/5-BUSHEL FIBERBOARD BOXES, FLORIDA
CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.
Out-
put Total Costs (Dollars) for
Work Method per Season Volume of:*
Hour 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000
Boxes I Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes

Packer assemble 100 2,531 ** ** **
200 2,281 3,731 ** **
300 2,225 3,595 4,965 **
400 2,180 3,505 4,830 6,155
Crew assemble 168 3,935 7,685 ** **
222 3,793 7,401 ** **
225 4,266 8,284 ** **
313 3,833 7,418 11,003 **
336 3,971 7,694 11,417 15,140
390 3,894 7,540 11,186 14,832
444 3,827 7,406 10,985 14,564

Output expressed in 1 3/5-bushel equivalents.
** Seasonal volume not attainable at this output per hour.

Fixed costs are much higher for the packer assemble method,
as shown by data in Appendix Table 10. This is due largely to
the costs of the automatic box sealer. This means that achieving
the lower costs described for this method depends upon investing
in an automatic sealer. Figure 17 shows that, for seasonal
volumes of about 27,000 to 30,000 13/-bushel equivalents, costs
are equal for the two methods.
Higher wages would increase the cost advantage of the packer
assemble method. For example, at 200 boxes per hour, a wage
rate of $1.25 increases the direct costs per 1,000 boxes $2.50
and $7.88 for the packer assemble and crew assemble methods,
respectively. A second effect is to reduce the point at which
the packer assemble method has lower costs. From 27,000 to
30,000 1%.-bushel equivalents at a wage rate of $1.00, the point
of equal costs occurs at about 22,000 to 24,000.
Evaluation.-The packinghouse has somewhat more choice
in the rate of fiberboard box output than the rate of other specific
operations. For specific operations in handling of wirebound
boxes, the assembling crew must be integrated roughly with the
packing crew, the box closer and others. Most packinghouses
pack fiberboard boxes only a portion of the time, however, and
the output rate may be varied. Many packinghouses shift the
entire operation to the output of fiberboard boxes when they







1. 200 boxes per hour


16 16 /
/
14- 14


8 12 12
-0

10 10 .-


1 Iv




4 A


2 2-


4 A 0 0 L
50 100 200 50 100 200 300 400 500
Boxes per season Boxes per season
(1,000 boxes) (1, 000 boxes)

Fig. 17.-Total season cost for two methods of unloading, storing, assembling, supplying to packers and closing
%-bushel fiberboard boxes, according to season volume and output per hour, Florida citrus packinghouses, 1954.


2. 400 boxes per hour







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 53

have an order to fill. Others space the output over a longer
period and continue to pack other containers. Frequently, the
order for fiberboard boxes will be for specific sizes, which neces-
sitates simultaneous output of fiberboard boxes and other con-
tainers. Within limits, therefore, the packinghouse may choose
that output rate which best fits in with the equipment and crew
organization available for handling other containers.
Total season volume is the primary consideration in choosing
the method to handle fiberboard boxes. If it is small, the invest-
ment in the automatic sealer cannot be justified. If the antici-
pated volume is large, the investment should prove economical.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
This study is concerned with the efficiency of alternative work
methods for performing certain handling operations in citrus
packinghouses in Florida. A basic sample of 12 packinghouses
was included in the study. Studies were made of specific oper-
ations in some additional houses. The data were collected by
direct observation of labor, using time and work sampling studies,
and from the records of the packinghouse firms. In addition, in-
formation on prices of equipment and materials was obtained
from the suppliers of these items.
Physical input-output relationships were used in an economic
analysis of the following packinghouse operations: (a) unload-
ing and storing box materials; (b) assembling and supplying
boxes to packers; (c) closing, transporting and loading packed
fruit for 13/-bushel wirebound boxes; (d) closing, transporting
and loading for 1%-bushel standard nailed boxes; (e) transport-
ing and loading for consumer bags; and (f) unloading and storing
box materials, assembling and supplying to packers, and closing
for 4/-bushel fiberboard boxes.
Unloading and Storing 1%-Bushel Wirebound Box Materials.
-Box materials may be unloaded at a rate which does not cor-
respond to the output rate of other packinghouse operations.
The methods considered had high rates of unloading, relative to
the feasible output rates in other packinghouse operations.
Therefore, the packinghouse manager may select the crew or-
ganization with the lowest costs. It was found that the lowest
cost could be attained with a crew of four men and using a
conveyor belt to transport the bundles of boxes from the elevator
to storage, rather than using a dolly to transport the box ma-
terials.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Assembling and Supplying 1%-Bushel Wirebound Boxes to
Packers.-Three methods were compared for assembling 1%-
bushel wirebound boxes: (a) assembling in a fixed area and
transporting assembled boxes to the box chutes by conveyor;
(b) assembling in an area that moves through the box materials
and transporting assembled boxes to the box chutes by hand
trucks; and (c) assembling in a fixed area and transporting
assembled boxes to the box chutes by hand trucks. While there
was little difference among the methods in cost, the conveyor
method was considered rather inflexible. The other methods made
use of hand trucks for transporting the assembled boxes to the
chute area.
Closing, Transporting and Loading 1%-Bushel Wirebound
Boxes.-Methods studied were: (a) closing boxes at the end of
each packing aisle and transporting packed boxes by hand trucks;
(b) closing boxes with a team of workers at a centralized loca-
tion and transporting packed boxes by hand trucks; and (c)
closing boxes with a team of workers at a centralized location
and transporting packed boxes by a conveyor. For handling
without storage the method using conveyor belts had lowest
costs, and especially so at the higher seasonal volumes and out-
put rates. This method eliminated a considerable amount of
labor. The requirement that 50 percent of the boxes be placed
in temporary storage decreased the advantage of the conveyor
belt method. In fact, at lower rates of output the two hand
truck methods were more economical. The increase in costs for
each method caused by adding the storage factor was not uni-
form between methods. The use of hand trucks is considered
more flexible than using conveyor belts. Therefore, methods
employing hand trucks had smaller increases in costs when stor-
age was involved. Box closing required less labor when a team
of closer worked together.
Closing, Transporting and Loading 13/-Bushel Standard Nailed
Boxes.-Four work methods for handling 1%-bushel standard
nailed boxes after packing were analyzed, each without storage
and with storage of 50 percent of the boxes. These were: (a)
hand nailing and hand truck transportation; (b) movable ma-
chine nailing and hand truck transportation; (c) stationary
machine and hand truck transportation; and (d) stationary ma-
chine and conveyor belt transportation. Without storage the
method using the conveyor had lower costs than the other
methods under all situations except at extremely low seasonal







Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 55

volumes. The movable box closing machine method had higher
costs than those which used stationary machines.
In the analysis assuming storage, the advantage of the con-
veyor method over the others was decreased, raising the costs
of this method relatively more than the other methods. At an
output rate of about 400 boxes per hour, the stationary machine
is superior to the movable machine.
The hand nailing method requires more labor and since only
one man is normally assigned per packing aisle, a low limit is
placed upon the rate of output. Therefore, this method is com-
pared with the others only at these low output levels. This
method may be used, with an advantage in costs, when the total
season output is very low.
Transporting and Loading Eight Pound Bags.-Five methods
for handling consumer bags were analyzed: (a) hand trucking
upright crates holding about five 1%-bushel equivalents of fruit;
(b) overhead chain conveyor; (c) overhead conveyor belt; (d)
hand trucking of bags in modified field boxes; and (e) conveyor
belt transportation of bags in modified field boxes. Two analyses
were made-one assuming direct movement to the loading point
and one assuming movement to storage and then to the loading
point. At the lower rates of output the field box-conveyor method
was lower in costs. The overhead chain method was most eco-
nomical above 150,000 1l%-bushel equivalents a season, when
operating at 340 1%-bushel equivalents per hour.
When storage was assumed, the field box-hand truck method
had a clear advantage over all the other methods because the
costs for this method rose relatively less when storage was re-
quired.
Handling Fiberboard Boxes.-Two alternatives were com-
pared for assembling and supplying %-bushel fiberboard boxes
to packers: (a) packers do the assembling and (b) a crew does
the assembling. The first method is the most economical, ex-
cept at a seasonal volume of less than about 30,000 1%-bushel
equivalents of fruit. The cost analysis included unloading the
box materials and closing boxes after packing. Each of these
operations is different between the methods. When packers
assemble, the box materials are stored on the main floor and are
sealed at a centralized station by an automatic glue sealer. When
a crew assembles the boxes, the materials are unloaded and
stored in the box balcony and may be closed at the ends of each
packing aisle by hand stapling.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


LITERATURE CITED

1. Florida Citrus Mutual, Lakeland. Annual Statistical Report, 1954-55.
2. Hamilton, H. G. Costs of Handling Citrus Fruit from the Tree to the
Car in Florida. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull. 202. 1929.
3. Hamilton, H. G., and M. A. Brooker. A Study of the Cost of Handling
Citrus from the Tree to the Car in Florida. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta.
Bull. 266. 1934.
4. Hoofnagle, W. S. Marketing Margins for Oranges, March, 1953 to
June, 1953. Bur. Agri. Economics. September 1953.
5. Johnson, D. B. Marketing Charges for Grapefruit Sold in Pittsburgh,
Pa. and Cleveland, Ohio. Bur. Agri. Economics. June 1953.
6. Johnson, D. B. Marketing Margins for Florida Oranges, October 1951-
June, 1952. Bur. Agr. Economics. July 1952.
7. Johnson, D. B. Effect of Size of Fruit on Price of Florida Oranges,
New York and St. Louis Auction Markets, 1949-50 Season. Bur.
Agr. Economics. October 1951.
8. Manchester, A. C. Orange Tree to Breakfast Table: Marketing Costs
and Margins for Florida Oranges. USDA Agricultural Marketing
Service, Marketing Research Report No. 164. June 1957; also
personal communication with Dr. Manchester.
9. Spurlock, A. H. Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits,
1954-55 Season. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Agr. Economics Mimeo Re-
port 56-6. January 1956.
10. Spurlock, A. H., and H. G. Hamilton. Cost of Packing and Selling Flor-
ida Fresh Citrus Fruits. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Agr. Economics
Mimeo Report 57-4. February 1957.
11. Thor, E., and others. Cost of Handling Florida Citrus in Fresh and
Processed Form, 1951-52. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Agr. Economics
Mimeo Report 54-5. September 1953.
12. Thor, E., and others. Cost of Handling Florida Citrus Fruits in Fresh
and Processed Form, 1952-53. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Agr. Economics
Mimeo Report 54-14. May 1954.
13. Thor, E., and A. H. Spurlock. Costs of Packing and Selling Florida
Fresh Citrus Fruits, 1954-55. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Agr. Economics
Mimeo Report 56-5. January 1956.








Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 57


APPENDIX

EXAMPLE OF METHOD OF COMPUTING COSTS
An example, unloading 13-bushel wirebound box materials,
will illustrate the manner in which the cost analyses were made.
This operation consists of moving bundles of unassembled boxes
from a rail car up to the box balcony and into storage. To per-
form this operation, the bundles of unassembled boxes must be
(a) taken from rail car and placed on box materials elevator, (b)
transported on elevator to the box balcony, (c) taken from ele-
vator in box balcony and transported to storage and (d) placed
in storage in stacks. Alternative procedures are available for
step (c) only. The alternatives are (1) to remove the bundles
from the elevator by hand, place on a dolly and push the dolly
to the storage area, or (2) to have the bundles fall from the ele-
vator onto a conveyor belt which transports the bundles to the
approximate storage location and hand carry the bundles from
the belt to storage.
The first step in computing the costs of the alternative meth-
ods is to set up certain assumptions about the jobs to be done.
The following assumptions are made for unloading wirebound
box materials:

1. There are 10 unassembled boxes in a bundle.
2. Ten bundles constitute a dolly load.
3. Average distance from elevator to storage area is 40 feet.
4. If a conveyor belt is used, its length is 70 feet.
5. The average distance workers must carry bundles from the conveyor
belt to storage is 20 feet.
6. The wage rate for workers in this work is $1.00 per hour.

Next, the data on labor requirements are used to set up al-
ternative crews for each work method. The relevant labor re-
quirements are:

1. To load the elevator from rail car; 0.39 man minute per bundle.
2. To place on dolly from elevator; 0.15 man minute per bundle.
3. To push dolly to storage, unload and return; 0.37 man minute per
bundle.
4. To stack from conveyor belt; 0.42 man minute per bundle.

For the dolly method the first three jobs are required and
must be filled by a minimum of three men. The first job, taking
the bundles from the rail car and placing them on the elevator,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


has the highest labor requirement, 0.39 man minute per bundle
of 10 boxes. Therefore, with one man at each job, the three-
man crew may unload 1,538 unassembled boxes per hour. If
two men work in the rail car, the limiting job is in pushing and
unloading dollies. One man may handle 1,622 unassembled boxes
per hour, so this is the maximum output per hour for a four-
man crew. If a fifth man is added to this limiting job, the max-
imum output for the two men in the rail car is 3,077 boxes per
hour.
Similarly, for the conveyor method, a two-man crew may
be employed, since only the first and last steps are required.
With one man stationed in the rail car and in the storage area,
the limiting factor is the 0.42 man minute per bundle required
to remove a bundle from the belt and carry to storage. One
man can handle 1,429 boxes per hour, so this is the rate for two
men. With two men in the box balcony and one in the rail car,
the limit is 1,538 per hour. A four-man crew can handle approx-
imately double the output of the two-man crew, or 2,857 boxes
per hour. A five-man crew may handle 3,077 boxes per hour.
This provides the basis for computing hourly labor costs at
specific output rates, as follows:
Work Method Output Rate Crew Size Labor Costs
Dolly 1538 3 $3.00
1622 4 4.00
3077 5 5.00
Conveyor 1429 2 2.00
1538 3 3.00
2857 4 4.00
3077 5 $5.00

Next, the equipment which corresponds to the various crew
organizations may be set up. For the dolly method one box ele-
vator with a one horsepower motor is required for all outputs.
When one worker is pushing box materials to storage, two dol-
lies are required so that one is in use and one is being loaded at
all times, and two workers require three dollies. For the con-
veyor method a box elevator and a conveyor belt of 70 foot length
and 24 inch width are required. The conveyor belt is powered
by a 1/2-horsepower electric motor. The cost of equipment, the
estimated service life, the annual depreciation charge, and a 5
percent allowance for other costs including 1 percent for insur-
ance, 1 percent for taxes and 3 percent for interest for all the
equipment in either method are as follows:








Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 59


Item
Elevator
Dolly
Conveyor belt


Cost
$1,370.00
200.00
$1,067.00


Annual
Life Depreciation
10 $137.00
15 13.33
15 $ 71.13


That is, the annual fixed charge for a box materials elevator is
$205.50, dolly, $23.33, and 70 feet long and 24 inches wide con-
veyor belt, $124.48.
These data may be used to compute the annual fixed cost
for each method at each output rate as follows:


Work Method
Dolly


Conveyor


Output Rate
1538
to
1622


1429
to
3077


Item
Elevator
Dolly
TOTAL
Elevator
Dolly
TOTAL
Elevator
Conveyor belt
TOTAL


Number Annual
Required Fixed Cost
1 $205.50
2 46.66
$252.16
1 205.50
3 69.99
275.49
1 205.50
1 124.48
$329.98


Next, power and repair costs must be computed. Power is
applicable on the elevator in both methods and the conveyor belt
in the conveyor method. Power is computed at $0.03 per horse-
power hour. The dolly method uses a total of one horsepower
per hour for a total of $0.03. The conveyor method uses 11/
horsepower per hour for a total of $0.045 (or $0.05).
Repairs are computed at 0.5 percent of the replacement cost
of equipment per 100 hours of operation. Therefore, to com-
pute repair costs at each output rate, the total replacement
cost of equipment must be computed. For example, to operate
at 1,538 boxes per hour with the dolly method, a $1,370 elevator
and two $200 dollies are required, or a total replacement cost of
equipment of $1,770. The costs for all output rates are:


Work Method
Dolly


Conveyor


Output Rate
1,538
1,622
3,077
1,429
1,538
2,857
3,077


Replacement Cost
$1,770
1,770
1,970
2,437
2,437
2,437
$2,437


Repair
Cost per Hour
$0.09
.09
.10
.12
.12
.12
$0.12


Other
Costs
$68.50
10.00
$53.35


Total
$205.50
23.33
$124.48







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Total direct costs per hour for equipment (power and repairs)
then may be shown as follows:


Work Method
Dolly


Conveyor


Output Rate
1,538
1,622
3,077
1,429
1,538
2,857
3,077


Power Cost
$0.03
.03
.03
.05
.05
.05
$0.05


Repair Cost
$0.09
.09
.10
.12
.12
.12
$0.12


Total
$0.12
.12
.13
.17
.17
.17
$0.17


Total direct costs may now be computed by combining the
costs for labor and equipment as follows:


Work Method
Dolly


Conveyor


Output Rate
1,538
1,622
3,077
1,429
1,538
2,857
3,077


Direct Cost per Hour
Labor Equipment Total
$3.00 $0.12 $3.12
4.00 .12 4.12
5.00 .13 5.13


2.00
3.00
4.00
$5.00


.17
.17
.17
$0.17


2.17
3.17
4.17
$5.17


Annual fixed costs and direct costs per 1,000 boxes have been
computed. These data may be used to compute the cost of un-
loading any given total seasonal volume for each output rate
under each work method. For example, the total cost for un-
loading 100,000 boxes using the dolly method at an output rate
of 1,538 boxes per hour (three-man crew) is made up of annual
fixed costs of $252.16 and direct costs of $203.00 (100 times $2.03,
the direct cost per 1,000 boxes), for a total of $445.16 (See
Table 4). Similarly, total costs may be computed for both
methods for all output rates.


Cost per
1,000 Boxes
$2.03
2.54
1.67
1.52
2.06
1.46
$1.68








Handling Operations in Florida Citrus Packinghouses 61


APPENDIX TABLE 1.-CALCULATION OF ANNUAL FIXED COSTS FOR
EQUIPMENT, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.


Estimated I Estimated
Item Replace- Service
ment Life
Cost*
dollars years

Hand truck ........ 89.00 10
Dolly ......... ........ 200.00 15
Conveyor belt
(100' x 12")t .... 1,150.00 15
Conveyor belt
(100' x 16")$ .... 1,280.00 15
Conveyor belt
(100' x 24") .... 1,580.00 15
Roller conveyor
(10') ................. 55.00 10
Curved roller
conveyor .............. 37.00 10
Packed box chain
conveyor (36') .... 296.00 15
Overhead chain
conveyor (300') .. 2,100.00 10
Metal slide for bags 100.00 15
Box materials
elevator ................ 1,370.00 10
Work table for
box assembly ..... 50.00 10
Fiberboard box
sealer ................. 4,377.00 10
Fiberboard box
stapler ................ 423.00 10
Hand stapler .......... 15.00 10
Packing stands ...... 30.00 15
Empty box chute ... 167.00 15
Tray for bagged
fruit ...................... 1.50 10
Upright crate ........ 50.00 10
Box for bagged |
fruit .................... 2.50 10
Standard nailed
box closer ..-......... 3,166.00 10
Standard nailed box
closer (movable,
3 aisles) ........ 3,516.00 10
Foot operated press 75.00 15
Hammer (standard
nailed box) ........ 10.00 2
Wirebound box
hand closer .......... 15.00 1

Based on 1954 prices.


Total
Estimated Other Estimated
Annual Annual Annual
Deprecia- Costs** Fixed
tion Costs
... .............. dollars ........ ........


8.90
13.33

76.67

85.33

108.33

5.50

3.70

19.73

210.00
6.67

137.00

5.00
437.70

42.30
1.50
2.00
11.13

0.15
5.00
0.25

316.60

351.60
5.00

5.00

15.00


4.45
10.00

57.50

64.00

79.00

2.75

1.85

14.80

105.00
5.00

68.50

2.50

218.85

21.15
0.75
1.50
8.35
0.10
2.50
0.13

158.30

175.80
3.75

0.50

0.75


13.35
23.33

134.17

149.33

184.33

8.25

5.50

34.53

315.00
11.67

205.50

7.50

656.55

63.45
2.25
3.50
19.48

0.25
7.50
0.38

474.90

527.40
8.75

5.50

15.75


** One percent of replacement cost for taxes, 1 percent for insurance, and 3 percent
for interest.
t Price computed by: $250 for installation, plus $9 per foot.
$ Price computed by: $270 for installation, plus $10.10 per foot.
Price computed by: $290 for installation, plus $11.10 per foot.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


APPENDIX TABLE 2.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR UNLOADING AND
STORING 1%-BUSHEL WIREBOUND Box MATERIALS, FLORIDA CITRUS PACK-
INGHOUSES, 1954.
Direct
Output Annual Direct Costs per Hour Cost
Work Per Fixed Crew I per
Method Hour Costs Size 1,000
Labor | Equipment Total Boxes
boxes dollars ................ dollars ............ ..............
Dolly ...... 1538 252 3 3.00 0.12 3.12 2.03
1622 252 4 4.00 .12 4.12 2.54
3077 275 5 5.00 .13 5.13 1.67
Conveyor 1429 330 2 2.00 .17 2.17 1.52
1538 330 3 3.00 .17 3.17 2.06
2857 330 4 4.00 .17 4.17 1.46
3077 330 5 5.00 0.17 5.17 1.68




APPENDIX TABLE 3.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR ASSEMBLING AND
SUPPLYING 1%-BUSHEL WIREBOUND BOXES TO PACKERS, FLORIDA CITRUS
PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.
I Direct
Output Annual Direct Costs per Hour Cost
Work per Fixed Crew I per
Method Hour Cost 1 Size I 1,000
II Total I Labor Equipment Boxes
boxes dollars .. .. ....... dollars ..........-- .............
Station- 189 139 3 3.00 0.09 3.09 16.35
ary area- 269 139 4 4.00 .09 4.09 15.20
conveyor 315 139 5 5.00 .09 5.09 16.16
I 428 139 6 6.00 .09 6.09 14.23
476 139 7 7.00 .09 7.09 14.89
529 139 8 8.00 .09 8.09 15.01
631 139 9 9.00 .09 9.09 14.41
Movable 142 21 2 2.00 .01 2.01 14.15
area- 207 21 3 3.00 .01 3.01 14.54
hand 260 21 4 4.00 .01 4.01 15.42
truck 294 21 5 5.00 .01 5.01 17.04
404 21 6 6.00 .01 6.01 14.88
442 21 7 7.00 .01 7.01 15.86
521 21 8 8.00 .01 8.01 15.37
590 21 9 9.00 .01 9.01 15.27
631 21 10 10.00 .01 10.01 15.86
Station- 136 44 2 2.00 .02 2.02 14.85
ary area- 202 44 3 3.00 .02 3.02 14.95
hand 260 44 4 4.00 .02 4.02 15.46
truck 294 44 5 5.00 .02 5.02 17.07
I 382 44 6 6.00 .02 1 6.02 15.76
442 44 7 7.00 .02 7.02 15.88
522 44 8 8.00 .02 8.02 15.36
590 44 9 9.00 .02 9.02 15.29
618 44 10 10.00 0.02 10.02 16.21




APPENDIX TABLE 4.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING 1%-BUSHEL WIREBOUND BOXES FROM THE PACKING
AISLES TO THE LOADING POINT, CLOSING BOXES, AND LOADING ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKING-
HOUSES, 1954.


Work Output
Method per
Hour
boxes
Aisle closing-
hand truck 123
246
262
369
396
456
492
531
615
Centralized 123
closing- 156
hand truck 262
414
452
515
615

Centralized 123
closing- 156
conveyor 246
369
414
456
492
615


Annual
Fixed
Cost
dollars

85
156
227
241
312
325
325
396
410

117
333
348
465
585
598
702

275
522
537
673
808
823
823
959


Crew Assignments Total
Hand Man
Stack ITruck Load Hours


workers


1 3
1 4
1 5
1 6
1 7
1 8
2 9
2 10
2 11

1 4
1 4
1 5
1 6
1 7
2 9
2 | 10

1 2
1 2
1 3
1 3
1 3
1 4
2 5
2 5


I Direct
Direct Cost Per Hour I Cost per
Equip- 1,000
Labor I ment Total Boxes
............................ dollars .. ..-- ... ..----

3.10 0.06 3.16 25.69
4.10 .10 4.20 17.07
5.10 .17 5.27 20.11
6.10 .17 6.27 16.99
7.10 .23 7.33 18.51
8.10 .23 8.33 18.27
9.20 .23 9.43 19.17
10.20 .29 10.49 19.76
11.20 .29 11.49 18.68


4.10
4.10
5.10
6.10
7.10
9.20
10.20

2.10
2.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
4.10
5.20
5.20


.07
.26
.26
.33
.41
.41
.49 1

.17
.43
.43
.54
.66
.66
.66
0.78


4.17
4.36
5.36
6.43
7.51
9.61
.0.69

2.27
2.53
3.53
3.64
3.76
4.76
5.86
5.98


33.90
27.95
20.46
15.53
16.62
18.66
17.38

18.46
16.22
14.35
9.86
9.08
10.44
11.91
9.72


*Lidder also stacks the boxes in this method.
** These jobs are not performed in this method.







APPENDIX TABLE 5.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING 1%-BUSHEL WIREBOUND BOXES FROM THE PACKING
AISLES TO THE LOADING POINT, WITH INTERMEDIATE STORAGE FOR 50 PERCENT OF THE FRUIT, CLOSING BOXES, AND LOAD- _
ING, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.

Crew Assignments Direct Costs Direct
Work Output Annual Load Hand Total I per Hour Cost
Method per Fixed Hand Boxes Truck Load Man I per
Hour Cost Lid Stack Truck Going From Stored Hours I Equip- I 1,000
| Away Direct Storage Boxes Labor J ment J Total J Boxes
boxes dollars ....... ......................-......------. w workers ** ............................-- ......... ....... .......---- -....... dollars ......--.. ..................
Aisle clos- 123 85 1 1 1 0.18 0.13 3.31 3.42 0.06 3.48 28.29
ing- hand 246 156 2 1 1 .36 .27 4.63 4.76 .10 4.86 19.76
truck 369 241 3 2 1 .55 .40 6.95 7.09 .17 7.26 19.67 C
422 312 4 2 1 .62 .46 8.08 8.23 .23 8.46 20.05 3
492 325 4 3 1 .73 .54 9.27 9.42 .23 9.65 19.61
567 396 5 3 1 .84 .62 10.46 10.62 .29 10.91 19.24
615 410 5 4 1 .91 .67 11.58 11.75 .29 12.04 19.58

Centralized 123 117 1 1 1 1 .18 .13 4.31 4.42 .07 4.49 36.50
closing- 156 333 1 1 1 1 .23 .17 4.40 4.52 .26 4.78 30.64
hand 246 348 2 1 1 1 .36 .27 5.63 5.76 .26 6.02 24.47
truck 275 348 2 1 1 1 .41 .31 5.72 5.85 .26 6.11 22.22 '3
369 465 2 1 2 1 .55 .40 6.95 7.09 .33 7.42 20.11
414 465 2 1 2 1 .61 .45 7.06 7.21 .33 7.54 18.21 2"
478 585 3 1 2 1 .71 .52 8.23 8.38 .41 8.79 18.39
492 598 3 1 3 1 .73 .54 9.27 9.42 .41 9.83 19.98
515 598 3 1 3 1 .76 .56 9.32 9.48 .41 9.89 19.20 "*
615 702 3 2 3 1 .91 .67 10.58 10.75 .49 11.24 18.28 0
Centralized 123 288 1 1 1 1 .18 .13 4.31 4.42 .17 4.59 37.32
closing- 156 535 1 1 1 1 .23 .17 4.40 4.52 .43 4.95 31.73 o
conveyor 246 551 2 1 1 1 .36 .27 5.63 5.76 .43 6.19 25.16
369 686 2 1 1 1 .55 .40 5.95 6.09 .54 6.63 17.97
414 821 2 1 1 1 .61 .45 6.06 6.21 .66 6.87 16.59
492 837 3 1 1 1 .73 .54 7.27 7.42 .66 8.08 16.42
615 972 3 1 1 1 0.90 0.67 7.57 7.74 0.78 8.52 13.85

Lidder also stacks the boxes in this method.
** Fractional crew assignments arise when the work is done by (a) workers primarily assigned to other work, or (b) a supplementary crew work-
ing independently from the main crew.




APPENDIX TABLE 6.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING 1%3-BUSHEL STANDARD NAILED BOXES FR
ING AISLES TO THE LOADING STATION, CLOSING BOXES, AND LOADING, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FL
PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.


Work Output
Method per
Hour
boxes

oot press 55
110
165
197
220
275

ovable 218
machine 313
394
436
545

stationary 109
machine- 218
hand 262
truck 327
436
545

stationary 109
machine- 218
conveyor 327
436
545


Annual
Fixed
Cost

dollars

83
153
223
292
306
376

637
721
1334
1347
1433

576
792
896
909
1013
1591

734
981
1116
1251
1861


Crew Assignments Total
Man
Hand j Hours
Close Stack Truck Load I Labor
--.............................. h ou rs -....... ......... .. ...... ........ ..-....

1 1 1 3 3.20
2 1 1 4 4.30
3 1 1 5 5.40
4 1 1 6 6.50
4 2 1 7 7.50
5 2 1 | 8 8.60
1 1 1 1 4 4.20
1 1 2 1 5 5.20
2 2 2 1 7 7.30
2 2 3 1 8 8.30
2 2 3 2 9 9.40

1 1 1 1 4 4.20
1 1 1 1 4 4.20
1 1 1 1 4 4.20
1 1 2 1 5 5.20
1 1 2 1 5 5.20
2 2 3 2 9 9.40

1 1 2 2.20
1 1 2 2.20
1 1 2 2.20
1 1 2 2.20
2 2 4 4.40


Direct Costs
per Hour
Equip-
ment Total
................ dollars ..----

0.06 3.26
.12 4.42
.18 5.58
.24 6.74
.24 7.74
.30 8.90

.31 4.51
.38 5.58
.64 7.94
.65 8.95
.71 10.11

.26 4.46
.44 4.64
.52 4.72
.52 5.72
.60 5.80
.86 10.26

.39 2.59
.61 | 2.81
.73 2.93
.5 3.05
1.13 5.53


* The lidder also stacks the boxes in this method.


F





M




St





St


OM THE PACK-
LORIDA CITRUS


Direct
Cost per .
1,000
Boxes
....- ....-- --- ....... ^

59.27
40.18
33.82
34.21
35.18
32.36 ("

20.69
17.83
20.15 2.
20.53
18.55

40.92
21.28
18.02
17.49
13.30
18.83

23.76
12.89
8.96 Z
7.00
10.15









APPENDIX TABLE 7.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING 1%-BUSHEL STANDARD NAILED BOXES FROM THE PACK-
ING AISLES TO THE LOADING POINT, WITH INTERMEDIATE STORAGE FOR 50 PERCENT OF THE BOXES, CLOSING BOXES, AND
LOADING, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.


Work Output Annual
Method per Fixed
Hour Cost

boxes dollars .

Foot press 55 83
110 153
165 223
220 306
275 376
Movable 218 637
machine 313 721
422 1334
436 1347
545 1433

Stationary 109 576
machine- 218 792
hand 275 896
truck 327 909
436 1013
545 1591

Stationary 109 747
machine- 218 994
conveyor 327 1129
436 1264
| 545 1874


Crew Assignments
( Hand Load Total
Hand Truck From Man
Close Stack I Truck Load From Stor- Hours
I Away Storage age I
.--.--.-- ....- ...-- ---...- w workers ** ..--........................-- -------------
1 1 1 0.08 0.06 3.14
2 1 1 .16 .12 4.28
3 1 1 .24 .18 5.42
4 2 1 .32 .24 7.56
5 2 1 .41 .30 8.71

1 1 1 1 .32 .24 4.56
1 1 2 1 .46 .34 5.80
2 2 2 1 .62 .46 8.08
2 2 3 1 .64 .48 9.12
2 2 3 1 .80 .60 9.40

1 1 1 1 .16 .12 4.28
1 1 1 1 .32 .24 4.56
1 1 1 1 .41 .30 4.71
1 1 2 1 .48 .36 5.84
1 1 2 1 .64 .48 6.12
2 2 2 1 .80 .60 8.40

1 1 1 1 .16 .12 4.28
1 1 1 1 .32 .24 4.56
1 1 1 1 .48 .36 4.84
1 1 1 1 .64 .48 5.12
2 1 1 1 .80 .60 6.40


Direct Costs Direct
per Hour Cost
I per
Equip- I 1,000
Labor ment Total Boxes
.......................-- dollars ..--.- ....- .....

3.35 0.06 3.41 62.00
4.59 .12 4.71 42.82
5.84 .18 6.02 36.48
8.08 .24 8.32 37.82
9.34 .30 9.44 34.33

4.78 .31 5.09 23.35
6.03 .38 6.41 20.48
8.43 .64 9.07 21.49
9.47 .65 10.12 23.21
9.76 .71 10.47 19.21

4.49 .26 4.75 43.58
4.78 .44 5.22 23.94
4.94 .52 5.46 19.85
6.08 .52 6.60 20.18
6.37 .60 6.97 15.99
8.76 .86 9.62 17.65

4.49 .39 4.88 44.77
4.78 .62 5.40 24.77
5.08 .74 5.82 17.80
5.37 .85 6.22 14.27
6.76 1.13 7.89 14.48


The box closer also stacks the boxes.
** Fractional crew assignments arise when the work is done by (a) workers primarily assigned to other work, or (b) a supplementary crew work-
ing independently from the main crew.




APPENDIX TABLE 8.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING EIGHT-POUND BAGS FROM THE PACKING AREA TO THE
LOADING POINT AND LOADING, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES, 1954.

Output Annual Crew Assignments Total Direct Costs Direct
Work per Fixed Man per Hour Cost per
Method Hour* Cost Hand Other Hours I Equip- [ 1,000
Stack Truck Load Work I Labor ment I Total Boxes
boxes dollars -...--..............- ... .... ... w workers ** ....- .. ............. ............................. ....... .. dollars .. .......- ..- ......... .
Upright 85 46 0.87 0.44 1.00 2.31 2.41 0.06 2.47 29.06
crates 170 92 1.75 0.87 2.00 4.62 4.82 .12 4.94 29.06
255 139 2.62 1.31 3.00 6.93 7.23 .18 7.41 29.06 ^
340 185 3.50 1.74 3.00 8.24 8.54 .24 8.78 25.82
425 231 4.36 2.17 4.00 10.53 10.93 .30 11.23 26.42 a
Overhead 85 365 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.10 .21 2.31 27.18
chain 170 525 2.00 1.00 3.00 3.20 .30 3.50 20.59
255 694 3.00 2.00 5.00 5.30 .35 5.65 22.16 .
340 854 3.00 2.00 5.00 5.30 .44 5.74 16.88
425 1014 4.00 2.00 6.00 6.40 .52 6.92 16.28
Overhead 85 406 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.10 .27 2.37 27.88 *
conveyor 170 622 2.00 1.00 3.00 3.20 .45 3.65 21.47
255 931 3.00 2.00 5.00 5.30 .63 5.93 23.25 9
340 1188 3.00 2.00 5.00 5.30 .81 6.11 17.97
425 1444 4.00 2.00 6.00 6.40 .99 7.39 17.39
Field box- 85 31 0.17 0.54 1.00 1.71 1.81 .05 1.86 21.88
hand truck 170 61 0.33 1.09 2.00 3.42 3.62 .11 3.73 21.94
255 92 0.50 1.63 3.00 5.13 5.43 .16 5.59 21.92
340 122 0.66 2.17 4.00 6.83 7.23 .22 7.45 21.91
425 153 0.83 2.72 5.00 8.55 9.05 .27 9.32 21.93
Field box- 85 76 0.38 1.00 1.38 1.48 .20 1.68 19.76
conveyor 170 153 0.86 2.00 2.86 3.06 .43 3.49 20.53
255 204 1.44 3.00 4.44 4.74 .55 5.29 20.75
340 264 2.13 4.00 6.13 6.53 .67 7.20 21.18
425 320 2.93 5.00 7.93 8.43 0.79 9.22 21.69

Output expressed in 1 3/5 bushel equivalents of fruit.
** Fractional crew assignments arise when the work is done by (a) workers primarily assigned to other work, or (b) a supplementary crew work-
ing independently from the main crew.





APPENDIX TABLE 9.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR TRANSPORTING EIGHT-POUND BAGS FROM THE PACKING AREA TO THE
LOADING POINT AND LOADING, WITH INTERMEDIATE STORAGE, ACCORDING TO WORK METHOD, FLORIDA CITRUS PACKING-
HOUSES, 1954.

Annual Crew Assignments Total Direct Costs Direct
Work Output Fixed Truck Truck I Man per Hour | Cost per
Method per Cost Stack** to to Return Load 1 Hours Equip- I 1,000
Hour I Storage Loading Boxes I Labor ment | Total Boxes
boxes dollars ......- ........... ...... workers T .-................ ................ dollars ..... ...............

Upright 85 477 0.87 0.43 0.22 0.75 2.27 2.34 0.20 2.54 29.88
crates 170 616 1.75 0.87 0.44 1.50 4.56 4.71 0.29 5.00 29.41
255 755 2.62 1.30 0.65 2.24 6.81 7.03 0.38 7.41 29.06
340 894 3.50 1.74 0.87 2.99 9.10 9.40 0.47 9.87 29.03
425 1033 4.36 2.17 1.09 3.74 11.36 11.73 0.56 12.29 28.92

Overhead 85 795 1.00 0.18 0.22 0.75 2.15 2.22 0.35 2.57 30.24
chain 170 1070 2.00 0.37 0.44 1.50 4.31 4.46 0.48 4.94 29.06
255 1343 3.00 0.55 0.65 2.24 6.44 6.66 0.57 7.23 28.35
340 1618 4.00 0.74 0.87 2.99 8.60 8.90 0.69 9.59 28.21
425 1893 5.00 0.92 1.09 3.74 10.75 11.12 0.81 11.93 28.07

Overhead 85 849 1.00 0.18 0.22 0.75 2.15 2.22 0.42 2.64 31.06
conveyor 170 1224 2.00 0.37 0.44 1.50 4.31 4.46 0.64 5.10 30.00
255 1597 3.00 0.55 0.65 2.24 6.44 6.66 0.85 7.51 29.45 3
340 1973 4.00 0.74 0.87 2.99 8.60 8.90 1.07 9.97 29.32
425 2348 5.00 0.92 1.09 3.74 10.75 11.12 1.29 12.41 29.20

Field box- 85 137 0.17 0.54 0.27 0.89 1.87 1.96 0.07 2.03 23.88
hand 170 190 0.33 1.09 0.54 1.78 3.74 3.92 0.12 4.04 23.76
truck 255 243 0.50 1.63 0.82 2.66 5.61 5.88 0.17 6.05 23.73 CQ
340 296 0.66 2.17 1.09 3.55 7.47 7.82 0.22 8.04 23.65 g
425 350 0.83 2.72 1.36 4.44 9.35 9.79 0.27 10.06 23.67 g-

Field box- 85 | 185 1.00 0.23 0.27 0.38 0.89 2.77 2.86 0.16 3.02 35.53 c
conveyor 170 289 1.00 0.46 0.54 0.86 1.78 4.64 4.82 0.33 5.15 30.29
255 365 1.00 0.69 0.82 1.44 2.66 6.61 6.88 0.41 7.29 28.59
340 451 1.00 0.92 1.09 2.13 3.55 8.69 9.04 0.50 9.54 28.06
425 531 1.00 1.15 1.36 2.93 4.44 10.88 11.32 0.59 11.91 28.02

Output expressed in 1 3/5-bushel equivalents of fruit.
** For the first three methods stacking time is for placing bags into upright crates, for the last two methods, stacking time is for stacking boxes
of bags.
t Fractional crew assignments arise when the work is done by (a) workers primarily assigned to other work, or (b) a supplementary crew work-
ing independently from the main crew.









APPENDIX TABLE 10.-FIXED AND DIRECT COSTS FOR UNLOADING, STORING, ASSEMBLING, SUPPLYING TO PACKERS, AND
CLOSING 4/5-BUSHEL FIBERBOARD BOXES, ACCORDING TO WORK METHODS, AND HOURLY OUTPUT, FLORIDA CITRUS PACK-
INGHOUSES, 1954.


Output
Work per
Method Hour *

boxes

Packer 100
assemble 200
300
400

Crew 168
assemble 222
225
313
336
390
444


Annual
Fixed
Cost

dollars

831
831
855
855

185
185
248
248
248
248
248


Crew Assignments
Unload Assemble &
and Supply to
Store | Packers
..-.-.. --...-....... workers **

0.13 0.86
.26 1.73
.40 2.59
.53 3.45

.27 4.00
.36 5.00
.36 6.00
.51 7.00
.54 8.00
.63 9.00
0.71 10.00


Total
Man
Close Hours
Top


-- 0.99
1.99
|2.99
-- I3.98

1.24 5.51
1.64 7.00
1.66 8.02
2.31 9.82
2.48 11.02
2.88 I 12.51
3.25 13.96


Direct Costs
per Hour
| Equip-
Labor meant Materials
..... ...... ..... ...... .... dollars .


0.99
1.99
2.99
3.98

5.51
7.00
8.02
9.82
11.02
12.51
13.96


Output expressed in 1 3/5-bushel equivalents.
** Fractional crew assignments arise when the work is done by (a) workers primarily assigned to other work, or (b) a supplementary crew work-
ing independently from the main crew.


Direct
Cost
per
1,000
Boxes


17.00
14.50
13.70
13.25

37.50
36.08
40.18
35.85
37.23
36.46
35.79


Total


1.70
2.90
4.11
5.30

6.30
8.01
9.04
11.22
12.51
14.22
15.89









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