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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Changes in composition of Florida avocados in relation to maturity
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027139/00001
 Material Information
Title: Changes in composition of Florida avocados in relation to maturity
Alternate Title: Bulletin 259 ; University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 61 p. : charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stahl, Arthur L
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1933
 Subjects
Subject: Avocado -- Composition   ( lcsh )
Avocado -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Arthur L. Stahl.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 61).
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027139
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN4725
oclc - 18204901
alephbibnum - 000924120

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
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    Bibliography
        Page 61
Full Text



Bulletin 259 May, 1933


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
Wilmon Newell, Director









CHANGES IN COMPOSITION OF

FLORIDA AVOCADOS

IN RELATION TO MATURITY
By ARTHUR L. STAHL








TECHNICAL BULLETIN








Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



, r"..... LIRY ARV









EXECUTIVE STAFF BOARD OF CONTROL

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the Raymer F. Maguire, Chairman, Orlando
University A. H. Blanding, Bartow
Wilnon Newell, D.Sc., Director A. H. Wage, West Palm Beach
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir., Research Geo. H. Baldwin, Jacksonville
Harold Mowry, B.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm. J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. Fulghum, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian BRANCH STATIONS
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager B A H TA N
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE R. MI. Crown, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist** CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Ritche, MS.A., Assonciat* John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Fred H. Hull, M.S., Associate Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathol-
J. D. Warner, M.S., Associate ogist
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant W.A. Kuntz, A.M., Associate Plant Pathologist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY W. L. Thompson, B.S., Assistant Entomologist
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Specialist in Dairy Hus- EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
bandry R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in Charge
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Associate in Animal Nutri- R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
tion F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
E. F. Thomas, D.V.M., Assistant Veterinarian G. Townsend, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Assistant Animal Hus- B. A. Bourne, M.S., Sugarcane Physiologist
bandman J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S.A., Assistant in Dairy In- A. Daane, Ph.D., Agronomist
vestigations R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS Ross E. Robertson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist"* SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
J. M. Coleman, M.S., Assistant W. M. Fifield, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Stacy O. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
H. W. Jones, M.S., Assistant Pathologist

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Associate FIELD STATIONS
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Assistant
Leesburg
ECONOMICS, HOME M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist** Charge
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathol-
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist ogist
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
ENTOMOLOGY J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist** C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A, Assistant Plant City
P. W. Calhoun, Assistant, Cotton Insects A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. E. Nolen, M.S.A., Asst. Plant Pathologist
HORTICULTURE Cocoa
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist**
M. R. Ensign M.S., Associate A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Pecan Culturist Hastings
C. B. Van Cleef, M.S.A., Greenhouse Foreman A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist

PLANT PATHOLOGY West Palm Beach
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist"* D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist Mon
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant Monticello
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist Fred W. Walker, Assistant Entomologist
*In cooperation with U.S.D.A. Bradenton
**Head of Department. David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist










CHANGES IN COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA
AVOCADOS IN RELATION TO MATURITY
By ARTHUR L. STAHL

In recent years, the large increase in avocado production and
the rapid growth of the industry have stimulated search for
means and methods of determining fruit maturity and best time
of harvesting. All fruits reach a stage on the tree where maturity
is manifest from their physical appearance but usually when this
stage is reached in the avocado, the fruit has passed the optimum
condition for long-distance shipment and must be utilized at once.
It is necessary to harvest avocados when firm and in an inedible
condition and then store them until they are soft and edible.
When it is desirable to harvest fruits before they have tree-
ripened, the problem of determining the best time of harvesting
is not an easy one and knowledge of their changes in composition
during maturation is imperative.
There is a tendency to harvest the avocado before it is mature
enough to ripen normally, which results in putting a poor and
flavorless product in the hands of the consumer. If picked too
early, the characteristic good flavor of well-matured fruit is lack-
ing and the fruit becomes rubbery, shrivelled, and darkened. On
the other hand, if the fruit is permitted to become ripe or near
ripe on the tree before it is harvested, it is very difficult to place
a sound, edible product on distant markets. Its maturity problem
thus assumes special importance.
The correlation between the physical appearance and the com-
position is a difficult problem in the study of changes in compo-
sition during growth and maturity. Generally it is not difficult
to decide fairly accurately from its composition when a fruit is
in its optimum condition for harvesting, but to correlate this with
some physical aspect is exceedingly difficult.
In order to establish practices in harvesting or devise methods
of testing the maturity of the avocado, it is necessary to know
the composition of the fruit throughout its life cycle and the
changes taking place in the various characteristics in the process
of maturing. Aside from the investigations by Church and
Chase(3)1, on "Some Changes in the Composition of California
iFigures in parentheses (Italic) refer to "Literature Cited," page 61.







4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Avocados During Growth", little work has yet been done in this
regard. With the exception of the analyses on a few mature
West Indian seedling avocados made by Tilt and Winfield(8),
there has been no study made of the composition of the Florida
avocados. Hence, a detailed study of the quality and the changes
in the physical and chemical characteristics of most of the impor-
tant Florida avocado varieties was made throughout the life
cycle of the fruit.

AVOCADO RACES
The avocado belongs to the genus Persea of the family LAU-
RACEAE. The avocados cultivated in the United States are clas-
sified horticulturally into three races: Guatemalan, West Indian,
and Mexican. The Guatemalan and West Indian are the same
species, Persea americana Mill. (P. gratissima Gaertn.), while
the Mexican race is a separate species, Persea drymifolia Chai. &
Schletc. (P. americana var. drymifolia Mez.). In addition to
these, there are many cultivated hybrid varieties, i. e., crosses
between varieties of one race with those of another race.

WEST INDIAN RACE
Varieties of the West Indian race predominate in the lowlands
of the American tropics. It is at present the principal commercial
race of Florida. Of the three races of avocados, the West Indian
is the most susceptible to cold. West Indian varieties bloom
from February through April and the fruit matures during late
summer and fall. A few varieties will hold fruit until mid-winter.
The fruits vary in weight from one-half pound to over three
pounds. The color ranges from greenish-yellow and green to
dark maroon. The leathery skin which characterizes fruits of
this race is from 1/64 to 1/16 of an inch thick. The varieties of
this race apparently best adapted and most important commer-
cially in Florida at the present time are Trapp, Waldin, Pollock,
and Simmonds.
GUATEMALAN RACE
The Guatemalan race is native to the highlands of Guatemala
and southern Mexico. It is more cold-resistant than the West
Indian.
A number of varieties of this race are grown commercially in
Florida but on a smaller scale than the West Indian. However,
there has been a decided increase in Guatemalan plantings in







Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 5

recent years. Guatemalan varieties bloom somewhat later than
the West Indian, although the blooming period overlaps that of
the latter race in certain of the varieties. The fruit matures from
October to the following June, depending on the variety. The
skin is, in most cases, exceptionally thick, hard, and rough. The
color ranges from pale green to dark purple. Because of its
hardiness, the Guatemalan race promises to become of much
commercial value in Florida, especially in those sections subject
to temperatures too low for the cultivation of West Indian vari-
eties. The varieties of this race best adapted and most important
commercially in Florida are Wagner, Taylor, Eagle Rock, Linda
and Schmidt.
THE MEXICAN RACE
The Mexican race is the hardiest of the three races. Many
Mexican varieties withstand fully as much frost as the orange.
The skin of the fruit is thin and usually smooth. The fruits of
the different varieties vary in weight from one-fourth to one
pound and over, the color ranging from green to purple. The
foliage is characterized by an anise-like odor. In Florida the
season of blooming is from February through April and the sea-
son of maturity is from June to December.
No large plantings of Mexican varieties have been made in
Florida up to the present time. Since the West Indian varieties
are better adapted to Florida conditions and the period of ripen-
ing is the same as that of the Mexican varieties, there has been
no incentive to plant varieties of the latter. The varieties of this
race constitute a very large percentage of those grown in Cali-
fornia(4). Some varieties of this race may, however, prove of
value to colder sections of the state. Mexican-Guatemalan hy-
brids, such as Lula, have already proved of great value in these
sections. The varieties of this race which appear to be best
adapted to Florida conditions and are grown most extensively in
Florida are Puebla and Gottfried.
HYBRIDS
This group includes varieties which originated as the result of
cross-pollination of a variety of one race with that of another.
Some Guatemalan-West Indian hybrids which seem to be well
adapted to Florida and already of commercial importance are the
Collinson and Winslowson. Two Guatemalan-Mexican hybrids
grown in the state are Lula and Fuerte. Of these Lula is im-
portant.







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

EXPERIMENTATION
A. SELECTION OF SAMPLE MATERIAL
The fruit for the investigation was obtained from marked trees
in the avocado groves of the Brooks Properties, Inc., Homestead;
the Ivey Properties, Inc., Lake Placid; and P. O. Campbell, Estero.
These groves represent three distinct areas in which avocados
are grown in Florida, the lime rock area of southeastern Florida
and the Keys, the high pine land area of the "Ridge", and the low
pine land area of the lower west coast, respectively. The varieties
used were Waldin, Pollock, Trapp, Simmonds, Winslowson, Collin-
son, Lula, Linda, Taylor, Wagner, and Eagle Rock. Samples
were taken every three weeks from the time of setting until time
of maturity for the two seasons of 1930-31 and 1931-32. During
the preliminary experiments of the 1929-30 season, monthly
samples were taken from the time the fruit was half mature to
near maturity, in the case of the West Indian varieties, and, in
the case of the Guatemalan and hybrid varieties, to full maturity.
As far as possible, all samples were obtained from a single tree
of each of the varieties selected. In some cases the fruit of
several trees had to be employed in order to continue sampling
throughout the season but, in such cases, the trees were always
side by side, having received the same cultural treatments.
The fruit was shipped to Gainesville where the analyses were
made. Samples consisting of four fruits were sent every three
weeks; two fruits were analyzed at once and the other two were
stored in paper bags and allowed to soften. Due to the numerous
analyses being made during the 1930-31 season, it was necessary
to store the samples to be softened at a temperature (450 to
500 F.) that would retard the ripening process, thus enabling the
fruit to become soft-ripe at convenient times between the sampling
and analyzing of the green samples. During the 1931-32 season,
this was not necessary and the fruit was stored in paper bags at
room temperature until soft. Before the fruit was large enough
to permit a complete analysis of a single fruit, large numbers of
fruit were used and the pulp was mixed before sampling. The
samples analyzed at once are here designated "Fresh Samples"
or "A"; the others held in storage until soft designated "Stored
Samples" or "B".
In the supplementary experiments of the 1931-32 season* the
*These supplementary experiments were carried out by Mr. Raymond
Lyle, graduate assistant, Horticultural Department, Florida Experiment
Station.







Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 7

following varieties were used: Waldin, Trapp, Pollock, Simmonds,
Winslowson, Lula, Collinson, Schmidt, Linda, Taylor, and Wagner.
Samples of the fruit of these varieties were taken at weekly inter-
vals from half maturity to full maturity and analyzed directly
after picking from the tree. They were obtained from the groves
of the Brooks Properties, Inc., Homestead, and analyzed at the
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station at Homestead.

B. METHOD OF ANALYSIS
The method of analysis of the Association of Official Agricul-
tural Chemists(1) was used.
Specific gravity of the whole fruit was determined by weighing
in air and under water (250 C.). Each fruit was then cut in half,
the seed removed, and the pulp separated from the skin. It was
necessary to remove the skin of the fresh immature samples by
paring. In such cases, the separations could not always be accu-
rately made, a fact which must be taken into consideration in
interpreting the results. The seed, skin and pulp were weighed
and the percentage of each determined. Then, in some cases, the
specific gravities of the pulp and seed were determined by weigh-
ing in air and under water (25' C.).
Pressure tests were made on the whole fruit on both skin and
pulp with the pressure testers used for corn and peach maturity
studies(2).
The following constituents of the pulp were then determined:
Moisture was determined by drying to constant weight in vacuo
at 700 C. Ash was determined by the official method for fruits
of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists(1). Fat was
extracted from the moisture-free samples with anhydrous ether.
Sugar was determined by the Shaffer-Hartman method, using the
cuprous titration for all samples except those taken during the
1931-32 season when the Munsen and Walker method was used.
Nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl-Gunning method, the
result being multiplied by 6.25 for protein.
All of the quantitative analyses were carried out on the edible
portion in duplicate so that all of the values given in the tables are
averages of two determinations. The results were calculated on
the basis of percent by weight on the green or wet basis, except
in the case of oil and fat where both wet and water-free values
were recorded.







8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Certain descriptive terms were used in tabulation, presentation,
and discussion of the data.
Tree-ripe fruit: Fruit which softened or became edible while
on the tree.
Soft-ripe fruit: Fruit which became soft and edible either
while on the tree or in storage.
Hard-ripe fruit: Fruit which was picked while hard, yet mature
enough to soften normally into an edible condition.
Mature fruit: Fruit which is in its optimum condition for soft-
ening into the characteristic good flavored fruit.
Immature fruit: Fruit which when removed from the tree will
not soften normally into well-flavored quality but the flesh becomes
rubbery, shrivelled, and darkened upon storage.
Fresh sample: One analyzed at once while still hard or as soon
as possible after removal from the tree.
Stored sample: One analyzed after it has softened into an edible
condition.
Oil and fat content: Combined term indicating ether extract.

PRESENTATION OF DATA
The investigation was carried on over a period of three fruiting
seasons, beginning July, 1929. It was too late in the season of
the first year, by the time the investigation was started, to get
complete data and the hurricane three months later in South
Florida further handicapped the work through the destruction
of fruit in that district. In spite of this, however, some very
satisfactory and interesting results were obtained by this prelim-
inary work of the first season, and were borne out in the two
subsequent seasons when it was possible to obtain samples from
individual trees throughout the entire growth cycle. Results of
investigations of these two seasons are given in Tables I to VI
but only a brief summary of the results of the first season's work
is given.
PRELIMINARY WORK OF THE 1929-30 SEASON
Fruits of most of the important Florida varieties of all three
races, Guatemalan, West Indian, and Mexican, were used in the
first season's work.
It was found that the percent of fat (wet basis) increases con-
siderably with the maturity of the fruit while the moisture
decreases. When the oil and fat values are expressed on the





TABLE I.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, 1930-31.
TAYLOR
Percent m
D e adTotal Specific Oil and Fat _
Date Date Condition a ht gravity ----
Weight :: (whole
Picked Tested of fruit 3 (whole g g vg r
(gins.) C .
*glt 6^ "2 4 fruit) to a s $ Q

1A 260 4/26/30 4/30/30 Fresh.......... .. 0.4 84.34 1.0289 0.48 3.24 0.98 2.40 0.56
1B3 260 4/26/30 Stored..........
2A 14 5/17/30 5/20/30 Fresh............ 8.02 12.92 28.30 58.78 84.82 1.0301 1.43 9.44 1.24 2.70 0.48 a
2B1 14 5/17/30 Stored..........
3A 6 6/ 7/30 6/ 9/30 Fresh.......... .. 21.82 14.69 24.76 60.50 87.66 1.0171 1.83 14.80 0.53 2.10 *
381 6 6/ 7/30 Stored..........
4A 4 6/28/30 6/30/30 Fresh.......... .. 70.92 18.61 20.73 60.66 88.37 1.0035 1.39 12.40 0.72 1.78 0.45
4B1 4 6/28/30 Stored..........
5A 2 7/19/30 7/22/30 Fresh............ 102.52 19.66 18.14 62.20 87.36 1.0110 2.38 14.56 0.91 1.91 *
513 2 7/19/30 Stored...........
6A 2 8/ 9/30 8/11/30 Fresh............ 164.32 20.98 16.54 62.48 84.74 1.0021 1.80 17.44 0.65 1.76 0.58
6B1 2 8/ 9/30 Stored.........
7A 2 8/31/30 9/ 1/30 Fresh.......... .. 183.52 21.42 16.63 61.95 85.22 0.9968 3.77 25.97 0.97 1.84 0.51 -
7B 2 8/31/30 10/30/30 Stored... .... 60 O06.2 ,10.07 12.19 57.74 82.,1 0.8660 6.10 34.27 1..4 1.65 *
8A 1 9/20/30 9/24/30 Fresh............ 324.6 21.42 14.57 64.01 80.12 0.9759 14.50 41.50 1.24 1.80 0.86
SB 1 9/20/30 11/20/30 Stored.......... 60 290.2 30.57 15.91 53.52 78.18 0.743 9.02 41.35 1.26 1.20 0.82 ,
9A 1 10/11/30 10/13/30 Fresh .......... .. 314.4 18.16 15.33 66.51 80.28 0.9716 8.67 44.14 1.08 1.32 0.64
9B 1 10/11/30 12/10/30 Stored.......... 60 311.5 26.16 11.41 61.98 76.4.3 0.8256 12.68 54.08 1.27 0.94 0.96
10A 1 11/ 1/30 11/ 4/30 Fresh.......... .. 439.2 17.64 9.58 72.78 83.83 0.9325 9.84 61.17 1.21 1.10 0.75
10B 1 11/ 1/30 1/ 2/31 Stored.......... 6 375.7 19.28 8.43 72.29 81.43 0.7674 11.53 55.70 1.50 0.84 1.09 "
11A 1 11/22/30 11/26/30 Fresh............ 375.2 15.62 11.0673.32 78.71 0.9422 13.12 61.65 1.25 1.25 1.22 R
11B 1 11/22/30 1/ 9/31 Stored........ 48 347.1 19.50 7.73 72.87 74.04 0.8747 14.20 55.45 1.32 0.95 1.24
12A 1 12/15/30 12/18/30 Fresh .......... .. 360.0 15.50 12.46 72.04 74.51 0.9549 16.13 63.24 1.02 1.02 1.08
12B 1 12/15/30 1/14/31 Stored.......... 30 365.9 15.52 7.76 76.72 75.84 0.8778 16.17 66.92 1.03 0.96 0.92 d
13A 1 1/ 3/31 1/ 6/31 Fresh.......... .. 391.3 16.69 9.08 74.23 75.14 0.9317 15.11 62.44 1.02 0.94 1.07 c
13B 1 1/ 3/31 2/ 6/31 Stored......... 34 363.5 23.49 8.22 68.29 69.62 0.8334 20.20 66.51 1 34 0.71 1.03 9
14A 1 1/24/31 1/29/31 Fresh............ 407.8 21.09 11.75 67.16 73.68 0.9268 16.37 62.22 1.40 1.18 1.02
14B 1 1/24/31 2/20/31 Stored.......... 27 339.8 18.59 7.94 73.47 72.33 0.9188 20.02 72.29 1.08 0.69 1.04 co
15A 1 2/16/31 2/18/31 Fresh.......... .. 331.0 18.19 13.81 68.00 74.39 0.9438 17.12 66.83 1.11 1.32 1.27
15B 1 2/16/31 3/ /,31 Stored.......... 16 317,5 19.53 8.38 72.15 73.66 0.9018 16.35 62.20 1.49 1.25 1.21
16A 1 3/ 7/31 3/ 9/31 Fresh.......... .. 336.0 16.53 11.57 71.90 68.54 0.8643 23.95 76.12 1.05 1.15 0.92
16B 1 3/ 7/31 3/10/31 Stored.......... 3 238.3 25.17 9.35 65.48 66.76 0.8420 25.18 75.73 1.30 0.95 1.07
No analysis made. Fruit never ripened. 2 Average weight.








TABLE I.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, 1930-31.-Continued.
WINSLOWSON 0
Percent
Total Specific Oil and Fat
Date Date Condition gravity
Picked Tested of fruit r g ) w hole I


1A 320 4/26/30 4/29/30 Fresh.......... .. 0.32 85.98 1.0019 1.08 7.47 1.05 3.39 0.54
1B' 320 4/26/30 Stored.......... .
2A 16 5/17/30 5/20/30 Fresh.......... .. 6.72 16.10 24.58 59.32 87.37 1.0114 1.48 11.72 1.32 2.58 0.64
SB1 16 5/17/30 Stored.......... ..
3A 9 6/ 7/30 6/ 9/30 Fresh.......... .. 13.32 15.73 28.03 5624 86.64 1.0144 1.56 11.69 1.50 3.95 0.45 .
3B1 9 6/ 7/30 Stored........
4A 4 6/28/30 6/30/30 Fresh.......... .. 50.82 18.36 19.20 62.44 88.06 1.0054 1.14 9.55 1.74 2.92 0.63
4B1 4. 6/28/30 Stored.......... .
5A 2 7/19/30 7/22/30 Fresh............ 105.92 19.43 18.28 62.29 87.30 1.0066 1.22 9.61 1.28 *
5B1 2 7/19/30 Stored.......... .
6A 2 8/ 9/30 8/12/30 Fresh.......... ..200.72 18.34 14.80 66.96 85.04 1.0011 1.10 7.35 1.20 2.12 0.26
6B1 2 8/ 9/30 Stored..........
7A 1 8/31/30 9/ 2/30 Fresh............ 343.7 19.10 12.49 68.41 85.20 0.9985 5.45 36.80 0.82 2.87 0.31
7B3 1 8/31/30 Stored..........
8A 1 9/20/30 9/23/30 Fresh............ 453.5 16.40 12.77 70.83 85.43 0.9711 6.91 47.46 0.75 2.50 0.64
8B' 1 9/20/30 Stored.......... .
9A 1 10/11/30 10/13/30 Fresh.......... ..660.4 16.63 12.01 71.36 81.20 0.9452 10.35 55.04 0.68 2.81 1.35
9B 1 10/11/30 12/18/30 Stored.......... 68 446.8 1.37 12.09 66.54 79.66 0.7640 9.52 46.82 1.13 2.30 0.88
10A 1 11/ 4/30 11/ 7/30 Fresh............ ..582.4 18.30 10.60 71.10 84.36 0.9305 10.52 67.27 0.94 1.65 1.00 C
10B 1 11/ 4/30 12/18/30 Stored.......... 4 513.2 35.01 10.80 64.19 78.30 0.8941 11.87 54.67 1.27 1.62 1.19
11A 1 11/22/30 11/24/30 Fresh.......... .. 750.9 16.49 11.62 71.89 77.97 0.9506 11.97 54.37 0.40 1.31 0.63 "
11B 1 11/22/30 12/20/30 Stored......... 38 699.0 13.0- 9.16 77.82 71.91 0.8904 18.13 64.52 1.02 1.38 1.18
12A 1 12/15/30 12/17/30 Fresh.......... .. 775.1 14.32 8.85 76.83 72.02 0.9372 18.22 65.11 0.94 2.05 0.93
12B 1 12/15/30 12/20/30 Stored.......... 5 477.1 13.65 12.50 73.87 59.34 0.8000 23.96 58.65 0.95 1.85 1.06
No records taken.
SFruit never ripened.
2 Average weight.
Fruit spoiled.










TABLE I.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, 1930-31.-Continued.
LINDA
Percent
Total Specific Oil and Fat
SDate Date Condition g gravity-- --W
2 Weight" gravity =
| S._-' Picked Tested of fruit whole
3 (grns) 9 V. = V fruit) u .s oS x C

IA 9 4/29/30 5/ 2/30 Fresh ............ 6.02 8.03 18.04 73.92 87.90 1.0303 0.46 2.41 *
181 9 4/29/30 Stored.........
2A 12 5/31/30 6/ 2/30 Fresh......... .. 20.82 9.55 22.91 67.54 83.70 1.0113 0.42 2.55 *
2B1 12 5/31/30 Stored....... ..
3A 4 7/ 1/30 7/ 4/30 Fresh ......... 115.72 7.67 17.54 74.78 89.10 1.0006 0.66 6.05 *
3/B 4 7/ 1/30 Stored .........
4A 1 8/ 2/30 8/ 4/30 Fresh...... .... 303.0 5.56 17.05 77 40 88.01 1.0134 0.72 6.00 *
4B1 1 8/ 2/30 Stored..........
5A 1 8/30/30 9/ 2/30 Fresh ............ 490.8 8.32 13.90 77.77 87.25 0.9883 2.86 22.46 *
5B 1 8/30/30 12/ 1/30 Stored.......... 9. 540.0 7 63 10 91 81 87.32 3.21 25.3, *
6A 1 10/ 1/30 10/ 3/30 Fresh.......... .. 715.7 8.35 11.73 79.92 86.55 0.9714 4.96 36.85 *
6B 1 10/ 1/30 12/ 9/30 Stored......... 69 70.0 1.1.01 15.7. 71.'6 85.9 0.8781 3.99 25.3. *
7A 1 11/ 1/30 11/ 5/30 Fresh............ 535.7 10.22 16.64 73.32 85.59 0.9744 4.97 34.54 *
7B 1 11/ 1/30 12/23/30 Stored........ 53 467. 8 10.96 13.44 75.60 86..1 0.9,1 6 .63 48.17 *
8A 1 11/29/30 12/ 3/30 Fresh.......... .. 734 0 8 54 14.50 76.96 77.92 0.9919 11.26 50 79 *
8B 1 11/29/30 1/26/31 Stored.......... 57 723. 0 12.12 11.26 76.62( 80.62 0.9618 9.08 .6.91 *
9A 1 1/ 1/31 1/ 3/31 Fresh... ...... 844.4 11.67 15.22 73.11 74.76 0.9445 8.14 50.60 *
9B 1 1/ 1/31 1/21/31 Stored.......... 20 8,79).; 13.38 13.08 73.54 77.0 0.9339 13.68 59.71 * *
10A 1 1/31/31 2/ 2/31 Fresh...... 845.2 9.58 16.56 73 86 69.50 0.9339 20.52 67.17 *
No records taken.
S Fruit never ripened.
2 Average weight.

r-
r-





TABLE I.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, 1939-31.-Continued.
EAGLE ROCK
Percent
Total Specific Oil and Fat
Date Date Condition w t gravity-
Weight gravity
"S Picked Tested of fruit g whole g
I(g'ss.) 8 C) C 8- 81 fruit) C

1A 6 5/31/30 6/ 2/30 Fresh .......... .. 95.72 8.66 26.51 64.83 87.96 1.0310 0.62 5.15 1.74 3.61 0.52
1B1 6 5/31/30 Stored............
2A 2 7/ 1/30 7/ 3/30 Fresh ............ 140.82 4.90 19.92 75.18 88.58 1.0173 0.90 7.99 1.15 2.80 0.74
2B1 2 7/ 1/30 Stored.......... .
3A 2 8/ 2/30 8/ 4/30 Fresh ............ 215.82 11.53 19.33 69.14 88.02 1.0161 0.69 5.76 1.84 2.87 0.76
3B1 2 8/ 2/30 Stored..........
4A 1 8/30/30 9/ 2/30 Fresh ........... 343.2 13.61 16.63 69.76 82.67 1.0209 1.76 10.20 0.94 0.74
4B1 1 8/30/30 Stored.......... ..
5A 1 10/ 1/30 10/ 4/30 Fresh............. 425.4 15.43 16.51 68.05 84.79 1.0101 4.85 31.88 2.65 0.46 g
5B 1 10/ 1/30 12/ 9/30 Stored.......... 69 266.0 19.74 13.53 66.73 76.02 0.7189 7.20 30.15 1.15 1.97 0.69 g
6A 1 11/ 1/30 11/ 3/30 Fresh.......... .. 562.2 17.05 13.68 69.27 81.14 0.9742 9.81 52.04 1.53 1.84 *
6B 1 11/ 1/30 12/23/30 Stored......... 5? 425.7 13.86 14.05 72.09 80.70 0.8514 8.49 43.77 1.87 *
7A 1 11/29/30 12/ 2/30 Fresh........... 588.0 15.98 16.77 67.25 81.18 0.9754 9.37 49.90 1.14 2.05 0.73
7B 1 11/29/30 19/29/30 Stored......... 30 444.0 17.88 11.26 70.06 77.77 0.9155 9.95 44.74 1.33 1.64 0.85
8A 1 1/ 1/31 1/ 3/31 Fresh......... .. .823.0 11.06 14.03 74.91 78.00 0.9809 12.02 54.63 t
8B 1 1/ 1/31 2/ 1/31 Stored.......... 28 628.4 14.97 11.39 73.64 80.44 0.9107 9.89 50.69 *
9A 1 1/31/31 2/ 3/31 Fresh.......... .. 535.3 15.08 15.37 69.55 78.02 0.9559 12.84 58.44 1.98 1.42 *
9B 1 1/31/31 2/20/31 Stored......... 0 481.2 18.16 12.47 69.37 75.44 0.9.344 13.91 56.55 2.17 1.05 1.14
10A 1 2/27/31 3/ 2/31 Fresh.......... .. 639.0 13.72 14.40 71.88 76.37 0.9609 13.11 55.46 2.05 2.08 *
10B 1 2/27/31 3/10/31 Stored.......... 11 421.4 14.36 11.10 74.54 68.03 0.9261 21.02 65.82 2.34 1.99 0.94 n
POLLOCK
1A 8 4/29/30 5/ 2/30 Fresh ............ 5.11 13.98 17.98 68.20 85.15 1.0545 1.22 7.94 "
1B' 8 4/29/30 Stored.......... ..
2A 12 5/31/30 6/ 2/30 Fresh.......... .. 25.0' 17.13 25.89 56.89 83.97 1.0182 1.50 11.15 *
2B' 12 5/31/30 Stored..........
3A 4 7/ 1/30 7/ 4/30 Fresh............ 120.61 22.71 13.06 64.23 87.89 1.0021 1.12 9.23 *
3B' 4 7/ 1/30 Stored...........
4A 1 8/ 2/30 8/ 4/30 Fresh............ 353.2 17.47 13.25 69.28 88.34 0.9570 1.91 16.42 *
4B2 1 8/ 2/30 Stored..........
5A 1 8/30/30 9/ 3/30 Fresh.......... ..609.9 15.21 8.95 75.84 88.33 0.9492 3.43 29.45 *
5B 1 8/30/30 10/ 2/30 Stored......... .32 535.7 16.64 10.04 73.32 85.59 0.9198 4.97 34.54 *
6A 1 9/ 1/30 9/ 5/30 Fresh.......... .. 925.4 13.78 9.01 77.21 84.40 0.9455 5.21 33.39 *
6B 1 9/ 1/30 9/20/30 Stored.......... 20 889.1 11.97 4.40 83.63 87.52 0.9568 3.05 24.4e *
No records taken. 1 Fruit never ripened. 2 Average weight.





'ITAILE 1.-C-(OMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT T STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, i U-51.--Conflnuee.
COLLINSON
Percent -
To a Specific Oil and Fat 1
Date Date Condition Wgt E gravity S
S = Weight r r- (whole
""a Picked Tested of fruit W Wg a it .
(gins.) % fruit) m 1

1A 12 5/31/30 6/ 2/30 Fresh. ........ .. 11.32 13.68 33.06 53.26 87.74 1.0182 0.80 6.61 *
1B1 12 5/31/30 Stored......
2A 4 7/ 1/30 7/ 4/30 Fresh.......... 64.72 15.53 23.86 60.45 87.73 1.0080 2.06 16.13 *
2B1 4 7/ 1/30 Stored.........
3A 1 8/ 2/30 8/ 5/30 Fresh... .. 260.8 17.97 17.20 64.82 87.00 1.0085 1.87 14.41 *
,:i' 1 8/ 2/30 Stored.. ..
4A 1 8/30/30 9/ 2/30 Fresh............ 404.1 19.28 13.41 67.30 87.27 0.9963 3.95 31.03 *
4B 1 8/30/30 12/16/30o Stored... 1.. l 9 29.4l2 17.22 :51. 35 81.99 0.7915 7.72 42 9 *
5A 10/ 1/30 10/ 4/30 Fresh.......... 485.8 12.19 14.13 73.68 81.84 0.9308 9.47 52.11 *
51B 1 10/ 1/30 1/ 8/3l Stored... ...... 99 531.9 19.60i 16.20 6F .16; 77.'; 0.7481 10.1 5 45.54 *
(iA 1 11/ 1/30 11/ 3/30 Fresh.. ... .. 583.4 15.73 12.28 72.00 82.77 0.9426 9.48 55.00 *
(; 1 11/ 1/30 12/.10/1;0 Stored.......... 59 .I574.9 24.26 11.87 63.88 76.1j8 0.801 11.89 63.i *
7A 1 11/29/30 12/ 2/30 Fresh ..... 705.0 15.81 12.86 71.33 76.55 0.9216 15.01 64.12 *
711 1 11/29/30 1/16/31 Stored.. ....... ,' 701.0 13.0. 9.56 77.J9 73.89 0.8276 18.03 66.2 *
8A 1 1/ 1/31 1/ 3/31 Fresh..... ....... 809.9 15.52 11.26 73.22 74.08 0.9331 15.68 64.63 *
8B 1 1/ 1/31 1/ 6/J1 Stored......... 6 821.6 17.03 7.95 75.02 72 90 0.8849 16.71 61.64 *
WALDIN

1A 10 4/29/30 5/ 2/30 Fresh......... .. 3.82 12.29 18.87 68.84 84.39 1.0217 1.75 8.05
1B1 10 4/29/30 Stored........
2A 6 5/31/30 6/ 2/30 Fresh........... 31.12 13.20 19.27 67.53 83.49 1 0253 1.37 8.30 *
2B' 6 5/31/30 Stored........
3A 4 7/ 1/30 7/ 4/30 Fresh.......... .. 74.42 21.04 16 36 62.60 86.36 1.0001 2.42 17.79 *
3B1 4 7/ 1/30 Stored ....... .
4A 1 8/ 2/30 8/ 4/30 Fresh.......... 209.8 13.23 26.16 60.61 86.14 0.9964 2.43 17.54 *
4B1 1 8/ 2/30 Stored .
5A 1 8/30/30 9/ 3/30 Fresh ....... 376.2 27.21 11.45 61.34 84.00 0.9955 5.17 32.31 *
5,B 1 8/30/30 11/10/.30 Stored......... 9,9 .40 10.84 66.76 Si .9 0.8755 6.91 4 .81 *
6A 1 10/ 1/30 10/ 4/30 Fresh........... 412.4 30.08 12.18 57.74 82.22 0.9928 6.10 34.27 *
6B 1 10/ 1/30 12/22/.10 Stored .. ... 2r .i26.7 23.12 11.19 75.69 81.6, 0.8901 8.;35 45.50 *
7A 1 11/ 1/30 11/ 3/30 Fresh.......... .. 530 1 24 83 9.66 65.51 81.27 0.9753 8.62 46.05 *
7B 1 11/ 1/30 11/25i/30 Stored......... '4 5 ? 1 1.96 8.52 59.52 77. 57 0.9608 8.76 39.03. *
8A 1 11/29/30 12/ 6/30 Fresh. ......... ..554.0 16 61 12.08 71.31 77.57 0.9739 10.54 46.68 *
8B 1 11/29/30 12/16/30 Stored.......... 16 .-5,.0 27.97 9.78 62.25 77.10 0.9219 14.95 65.29 *
No records taken. Fruit never ripened. Average weight.









TABLE I.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, 1930-31.-Continued.
LULA
Percent d
Date Dat oTotal Specific Oil and Fat
Date Date Condition Weight gravity .
"r Picked Tested of fruit ,whole i .. -
(ig-Sy 21 -^ ae b" a '- fruit)

1A 8 4/29/30 5/ 1/30 Fresh.......... .. 6.42 11.21 20.74 68.05 85.40 1.0407 0.70 3.56 *
1B' 8 4/29/30 Stored..........
2A 12 5/31/30 6/ 2/30 Fresh............ 19.02 8.54 29.21 62.25 87.92 1.0228 0.57 4.72 *
2B1 12 5/31/30 Stored.......... .
3A 4 7/ 1/30 7/ 3/30 Fresh .......... .. 92.52 22.86 21.48 55.66 88.20 1.0054 1.25 10.54 *
3BI 4 7/ 1/30 Stored...........
4A 1 8/ 2/30 8/ 4/30 Fresh ............ 197.5 16.61 19.44 63.95 85.30 0.9880 1.20 8.10 *
4B1 1 8/ 2/30 Stored.......... .
5A 1 8/30/30 9/ 2/30 Fresh......... .. 350.4 20.59 12.93 66.48 83.33 0.9839 6.68 40.09 *
5B 1 8/30/30 11/13/30 Stored.......... 74 20.6 4.01 16.64 49.35 77.16 0.7194 11.41 49.96 *
6A 1 10/ 1/30 10/ 3/30 Fresh.......... .. 498.6 25.03 12.98 61.99 80.61 0.9646 8.86 45.67 *
6B3 1 10/ 1/30 Stored..........
7A 1 11/ 1/30 11/ 3/30 Fresh.......... ..524.8 19.91 14.15 65.94 77.81 0.8978 9.96 44.89 *
7B 1 11/ 1/30 1/ 2/31 Stored.......... 63 285.8 3.09 9.52 58.39 73.90 0.8166 14.42 55.23 *
8A 1 11/29/30 12/ 2/30 Fresh.......... ..526.0 17.73 13.06 69.21 75.85 0.9053 9.16 37.71 *
8B 1 11/29/30 1/10/31 Stored.......... 41 5040 24.25 8.33 67.42 73.04 0.8129 9.89 36.69 *
9A 1 1/ 1/31 1/ 3/31 Fresh......... .. 583.2 19.78 12.62 67.60 71.00 0.9170 16.17 53.91 *
9B 1 1/ 1/31 / 1/31 Stored.......... 30 512.9 25.24 8.41 66.35 71.26 0.9159 16.82 58.52 *
10A 1 1/31/31 2/ 3/31 Fresh.......... .. 574.2 30.56 10.76 58.68 76.69 0.9261 13.93 59.77 *
10B 1 1/31/31 2/20/31 Stored.......... 20 592.0 30.98 8.21 60.81 68.98 0.9250 19.00 61.3 *
No records taken.
SFruit never ripened.
2 Average weight.
Fruit spoiled.





TABLE II.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, LAKE PLACID, 1930-31.
TAYLOR
Percent t
Totl Specific Oil and Fat
Date Date Condition gravity --
Picked Tested of fruit ighn w hole .g "
41 Q- (ams.) e = ? Q. .
"Z C., fruit) > 7


IA 37 5/ 3/30 5/ 6/30 Fresh.......... 5 12 12 20 22 90 64 90 8(6.53 1.0278 1.67 12.40 1.25 1.76 0.11
IBI 37 5/ 3/30 Stored.......
2A 13 5/24/30 5/26/30 Fresh.... ... 13.92 13.45 27.65 58 90 85 83 1.0330 0.70 4.93 1.42 2.04 0.12 ;
'2B' 13 5/24/30 Stored........ ...
3A 5 6/14/30 6/16/30 Fresh......... ... 62.5 17.64 30.67 51.69 87.34 1.0140 1.26 10.03 1.40 2.46 0 31
4111 5 6/14/30 Stored.......... .
4A 3 7/ 5/30 7/ 7/30 Fresh........... .. 130 82 15.72 23.51 60 77 87 28 1.0005 0.85 6.67 1.48 2.02 0.34 "
411r 3 7/ 5/30 Stored.......... ."
5A 2 7/26/30 7/28/30 Fresh. ......... 172.92 20 30 21.70 58.00 83 42 1 0014 1 55 9 38 1.52 1 98 0.54
,H 1 7/26/30 Stored..........
6A 1 8/16/30 8/20/30 Fresh......... .. 240 4 19 80 19.16 61.04 83.86 0.9909 4 66 28.88 1.6i 1.02 0 31
(;l l 1 8/16/30 Stored.......... ..
7A 1 9/ 6/30 9/ 9/30 Fresh... ........ 378.4 17.82 22.69 59.49 83.74 0 9919 1.78 1.42 0.36
711 1 9/ 6/30 12/ 1/,'0 Stored.......... ,''3 :71.7 2;. 1.f 24 .1 4 8.9. 74 5.01 0. 704 9.19 i6.5.5 1.H .' 1.5 (. 0 (.
8A 1 9/27/30 9/29/30 Fresh .......... .. 263.4 26.56 15 72 57.72 78.38 0.9810 10.33 47.80 1.83 1.08 0 59 "
tIl 1 9/27/30 1,2/11/o. Stored......... 77 2( j. 9.74 17.78 5 .48 7S.7.l 0 74,.2 15 69 55.19 1.93 1.08 0.71 ;
9A 1 10/18/30 10/20/30 Fresh....... ... 228 5 20.59 22.66 56.75 81.54 0.9909 7.99 43.24 1.80 0.75 0.59 o
9B 1 10/18/30 12/ 2/i30 Stored......... 4 187 4 3,2 99 19 19 41782 73.50 0 .707 9.65 38.22 2.10 0. > 0.5
10A 1 11/ 8/30 11/10/30 Fresh....... .. 277.7 23.16 14 06 62.78 79.50 0.9626 10.79 52.67 1.88 0.97 0.76
11o 1 11/ 8/30 12/2:l/30 Stored.......... 44 207.5 28.94 18 .1l 52.753 77.i1 0.84!5 9.10 40,17 2 05 0. 87 0.61
11A 1 11/29/30 12/ 1/30 Fresh.......... .. 261 3 24.10 19.53 56.37 79.14 0.9772 11.77 56.20 1.90 0.84 0.75 -
11B 1 11/29/30 1/10/31 Stored.......... 14 197.. 2-5.69 19.20 5.5.11 77.10 0.8911 11 49 51.19 1.95 0.96 0.87 .
12A 1 12/10/30 12/12/30 Fresh............ 279 5 15.15 18.58 66.27 77.58 0.9658 13.27 59.21 1.48 0.81 0.74
12B 1 12/10/30 1/26/31 Stored.......... .7 296.0 2 : 1; 1.98 62.86 75.61 0.8579 13.33 514.16 1. ,8 0. 0 l ., 80
13A 1 1/10/31 1/12/31 Fresh......... .. 370 8 26.78 13.51 59.71 75.61 0.9733 16.98 69.64 1.52 0 44 0.61
13B 1 1/10/31 1/22/31 Stored .... ..... 12 107 2 21 32 14.75 6..9J 74 .98 0 93( 5 1 .(3 6.1 6.20 1.61 (0.o 0.165 .
14A 1 1/31/31 2/ 2/31 Fresh............ 283.0 21.70 18.16 60.14 75 22 0.9759 16.47 66.45 1.98 0.72 0.70
14B 1 1/31/31 1/ 2/31 Stored.......... 30 ;(,( 7 2. 60 9 .00 6.40 71.10 0.92,8 16.50 65.08 2 01 0.9I 0. 0. 0
15A 1 2/22/31 2/25/31 Fresh .......... .. 296.3 24.50 26.00 49.50 72.42 0.9755 19.59 71.00 0.98 0.85 0 90
I,',B 1 2/22/31 .1/ 2/.l Stored.. ....... 8 249.5 21.:30 14.70 64.00 72.1.i 0.8798 1i5.68 55.20 1.1( 0.9 0.89
16A 1 3/14/31 3/16/31 Fresh......... 291.7 18.51 16.56 64.93 74.91 0.8942 19 50 70.54 1.15 0.73 0.94
16B 1 3/14/31 3;/18/11 Stored.......... 4 261.7 24 87 11.31 6.3.82 70.8R3 0.8772 19.35 69.00 1.52 1.08 0.89 y7
17A 1 4/ 4/31 4/ 6/31 Fresh.......... .. 217.7 17.78 16.35 65.87 69.50 0.9071 21.04 71.28 1.22 0.82 0.75
17B 1 4/ 4/31 4/ 9/31 Stored......... 5 3217..S' 22.7. 12.99 64.28 71.', 0 9014 19.21 67.75 1.48 0.90 0.70
No analysis made. 1 Fruit never ripened. Average weight.





TABLE II.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, LAKE PLACID, 1930-31.-Continued.
EAGLE ROCK
Percent -
De aiTotal Specific Oil and Fat
@ Date Date Condition ht E gravity ,a
=. Picked Tested of fruit Weight gaitye ,


1A 24 5/4/30 5/ 7/30 Fresh ............ 7.82 8.27 26.10 65.63 92.90 1.0316 0.38 5.06 0.90 2.54 0.81
1B' 24 5/ 4/30 Stored...........
2A 5 5/24/30 5/26/30 Fresh............ 42.9 90.35 1.0352 3.12 1.58
2B1 5 5/24/30 Stored............
3A 5 6/14/30 6/17/30 Fresh............ 60.22 8.03 20.89 71.08 87.89 1.0284 0.71 5.86 0.89 2.93 0.86
SB1 5 6/14/30 Stored...........
4A 2 7/ 5/30 7/ 7/30 Fresh............ 196.02 9.99 18.93 71.08 88.92 1.0062 1.14 2.82 0.49
4B' 2 7/ 5/30 Stored..........
5A 1 7/26/30 7/29/30 Fresh............ 244.6 14.92 18.64 66.44 87.62 1.0179 0.60 4.84 1.11 2.67 0.15 3-
5B' 1 7/26/30 Stored..........
6A 1 8/16/30 8/18/30 Fresh............ 323.7 12.08 17.02 70.90 81.91 1.0061 1.15 6.36 1.12 3.58 0.52
6B' 1 8/16/30 Stored..........
7A 1 9/ 6/30 9/ 9/30 Fresh............ 375.6 15.65 18.80 65.55 86.11 1.0110 1.70 8.42 0.43
7B' 1 9/ 6/30 Stored..........
8A 1 9/27/30 9/30/30 Fresh.......... ..586.2 14.50 15.51 69.99 85.12 0.9859 4.82 32.62 1.28 2.95 0.72 tJ
8B 1 9/27/30 11/ 5/30 Stored......... 70 380.7 18.80 14.60 66.60 84.09 0.7882 6.76 42.46 1.34 2.89 0.93
9A 1 10/18/30 10/20/30 Fresh............ 550.6 14.24 16.03 69.73 83.24 0.9873 6.72 41.11 1.19 2.30 1.03
9B 1 10/18/30 12/ 2/30 Stored.......... 76 446.7 13.63 11.08 75.29 81.50 0.8122 7.74 41.82 1.97 0.99 3
10A 1 11/8/30 11/10/30 Fresh.......... .. 501.7 17.70 18.20 64.10 82.75 0.9992 8.23 47.68 0.92 1.63 0.83 "
10B 1 11/ 8/30 1/10/31 Stored.......... 63 38.9 20.12 10.03 69.85 74.31'0.8543 12.96 50.43 1.03 1.50 1.80 0
11A 1 11/30/30 12/ 2/30 Fresh............ 575.9 14.62 16.01 69.37 81.97 0.9725 9.63 53.43 1.00 2.06 0.45 .
11B 1 11/30/30 1/24/31 Stored.......... 55 480.5 14.96 13.59 71.45 81.57 0.8898 8.84 47.65 1.33 1.76 0.93
12A 1 12/10/30 12/12/30 Fresh............ 518.3 17.94 16.82 65.24 81.45 0.9731 8.84 47.65 0.74 0.45 F?
12B 1 12/10/30 1/26/31 Stored.......... 47 317.1 15.96 12.61 71.43 77.15 0.9057 10.69 46.79 1.10 0.94
13A 1 1/10/31 1/13/31 Fresh. .......... 686.4 15.34 13.97 70.69 79.65 0.9834 11.87 58.31 1.35 1.49 0.75 s'
13B 1 1/10/31 2/13/31 Stored.......... 34 665.3 17.98 12.13 68.89 77.50 0.8754 12.80 56.90 1.00 1.53 0.92 z
14A 1 1/31/31 2/ 2/31 Fresh.......... ..710.0 15.98 15.98 68.04 77.87 0.9780 12.46 56.76 0.82 1.98 1.20
14B 1 1/31/31 3/ 9/31 Stored.......... 37 442.2 18.09 11.30 70.61 73.74 0.9118 14.81 51.39 1.11 2.25 1.30
15A 1 2/22/31 2/24/31 Fresh.......... .. 635.6 17.94 15.89 66.17 73.81 0.9778 15.29 58.28 0.96 1.87 0.86
15B 1 2/22/31 4/ 1/31 Stored......... 38 720.0 16.48 12.35 71.17 71.02 0.9306 17.61 60.78 1.64 1.74 1.13
16A 1 3/14/31 3/16/31 Fresh.......... .. 722.2 13.20 13.64 73.16 75.85 0.9826 13.56 56.14 0.97 1.14
16B 1 3/14/31 4/ 5/31 Stored......... 1 713.5 15.02 11.21 73.77 74.70 0.9463 17.17 67.87 1.49 1.53
17A 1 4/ 4/31 4/ 6/31 Fresh.......... 593.2 14.29 13.85 71.86 72.67 0.9757 18.74 68.55 1.22 2.08 0.70
17B 1 4/ 4/31 4/12/31 Stored.......... 8 807.1 15.04 14.76 70.20 73.47 0.9631 16.04 60.45 1.52 1.83 0.73
No analysis made. Fruit never ripened. 2 Average weight.







TABLE II.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, LAKE PLACID, 1930-31.-Continued.
WINSLOWSON
Percent I
eTotal Specific Oil and Fat
SDate Date Condition gravity
Weight "o
"- .- Picked Tested of fruit r Weg g v ity ""s 2
U a. 1 1 fruit ) .2 j .l 1

1A 28 5/ 3/30 5/ 5/30 Fresh.......... .. 7.92 12.75 21.90 65.35 87.45 1.0211 1.41 11.24 0.98 2.94 0.38 ;
1B1 28 5/ 3/30 Stored..........
2A 6 5/24/30 5/26/30 Fresh.......... .. 26.72 15.37 21.12 63.41 87.51 1.0315 1.34 10.74 1.54 0.38
2B 6 5/24/30 Stored..........
3A 4 6/14/30 6/16/30 Fresh............ 98.92 19.50 19.80 60.70 87.52 1.0100 1.49 11.94 0.67 3.02 0.70
3B1 4 6/14/30 Stored..........
4A 3 7/ 5/30 7/ 7/30 Fresh.......... .. 168.62 20.70 15.20 64.10 88.23 1.0014 2.74 23.28 0.78
4BW 3 7/ 5/30 Stored..........
5A 2 7/26/30 7/28/30 Fresh ............ 213.32 18.70 14.90 66.40 86.41 1.0014 2.55 18.76 0.62 2.14 0.90
5B1 2 7/26/30 Stored .......... .
6A 1 8/16/30 8/18/30 Fresh ............ 428.4 24.10 12.80 63.10 83.98 0.9869 5.80 36.21 1.49 0.93 .
6B1 1 8/16/30 Stored.......... .
7A 1 9/ 6/30 9/ 9/30 Fresh.......... ..543.2 16.90 13.50 69.60 84.52 0.9684 5.89 38.06 0.53 2.39 0.95
7B 1 9/ 6/30 11/24/30 Stored.......... 79 408.8 20.20 1,.70 65.10 78.97 0.9420 8.04 38.27 1.58 1.57 0.94
8A 1 9/27/30 9/29/30 Fresh.......... ..491.8 26.70 12.20 61.10 83.55 0.9885 9.28 53.17 1.06 0.54
8B3 1 9/27/30 Stored...........
9A 1 10/18/30 10/20/30 Fresh.......... ..555.5 24.10 12.10 63.80 80.52 0.9747 9.90 50.85 0.60 2.44 1.54
9B 1 10/18/30 12/24/30 Stored.......... 67 493.5 31.20 16.10 52.70 70.39 0.9224 18.51 63.91 0.90 1.81 1.72
10A 1 11/ 8/30 11/10/30 Fresh............ 487.8 23.60 11.90 64.50 79.58 0.9764 12.66 62.01 0.55 1.55 0.79
10B 1 11/ 8/30 12/13/30 Stored.......... 33 426.0 21.54 24.23 54.23 80.81 0.9149 11.69 60.83 0.61 1.25 1.38
11A 1 11/30/30 12/ 3/30 Fresh.......... .. 600.5 12.20 12.30 75.50 69.69 0.8932 20.24 66.79 1.18 1.52 1.97 c
11B 1 11/30/30 12/19/30 Stored......... 19 569.0 18.0 11.50 70.30 7.47 0.8621 15.77 56.4 1.50 0.90 1.88 0
12A 1 12/10/30 12/12/30 Fresh............. 751.3 15.80 9.90 74.30 70.36 0.8872 16.62 56.01 1.55 1.05 1.61 P
12B 1 12/10/30 12/15/30 Stored.......... 5 481.2 14.50 11.70 73.80 65.96 0.8495 19.68 57.89 1.69 0.85 1.41
No records taken.
1Fruit never ripened.
S Average weight.
3Fruit spoiled (rotted). -









I1-
TABLE II.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, LAKE PLACID, 1930-31.-Continued. oo
SIMMONDS
Percent M
Total Specific Oil and Fat
Date Date Condition o Weit gravity -
-. Picked Tested of fruit Weight (whole
(gras.) Z 3 a fruit) i

1A 500 3/26/30 3/28/30 Fresh.......... .. 0.52 83.99 1.0000 0.61 3.81 0.94 2.51 *
1B1 500 3/26/30 Stored...........
2A 7 5/24/30 5/27/30 Fresh............ 26.02 19.34 25.98 54.68 85.45 1.0179 0.94 6.46 1.10 2.40 0.50
2B1 7 5/24/30 Stored......... ..
3A 3 6/14/30 6/17/30 Fresh............ 128.82 20.53 16.45 63.02 85.16 1.0121 3.52 24.44 1.18 2.53 0.40
3BI 3 6/14/30 Stored..........
4AJ 2 7/ 5/30 7/ 7/30 Fresh............ 315.82 19.59 12.83 67.58 87.08 1.0016 1.56 20.15 0.98 2.12 0.25
4B 2 7/ 5/30 9/20/30- Stored.......... 75 239.8 20.90 12.90 66.20 84.74 0.8773 3.88 25.36 1.10 1.50 0.50
5A 1 7/26/30 7/28/30 Fresh.......... .. 586.8 22.90 10.00 67.10 87.83 1.0005 2.64 21.20 1.32 1.94 0.15
5B 1 7/26/30 8/28/30 Stored......... 30 530.4 17.70 9.00 73.30 87.55 0.9222 2.64 21.20 1.35 1.04 0.91 f
6A 1 8/16/30 8/19/30 Fresh............ 670.3 16.30 10.70 73.00 85.10 0.9461 2.55 17.13 1.58 1.98 0.29
6B' 1 8/16/30 Stored.......... .
7A 1 9/ 6/30 9/ 9/30 Fresh............ 609.3 12.10 9.00 78.90 84.34 0.9244 14.86 41.60 1.40 1.04 0.45 2.
7B1 1 9/ 6/30 Stored ..........
8A 1 9/27/30 9/29/30 Fresh.......... ..457.4 15.30 10.10 74.60 78.26 0.9070 11.51 54.96 1.91 1.26 0.70
8B 1 9/27/30 10/12/30 Stored.......... 16 466.0 85.56 0.8219 6.44 44.63 9.07 0.91 0.60
9A 1 10/18/30 10/20/30 Fresh.......... .. 497.8 6.00 9.40 84.60 81.85 0.8833 9.61 53.82 1.73 1.11 0.88
9B 1 10/18/30 10/30/30 Stored.......... 9 509.4 73.78 0.8708 13.17 50.94 1.81 0.68 1.48
No analysis made.
1Fruit never ripened.
SAverage weight.
3 Fruit spoiled (rotted).






TABLE II.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, LAKE PLACID, 1930-31.-Continued.
LULA
Percent
Total Specific Oil and Fat
Date Date Condition o Weight gravity --
5 3 Picked Tested of fruit g 1 (whole
(gis.) Z a E o (heQ
6S 2 fruit) t *"x ,'

1A 22 5/ 3/30 5/ 6/30 Fresh.......... .. 6.72 11.72 25.89 62.39 86.17 1.0287 0.89 6.44 0.88 3.24 *
1B' 22 5/ 3/30 Stored...........
2A 6 5/24/30 5/27/30 Fresh.......... .. 25.72 14.05 24.11 61.84 87.10 1.0314 1.05 8.18 0.69 2.78 0.48
2B' 6 5/24/30 Stored..........
3A 5 6/14/30 6/17/30 Fresh............ 90.52 17.91 18.75 63.34 87.53 1.0013 1.04 8.34 0.31
SBt 5 6/14/30 Stored..........
4A 2 7/ 5/30 7/ 7/30 Fresh.......... .. 191.62 20.28 14.50 65.22 86.64 1.0298 1.01 7.69 0.54 2.51 0.76
4B' 2 7/ 5/30 Stored............
5A 2 7/26/30 7/28/30 Fresh.......... .. 182.32 21.70 16.34 61.96 85.09 1.0047 1.41 8.93 0.97 2.06 0.50 "
5B1 2 7/26/30 Stored...........
6A 1 8/16/30 8/18/30 Fresh.......... .. 389.7 26.49 12.00 61.52 84.81 0.9791 5.47 36.03 0.69 2.37 0.51
6B 1 8/16/30 10/11/30 Stored......... 57 384.5 28.91 10.27 60.82 84.85 0.9413 6.16 40.65 0.71
7A 1 9/ 6/30 9/ 8/30 Fresh.......... .. 400.5 25.42 13.34 61.24 82.25 0.9828 3.74 21.07 0.73 2.01 0.22
7B 1 9/ 6/30 11/23/30 Stored.......... 76 435.0 80.34 0.8992 9.77 49.71 1.11 2.78 0.47
8A 1 9/27/30 10/ 1/30 Fresh.......... .. 531.5 30.77 13.67 55.56 79.82 0.9826 9.18 45.50 0.74 1.78 0.55 2-
8B 1 9/27/30 12/13/30 Stored.......... 77 522.4 33.97 9.98 56.05 74.31 0.8304 13.64 53.08 0.68 1.62 1.00
9A 1 10/18/30 10/21/30 Fresh......... .. 489.0 30.10 13.61 56.29 79.65 0.9649 10.55 51.83 0.90 2.84 1.58
9B' 1 10/18/30 Stored..........
10A 1 11/ 8/30 11/11/30 Fresh............ 450.0 35.11 11.34 53.55 75.97 0.9931 13.68 56.95 0.82 0.90 -
10B 1 11/ 8/30 12/19/30 Stored......... 41 508.7 30.54 10.44 59.02 67.66 0.9326 14.35 44.38 0.90 0.70 -J
11A 1 11/29/30 12/ 2/30 Fresh.......... 717.7 32.02 10.60 57.38 80.46 0.9676 11.12 56.90 0.72 2.03 0.72 S
11B 1 11/29/30 12/30/30 Stored... 31 588.5 26.92 8.79 64.29 75.42 0.9752 8.23 33.51 0.60 1.57 0.67
12A 1 12/10/30 12/12/30 Fresh.......... .. 724.5 25.30 11.38 63.32 71.41 0.9690 17.81 62.31 1.09
12B 1 12/10/30 1/26/31 Stored.......... 47 638.0 35.08 7.23 57.69 73.80 0.9407 16.18 61.74 1.48 2.41 0.78
13A 1 1/10/31 1/12/31 Fresh.......... .. 494.0 20.10 10.36 69.54 75.55 0.9709 12.90 52.76 0.64 1.54 0.75
"13B 1 1/10/31 2/ 6/31 Stored.......... 27 499.7 28.92 9.08 62.00 69.32 0.9328 17.85 57.64 0.83 1.27 0.96
14A 1 1/31/31 2/ 2/31 Fresh.......... .. 399.5 15.69 12.53 71.78 73.15 0.9184 14.41 53.70 1.05 1.69 0.63
14B 1 1/31/31 2/28/31 Stored.......... 8 446.6 28.25 9.00 62.75 68.30 0.9524 20.61 64.94 0.96 1.85 0.79
15A 1 2/22/31 2/25/31 Fresh. ........ .. 445.4 13.54 10.32 76.14 70.33 0.9184 16.08 54.18 1.00 1.21 1.17
15B 1 2/22/31 3/16/31 Stored.......... 22 424.4 26.48 15.49 68.03 67.59 0.8344 17.80 62.30 1.02 1.00 0.85 %
16A 1 3/14/31 3/16/31 Fresh.......... .. 375.6 20.85 14.14 65.01 67.10 0.9274 22.35 66.60 0.86 1.20 0.78
16B 1 3/14/31 4/ 1/31 Stored .......... 14 560.0 30.27 6.20 63.53 66.29 0.9271 19.94 67.35 0.97 1.18 0.73
17A 1 4/ 4/31 4/ 7/31 Fresh.......... .. 350.0 21.89 10.66 67.45 65.52 0.9434 24.46 72.52 0.69 1.90 0.99
17B 1 4/ 4/31 4/10/31 Stored.......... 6 490.0 15.51 9.63 74.86 64.58 0.9296 25.93 72.21 0.82 1.18 1.44
"* No analysis made. Fruit never ripened. z Average weight. 3 Fruit spoiled (rotted).








0

TABLE III.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, ESTERO, 1930-31.
TRAPP
percentt
Total Specific Oil and Fat S
Totalgravity
Date Date Condition o We ih gravity ----- .
S.- Picked Tested of fruit a ight 3 who
"*"1 ^ & |=. {8ms* fruit) t| c

1A 4 6/21/30 6/23/30 Fresh.......... .. 37.52 27.45 14.72 57.83 83.30 1.0204 1.58 11.53 0.64 2.98 0.59
1B' 4 6/21/30 Stored..........
2A 4 7/12/30 7/15/30 Fresh. ........... 86.22 25.29 17.34 57.37 88.33 1.C005 1.09 9.34 0.41 2.34 1.16
2B1 4 7/12/30 Stored. .........
3A 2 8/ 2/30 8/ 4/30 Fresh............ 161.82 34.06 16.67 49.27 90.24 0.9929 0.75 7.91 1.16 2.38 0.35 "
3B1 2 8/ 2/30 Stored..........
4A 2 8/23/30 8/25/30 Fresh.......... ..220.52 23.81 13.55 62.64 88.51 0.9935 2.43 21.15 0.76 2.57 0.42
4B' 2 8/23/30 Stored.......... .
5A 2 9/14/30 9/17/30 Fresh ............ 286.12 22.91 12.97 64.12 87.03 0.9526 5.06 39.04 0.70 2.13 0.58 't
5B3 2 9/14/30 Stored.......... .
6A 1 10/ 4/30 10/ 6/30 Fresh.......... ..301.0 22.64 11.89 65.47 85.04 0.9574 5.60 37.40 0.71 2.06 0.57 .
6B 1 10/ 4/30 12/13/30 Stored.......... 70 307.2 20.02 11.72 68.26 85.03 0.8792 7.37 49.27 0.81 1.69 1.14
7A 1 10/25/30 10/28/30 Fresh......... .. 373.0 18.09 10.31 71.60 81.38 0.9581 6.09 32.71 0.73 1.52 0.62
7B 1 10/25/30 12/19/30 Stored......... 55 333.3 25.10 9.53 65.37 76.47 0.8657 5.83 24.81 0.61 1.21 0.46
8A 1 11/15/30 11/19/30 Fresh. ........... 547.5 18.29 8.64 73.07 81.99 0.9365 7.55 41.94 1.27 1.10 0.73 %
SB 1 11/15/30 11/30/30 Stored......... 15 503.3 21.82 7.15 71.03 77.86 0.9052 9.70 43.88 0.78 0.96 0.70
1 Fruit never ripened. $'
2 Average weight.
"3 Fruit spoiled (rotted).





x L *r i T I t




TABLE III.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, ESTERO, 1930-31.-Continued.
LULA
Percent
Specific Oil and Fat
Date Date Condition o Wtat E gravity -- -
-0 Picked Tested of fruit weit hole r
"~- '3 zi P. P.'1 rw, -'f. t
e ; =; Q -' fru it) "a Z c p-o

1A 4 7/13/30 7/16/30 Fresh .......... 96 72 21.69 15.84 62.47 88 05 1.0156 0 51 4.27 0.73 3.27 0.36
1B' 4 7/13/30 Stored .......... ..
2A 2 8/ 2/30 8/ 5/30 Fresh .......... .. 161.12 26.13 14.83 58.44 87.25 0 9958 0.22 1.73 0.80 2.24 0.34
2B1 2 8/ 2/30 Stored.........
3A 2 8/23/30 8/25/30 Fresh.,......... 247.42 31.59 11 40 57.01 84.52 0.9902 3.72 24.03 1.20 3.02 0.55
3B1 2 8/23/30 Stored........
4A 2 9/13/30 9/16/30 Fresh........... 301.22 27.54 12.02 60.44 83.56 0.9889 6.26 38.10 0.72 3.50 0.76
4B' 2 9/13/30 Stored... ..
5A 1 10/ 4/30 10/ 7/30 Fresh....... 311.5 26.29 13.85 59.86 81.49 0.9661 7.22 39.04 0.71 1 58 1.24 .
5B 1 10/ 4/30 12/23/30 Stored....... 262. 38.77 10. 9 5o 9l 71 .;4 0.7494 15. 9, 5..62 1.83 1.81
6A 1 10/25/30 10/28/30 Fresh .......... 407.4 32.27 11.15 56.58 80.31 0.9748 10.61 53.91 1.54 2.64 0.86
6B 1 10/25/30 1/ 2/31 Stored........ ;.;9 29.1 45.07 6.52 41.!4I 74.54 0.8749 11.S2 (;.42 2.31 2.12 1.07
7A 1 11/15/30 11/20/30 Fresh.......... .. 325.7 35.80 9.69 54.51 68.75 0.9688 15.58 49.87 1 18 1.10 1.29
7B 1 11/15/30 12/2.3/30 Stored ........... 3 332.0 36 1 9._2 54.61 72.76 0.9352 15.87 58. 7 1.2, 0 98 0 66
8A 1 12/ 6/30 12/10/31 Fresh. .......... 344.0 38.69 10.17 51.14 71.15 0.9690 13.82 47.89 1.55 1.00
8B 1 12/ 6/30 1/16/31 Stored............. 1 350.5- 36.29 S.56 55.15 81.78 0.8873 S.3H8 51.8' 0.74 1.14 1.06
9A 1 12/26/30 12/30/30 Fresh.......... 423.0 28.65 13 76 57 59 72.11 0.9614 17.11 62.37 0.99 2 14 0.76
9B 1 12/26/30 1/26/31 Stored........... 388.5 37.17 7.67 55.16 67.91 0.9 93 18.10 56.L3 1.24 1.63 1.10
10A 1 1/17/31 1/19/31 Fresh.. ......... 551.0 23.90 8 75 67.35 72.12 0.9583 17.36 62.54 1.01 1.39 0.88
10B 1 1/17/31 1/23/31 Stored...... ... 11 3,3..6 3.5 0. .53 5;. t 65.31; 0 848', 20. 15 60.18 1.3, 1.37 1.19
"* No analysis made.
SFruit never ripened.
Average weight.

CI
i-





I- a -L IV .--UOVMOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, 1931-1932.
TAYLOR
Percent Percent Sugars
Total Specific Oil and Fat (as dextrose)
Date Date Condition o a gravity --
"4 = Weight r (whole t-0 4 g t
So. Picked Tested of fruit g (whole g
S(g ns-) fruit)

1A 12 6/15/31 6/17/31 Fresh...... .. 17.92 14.93 20.37 64.70 85.82 1.0323 1.23 8.93 1.72 1.99 0.00 1.99 0.58
1B1 12 6/15/31 Stored...... .
2A 8 7/ 6/31 7/ 8/31 Fresh...... .. 38.62 14.06 23.98 61.96 85.08 1.0280 1.71 11.79 1.29 2.41 0.00 2.41 0.65 "l
2B1 8 7/ 6/31 Stored .......
3A 3 7/27/31 7/29/31 Fresh...... .. 100.82 16.23 23.58 60.19 87.03 1.0107 1.49 11.57 2.59 1.93 0.00 1.93 0.55
3B1 3 7/27/31 Stored......
4.4 4 8/17/31 8/18/31 Fresh...... .. 100.82 16.99 18.68 64.33 87.97 0.9941 1.30 9.85 1.90 2.75 0.00 2.75 0.57
4B1 4 8/17/31 Stored...... .
5A 2 9/ 8/31 9/10/31 Fresh........ 154.02 20.45 19.80 59.75 86.89 0.9935 2.86 21.50 1.78 2.20 0.00 2.20 0.36
5B1 2 9/ 8/31 Stored...... ..
6A 1 9/28/31 9/30/31 Fresh...... ..225.0 13.33 20.66 66.01 86.95 0.9843 3.16 24.25 1.41 1.96 0.00 1.96 0.60
6B1 1 9/28/31 Stored .......
7A 1 10/20/31 10/22/31 Fresh...... .. 243.8 19.77 14.03 66.20 84.46 0.9886 4.21 27.11 1.19 1.71 0.00 1.71 0.65 "
7B 1 10/20/31 10/29/31 Stored...... 9 283.3 18.66 15.71 66.63 83.30 0.9752 4.93 36.87 2.26 1.60 0.10 1.70 0.67
8A 1 11/ 9/31 11/11/31 Fresh...... .. 236.5 23.30 16.25 60.25 79.19 0.9610 10.14 48.72 1.69 1.77 0.44 2.21 0.83
8B 1 11/ 9/31 11/23/31 Stored...... 14 210.0 17.05 15.71 67.94 78.45 0.9259 11.71 59.10 1.51 2.28 0.10 2.38 0.81
9A 1 12/ 1/31 12/ 3/31 Fresh...... .. 303.0 21.62 14.59 63.79 78.55 0.9787 10.71 49.94 1.52 1.95 0.10 2.05 0.82
9B 1 12/ 1/31 12/ 7/31 Stored...... 6 276.3 23.74 16.00 60.26 78.16 0.9664 10.95 50.25 1.18 1.66 0.15 1.81 0.70 d
10A 1 12/22/31 12/24/31 Fresh...... .. 294.1 17.41 15.23 67.36 76.99 0.9356 11.55 50.25 1.87 1.69 0.18 1.87 0.68
10B 1 12/22/31 12/31/31 Stored...... 9 276.5 20.14 15.88 63.98 76.39 0.9319 14.67 61.95 1.53 1.35 0.20 1.55 1.12
11A 1 2/ 5/32 2/ 8/32 Fresh...... .. 357.4 23.67 13.32 63.01 76.68 0.9592 15.83 67.79 1.17 0.60 0.34 0.94 0.98
11B 1 2/ 5/32 2/ 9/32 Stored...... 4 403.9 18.30 12.06 69.64 75.73 0.9527 16.47 62.88 1.15 0.48 0.26 0.74 0.90
12A 1 2/22/32 2/24/32 Fresh..... .. 364.9 12.96 13.04 74.00 75.49 0.9280 14.87 60.65 2.05 0.84 0.00 0.84 1.07
12B 1 2/22/32 2/25/32 Stored..... 3 364.0 18.41 10.55 71.04 73.12 0.9203 16.85 61.17 1.94 0.54 0.28 0.82 0.95 to
SIMMONDS
"1A 8 6/15/31 6/17/31 Fresh...... .. 78.42 19.19 17.11 63.70 85.90 1.0079 1.64 12.09 2.68 2.00 0.00 2.00 0.67
1B1 8 6/15/31 Stored........
2A 4 7/ 6/31 7/ 8/31 Fresh...... .. 80.22 20.03 15.54 64.43 85.77 0.9727 1.94 14.27 1.10 3.07 0.00 3.07 0.46
2B1 4 7/ 6/31 Stored.......
3A 1 7/27/31 7/30/31 Fresh...... .. 451.1 16.23 11.70 72.07 86.23 0.9549 3.21 23.26 1.58 1.57 0.00 1.57 0.55
3B 1 7/27/31 8/10/31 Stored...... 12 226.2 14.59 13.48 71.93 80.88 0.9318 3.40 25.79 1.70 2.08 0.00 2.08 0.87
4A 1 8/17/31 8/19/31 Fresh...... .. 646.2 17.18 18.49 64.33 84.23 0.9200 5.26 33.72 1.68 3.14 0.00 3.14 0.71
4B 1 8/17/31 8/30/31 Stored...... 13 746.2 13.43 8.60 77.97 82.66 0.8971 4.86 34.09 1.47 1.68 0.00 1.68 0.66
5A 1 9/ 8/31 9/10/31 Fresh...... .. 745.3 8.06 9.99 81.95 83.65 0.9101 6.19 37.82 1.48 2.66 0.00 2.66 0.56
5B 1 9/ 8/31 9/15/31 Stored...... 7 832.2 11.28 7.80 80.92 84.44 0.9031 6.35 39.49 2.30 2.21 0.00 2.21 0.31
6A 1 9/28/31 9/30/31 Fresh...... ..891.0 9.21 8.23 82.56 83.47 0.9105 6.00 43.94 2.09 1.68 0.00 1.68 0.71
6B 1 9/28/31 10/ 1/31 Stored...... 3 812.7 11.56 7.04 81.40 81.40 0.9013 8.31 46.13 2.46 1.90 0.06 1.96 1.84
1 Never ripenedV 2 AveFage weight. T 4 T I ,








TABLE IV.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, HOMESTEAD, 1931-1932.-Continued.
-O
LULA .
Percent Percent Sugars
Total Specific Oil and Fat (as dextrose)
Date Date Condition gravity -
Picked Tested of fruit ( ig s) (whole .-2 g
1- fruit) t

1A 12 6/15/31 6/17/31 Fresh...... .. 43.82 14.31 20.40 65.29 87.60 1.0174 0.96 8.20 1.64 2.03 0.00 2.03 0.59
1B1 12 6/15/31 Stored.......
2A 3 7/ 6/31 7/ 8/31 Fresh...... .. 114.02 18.21 16.40 65.39 86.38 1.0130 1.29 9.44 1.42 2.35 0.00 2.35 0.57
2B1 3 7/ 6/31 Stored ..... ..
3A 1 7/27/31 7/30/31 Fresh...... ..353.1 17.44 19.04 63.52 86.61 0.9907 1.40 10.84 2.05 1.78 0.00 1.78 0.46 S
3B1 1 7/27/31 Stored.....
4A 1 8/17/31 8/19/31 Fresh...... .. 233.7 19.27 13.96 66.77 85.95 0.9828 1.90 12.85 1.66 2.64 0.00 2.64 0.52
4B1 1 8/17/31 Stored...... CC
5A 1 9/ 8/31 9/10/31 Fresh...... ..350.0 22.43 13.63 63.94 85.28 0.9722 4.48 29.69 1.60 2.26 0.00 2.26 0.64
5B 1 9/ 8/31 9/24/31 Stored...... 16 292.2 27.55 12.08 60.37 84.37 0.9508 4.70 35.64 2.27 1.91 0.06 1.97 0.70 0
6A 1 9/28/31 9/30/31 Fresh...... .. 321.5 24.17 13.00 62.83 85.15 0.9738 5.69 38.32 1.59 1.81 0.00 1.81 0.65
6B 1 9/28/31 10/12/31 Stored...... 14 339.7 23.08 12.25 64.67 84.99 0.9742 6.21 41.41 1.85 1.12 0.15 1.27 0.71
7A 1 10/20/31 10/21/31 Fresh...... .. 373.2 22.67 12.30 65.03 83.83 0.9773 6.22 38.67 0.80 2.40 0.00 2.40 0.79
7B 1 10/20/31 11/ 2/31 Stored...... 12 325.7 35.79 9.70 54.51 80.31 0.9688 10.61 53.91 0.86 2.32 0.00 2.32 0.86
8A 1 11/10/31 11/13/31 Fresh...... .. 441.8 14.39 11.74 73.87 80.56 0.9775 8.23 42.32 1.94 1.77 0.08 1.85 0.80
8B 1 11/10/31 11/20/31 Stored...... 10 566.6 27.97 12.00 60.03 74.91 0.9603 14.80 59.00 2.11 1.54 0.10 1.64 1.02
9A 1 12/ 1/31 12/ 3/31 Fresh...... ..448.1 27.98 13.03 58.99 76.86 0.9890 11.60 50.86 1.19 2.17 0.00 2.17 0.74
9B 1 12/ 1/31 1/2 7/31 Stored...... 6 372.5 26.23 15.33 58.44 80.79 0.9718 9.52 49.52 0.77 1.52 0.12 1.64 0.87
10A 1 12/21/31 12/23/31 Fresh...... .. 396.4 25.10 13.09 61.81 75.73 0.9893 10. 6 45.99 0.85 1.75 0.00 1.75 0.89
10B 1 12/21/31 123/5/31 Stored...... 8 532.5 27.74 9.73 62.53 73.67 0.9446 15.18 57.68 1.10 1.54 0.22 1.76 0.87 o
11A 1 2/ 6/32 2/ 9/32 Fresh. .... .. 435.9 21.24 13.19 65.57 72.69 0.9866 15.27 56.00 1.94 1.33 0.23 1.56 0.73
11B 1 2/ 6/32 9/12/32 Stored...... 6 559.0 25.42 10.21 64.37 73.65 0.9412 14.73 55.93 2.07 0.87 0.59 1.46 0.93
12A 1 2/22/32 2/24/32 Fresh...... .. 519.3 28.06 11.61 60.33 69.91 0.9743 18.46 61.36 2.32 1.59 0.01 1.60 0.98
12B 1 2/22/32 2/24/32 Stored...... 2 525.3 23.42 8.07 68.51 70.85 0.9441 16.51 56.65 2.41 0.86 0.87 1.75 0.86
SNever ripened. 2 Average weight.
C







24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

dry basis (water-free), there is still an increase but to a lesser
degree, thus indicating that the moisture content of the fruit
must be taken into consideration if the oil and fat content is used
as a measure of maturity.
Avocados grown in Highlands County had a much lower mois-
ture content than those grown in South Dade County. This was
probably due to an excessive rainfall in Dade County and the
comparatively small amount in Highlands County during the
1929-30 season. As a result, the oil and fat content of those
grown in Highlands County was higher when calculated on the
green basis than those of Dade County. However, when the oil
and fat content was calculated on the water-free basis, avocados
from the two localities at the same state of maturity had com-
parable amounts. This difference in moisture and oil and fat
content did not occur in the results of the work of the subsequent
years, as the rainfall for both counties was quite similar during
these two seasons. But the results obtained by the analyses
during this preliminary work were borne out by the analyses of
the corresponding period made during the following two seasons.
Since the results were the same, with the exception of those men-
tioned above for the 1929-30 season, the discussion will be limited
to the results of the work of the two fruiting seasons 1930-31
and 1931-32.
INVESTIGATIONS OF THE 1930-31 AND 1931-32 SEASONS
The results of these two full seasons' investigations are given
in Tables I to VI. These tables contain the data obtained from
the analyses of fruits of most of the important varieties now
grown in Florida. The data representing the values of the various
characteristics for both the fresh and stored fruit are given in
these tables in order to facilitate comparisons. The values for
the stored fruit are presented in italics while those for the fresh
fruit are presented in plain type.
The numerical data obtained from the analyses of fruit from
the selected trees at Homestead (Dade County) during the 1930-31
season are given in Table I. This table includes analyses of two
varieties of the West Indian race, Pollock and Waldin; three of the
Guatemalan race, Linda, Eagle Rock, and Taylor; two Guate-
malan-West Indian hybrids, Collinson and Winslowson; one Guate-
malan-Mexican hybrid, Lula. Table II contains the data obtained
from the analyses of the fruit from the selected trees at Lake
Placid (Highlands County) during the 1930-31 season. This table
includes analyses of one variety of the West Indian race, Sim-









TABLE V.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, LAKE PLACID, 1931-1932.
TAYLOR
Percent Percent Sugars
Date Date Condition Total Specific Oil and Fat (as dextrose)
Date Date Condition eiht gravity
l l Picked Tested of fruit W eh wholeg r
2 (gins.) a (whole
z Ei-_4 fruit)

1A 12 6/ 9/31 6/11/31 Fresh........ 972 11.67 26.8461.49 83.18 1.0533 1.26 6.62 1.57 3.52 0.00 3.52 0.74
1B' 12 6/ 9/31 Stored...... ..
2A 7 6/30/31 7/ 1/31 Fresh.... .. 5.72 15.28 24.78 59.94 81.67 1.0317 1.14 6.96 1.39 2.58 000 2.58 0.84
2B' 7 6/30/31 Stored.......
3A 5 7/20/31 7/22/31 Fresh...... .. 48.12 15.84 24.57 59.59 85.04 0.9934 1.23 9.64 1.62 2.06 0.00 2.06 0.76
3B1 5 7/20/31 Stored...... ..
4A 3 8/10/31 8/12/31 Fresh...... .. 68.42 19.19 20.07 60.74 84.80 0.9985 1.57 10 37 1.58 2.30 0.00 2.30 0.56
4Bt 3 8/10/31 Stored...... ..
5A 3 9/ 1/31 9/ 3/31 Fresh...... .. 110.52 21.88 20.07 58.05 85.22 0.9860 3.40 23.04 1.50 2.10 0.00 2.10 0.58
5B' 3 9/ 1/31 Stored......
6A 1 9/21/31 9/23/31 Fresh...... .. 187.9 23.42 14.74 61.84 84.64 0.9937 4.49 29.21 0.72 1.80 0.00 1.80 0.66
6B1 1 9/21/31 Stored...... .
7A 1 10/13/31 10/15/31 Fresh...... .. 190.2 16.51 15.98 67.51 83.21 0.9860 7.43 44.41 1.01 2.22 0.00 2.22 0.79 z
7B1 1 10/13/31 Stored...... .
8A 1 11/ 1/31 11/ 3/31 Fresh...... .. 202.1 18.16 23.25 58.59 78.85 0.9868 5.32 33.82 0.78 2.46 0.00 2.46 0.81
8B 1 11/ 1/31 11/15/31 Stored .... 14 164.3 26.90 14.06 5.9.0 76f.02 0.91R1 12.62 57.14 1.02 1.1,4 0.10 1.51, 0.97 ^
9A 1 11/22/31 11/24/31 Fresh...... .. 197.3 20.22 17.28 62.50 76.31 0.9710 8.89 37.50 0.96 2.86 0.00 2.86 0.60
9B 1 11/22/31 12/ 4/31 Stored...... 1 18#4.6 19.99 17.8 62 .73 73.3.1 0.9356 15.94 59 59 1.05 1.0 0.08 1.,8 0.78
10A 1 12/15/31 12/17/31 Fresh...... .. 243.9 27.96 13.49 58.55 71.63 0.9656 14 74 51.99 1.42 1.94 0.27 2.21 0.68 :
10B 1 12/15/31 12/23/31 Stored...... 8 2S1.5 15.98 12.82 71.20 69.97 0.9274 15.79 52'.61 1.70 2.12 0.34 2.46 1.08
11A 1 1/24/32 1/26/32 Fresh...... .. 378.7 24.20 17.28 58.52 74.16 0.9773 10.21 39.54 1.25 2.72 0.00 2.72 0.84
11B 1 1/24/32 2/ 1/32 Stored...... S e05 4 18.84 16.16 65.00 70.56 0 9405 10 86 39.3 1.39 2 41 0.07 2.48 0.89
12A 1 2/15/32 2/17/32 Fresh...... .. 246.8 24.11 15.11 60.78 68.88 0.9755 18.02 57.90 1.09 1.86 0.00 1.86 1.11
12B 1 2/15/32 2/19/32 Stored...... 2 208.8 14.22 16.48 69.30 67.27 0.9231 19.21 63.08 1.09 1.46 0.20 1.66 0.83
13A 1 3/ 7/32 3/ 9/32 Fresh...... .. 219.8 22.16 16.70 61.13 70.13 0.9429 13.48 45 15 1.46 2.48 0.19 2.67 1.21
13B 1 3/ 7/32 3/ 9/32 Stored...... 0 186.6 22.40 13.45 64.15 62.S6 0.9165 17.21 48.22 1.57 2.06 0.41 2.47 1.33 c
'Never ripened.
2 Average weight.





TABLE V.-COMPOSITION OP AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY, LAKE PLACID, 1931-1932.-Continued.
SIMMONDS
Specific % Oil and Fat %Sugars(asdextrose)
S Date Date Condition Total gravity -
S T Weight aity i 1.
.a" Q Picked Tested of fruit f Weight Q p p --
(d 9 o fruit) _
1A 12 6/ 9/31 6/11/31 Fresh...... .. 28.42 14.16 19.10 66.74 86.96 1.0318 1.42 10.94 2.69 2.50 0.00 2.50 0.89
1BI 12 6/ 9/31 Stored.......
2A 4 6/30/31 7/ 2/31 Fresh...... .. 77.42 13.82 16.63 69.55 85.14 1.0091 1.61 13.05 1.05 2.42 0.00 2.42 0.75
2B1 4 6/30/31 Stored........
3A 1 7/20/31 7/22/31 Fresh...... ..240.9 15.74 12.66 72.60 85.72 0.9563 1.23 20.96 1.11 1.57 0.00 1.57 0.51
SB 1 7/20/31 8/ 4/31 Stored...... 15 274.0 27.10 24.34 48.66 82.21 0.9412 3.96 29.43 1.54 1.40 0.10 1.50 0.66
4A 1 8/10/31 8/13/31 Fresh...... .. 477.5 16.29 11.56 77.15 86.22 0.9575 3.04 26.40 1.84 1.99 0.00 1.99 0.55 .
4B 1 8/10/31 8/18/31 Stored..... 8 352.2 11.36 9.04 79.60 83.20 0.9208 4.83 28.82 1.44 1.50 0.00 1.50 0.69
5A 1 9/ 1/31 9/ 3/31. Fresh...... 554.9 11.17 12.76 76.07 87.65 0.9079 3.72 30.15 1.55 1.86 0.00 1.86 1.53
5B 1 9/ 1/31 9/ 8/31 Stored...... 7 510.0 16.00 9.94 74.06 84.20 0.9288 5.79 36.43 1.57 1.40 0.22 1.62 0.63
6A 1 9/21/31 9/23/31 Fresh...... .. 498.6 10.67 9.91 79.42 83.79 0.9270 4.5428.46 1.89 1.63 0.00 1.63 0.55
6B 1 9/21/31 9/25/31 Stored...... 4 390.2 15.45 10.10 74.45 82.51 0.8944 6.02 36.50 1.70 1.67 0.17 1.84 0.74
7A 1 10/13/31 10/15/31 Fresh...... ..729.2 16.21 6.09 77.70 84.22 0.9379 6.40 39.00 1.60 1.92 0.23 2.15 1.01
LULA
1A 12 6/9/31 6/11/31 Fresh...... .. 7.92 11.76 26.30 61.94 84.88 1.0523 1.10 5.78 0.96 3.24 0.00 3.24 0.66
1B' 12 6/ 9/31 Stored........
2A 8 6/30/31 7/ 2/31 Fresh...... .. 11.72 11.7024.19 64.11 82.00 1.0472 1.21 6.71 0.73 3.04 0.00 3.04 0.60 .
2B' 8 6/30/31 Stored.......
3A 5 7/20/31 7/22/31 Fresh...... .. 45.92 14.50 24.42 61.0884.07 0.9974 1.37 8.58 1.62 2.47 0.00 2.47 0.80
SB1 5 7/20/31 Stored.......
4A 2 8/10/31 8/13/31 Fresh...... .. 92.02 22.12 20.92 56.96 84.35 0.9850 2.15 13.77 1.54 2.18 0.00 2.18 0.78
4B' -2 8/10/31 Stored........
5A 3 9/ 1/31 9/ 3/31 Fresh...... .. 111.22 19.93 20.92 59.15 83.30 0.9917 4.28 25.67 1.82 2.31 0.00 2.31 0.58
5B1 3 9/ 1/31 Stored.......
6A 1 9/21/31 9/23/31 Fresh...... .. 157.9 28.62 14.57 56.81 83.79 0.9887 5.83 34.80 2.05 2.30 0.00 2.30 0.63'
6B 1 9/21/31 Stored........
7A 1 10/13/31 10/15/31 Fresh...... .. 170.2 23.03 14.81 62.16 81.04 0.9855 7.83 41.27 0.92 1.90 0.00 1.90 0.52
7B 1 10/13/31 10/25/31 Stored...... 1 175.1 18.10 10.85 71.05 79.05 0.9328 13.89 55.65 1.47 1.74 0.08 1.82 1.10
8A 1 11/ 1/31 11/ 3/31 Fresh...... ... 217.2 18.51 14.69 66.80 79.54 0.9882 8.63 42.23 0.85 1.78 0.00 1.78 0.81
8B 1 11/ 1/31 11/13/31 Stored......- 10 176.0 27.33 14.66 58.01 75.92 0.8564 14.57 61.37 1.38 1.35 0.26 1.61 0.56
9A 1 11/22/31. 11/24/31 Fresh....... 113.3 24.30 15.'74 59.96 75.78 0.9756 9.2438.04 1.42 2.67 0.00 2.67 0.72
9B 1 11/22/31 11/27/31 Stored...... 5 165.8 26.50 13.38 60.12 72.21 0.9584 12.47 56.01 1.49 1.37 0.00 1.37 0.87
10A 1 12/13/31 12/15/31 Fresh...... .. 190.6 28.02 12.07 59.92 71.12 0.9720 12.20 42.26 1.50 2.44 0.22 2.66 0.85
10B 1 12/13/31 12/18/31 Stored...... 5 239.3 20.06 13.20 66.74 62.05 0.9708 15.97 49.18 1.18 2.07 0.50 2.57 0.86
11A 1 1/24/32 1/26/32 Fresh...... .. 213.0 20.74 14.92 64.34 69.99.0.9772 12.90 43.01 1.56 2.26 0.00 2.26 0.89
11B 1 1/24/32 2/ 1/32 Stored...... 8 234.5 29.00 13.13 57.87 69.65 0.9849 12.02 39.72 1.46 1.24 0.10 1.34 0.99
12A 1 2/15/32 2/17/32 Fresh...... .. 210.0 24.95 16.57 58.48 63.34 0.9745 14.51 44.23 1.83 2.60 0.05 2.65 0.80
12B 1 2/15/32 2/18/32 Stored...... 3 207.5 29.40 14.07 56.53 56.80 0.9834 22.05 51.06 1.75 1.61 0.86 2.47 1.16
1 Never ripened. 2 Average weight.








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 27

monds; two varieties of the Guatemalan race, Eagle Rock and
Taylor; one Guatemalan-West Indian hybrid, Winslowson; one
Guatemalan-Mexican hybrid, Lula. In Table III are given the data
obtained from the analyses of the fruit from the selected trees
of both Taylor and Lula varieties at Estero (Lee County) during
the 1930-31 season. Tables IV and V contain the data obtained
from the analyses of fruit from the selected trees of the Simmonds,
Taylor and Lula varieties during the 1931-32 season from Home-
stead and Lake Placid, respectively.
A study of the values represented in the tables reveals many
interesting relations between the physical and chemical charac-
teristics of the avocado fruit and its maturity.

PHYSICAL APPEARANCES
Red, purple and black avocados change in color during growth.
An extended study of these avocados may show correlations be-
tween their color and the stage of maturity. With green-colored
fruit, however, this is not the case, as the color does not change
during maturation or not to the degree that it could be used as
a measure of maturity and most of the important Florida varieties
are green-colored. The color of the stem has been used as an
indication or measure of the stage of maturity; as the fruit
matures, the color of the stem changes from green to yellow.
This may prove to be practicable with a few varieties but obser-
vations by the author lead to no definite conclusions in this regard.
The stems of some of the fruits on the same tree are green after
the fruit has reached a mature stage for picking, while the stems
of some decidedly immature fruits are yellowish.
The size of the fruit cannot always be taken as a criterion of
maturity as small fruits may be mature when larger ones on the
same tree are decidedly immature. In some varieties the skin
of the fruit takes on a sheen or luster when near maturity but
in others this is not the case. Each variety, of course, has certain
peculiar physical characteristics which could be used by horticul-
turists to indicate maturity but these change with environments
and seasons and are therefore not reliable. As far as physical
appearances are concerned, it has been impossible to correlate
closely and accurately any character or set of characters with the
maturity of the fruit.
PRESSURE TESTS
The method of testing maturity in peaches with the so-called
corn tester and peach tester(2) which have been used and proven







28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

very efficient by the New Jersey Experiment Station, was tried
out on all of the avocado varieties used in this investigation. A
complete description of the testers and plungers used here is given
by M. A. Blake in his Circular Bulletin 212, New Jersey Experi-
ment Station. Unlike the results of this pressure test on the
flesh and skin of the peach in which the pressure necessary to
force the plunger (various sizes) into the fruit was directly pro-
portional to the degree of ripeness, very unsatisfactory results
were obtained when applied to the avocado. Different size
plungers, from a fine wire (.032-inch diameter) type to rounded
plungers (3/16 and 5/16 of an inch) were used and these were
applied to various portions of peeled and unpeeled fruit. Unlike
the peach, which has a uniform skin with regard to thickness and
resistance to pressure, the skin of most avocados varies in uni-
formity, the blossom-end of the fruit having a much thicker skin
and more resistance to pressure than the stem-end, thus causing
unequal pressure to be obtained with the testers at different
points on the same fruit. Another peculiarity of the avocado
causing unequal pressure when the tester is applied to different
portions of peeled fruit is the presence or absence of a partially-
filled seed cavity and the position of this cavity. If the seed does
not fill the cavity and if the cavity is not in the exact center of
the fruit, unequal pressure measurements are obtained.
The avocado also has a longer ripening period than the peach,
that is, there may be mature and immature fruit on the tree at
the same time, the season's crop maturing over a period of several
months instead of within a few days as in the case of the peach.
This would necessitate testing individual fruits for maturity,
which, of course, would not be practicable. Thus, the maturity
pressure tester was found impracticable for use with avocados.
There are, however, definite correlations between other char-
acteristics and maturity. Thus, the time which elapses after
picking until the fruit becomes sufficiently soft to be edible,
roughly indicates whether or not it was in a satisfactory condition
when picked. Data in Tables IV and V show that, as the season
advances, there is a sharp decline in the time necessary for this
softening. For instance, in the case of Taylor (Table V) in Feb-
ruary the period elapsing between the time of picking the fruit
and the time when it was soft was only two days, whereas, before
that time this period had been from eight to 14 days. The rapid
increase in fat content of this variety, however, ceased in Decem-
ber and it seems evident that the fruits were of as good quality







Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 29

at that time as in February. Likewise, in the case of the Sim-
monds (Table V) in October, the period elapsing between the
time of picking the fruit and the time when it became soft was
only four days, whereas, before that time this period had been
from eight to 15 days. The change here, as in the other varieties,
was not correlated with the fat content.
The results of the analyses (Tables I to V) show there is a
decrease in the time necessary for softening as the season ad-
vances but this change is seldom correlated with fat content.
However, the time which elapses after picking until the fruit
becomes sufficiently soft to be edible roughly indicates whether or
not it was in a satisfactory state when picked.

ANALYSIS OF FRESH FRUIT (DIRECTLY AFTER PICKING)
The total weight of the fruit increases in all varieties as the
fruit matures, the weight and bulk of the seed, skin and pulp
increasing with maturity. When these various parts of the fruit
are figured on the percentage basis, the data of the tables show
that the percent seed increases with maturity, the percent skin
decreases and the percent edible pulp shows very slight change
with maturity, some varieties showing a slight decrease while
others show a slight increase, but on the whole remaining some-
what the same. There seems to be no satisfactory line of demar-
cation which indicates maturity in regard to weights and per-
centages, as these change with climatic and environmental condi-
tions, quantity of fruit on the tree and other factors, thus causing
differences within the same season.
The percent moisture decreases with maturity. The results of
the analysis of all three seasons show the moisture percentage
to decrease in all the varieties. The amount of moisture varies
inversely with the amount of fat, which fact will be discussed
later. It is interesting to note that the highest moisture content
of the fruit is obtained during the spring and summer months,
during the early growth phase of the fruit, while the lowest is
during the fall and winter months. This is true of all the vari-
eties, thus leaving the earlier maturing West Indian varieties with
a much higher moisture content when mature than the late ma-
turing Guatemalan varieties. The percent moisture of the pulp
itself cannot be used as a maturity test as it varies with climatic
conditions, but it must be taken into consideration when other
constituents are used as a basis for judging maturity. Thus, the
other constituents when considered on the wet basis could not be







30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

used as true maturity measures since their values would vary
with variation in moisture content. However, they could be used
as a maturity indication when the content values have been re-
duced to the water-free basis and the change (increase or de-
crease) would be large enough to be significant.
The protein content is higher later in the season than when the
fruit is immature, when the percent is figured on green basis.
The data of percent protein of Tables I to V show that the amount
of protein is small in comparison to other constituents (from a
fraction of 1% to 2%) for all the varieties of avocados. The
protein content increases with maturity but the amount present
is too small and too variable to be used as a measure of maturity.
It is also interesting to note that all of the varieties tested-
Guatemalan, West Indian, and Hybrids contain a very small
percent protein in comparison to the other constituents and no one
variety or race is outstanding in containing a higher or lower
percent protein than the others. The protein content of avocados,
however, is high in comparison to that contained in other fresh
fruits(5).
The percentage of ash in avocados is relatively small. While
the figures of Tables I to V show an increasing tendency with
maturity when figured on the green basis, this increase is not
apparent when figured on the water-free basis. In both cases,
the figures show the constituent to be too small and too variable,
however, to be used for standardizing purposes.
The percentage of total sugar decreases somewhat, as shown
by the figures of Tables I to V, which are the green basis values.
When these values are expressed in terms of percent dry weight,
the decrease in total amount of sugar is accentuated. The amount
is variable and relatively small as compared to some other con-
stituents of the fruit and would be a poor measure of maturity
of the fruit.
During the experiments of 1931-32, in addition to total sugar,
the amounts of hydrolyzable and free reducing sugars were de-
termined. The-results of the previous two years were verified in
case of total sugar in that very small amounts (varying from a
fraction of 1% to 3%) were indicated (Tables IV and V) and
there was a tendency for the total sugar to decrease as the fruit
matured. Nearly all of the total sugar found was in the form
of free reducing sugars. Only a very small amount of hydro-
lyzable sugars was found at any time during the life cycle of the
fruit and this amount was found only in the more mature samples








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 31

and very rarely in any of the fresh fruit but often in the stored
softened fruit.
It is interesting to note that the total sugar content of the
Florida avocado is low as compared with this constituent in other
fresh fruits. Also that the sugar content (green basis) of
Florida avocados is low as compared to those grown in drier
climates, a fact which is of much interest to the medical profes-
sion in that the avocado with such a low sugar content and at the
same time high food value may be an ideal food for diabetics.
The ash content of avocados is relatively small as compared to
other constituents of the fruit. The slight increase in percent
of ash (green basis) does not occur when the values are expressed
on the dry weight or water-free basis when the percentage of ash
appears to be constant throughout the life cycle. The small
amount present at any time and its constancy throughout its life
cycle makes it impossible to use this constituent in formulating
a maturity test.
Another interesting fact is that the percentage of mineral
matter in the avocado is much higher than that recorded for other
fresh fruits. The average for most fresh fruits is approximately
0.54 percent, while the average for the avocado is much higher
than this, most varieties yielding twice as much mineral matter
as that yielded by other fruits.
The fat and oil of the avocado, of course, is its chief constituent,
other than water, and when it has reached its maximum there is
no doubt that the fruit is mature. The question arises, however,
as to how long before this point is reached can the fruit be har-
vested with satisfactory results insofar as eating qualities are
concerned. During all three seasons and in all of the varieties
tested, the fruits showed a consistent and more or less uniform
increase in fat up to a certain point, after which the increase was
much less (Tables I to V). Often in the latter part of the season,
apparent decreases are indicated, showing that the increases were
not sufficient to overcome the variability of the samples. From
a study of the data it would seem that the point where the con-
sistent increase in fat ceases is about the point where satisfactory
maturity is found. This again varies with the seasons, as satis-
factory maturity is reached much earlier in some seasons than in
others. During the 1930-31 season the point where this satis-
factory maturity was found occurred with the Simmonds and
Pollock in August, with Waldin and Trapp in September, with
Winslowson and Collinson in October, with Lula, Taylor and







32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Eagle Rock in November and with Linda in December. During
the 1931-32 season, it occurred with the Simmonds in August,
with the Taylor in November, and with the Lula in December-
the Taylor and Lula varieties maturing a month later in 1931-32
season than did the same varieties in the 1930-31 season.
The data of Tables I to V show that the fruit sampled and placed
aside to soften, in most cases, softened normally long before the
above dates given for the various varieties. This normal soften-
ing is in direct correlation with the fat content. When the fat
content was very low in the very immature fruit, the fruit would
not soften upon storage but became shrivelled, darkened, and
rubbery. As soon as there was an appreciable increase in fat
content, the stored samples softened normally but the taste was
poor in these immature samples and did not become normal until
after the uniform increase in fat content ceased or until the fruit
had reached its normal fat content. For example, in the case of
the Lula variety (Table IV) the fat percentage was very low
(below 2% for June, July, and August) in the very immature
fruit and none would soften during storage. At the end of this
period of low fat content, there is a decided increase in the fat
content to above 4% (September, October, and November), after
which time the fruits softened normally after 16 days storage but
had very poor flavor and quality. The fat content increased
gradually with maturity and it was not until the fat content
reached above 11 percent (December) that the softened fruit
could be called mature as to both taste and composition. Only
six days were required for softening at this date. Tree-ripened
fruits were obtained during the latter part of January and Feb-
ruary. Thus the satisfactory maturity dates given above were
not reached by considering the analyses figures alone but also
the taste of the softened fruit.
The fruit grown in the various avocado areas in the state
showed very little difference in the oil percentage values of
samples harvested on the same date or on dates very close to-
gether. The figures of Tables I to V show that when the uniform
increase of fat ceased in the avocados from Dade county, it like-
wise ceased in those sampled from Lee and Highlands counties.
This was not the case during the preliminary work of 1929-30
when the amount of rainfall throughout the season differed to
such a degree between Dade and Highlands counties as to cause
the moisture content of the fruit to differ from 10 to 20 percent,
thus causing the percent fat (green basis) to vary likewise. How-






Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 33

ever, the fat content (water-free basis) was about the same for
the same varieties from the two counties during the season.
The relation of the moisture content to that of fat must also
be considered. It was found that the percent of fat (green basis)
increases considerably with the maturity of the fruit while the
moisture content decreases. When the fat values are expressed
on the dry basis (water-free) this decided increase in fat content
with maturity does not appear. There is an increase, but smaller
compared to the green pulp values, thus indicating that the mois-
ture content of the fruit must be taken into consideration when
determining the fat content of avocados, as mentioned above.
It is interesting to note that when the fat content of Florida
avocados is calculated to water-free basis, the fat content is equal
to that of the fruit of the same variety grown in drier climates
and calculated to water-free basis. Also when the moisture con-
tent of the Florida avocados is comparable to that of fruit of the
same variety grown in other sections of the country, the fat con-
tent is comparable, expressed either on the green or water-free
basis.
Specific gravity of the whole fruit decreases with maturity
while on the tree. Starting with a specific gravity of one or above
in the very immature fruit, the specific gravity decreases irregu-
larly until the very mature samples show a density of 0.90 and
lower. The fruit of some varieties have a specific gravity as low
as 0.80 in the mature stage on the tree.
A very definite correlation was found between specific gravity
and fat content. Specific gravity decreases with maturity while
the fat content increases. In all of the varieties tested this cor-
relation was found but it was not in the same proportion in each
case. The specific gravity of the whole fruit, however, was
affected not only by the increase in fat with maturity but by many
other factors. The moisture content is another factor which
affects the specific gravity, the lower the moisture content the
lower the specific gravity. Also the size of the seed cavity and
seed and especially that part of the seed cavity which is not filled,
considerably affects the specific gravity. The amount of skin or
peel present affects the specific gravity as it varies in fruits of
the same variety. In spite of all these variables, the specific
gravity shows a uniform decrease with maturity and may prove
an easy and practicable method for determination of maturity.
This correlation of specific gravity to fat content and maturity
was found to be present in all the varieties tested and during all







34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

three seasons, 1929-30 to 1931-32. In an effort to study this con-
dition more closely and try to use this relationship as a test, sup-
plementary experiments were carried on at Homestead with fruit
analyzed immediately after picking. The results of these experi-
ments will be discussed later.
ANALYSES OF STORED FRUIT (STORED UNTIL SOFT AND EDIBLE)
One other source of information concerning changes taking
place while the fruit is ripening is afforded by the comparison of
the data resulting from the analyses of the fresh and storage
samples. The values for the stored fruit are presented in italics
while those of the fresh fruit are presented in plain type in Tables
I to VI. Many interesting phenomena are revealed by a close
study of these results. Some of them may be the result of the
natural variability in samples, but most of them are undoubtedly
the result of changes in composition of the fruit after it is removed
from the tree. It is hardly practicable to analyze part of one
fruit and store the remainder until it has softened before ana-
lyzing it. The best that could be done was to select a lot contain-
ing four fruits as nearly uniform as possible, analyze half this
number as soon after picking as possible, and hold the other half
until they had become soft and edible. The data must therefore
be considered in the light of these facts. Where, however,
changes are almost always in one general direction, the prob-
ability of their being the result of individual variation is remote.
A difference in the specific gravity of the whole fruit of the
fresh and storage samples of all of the varieties is shown. With
the exception of a few samples which are in all probability the
result of individual variation, the specific gravity decreases during
storage. The longer the storage period, the lower the specific
gravity of the fruit. There is a decrease in the total volume of
the fruit during storage which would tend to increase the specific
gravity, but composition changes within the fruit are such as to
offset this and cause a decrease.
In most cases the percent pulp or edible matter decreases during
storage of the samples. Also in this connection it will be noticed
that the proportion of skin in the storage samples is almost always
lower than that in the fresh samples. The moisture in the pulp
is lower in the storage samples and the percent skin less, thus
indicating that any loss in weight on standing is due to loss of
water from both the skin and pulp, the skin having the greater
loss.
The proportion of seed is somewhat higher in the storage









Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 35

TABLE VI.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY,
HOMESTEAD, 1931-1932.
TRAPP
Percent
Date Total Specific Gravity Oil and Fat
S c Picked Weight -
"06 .' Tested (gms.) r cr 8 E -V -3.- .
Mz ..c C Ja.. '?si A
1 6 6/15/31 25.81 21.00 57.30 21.70 1.0279 1.0270 1.0000 84.4 4.41 0.69
2 5 6/22/31 32.4' 19.20 57.20 23.60 1.0233 1.0264 1.0237 84.90 5.72 0.87
3 3 6/29/31 45.31 15.50 57.90 26.60 1.0127 1.0220 1.0276 84.47 8.37 1.30
4 2 7/ 6/31 70.61 15.40 56.10 28.50 1.0032 1.0206 1.0254 84.86 13.77 2.09
5 2 7/13/31 96.11 14.80 56.00 29.20 0.9974 0.9937 1.0284 85.31 5.14 0.75
6 1 7/20/31 130.2 14.52 56.14 29.34 0.9939 0.9790 1.0533 85.83 16.42 2.32
7 1 7/27/31 166.6 13.93 56.96 29.11 0.9887 0.9228 1.0655 87.52 14.47 1.81
8 1 8/ 4/31 214.4 11.89 58.77 29.34 0.9821 0.9673 1.0452 87.66 14.56 1.79
9 1 8/10/31 218.5 12.40 57.58 30.02 0.9887 0.9641 1.0750 86.99 18.06 2.34
10 1 8/17/31 245.9 12.24 62.83 24.93 0.9673 0.9263 1.0831 86.51 20.48 2.76
11 1 8/24/31 245.2 11.87 66.60 21.53 0.9427 0.9142 1.0668 87.66 22.34 2.88
12 1 9/ 2/31 408.8 9.47 69.96 20.57 0.9572 0.9705 '.0764 87.78 23.71 2.89
13 1 9/24/31 298.4 8.34 70.51 21.15 0 9227 0.9941 0.9912 87.69 21.72 2.73
14 1 10/14/31 434.2 10.64 68.93 20.43 0.9005 0 9725 1.0750 82.22 36 17 6.32
15 1 11/ 4/31 479.9 8.15 76.72 15.13 0.8753 0.9723 1.0936 84.86 35.16 4.33

SCHMIDT

1 3 6/23/31 44.31 19.60 71.20 9.20 1.0254 1.0215 1.0232 87.27 6.40 0.82
2 2 6/30/31 74.4' 18.90 72 80 8 30 1.0227 1.0137 1.0414 87.65 6.92 0.86
3 1 7/ 7/31 109 7 20.05 70.93 9.02 1.0186 1.0111 1.0244 87.05 6.96 0.90
4 1 7/14/31 120 3 18.00 72 20 9.80 1.0143 1.0023 1.0370 87.38 5.91 0.74
5 1 7/21/31 146.5 18 36 71.95 9.69 1.0096 1.0016 1.0044 85.61 6.37 0.92
6 1 7/28/31 153 6 18.42 71.23 10.35 1.0092 0.9979 1.0645 86.83 8.42 1.11
7 1 8/ 5/31 206.6 16.70 73 04 10 26 1.0039 0.9942 1.0247 86.98 12.20 1.61
8 1 8/11/31 250.3 15.74 72.55 11.71 0.9944 0.9872 1.0551 86.63 11.67 1.56
9 1 8/18/31 201.6 17.11 72.77 10.12 1.0045 0.9982 1.0723 87.29 9.54 1.21
10 1 8/25/31 360.0 14.72 71.72 13.56 0.9906 0.9708 1.r905 86.29 15.38 2.11
11 1 9/ 3/31 203.1 16.49 70.61 12 90 1.0002 0.9884 1.0244 86.92 13.77 1.80
12 1 9/15/31 260.7 17.34 70.92 11.74 0.9966 0.9846 1.1053 86.91 14.21 1.86
13 1 10/ 7/31 278.4 17 13 66 31 16.56 0.9986 0.9798 1.1102 86.06 28.05 3.91
14 1 10/28/31 404.8 15.02 73.27 11.71 0.9654 0.9809 1.0738 85.44 34.92 4.94
"5 1 11/18/31 464.4 17.05 68.63 14.32 0.9852 0.9615 1.1196 84.89 47.35 7.10
16 1 12/10/31 391.3 17 05 73.14 9.81 0.9577 0.9737 1.0861 83.06..........
17 1 1/14/32 428.6 12.37 73.44 14.19 0.9597 ...... 1.0846 78.78 23.88 5.04
18 1 2/ 8/32 557.1 14 04 76.27 9.69 0.9260 ...... 1.0831 77.08 65.66 15.05
POLLOCK

1 4 6/15/31 85.3' 16.80 64.80 18.40 1.0008 1.0005 1.0209 85.65 9.09 1.31
2 2 6/22/31 94.41 16.50 64.60 18.90 1.0021 0.9979 1.0086 85.83 9.80 1.49
3 1 6/29/31 162.7 13.20 69.10 17.70 0.9849 0.9830 1.0230 86.36 9.62 1.31
4 1 7/ 6/31 267.7 13.00 66.50 20.50 0.9806 0.9821 1.0399 85.97 19.07 2.68
5 1 7/13/31 357.5 11.50 70.40 18.10 0.9521 0.9674 1.0404 86.18 13.77 1.90
6 1 7/20/31 408.8 11.20 70.00 18.80 0.9664 0.9670 1.0391 86.62 20.81 2.78
7 1 7/27/31 553.7 9.68 72.66 17.66 0.9535 0.9581 1.0481 86.49 25.80 3.48
8 1 8/ 4/31 574.9 10.51 74 39 15.10 0.9365 0.9651 1.0417 84 06 32.34 5.15
9 1 8/10/31 769.1 9.57 78.39 12.04 0 394 0.9627 1.0856 84.65 30.50 4.99
10 1 8/17/31 758.7 10.68 75.48 13.84 0.9485 0.9669 1.0931 84.55 27.66 4.26
11 1 8/24/31 550.0 10 18 72.62 17.20 0.9499 0.9727 1.0634 83.78 25.04 4.07
12 1 9/ 2/31 719.6 9.63 77.24 13.13 0.9570 0.9652 1.0924 85.12 30.60 4.56
13 1 9/24/31 698.1 8.85 77.41 13.74 0.9224 0.9693 1.0913 81.58 41.83 7.61
14 1 10/14/31 769.7 9.71 74.23 16.06 0.9371 0.9742 1.0896 79.57 37.00 7.54
1 Average weight.





36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE VI.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY,
HOMESTEAD, 1931-1932.-Continued.
WINSLOWSON
Percent
Date Total Specific Gravity Oil and Fat
"V r a, Picked Weight E
6d '- Tested (gms.) a 0 a -4 "


1 2 6/23/31 63.31 18.2066.60 15.20 1.0104 1.0039 1.0263 86.47 9.69 1.31
2 2 6/30/31 82.21 18.90 67.00 14.10 1.0117 1.0075 1.0307 87.02 16.71 2.17
3 1 7/ 7/31 140.6 16.40 63.80 18.80 1.0028 1.0008 1.0324 86.56 9.38 1.26
4 1 7/14/31 142.3 15.90 67.00 17.10 1.0064 0.9962 1.0380 86.62 13.61 1.82
5 1 7/21/31 165.6 16.67 65.64 17.69 0.9910 1.0175 1.0321 86.62 20.30 2.71
6 1 7/28/31 244.5 15.83 66.95 17.22 0.9959 0.9831 1.0652 85.55 23.37 3.38
7 1 8/ 5/31 227.9 14.79 68.67 16.54 0.9930 0.9841 1.0854 86.10 24.62 3.40
8 1 8/11/31 290.1 14.37 67.98 17.65 0.9874 0.9798 1.0406 86.70 20.69 2.75
9 1 8/18/31 273.6 13.60 67.28 19.12 0.9881 0.9755 1.0902 85.40 30.52 4.45
10 1 8/25/31 366.7 12.22 65.50 22.28 0.9884 0.9742 1.0918 84.82 32.40 4.91
11 1 9/ 3/31 370.2 12.61 70.70 16.690.9917 0.9799 1.1047 84.84 32.93 4.99
12 1 9/15/31 491.3 10.77 74.13 15.10 0.9844 0.9707 1.1169 85.49 38.19 5.54
13 1 10/7/31 484.2 10.16 72.68 17.16 0.9833 0.9712 1.1158 84.99 40.04 6.01
14 1 10/28/31 604.8 9.79 70.77 19.44 0.9697 0.9708 1.0862 81.10 46.41 8.59
15 1 11/17/31 673.1 11.87 68.59 19.54 0.9735 0.9645 1.1249 83.15 44.37 7.47
16 1 12/10/31 647.3 10.35 74.39 15.26 0.9757 0.9718 1.1283 80.28 67.03 14,22
17 1 1/14/32 946.4 8.49 79.16 12.35 0.9549 0.9614 1.0961 75.71 67.39 16.32
18 1 2/ 8/32 932.5 8.38 78.62 13.00 0.9580 0.9647 1.1197 76.58 68.17 15.96

WAGNER

1 4 6/23/31 35.2' 18.10 66.70 15.20 1.0181 1.0113 1.0500 86.74 12.62 1.67
2 2 6/30/31 69.71 18.74 66.19 15.07 1.0101 0.9800 1.0107 87.50 13.89 1.74
3 1 7/ 7/31 96.1 20.08 62.24 17.68 1.0031 0.9917 1.0171 86.37 16.59 2.24
4 1 7/14/31 110.5 17.82 61.91 20.27 1.0082 0.9878 1.0075 87.18 13.33 1.71
5 1 7/21/31 121.3 18.63 61.75 19.62 1.0016 0.9851 1.0357 86.89 16.59 2.17
6 1 7/28/31 124.3 16.98 64.68 18.34 1.0040 0.9975 1.0407 86.97 13.97 1.82
7 1 8/ 5/31 160.2 17.73 60.86 21.41 1.0025 0.9767 1.0613 86.25 20.27 2.79
8 1 8/11/31 205.6 14.88 66.44 18.68 0.9971 0.9780 1.0909 86.31 20.78 2.84
9 1 8/18/31 178.9 14.65 65.95 19.40 0.9955 0.9742 1.1071 85.87 25.28 3.57
10 1 8/25/31 204.9 16.01 60.37 23.62 0.9985 0.9640 1.0954 84.98 28.18 4.23
11 1 9/ 3/31 169.2 15.48 66.91 17.61 0.9988 0.9829 1.1156 86.18 23.93 3.31
12 1 9/15/31 199.9 14.81 63.08 22.11 0.9941 0.9867 1.0955 86.00 30.65 4.22
13 1 10/ 7/31 288.2 13.88 60.69 25.43 0.9938 0.9659 1.1276 82.92 48.08 8.21
14 1 10/28/31 298.1 13.18 62.10 24.72 0.9797 0.9604 1.1426 81.38 54.57 9.19
15 1 11/17/31 300.6 15.60 60.45 23.95 0.9698 0.9556 1.0954 79.96 56.62 11.34
16 1 12/10/31 236.9 14.56 62.65 22.79 0.9675 0.9790 1.1512 78.08 62.38 13.67
17 1 1/14/32 372.0 9.49 68.76 21.75 0.9691 0.9587 1.1507 76.82 67.10 15.54
18 1 2/ 8/32 420.6 11.67 63.48 24.85 0.9609 ...... 1.1082 73.74 72.20 19.46

WALDIN

1 6 6/15/31 25.91 23.80 59.60 16.6 1.0189 1.0192 1.0165 84.61 6.39 0.99
2 3 6/22/31 63.21 16.20 66.00 17.8 1.0096 1.0072 1.0204 85.15 11.37 1.69
3 2 6/29/31 75.61 13.90 66.80 19.3 1.0080 1.0078 1.0636 84.32 4.81 0.75
4 2 7/ 6/31 78.41 14.10 67.00 18.9 1.0071 1.0074 1.0284 84.32 16.80 2.64
5 1 7/13/31 161.4 13.69 65.93 20.38 0.9896 0.9831 1 0526 85.19 8.40 1.24
6 1 7/20/31 204.3 12.58 65.54 21.88 0.9841 0.9737 1.0579 84.96 15.17 2.28
7 1 7/27/31 235.9 13.23 63.62 23.15 0.9895 0.9768 1.0820 85.07 21.64 3.23
8 1 8/ 4/31 296.0 11.49 62.43 26.08 0.9837 0.9707 1.0690 84.06 20.74 3.32
9 1 8/10/31 288.1 10.17 68.24 21.59 0.9853 0.9852 1.1161 84.13 23.21 3.68
10 1 8/17/31 311.1 11.35 65.09 23.56 0.9811 0.9773 1.0904 83.48 23.52 3.88
11 1 8/24/31 332.3 10.35 63.29 26.36 0.9759 0.9688 1.0866 84.14 25.17 3.99
12 1 9/ 2/31 335.6 10.28 67.34 22.38 0.9659 0.9754 1.0960 83.56 27.28 4.48
13 1 9/24/31 425.2 8.49 67.19 24.32 0.9654 0.9731 1.1059 83.56 33.87 5.56
14 1 10/14/31 558.9 8.86 64.62 26.52 0.9678 0.9586 1.1220 80.39 43.48 8.16
15 1 11/ 4/31 587.0 8.5960.8830.53 0.9667 0.9613 1.1436 80.42 43.84 8.58
SAverage weight.








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 37

TABLE VI.-COMPOSITION OF AVOCADOS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY,
HOMESTEAD, 1931-1932.-Continued.
COLLINSON
Percent
Date Total Specific Gravity Oil and Fat
S Picked Weight t
" c6 a Tested (gmns.) > -
C -T. *-
1 5 6/23/31 26.81 21 30 66.00 12.80 1.0213 1.0117 1.0337 85.87 14.13 1.99
2 3 6/30/31 47.01 17.10 68.50 14 40 1.0122 1.0115 1.0122 86.55 14.92 2.01
3 2 7/ 7/31 56.6' 18.00 68.10 13.90 1.0098 1.0029 1.0070 85.11 10.58 1.57
4 1 7/14/31 118.9 15 70 70.10 14.20 0.9975 0.9881 1 0119 86.28 13.68 1.87
5 1 7/21/31 133.6 15.94 16.09 14 97 0.9896 0.9808 1.0082 86.10 15.55 2.16
6 1 7/28/31 187.6 15.88 66.21 17.91 0.9905 0.9775 1.0263 85,43 23.68 3.45
7 1 8/ 5/31 213.1 12.86 61.01 23.13 0.9766 0.9743 1.0254 86.77 23.17 3.06
8 1 8/11/31 214.2 15.22 68.67 16 11 0.9844 0.9843 1.0729 86.16 18.84 2.53
9 1 8/18/31 239 3 13.21 68.99 17,80 0.9775 0.9756 1.0519 86.17 17.67 2.44
10 1 8/25/31 281.8 12.24 68.38 19.38 0.9751 0.9625 1 0532 85.62 15.92 2.29
11 1 9/ 3/31 311.7 12.99 66.93 20,08 0.9698 0.9465 1.0556 86.86 18.72 2.46
12 1 9/15/31 332.1 14.06 65.13 20.81 0.9682 0.9524 1 0648 87.64 20.62 2.54
13 1 10/ 7/31 453.8 11.17 67.81 21.02 0.9578 0.9553 1.0632 85.73 33.61 4.80
14 1 10/28/31 490.3 13.05 72.00 14.95 0 9492 0.9560 1.0515 86.47 46.55 5.52
15 1 11/ 2/31 466 9 14 20 66.72 19.08 0.9621 0.9600 1.0847 79.36 52.60 10.85
16 1 12/10/31 631.4 . ........ 0.9606 ... ...
17 1 1/14/32 886 6 8.80 77.16 14.04 0.9235 0.9430 1.0534 77.02 63.35 14.55
18 1 2/ 8/32 754 1 8.13 76.41 15.46 0.9382 ...... 1.0552 75.53 65.50 16.03

LINDA

1 3 6/23/31 39 9' 15.50 75.80 8.70 1.0101 1.0094 ...... 87.51 6.12 0.76
2 2 6/30/31 81.3' 15.10 69.80 15.10 0.9981 1.0049 1.0497 87.59 7 85 0.98
3 1 7/ 7/31 123.3 16.40 74.90 8.700.9927 0.9969 1.0509 86.33 5.37 0.74
4 1 7/14/31 117.8 14 00 77.90 8.100.9891 0.9915 1.0200 87.33 7.03 0.89
5 1 7/21/31 184.6 15.71 75.95 8.34 0.9962 0.9772 1.0175 87.62 7.95 0.98
6 1 7/28/31 163.3 15.49 77.22 7 29 0.9867 0.9838 1.0114 87.32 13.09 1.66
7 1 8/ 5/31 245.9 15.41 76.54 8.05 0.9850 0.9789 1.0238 87.77 ......
8 1 8/11/31 276.8 14.70 76.92 8.380.9892 0.9785 1.0460 87.95 12.12 1.58
9 1 8/18/31 200.1 15.49 74.51 10.00 0.9875 0.9728 1.0341 87.68 10.30 1.27
10 1 8/25/31 274.7 16.27 75.68 8.05 0.9886 0.9726 1.0412 87.85 9.45 1.15
11 1 9/ 3/31 381.1 14.69 74.45 10.86 0.9854 0.9686 1.0679 87.82 13.69 1.67
12 1 9/15/31 271.9 16.81 73.11 10.08 0.9809 0.9665 1.1000 87.97 11.47 1.38
13 1 10/ 7/31 399.7 16.49 73.58 9.93 0.9825 0.9658 1.1136 86.79 20.56 2.71
14 1 10/28/31 473.0 13.30 75.41 11.29 0.9641 0.9553 1.1030 88.34 27.88 3.25
15 1 11/18/31 503.9 ............... 0 9749 .. . .
16 1 12/10/31 503.9 ..... ..... 0 .9640 ...... ...... ..... ..... ....
17 1 1/14/32 819.9 10.01 82.17 7.82 0.9429 0.9402 1.0858 81.21 .... ....
18 1 2/ 8/32 804.1 13.51 80.07 6.42 0.9506 0.9489 1.0661 79.85 66.55 13.41
1 Average weight.







38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

samples than in the fresh. The loss of water from the pulp and
skin, which increases the relative proportion of the seed, probably
is the cause.
The percentage of water in the pulp is lower in the storage
samples than in the fresh. The samples show from a fraction of
1 % up to 6 % more water in the fresh than in the storage samples.
The percentage ash is higher in the storage than in the fresh
samples. The difference is so small, however, that it is negligible
when these percentages are calculated on the water-free basis.
The ash content is variable and this is probably due to the fact
that the avocado pulp is not uniform in its ash content. Some
parts of the pulp contain more ash than others. The largest por-
tion of ash in the pulp of the avocado lies next to the skin and the
smallest next to the seed. In sampling, this was taken into con-
sideration and a crescent-shaped piece of pulp cut lengthwise was
used in determining ash but even with this method, there is chance
for error. To obtain a comprehensive study of the ash content,
the pulp of the whole fruit should be ashed, in which case it would
be necessary to use more than one fruit in analyses, thus intro-
ducing another source of error.
The protein content shows an increase in the storage samples
over the fresh fruit. Calculation to the water-free basis does not
alter the general ratio between the protein contents of the samples
to any great extent. Another peculiarity of the data is the uni-
form increase in the protein content of the storage samples of
immature fruits over that of the fresh samples; after maturity
there is in many cases little change and in some a reverse condition
is true. Taking it all in all, the results are inconclusive.
There also seems to be a decided increase in fat content in
storage samples when the fruit is immature, and this increase is
maintained after maturity has been reached. It is not clear
whether this is the result of chemical changes occurring during
storage or merely the loss of some other constituent in the fruit.
In this connection, it is interesting to note that an increase in
hydrolyzable and a decrease in free-reducing and total sugars
accompanies the increase in fat content and that there also is a
decrease in the amount of undetermined matter in the storage
samples. These losses are not always uniform, however, or in
proportion to the increase in fat. When it is recalled that the
analyses were necessarily made on different fruits, small incon-
sistencies can be explained by individual variations in the fruits.
The loss is not due wholly to the evaporation of water, for the








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 39

differences are maintained to a lesser extent when the data are
stated on the water-free basis.
There is a loss in weight in avocados on storage, but the loss
of water by evaporation from the pulp is offset by the decompo-
sition of other material. Undoubtedly sugar, or at least sub-
stances of similar nature, is transformed rapidly and is no longer
found as sugar when the immature fruit is allowed to soften. This
subject will need further careful study before many questions can
be answered. As far as the present investigation goes, there
appears to be a decided increase in fat content and a slight de-
crease in sugar content and undetermined matter during the
storage of immature avocados. These changes are less marked
in the case of the storage of mature fruits.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
The fat content seems to be the best indication of maturity of
the avocado. This can be very readily correlated with the ma-
turity of the fruit. If the fat content of the avocado is known,
it is fairly easy to tell the state of maturity of the fruit, after
having several complete sets of analyses indicating the trend of
fat content throughout the life cycle, grown in seasons of varying
climatic conditions.
If there were an easy and rapid method of determining fat,
there would be no better means of determining maturity of the
fruit. The present method of ether extraction is too expensive
and requires far too much time to be of much value in the avocado
industry. There have been attempts at determining avocado fats
by using other solvents but none have proven satisfactory other
than to give approximate values.* Also the ether extraction and

*At present the California Avocado Association is determining the oil
content of avocados by the Lesley and Christie refraction method. This
method is based on the difference of refraction of halowax oil and the mixture
of halowax oil and avocado fat after the pulp has been ground with the
halowax oil and the oil dissolved out by it. Refractions are compared to a
table previously prepared from known amounts of the halowax and avocado
oils. This method gives approximate values but has the probability of from
2% to 40% error.
Data obtained by work at the Florida Experiment Station, dealing with
hundreds of fruits of many varieties at all stages of maturity and with many
alterations of the Leslie-Christie refraction method, show that the results
obtained with this method will not check with those of the ether extraction
method and cannot be checked against themselves.
One of the sources of error was found to be in considering the refractive
index of avocado oil constant, which is not true. The refractive index of the
oil is different for each variety of avocado.
It was also found that the refractive index will vary in oil extracted in
various ways from the same variety of avocado. Thus, considerable error
is obtained by not taking these facts into consideration.







40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

other solvent methods necessitate the using of the fruit analyzed,
thus giving the fat content of single representatives of a group.
Avocados vary to such an extent that there may be a difference
of 10 percent fat in fruit picked for shipment. Should the sample
tested for maturity by this method just happen to be low while
the majority are high in fat content, then the whole shipment
would be called immature, while the majority may be mature.
The reverse may happen and in this way immature fruit may be
called mature.
If the method is to be practicable, it should be determined in a
very short time and with little expense. Also the method should
not necessitate taking chance samples which may not be repre-
sentative of the picked fruit. The ideal method would be one
where each individual fruit could be tested without utilizing or
injuring the fruit. This may be accomplished by using the
specific gravity of the fruit as a measure of maturity, since it
correlates itself uniformly with the fat content and maturity of
the fruit. This relationship and its probable use as an indicator
of maturity will be discussed under the following head:
SPECIFIC GRAVITY, MOISTURE AND FAT CONTENT IN RELATION
TO MATURITY
Of all the characteristics determined throughout the life cycle
of the avocado, the specific gravity of the fruit and the moisture
and fat content of the pulp appear to have the most uniform and
definite correlation with maturity of the fruit. The moisture
content and specific gravity decrease with increasing maturity
while the fat content increases with increasing maturity. The
moisture content affects both the specific gravity and fat content
(wet basis) and the fat content affects the specific gravity, so all
are related and will be discussed under one head.
The analytical values of Tables I to V for moisture, fat and
specific gravity were plotted to form the graphs of Figures 1 to 11.
The green basis and water-free fat values were both plotted in
order to show comparison as well as the effect of moisture content
on the fat content.
Figure 1 contains the graphs of values of the various character-
istics of fruit of the Taylor variety from Homestead from April
when the fruit was very immature (5 grams), to March, when
tree-ripened fruit was obtained for the season 1930-31, and from
May to March from Lake Placid during the same season. Figure
2 is a similar graphical presentation of the values for these char-
acteristics of Taylor fruit sampled from Homestead and Lake









Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 41


Placid from June to March during the 1931-32 season. The
graphs of these two figures representing values for the two
avocado areas of Dade and Highlands counties are similar and
show very little variation with regard to the physical and chemical






















-- <





] -- -- --.T -- c -- - - - - --i
ra s of the







Av1d fm Ne d Lk P of 9-.

















so-
m Z r r J U J- -0 -


Aso & 1./ .,- N- 7W o 7 J A0/ 71 1s 4




"Fig. 1.-Graphical presentation of various characteristics of the Taylor
avocado from Homestead and Lake Placid throughout the season of 1930-31.








42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

characteristics throughout the life cycle, thus permitting them
to be discussed under one head. Also, the similarity of the graphs
representing the two seasons of 1930-31 and 1931-32 is such that
they can be discussed under the same head.









It --



















'
% F~. I M8
*- 0 3 h 3 & 2'?I 2 2Y 3 4 339























Fig. 2.-Graphical presentation of various characteristics of the Taylor
avocado from Homestead and Lake Placid throughout the season of 1931-32.








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 43

The graphs representing moisture content show high moisture
content for the immature fruits between 85 to 87 percent up to
September and then this content gradually decreases with the
maturity of the fruit, reaching 70 percent or lower in the very
mature fruit.
The moisture content of the fruit is correlated with the rainfall
in that the heaviest rainfall occurred during late spring and sum-
mer months, at which times occurred the highest moisture content
of the fruit. Beginning with September the amount of rainfall
decreased and was low for the fall and winter months. The
moisture content of the fruit likewise decreased. This correlation
of decreasing rainfall with decreasing moisture content of the
fruit occurred throughout the three seasons in which the fruit
was sampled.
The graphs of Figures 1 and 2 representing percent fat (green
basis) of the Taylor avocado begin low, showing a low fat content
of 1 to 2 percent for the immature fruit; they remain at this low
percentage until August, when the graphs take a decided upward
trend, indicating an increase in fat content. This decided increase
occurs during August, September and October, after which the
increase continues in a somewhat uniform manner but to a lesser
extent. Directly as this decided increase of fat ceased and the
increase became uniformly slower, the fruit would ripen normally
and could be called mature with regard to taste and composition.
In the very mature fruit the fat content was as high as 24 per-
cent (green basis).
The graphs representing fat content, water-free basis, are very
similar to those of the green basis but show the effect of the
moisture content upon the percentage of other constituents. such
as fat. They show the same general trend of increasing amounts of
fat as do those representing fat on the green basis, but not in the
same proportion. While the graphs show the fat content to be
15 to 20 times as much in the mature as in the immature fruits
when shown on the green basis, they show only 8 to 10 times as
much when the fat content is expressed on the water-free basis,
thus indicating that the moisture content of the fruit must be
taken into consideration when determining the fat content of
avocados.
The graph representing specific gravity of the whole fruit is
just the reverse of that for fat content in that it begins high,
indicating high specific gravity in the immature fruits (above
1.0). With the decided increase in fat during August, September








44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

and October, the specific gravity decreases to below 0.94 for the
very mature fruit, decreasing with increasing fat content. The
graphs representing the specific gravity of the fruit sampled from
the two growing areas and those for the different fruiting seasons
are so similar in all respects that they are almost identical with
the exception of fruit and seasonal variations.
If the relationship of specific gravity to fruit maturity continues
season after season, as it has in the last three seasons of sampling
and as it probably will, a very easy and quick test for maturity
could be devised using the specific gravity of the whole fruit as
the maturity measure. In the case of the Taylors, it would be
very easy to determine immature fruit in that the very immature
fruit with low fat content when placed in water would sink, the
specific gravity being above 1.0, the fruit being heavier than an
equal volume of water. Later in the season when the fruit has the
appearance of mature fruit, but is still too immature to soften
normally into a well-flavored edible fruit, the specific gravity if
tested would be above 0.98. According to the values represented
in Figures 1 and 2, any Taylor fruit having a specific gravity of
below 0.98 could be considered mature, for after this time the fruit
would ripen normally and have the taste of well-matured fruit.
At the time when the specific gravity of the whole fruit has
reached 0.98 or below the fat content had increased 10 percent or
better (green basis). There is a uniform increase in fat there-
after and also an improvement in taste in the more mature fruit
later in the season. The ability to determine picked fruit which
would ripen normally from picked fruit which would not ripen
normally would be a very valuable aid to the avocado industry.
In the four graphs of specific gravity of Figures 1 and 2, the time
when picked fruit ripened normally and could be considered
mature was in November. This date may vary with varying
climatic conditions. In all of the Taylor fruits tested, it was found
that the specific gravity of 0.98 or lower for the whole fruit was
always accompanied by a fat content of 10 percent or higher and
the fruit would ripen normally and have the characteristic good
flavor of mature fruits.
Figures 3 and 4 are graphical presentations of the moisture
and fat content and specific gravity of the whole fruit for the
Lula avocado presented in the same manner as that of the Taylor
variety in Figures 1 and 2. Graphs are shown in Figure 3 for
the values for these characteristics for fruit sampled during the
1930-31 season from Dade and Lee counties and in Figure 4 for









Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 45

1930-31 and 1931-32 seasons from Highlands county. The graphs
take the same general trends as do those of the Taylor variety;
those for moisture indicating a decrease with maturity from above
85 percent to below 70 percent; those for fat indicating an in-
crease with fruit maturity from below 1 percent to above 13













^ ,. -. -_- ^




-OW .






- -- - - - - - - - - -
a -






1 \.

















Fig. 3.-Graphical presentation of various characteristics of the Lula
avocado from Homestead and Estero throughout the season of 1930-31.
Dm^ DNSWM/IJ t./u fca ^ Mf/ /4S 11f Jv
































avcd fro y^/sea - seotruhu tesao f13-1









46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


percent; and those for specific gravity showing decrease with
maturity from above 1.1 to below 0.98.
From the values presented in the graphs of Figures 3 and 4,
the various steps of fruit maturity can be followed. With regard
to specific gravity as a measure of maturity, it can be used here






AA--





-----------





S//"







-----------
.. .. ..








*"* \ ''-- ---------- -
-- --------












/ '4' a,"/""A
















Fig. 4.--Graphical presentation of various characteristics of the Lula
avocado from Lake Placid throughout the seasons of 1930-31 and 1931-32.
Fig. 4.Grphca prsnainowaiu hrceitc fteLl
avocadofrom Lae'Placi __








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 47


as in the case of the Taylor variety, the very immature fruits
having a specific gravity of above 1.0, would sink if put in water,
being heavier than an equal volume of water. According to the
graphs, satisfactory maturity permitting normal ripening and
a fair taste quality is reached when the specific gravity of the



A .. ------------- ---------------- ----._---






,g. 5Sjtaionaj M f or ctfrra. mt-a, )



























M1
IM 40 -
. .3 ,-



** ' - -- - - - - - - - *





















... .....------------------

Fig. 5.--Graphical presentation of various characteristics of the Simmonds
avocado from Homestead and Lake Placid throughout the season of 1931-32.
M a,,rvn t;? '.' .- - - ' '" '
&>ir z/w~r ui~/3 cvi~/K ^^/i V^P/M ffft/ 7'

Wtn~uKK ""*---- ---- *79











Ju~i A~&,- &p/2.g Ocr4
Fi.5-rpia rsntto fvroscaateitc fteSmod
avcd frmHmsedadLkalcdthogottesao f13-2








48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

whole fruit is below 0.98 which point is reached in October. The
fat content at the corresponding time when this specific gravity
of the fruit is reached is 8 percent or above. As in the case of
the Taylor, the Lula improves in taste as it becomes more mature.
It was not until November that the fruit was in optimum condi-











Fig. 6.-Grap l ---tion f v s cs of P k


































Simmonds avocados from Homestead and Lake Placid throughout the season
- -- - -- -- -- ----- -- --- --






1A -- -------






















Simmonds avocados from Homestead and Lake Placid throughout the season
of 1930-31.
I-



Fi.6.-Grahica prsnainofvroscarceitc o olc n
Simmnd avcao from- Hoeta an aePacdtruhuttesao
of* 1930-31







Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 49

tion as to composition and taste and should not be harvested until
this time unless necessary.
Figure 5 contains the graphs of various characteristics of the
fruit of the Simmonds variety from Homestead and Lake Placid
from June to October for the season 1931-32. The graphs are
similar to those of the Taylor and Lula in that they indicate a
decrease in moisture and specific gravity and an increase in fat
with maturity. The graphs for moisture content do not show the
decided decrease as in case of the later maturing varieties of the
Guatemalan race. The moisture content does not change to any
extent until after the heavy summer rainfalls have ceased in
September and then only slightly. The West Indian varieties
mature at this time or shortly after this time and because of the
climatic conditions usually prevailing at that season, have a very
high moisture content at maturity. With the moisture content
high and the life cycle short as compared to the Guatemalan and
Hybrid varieties, the West Indian varieties show lower fat content
throughout the life cycle, especially when figured on the green
basis, but show the same general increase with maturity. The
graphs for specific gravity show a decrease with maturity, the
very immature fruit having a specific gravity of above 1.0 and
decreasing with maturity. After the fruit had reached a density
of 0.96 or below, normal softening occurred and the ripe fruit had
a favorable taste and was considered mature. The fat content at
this time was 3 percent or above, wet basis.
Figure 6 is the graphical presentation of the same character-
istics of the Pollock and Simmonds varieties for the life cycle of
the fruit during the 1930-31 season sampled from Homestead and
Lake Placid, respectively. They are almost identical with those
of the Simmonds variety. Normal softening and taste were found
in the fruit after the specific gravity of the whole fruit fell to 0.96
or lower. The fat content was 3 percent or above at this time.
Figures 7, 8, 9, and 10 are similar graphical presentations of
the values of various characteristics tabulated in Tables I to V
and are for the Eagle Rock variety from Homestead and Lake
Placid for 1930-31 season; the Winslowson variety from Home-
stead and Lake Placid for the 1930-31 season; the Trapp variety
from Estero and Linda from Homestead for the 1930-31 season;
and Waldin and Collinson from Homestead for the 1930-31 season,
respectively. These graphs indicate a decrease in moisture and
specific gravity and an increase in fat with maturity. In all of
these varieties the very immature fruits have a specific gravity








50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

of above 1.0 with low fat content. The Eagle Rock, Linda, Col-
linson and Winslowson avocados softened normally when the
specific gravity of the whole fruit was 0.98 or below and according
to the composition and quality could be considered near harvesting







MY




* /'^.....---"'i --
------- ------





















wa, J 0 L&/. cel t JAAj7~ Ll ~












Fig. 7.-Graphical presentation of various characteristics of the Eagle
Rock avocado from Homestead and Lake Placid throughout the season of
1930-31.








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 51

maturity at this time. Characteristic good flavor and quality of
the fruit were present. This point was reached in the Linda,
Winslowson, and Collinson in October and Eagle Rock in Novem-
ber. The Trapp avocados ripened normally when specific gravity
of the whole fruit fell below 0.96. From the composition and taste,






-----------






II










".1 4 o "
























son avocado from Homestead and Lake Placid throughout the season of
1930-31.
AIi A J. J1A \ **q Ah ~M1 O~'# 46 6









52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


fruits of this variety were mature at this time, the first half of
September.
Because of the very large seed, which constitutes one-fourth of
the whole fruit, the Waldin avocado is an exception in that its










lop Z -a C srmo sJo-.n)



















Li /-~
-------------- ---




I-













.7.





























1930-31.
---------------- ----
X2r / )
-aw- .3 18

^-- 4 -5 .-.- V-/, -;-7 -ell /-&1





1.9 t0- 31.o,-lrsrn. 183-SI)























1930-31.









Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 53


specific gravity does not decrease as rapidly and consistently with
maturity as the other varieties. The immature fruits have a
specific gravity of above 1.0 but when normal softening occurs
and the fruit quality is good, the specific gravity is only slightly
below 1.0. In the very mature fruit, it reaches below .98 but
from composition and quality of the fruit, it can be considered



- -- ------- ---------. -










A d
















Of
)- -- ---------







,JS, .,--_ _. *__.. ...... "






.




















Fig. 10.--Graphical presentation of various characteristics of Waldin and
Collinson avocados from Homestead throughout the season of 1930-31.
Y~- -- -~---.













1'/
Fi. 10-rpia rsnato\ fvroscaateitc fWli n
Colno avcao frmHmsea hogot h esn f13-1








54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

mature long before this time. The results of both the preliminary
-and supplementary experiments with the Waldin were very sim-
ilar, all indicating that when the Waldin could be considered
mature as to normal ripening, quality and composition, the specific
gravity is still above 0.98 but below 1.0.
From the preceding graphs and tables, it is clearly indicated
that the moisture content and the specific gravity of the whole
fruit decrease with maturity and that the fat content increases
in all the varieties analyzed. It is also interesting to note that
satisfactory maturity occurred in the Guatemalan and Hybrid
varieties or late-maturing varieties when the specific gravity of
the fruit became 0.98 or lower and in the West Indian or early
maturing varieties when the specific gravity became 0.96 or lower,
with the exception of the Waldin, as mentioned above. The fat
content at this time in the Guatemalan and Hybrid varieties was
two or three times that in the West Indians.
The above discussion is based on data obtained from the analy-
ses of fruit which had been picked from the tree two or three
days before they were analyzed. This time was required in ship-
ping the fruit from the place of production to the laboratory.
Immediately upon receiving, the analyses were made but since
the analyses show a considerable effect of storage in both the
physical and chemical characteristics, it seemed advisable to
check upon this possible error which may have been caused by
this lapse of time before analyses. Therefore, a set of supple-
mentary analyses were planned and carried out in the laboratories
at the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station at Homestead on fruit
obtained from the Brooks Groves, Inc., during the season 1931-32.
Here it was possible to analyze the fruit immediately after picking.
Weekly samples were analyzed from June to October, the most
important time with respect to maturity, and at intervals of three
weeks thereafter until tree-ripened fruit was obtained. Analyses
were made of the most important varieties grown in that section,
including Taylor, Wagner, Linda, Schmidt, Lula, Collinson, Wins-
lowson, Waldin, Pollock, Trapp and Simmonds. In addition to the
fat content, moisture content and specific gravity of the whole
fruit, the weight percentages of the various parts and the specific
gravity of the pulp and seed were taken. The correlation between
the specific gravity and the fat content and maturity of the fruit
was studied, keeping in mind the possibility of using the specific
gravity as a measure of maturity.
The data of the analyses of several representative varieties of








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 55

the Guatemalan and West Indian race and hybrids are given here
and the results are almost identical with the analyses made in
the laboratories in Gainesville. Table VI contains the analytical
data of the various characteristics mentioned above for the Wag-
ner, Linda, and Schmidt (Guatemalan); Trapp, Pollock and
Waldin (West Indians); and Collinson and Winslowson (hybrids).



-

A /













\ ... ,A / "\"4

d.






3. --------------
\/rr /~ ~-~ .... "" . . -- .









Fig. 11.-Graphical presentation of various characteristics of Linda and
Wagner avocados determined at weekly intervals during the season of 1931-32.
Wagner avocados determined at weekly intervals during the season of 1931-32.








56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The values in Table VI for the various characteristics of the
fruit show the same relationship to maturity as do those of Tables
I to V. The total weight, percent seed, percent fat, and specific
gravity of the seed increase with maturity while the percent peel,
percent moisture, specific gravity of the pulp and specific gravity
of the whole fruit decrease in all the varieties tested. The percent
pulp shows very little change throughout the life cycle of the fruit.


/| :. /,Y,5 ---:-- '-',

Ia 2 /'/ /


















/ "\ /
/X


























Fig. 12.--Graphical presentation of various characteristics of Waldin and
lk a as determined at weekly intervals during the season of 1931-32.
A -- / -










.1------------'---------------------------- ---------














Fig. 12-Graphical presentation of various characteristics of Waldin and








Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 57

The analytical values in Table VI for moisture, fat (water-free
basis) and specific gravity of seed, pulp and whole fruit were
plotted to form the graphs of Figures 11, 12, and 13. Figure 11
contains the graphs of the values of these characteristics of the
fruit of the Linda and Wagner varieties from June to February.
The graph for fat of the Wagner avocado begins low at 12
percent, rising slightly, indicating low fat content, from June to














C*- ^.^-^- /e.. / *












Fig. 1. -Graphical presentation of various characteristics of Collinson
I/ 1' I
a4 -




























and Winslowson avocados determined at weekly interval; during the season
of 1931-32.
&.^:r
^ ^pa,/\ '' 'X








/ ---- ---


^***w.-^ ^--~- ^-J':-: ^-^- ------



** f^ *






of 1931-32.







58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

September when the graph takes a decided upward trend, indi-
cating a decided increase in fat thereafter, reaching 72 percent
in February, with the maturity of the fruit.
The graphs for specific gravity of the Wagner avocado show
the immature fruit to have values above 1.0 for whole fruit, pulp
and seed. The specific gravity for the seed increases with ma-
turity, reaching above 1.14 for that of mature seeds, while the
specific gravity for pulp and whole fruit decreases with maturity,
falling below 0.95 in the mature fruit. The specific gravity of the
whole fruit coincides with that of the pulp throughout the life
cycle, the pulp making up the largest bulk of the fruit, 70 to 80
percent, while the proportion of the seed is only 8 to 12 percent.
Even though the seed does show a decided increase in specific
gravity with maturity, it has little effect on the specific gravity
of the whole fruit, being offset by the specific gravity of pulp
which decreases with maturity, the pulp constituting three-
fourths of the entire fruit. The specific gravity of the whole fruit
of 0.98 was reached in November, after which time the fruit could
be called mature, from the standpoints of both composition and
taste. After this time the picked fruit ripened normally. The
fat content was above 55 percent at this time. The graphs for
the various characteristics of the Linda avocado are almost iden-
tical with those of the Wagner avocado.
Figure 12 is a graphical presentation of the same character-
istics for the Pollock and Waldin varieties from June to October.
First, considering the Pollock, the graph for fat content shows
increasing amounts with maturity from 9 to 39 percent. The
graphs for specific gravity show an increase in density for the
seed and a decrease in density for the pulp and whole fruit. The
specific gravity of the whole fruit is affected here again by that
of the pulp, which makes up 64 to 74 percent of the whole fruit
while the seed was only 12 to 20 percent. The specific gravity of
the whole fruit falls below that of the pulp and can probably be
explained by the presence of the large seed cavity not entirely
filled by the seed, thus causing a lower density of the whole fruit.
It is interesting to note that here again as in the other West Indian
varieties the very immature fruits had a specific gravity of above
1.0 and decreased in density with increasing maturity and in-
creasing fat content. The fruit did not reach a density of 0.96
until the fruit was mature as to composition and taste. The fruit
ripened normally after this time, which was in August.
The graphs for oil and fat content of the Waldin, Figure 12,







Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 59

are very similar to those of the Pollock, Figure 12. The graphs
of specific gravity show the fruit of this variety to be an excep-
tion, as stated before. Unlike the other West Indian varieties,
satisfactory maturity was obtained when the fruit had a specific
gravity of 0.98 or above. These results substantiated those of the
previous two seasons in this regard.
Figure 13 is the graphical presentation of the same character-
istics for the fruit of the Collinson and Winslowson varieties from
June to February. The graphs of the various characteristics of
these two varieties are almost identical and those for the Wins-
lowson avocado will be discussed here. Increasing amounts of
fat are shown from 9 percent to 68 percent. The specific gravity
of the whole fruit as in all of the other hybrid varieties tested is
shown to follow that of the pulp, decreasing from above 1.0 to 0.96,
the pulp making up three-fourths of the whole fruit as shown by
the data of Table VI. The specific gravity of the seed is shown
to increase with maturity, showing increasing values from 1.02
to 1.12, but seems to have little effect on the density of the whole
fruit as it makes up only one-sixth of the fruit.
It will be noted from the graph, Figure 13, for the specific
gravity of the whole fruit that the very immature fruit had a
density of 1.0 or above and when the point 0.98 specific gravity
was reached the fruit was fairly high in fat content and had a
favorable taste and quality. Normal softening occurred with fruit
having a specific gravity of 0.98 or lower.
The results of all the other varieties analyzed directly upon
picking from the trees in this supplementary study which are
not tabulated or graphed here, duplicate those obtained previously
with the exception of small variations in fruit and seasons. The
fat content increased with maturity, the moisture content de-
creased and the specific gravity of the seed increased, while that
of the pulp and whole fruit decreased. Immature fruit had a
specific gravity of above 1.0, which decreased to 0.98 or below
before normal softening and fair maturity was obtained in the
Guatemalans and to 0.96 or below before the West Indian varieties
could be called mature.
SUMMARY
The results of analyses of the physical and chemical charac-
teristics of the leading varieties of Florida avocados throughout
the life cycle for three fruiting seasons and grown at various
sections of the State are presented in tabular form.







60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

As far as physical appearance is concerned, it has been impos-
sible to correlate closely any single characteristic or set of char-
acteristics with maturity.
The maturity pressure tester as used for testing the maturity
of peaches and other fruits was found impracticable for use with
avocados.
The proportion of many of the physical and chemical charac-
teristics of the avocado changes during its development, the most
marked change being the increase of the oil and fat content. This
takes place rapidly while the fruit is immature, and much more
slowly as it approaches maturity. The changes in the sugar,
protein, and ash contents with maturation are too small and
variable to be used as measures of maturity.
The moisture content decreases with the development of the
fruit. This takes place slowly while the fruit is immature and
more rapidly as it approaches maturity.
The moisture content varies with rainfall, high moisture con-
tent occurring during the heavy rainfall of spring and summer
and decreasing with the decreasing rainfall of fall and winter.
The moisture content affects the proportions of the other char-
acteristics, thus making it impracticable to use the values calcu-
lated on the wet-basis for measures of maturity.
The specific gravity of the whole fruit decreases with the de-
velopment of the fruit. A definite correlation between specific
gravity of the whole fruit and oil and fat content is apparent.
An increase in fat content is accompanied by a decrease in
specific gravity.
Satisfactory maturity occurred in the Guatemalan and Hybrid
varieties or the late maturing varieties when the specific gravity
of the fruit became 0.98 or lower and in the West Indian or early
maturing varieties when the specific gravity became 0.96 or lower.
with the exception of the Waldin, in which case the specific gravity
was still above 0.98 when fully mature as to taste, normal ripening,
and composition. The fat content at this time in the Guatemalan
and Hybrid varieties was two or three times that in the West
Indian varieties.
The avocados held in storage until soft show an increase in oil
and fat and hydrolyzable sugars and a decrease in specific gravity,
moisture, free reducing and total sugars over those analyzed at
once while hard.







Bulletin 259, Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados 61

LITERATURE CITED

1. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Official and tentative
methods of analysis. 2nd and 3rd ed., 1925 and 1930.
2. BLAKE, M. A. A device for determining the texture of peach fruits for
shipping and marketing. N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 212. 1929.
3. CHURCH, C. G., and E. M. CHACE. Some changes in composition of
California avocados during growth. U. S. D. A. Bul. 1073. 1922.
4. HODGSON, R. W. The California avocado industry. Cal. Ext. Cir. 43.
1930.
5. JAFFA, M. A., and H. Goss. Avocado culture in California-Part II;
Composition and food value. Cal. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 365, 1923.
(Revised 1928).
6. LESLEY, B. E., and A. W. CHRISTIE. Use of the refractometric method
in determination of oil in avocados. Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem. Vol. 1:1.
Analytical edition. 1929.
7. STAHL, A. L. Composition of Florida avocados. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort.
Soc., pp. 81-86 and 158-162. 1931.
8. TILT, J., and M. WINFIELD. Chemical composition of West Indian seed-
ling avocados. J. Home Econ., 22:43-46. 1928.
9. ToY, L. R. Avocados in Florida. Fla. State Dept. Agr. Bul. 24 (New
series). 1929.





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