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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Potato diseases
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Title: Potato diseases
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Hume, H. Harold
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1904
Copyright Date: 1904
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HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








BULLETIN NO, 75, AUGUST, 1904.

FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION




Potato Diseases,



















By H. HAROLD HUME.


The bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon application
to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.


Jacksonville, Fla.,
INDUSTRIAL RECORD PUB. CO,
1904.
















BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


GEO. W. WILSON, President ..................... Jacksonville.
C. A. CARSON, Vice-Plesident ...................... Kissimmee.
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary ................... .....Brooksville.
F. E. HARRIS ... ............ .. .... ................. Ocala.
E. D. BEGGS ...................................... Pensacola.
J. R. PARROTT .................................. Jacksonville.
F. M1. SIMONTON ........................................ Tampa.



" STATION STAFF.

'0
T. H. TALIAFERRO, C. E., Ph. D. ...................... Director.
SH. K. MILLER, MI. S................ Vice-Director and Chemist.
H. A. GossARD, M. S ......... ............. .. Entomologist.
H. H. HUME, B. Agr., M. S ........ Botanist and Horticulturist.
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S. ................ Veterinarian.
"*C. M. CONNER, B. S. ..................... ..... Agriculturist.
A. W. BLAm, M. A. ........................Assistant Chemist.
R. A. LICHTENTHAELER, M3. S. ................ Assistant Chemist.
F. C. REIMER, B. S. .................... Assistant Horticulturist.
W. P. JERNIGAN ..................... Auditor and Bookkeeper.
A. TYLER .......................... Stenographer and Librarian.
JOHN F. MITCHELL ................... Foreman Station Farm.
JOHN H. JEFFRIES ......... Gardener, Horticultural Department.
E. F. WORTHINGTON ............ Assistant in Field Experiments.
*Superintendent Farmers' Institutes.














CONTENTS,


PAGE.
Potato Diseases ...................................... 181
Late Blight ............................. ........... 181
Methods of Control ............ .................. 184
Early Blight ....................................... 185
Methods of Control ............................... 187
Scab .................. ................. ..... ...... 187
Methods of Control ................................ 188
Rhizoctonia Blight .................................... 188
Experiments in Controlling Rhizoctonia .................. 192
Results of the Experiment ............................. 193
Outline of the Experiment ............................. 192
Methods of Control .......... ................... 194
Bacterial Blight ....................................... 194
Methods of Control ............................. 195
Acknowledgments .. . . . . . . ..... 196



ILLUSTRATIONS,

Potato Diseases ................................ Frontispiece.
Rhizoctonia on Potato Plant ......................... Plate I.
Seed Potatoes Used in Experimental Work ............ Plate II.
Tubers Affected by Rhizoctonia and Scab ............ Plate III.
Tubers Affected by Blights ....................... Plate IV.













Potato Diseases,


H. HAROLD HUME.*

In this country, the following diseases have been injurious to
the Irish potato crop: Late Blight, Early Blight, Scab, Bacterial
Blight and Sterile Fungus. Lately a disease, designated as "Dry
Rot," due to Fusarium oxysporium has been described, by Dr.
Erwin F. Smith and Dean B. Swingle in Bulletin 55, Bureau of
Plant Industry, U. S. D. A. This last mentioned disease is not
known to occur in Florida, though it may be present, but all the
other diseases mentioned above, may be found in the potato fields
of the State.
Of these diseases the one which has attracted most attention
in Florida is the Late Blight.

Late Blight.
(Phytophora infestans DeBary.)
This disease did not attract attention in Florida until the
spring of 1903, when the potato crop of Hastings, the principal
potato producing section of the State was reduced from twenty-
five to thirty per cent by it. Complaints were also received that
the potatoes did not arrive in good order, though apparently sound
at the time of shipment. They had decayed in transit.
Late Blight, is caused by a fungus, Phytopthora infestans,
which attacks both the tops (stems and leaves) and the tubers.
In the early stages of the disease, the spots on the leaves are
quite characteristic. The edges or tips of the leaves are usually
*Resigned Jan. 13, 1904.









182 BULLETIN NO. 75.

attacked first. The diseased areas stand out in marked contrast
to the uninjured parts of the leaf. The former varies from dark
brown or almost black to lighter shades, while the normal color of
the healthy leaf is a deep, dark green. Between the healthy and dis-
,eased tissue of the leaf, the line of division, in the form of a narrow
yellowish band, is very distinct.
Under certain weather conditions a downy, whitish growth is
distinctly visible on the under sides of the leaves. This growth
consists of the innumerable spores and spore bearing parts of
the fungus. By means of the spores the disease is spread rap-
idly. They are scattered by the wind, rain and other agents and
lighting upon the leaves, germinate immediately and give rise to
the same diseased conditions as were present on the leaf from
which they came. Presently the whole field looks as though the
plants had been scorched by fire-all are dead and dry.
These same spores or conidia, as they are called, are also res-
ponsible for the rotting of the tubers. The spores are washed from
the plant down along the stem and into the ground to the tubers.
The swaying of the plants in the wind doubtless assists in this
downward journey. Many are brought in direct contact with the
tubers and upon germination an entrance into the potato is effected.
The normal white color of the potato soon changes to a dirty brown
as a result of its inroads. If the ground is dry and remains so
for a considerable time "dry rot" results, but if any considerable
amount of moisture is present, the tubers decay rapidly, becom-
ing nothing but a pulpy, ill-smelling mass. The progress of the
rot in the tubers is well brought out in Fig. A, Plate IV. It pro-
gresses from the exterior towards the center of the potato. It does
not advance regularly, but may penetrate much more deeply in
one part than in another.











POTATO DISEASES. 183

Besides the spores mentioned above, another kind of spores,
termed "resting" spores, "winter" spores or oosporess," is some-
times produced. In northern regions these are formed in autumn
in the tissues of the plant and serve to carry the disease through
the winter. Upon the return of warm weather, the tissues of the
potato stems become thoroughly decayed and these thick-coated
winter spores are liberated. They are scattered in various ways
and under favorable conditions soon give rise to the disease again.
Whether these spores are produced in Florida has not been
definitely determined, but it is not improbable that they are. It is
a noteworthy fact that the approach of warm weather in this
State brings about the formation of resting spores in some dis-
eases much as cold weather does in northern regions, and this may
be so in the case of Late Blight.
The damage done by this disease in Florida is somewhat dif-
ferent from that caused in many other districts. The potato crop
is usually dug between the 21st of April and the 15th of May and
because of the danger of being driven out of the market by more
northerly sections, it is usually necessary to dig as early as possible.
A yield of fifty barrels per acre is considered very good for the
first diggings, but two weeks later the yield in the same field would
be seventy or eighty barrels per acre, because of the increase in
the size of the tubers. Frequently it is possible to dig slowly and
take advantage of this increased yield, but this cannot be done if
Late Blight attacks the crop. The potatoes do not increase in size
after they are once severely attacked, because the food supply fur-
nished by the tops is cut off entirely. Furthermore there is
always the danger of rotting in transit as a consequence of which
the grower suffers a direct loss and the reputation of the product
for the whole State is injured.











184 BULLETIN NO. 75.

How the disease was introduced. We are safe in saying that
the disease is not indigenous in Florida. It has not made its way
gradually south, passing from field to field. But there is every evi-
dence that it was introduced in the seed potatoes. These are
brought in from New York, Maine, Massachusetts and other States.
The last year or two, Late Blight has been extremely prevalent in
northern potato regions and much of the seed brought to Florida
has been.infected as described above and shown in Plate IV, Fig. A.
An examination of the seed purchased and used by Mr. C. G. White,
of Hastings, Fla., showed that there was at least 5 per cent. of all
the potatoes diseased by Late Blight. Many others secured seed
similarly diseased, and it is not too much to say that the most of
the seed potatoes used in Florida in the last two years at least,
contained a certain percentage of diseased tubers.

Methods of Control,

1. If possible, secure seed free from the disease. Get them
from a good, reliable grower who uses his spray pump industri-
ously.
2. In preparing the seed for planting, discard all potatoes
showing the slightest signs of decay. Some diseased specimens may'
not be noted, but the majority can be taken out.
3. The disease can be kept in check by spraying thoroughly
with Bordeaux mixture. Five or six applications should be given.
In Florida, the potatoes are usually planted about January 15th.
The plants are well up, and spraying should be commenced about
March 12th. As noted above, the crop is dug about the last of
April. Between March 12th and April 30th, five or six sprayings
should be given. This would be at intervals of ten days.
This was the plan pursued in the experiments carried on with











POTATO DISEASES. 185

Mr. C. G. White and the results were thoroughly satisfactory. No
blight developed in Mr. White's fields, but others were badly at-
tacked. In several fields where the disease started, it was com-
pletely checked by prompt spraying. The following notes from
Mr. White's correspondence are of interest:
Feb. 2nd, 1904. "It might be well to note that there was 10
per cent. of rot in the seed at planting." This shows that there
had been an increase of 5 per cent. in the amount of rotten seed
since the first examination was made, the last of December.
Mar. 24th, 1904. "I have sprayed three times, at a cost of
about 64 cents per acre each time. Used 50 gallons solution per
acre and this covers well so far."
April 11th, 1904. "The potato tops are so green and thrifty
that it hardly seems that we shall be digging next week, but I
reckon we shall."
The spraying outfit used in the experiments was an Aspinwall
geared sprayer fitted with the Cornell system of nozzles and proved
very satisfactory indeed. Four rows were sprayed at one time.
The nozzles were arranged so as to drive the spray sidewise into
the rows, two nozzles to each row.
4. The stems, leaves, and small or rotten potatoes, left after
the crop is harvested, should be gathered and burned.

Early Blight.
(Altenaria solani E & M.)
Frequently this disease may be taken for the one just dis-
cussed, for at a distance the two are indistinguishable and fre-
quently they are found associated upon the same plant or even
upon the same leaf.
Early Blight (the name is applied because it usually appears











186 BULLETIN NO. 75.

earlier in the season than Late Blight) has not been so destructive
in Florida as the Late Blight, still a considerable amount of dam-
age is done annually.
The disease is most apparent on the leaves and the tubers are
not attacked. On the leaves the diseased areas are small or med-
ium sized, and almost circular in outline, though frequently the
spots are confluent, in which case the circular outline may almost
disappear. A careful examination of the diseased spots shows them
to be marked by concentric rings, a peculiarity not found in the
diseased spots caused by Late Blight. Upon these brown areas the
dark, many-celled, club-shaped spores are produced. By means of
these the disease is spread.
So far as known, no resting spores are formed and the fungus
is carried over from one season to another on parts of the diseased
plants. It attacks the tomato and a number of allied plants, as
well.
In Florida, the fungus (Altenaria solani) is a true parasite.
Mechanical injury to the leaves by various insects doubtless assist
in increasing the virulence of its attacks, but the fungus has the
power of attacking the fresh uninjured foliage of the potato.
Every season this disease is responsible for a very considerable
amount of injury in the potato fields. When once attacked, the
leaves soon lose their power of procuring and preparing food, as
a result of which the tubers are much reduced in size and fre-
quently in number. Often the disease appears in conjunction with
Late Blight, in which case it is rather difficult to distinguish be-
tween the two, but a close inspection reveals the distinction mani-
fested in the foregoing paragraph.











POTATO DISEASES. 187

Methods of Control,
1. Spraying as recommended for Late Blight will hold the
Early Blight entirely in check.
2. All refuse from the crop (st&is and leaves) should be
gathered and burned.

Scab,
(Oospora scabies Thax.)
This disease is one which is more or less prevalent in Florida,
yet, owing to the fact that little stable manure is used in the com-
mercial fields, and because our soils are usually more or less acid
or at least neutral, it is by no means so common as in some other
potato districts of the country.
The characteristic appearance of the tubers when attacked by
this disease, is shown in Plate III, Fig. B. They become covered
with rough, scaly spots which may be few in number or so numerous
as to almost cover the entire outside of the potato, as in the second
specimen from the left hand side as shown in the plate. This
scurfy appearance of the potato skin is brought about by the
combined effects of the fungus and the attempt of the tuber to
withstand its inroads.
If the potatoes are attacked while young the diseased spots
increase in depth with the development of the tuber and are quite
deep in the grown specimen. If the tubers are nearly developed
before being attacked, the spots are quite superficial. In ex-
tremely bad cases the potatoes may be furrowed and cracked. As
a general rule the diseased areas have their origin in one of the
breathing pores found on the potato and the scabby markings are
due to the formation of corky tissue.
Scab is usually carried about on the tubers, though it may be
present in the soil.











188 BULLETIN NO. 75.

Methods of Control,

1. Treat the tubers with formalin or corrosive sublimate as
directed in Bulletin J lorida Experiment Station.

Rhizoctonia Blight,
(Rhizocionia sp.)
This disease is responsible for the rotting of the stems of the
potato, for the formation of aerial potatoes (potatoes on the stems
as shown in Plate 1), for the rosette deevlopment of the-tops and
the formation of small potatoes which usually accompanies this
peculiar formation of the leaves and stems.
This disease is doulitless widely distributed in Florida at the
present time. A careful examination was made of the seed pota-
toes held for sale by dealers in Jacksonville, Fla., last spring with
the result that scarcely a lot of seed could be found in which the
Rhizoctonia sclerotia were not present on some tubers. In the
seed used by Mr. White at Hastings and that used as well in our
experimental work, fully sixty per cent. of the tubers were thus
affected.
The fungus is introduced into the soil on the tubers. Irregu-
larly shaped, more or less elevated patches of fungus threads are
formed on the outside of the tubers. These are clearly shown in
the frontispiece and in Plate IV. It is frequently quite difficult to
make them out, but if the tubers are moistened, by dipping them
in water, these fungus patches (sclerotia) stand out in such con-
trast to the skin of the potato that they are easily seen. If pota-
toes, thus infested, are planted, the fungu, attack the young
sprouts as they are shoved out from the eyes.
Mr. White has informed the writer that the disease has been
present in the Hastings fields for a number of years past. In 1903












PLATE I,












































Rosette of Potato Plant Caused by Rhizoctonia.










190 BULLETIN NO. 75.

in some fields, from one-quarter to one-third of the plants were
cut off and it is not too much to say that this disease has been one
of the most prolific causes of "poor stands" in the potato fields.
The rotting of the potato stems immediately follows the start-
ing of the seed into growth, for the conditions which favor the
developments of the potato plant, favor as well the growth of the
fungus. The diseased spots (lesions) on the young stems occur just
at the tuber and some distance above. It was at first suspected that
another fungus might be present, but a critical microscopical exam-
ination usually revealed the presence of the fungal threads of Rhiz-
octonia.
As a result of the attacks of the fungus upon the tender
tissues of the young stems many of them fail to develop. They
wilt, droop and die. Numerous specimens in this stage have been
received from different sections of Florida and from Georgia as
well. As a result of these attacks large numbers of the growing
stems are destroyed. This stage of the disease is most apparent just
as the shoots are pushing through the ground.
The stems of many plants are not sufficiently injured to
destroy them. Only the outer tissues are affected and the tops still
continue to grow. In such cases the downward flow of sap is inter-
fered with. Starch, of which the potato is largely composed, is
manufactured in the leaves, is dissolved, passes downward and is
stored in the tubers. The attacks of the fungus on the stems, cut
off this downward flow, and the formation of small potatoes in the
axils of the leaves along the stem, is the result. Such potatoes as
do develop underground are very small and unsalable.
Frequently as a result of the attacks of the fungus, the tops
of the potatoes develop in a peculiar manner. The leaves are pe-
culiarly twisted, the veins stand out prominently and altogether





PLATE II.
















(LOT I.) 75 PER CENT. APPARENTLY GOOD SEED. 25 PER CENT. SCAB.



















(LOT II.) 60 PER CENT RHIZOCTONIA. 5 PER CENT. LATE BLIGHT, 35 PER CENT. APPARENTLY GOOD SEED,
Seed Potatoes Used in the Experimental Work,











192 BULLETIN NO. 75.

they have an abnormal appearance. The internods (spaces on the
stem between the leaves) are shortened. Aerial potatoes frequently
accompany this abnormal development. See Plate I.

Experiments in Controling Rhizoctonia,
Experiments in controlling this disease were carried out with
Mr. C. G. White, Hastings, Fla. Sixty rows of potatoes, of which
it took about twenty to make an acre, were planted for experi-
mental work, approximately three acres in all. The experiment
was made in duplicate.
Two kinds of seed were used. The seed containing sixty per
cent. of Rhizoctonia affected tubers referred to above and another
lot of seed apparently entirely free from disease, but containing at
least 25 per cent. of tubers affected by scab.

Outline of the Experiment.
Plot I. 3 rows treated with corrosive sublimate, just before plant-
ing. (Jan. 15.)
Plot II. 3 rows treated Dec. 30th, with corrosive sublimate.
Plot III. 3 rows seed treated with formalin and soil also treated
with formalin.
Plot IV. 3 rows seed treated with formalin.
Plot V. 3 rows untreated affected seed.
Plot VI. 3 rows clean untreated seed.
Plot VII. 3 rows with sulphate of copper in the soil at rote of
200 lbs. per acre. Seed treated with formalin.
Plot VIII. 3 rows slag phosphate used in fertilizer at rate of
1,000 lbs. per acre. Seed treated with formalin.
Plot IX. 3 rows lime and sulphate of copper in the soil. 1,000 lbs.
lime and 200 lbs. sulphate of copper per acre. Seed treated
with formalin.












POTATO DISEASES. 193

Plot X. 3 rows treated with lime at rate of 2,000 Ibs, per acre in
the soil. Seed treated with formalin.
The object of the experiment was three-fold, to determine
whether the disease on the tubers could be destroyed, to determine
whether it was carried over in the soil (the ground had been
planted in potatoes the year previous and the disease was present
in 1903) and to determine whether anything could be done to pre-
vent its attack on the crop.

RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT.
Plot No. Bushels of Marketable Bushels of Cull No. of Hills Showing
Potatoes. Potatoes. Rhizoctonia.
1 161.5 20 475
2 199.5 19 496
3 121.5 41.75 361
4 188 21 456
5 173 11 475
6 174 11 418
7 127 9.5 342
8 155.75 19 418
9 158.66 9 5, 475
10 174 9. 285

In order of yield of marketable potatoes, the plots stood as
follows: 2, 4, 6 and 10, 5, 1, 9, 8, 7, 3. In order of number of
hills of Rhizoctonia, they were as follows (arranged with the low-
est first) : 10, 7, 3, 6, and 8, 4, 1 and 5 and 9, 2.
The large yield of plot No. 2 is ascribed to the fact that the
potatoes used for this plot were exposed to the light and air and
the seed was quite green when planted.
Plot No. 10, the freest from Rhizoetonia, was treated with lime
and from this it would appear that an alkaline soil condition is
not favorable to the development of the disease.
The appearance of so many diseased hills in plot 5 leaves no
room to doubt that the disease was present in the soil from a pre-
vious infection. It is also obvious that any of the methods tried
will not render the crop free from the attacks of the disease, if it
be present in the soil.











194 BULLETIN -NO. 75.

The occurrence of Bacterial Blight interfered seriously with
the results of the work. This accounts for the exceedingly low
yield of plot 3. It was worse attacked by Bacterial Blight than
any other plot in the field. Too much stress cannot be laid upon
the results of this work, so far as treatment goes. But we have
eliminated some of the possible means of control, demonstrated that
the disease is carried over from year to year and that the methods
of control must be directed towards preventing infection of the
soil.

Methods of Control,
1. Clean seed should be secured if possible. This is extremely
difficult. All tubers should be treated with formalin before plant-
ing. Prof. Selby, of Ohio, found this method quite effective. For
directions see Bulletin Wil lorida Experiment Station. The cost
is about 3 cents per bar .
2. Lime may be used to advantage.
3. Seed should be exposed to the air and light sufficiently long
to develop a strong green color in the tubers. Thus treated, the
plants developing from them are increased in vigor.
4. Gather and destroy the remains of the crop.
5. Rotation of crops. Soil badly infested with the disease
should not be planted in potatoes. How long it will take to work
the disease out of the soil has not been determined, neither do we
know how many other crops are attacked.
6. It is probable that a variety of potatoes which will resist the
disease may be discovered or originated.

Bacterial Blight.
(Bacillus Solanacearum, Smith.)
The Bacterial Blight of the potato, attacking the tomato, egg-










POTATO DISEASES. 195

plant and some other solanaceous plants as well, frequently does
considerable damage to the crop in Florida.
The disease is characterized by the wilting of a part or the
whole of the plant. A single leaf or stem may wilt or if the main
stem be the point first attacked, the whole plant droops. Following
this wilted condition the plant soon dries up, and becomes denuded
of its foliage. The diseased plants are easily picked out.
The disease is caused by a minute vegetable organism which
lives and grows in the inner tissues of the plant, being confined
to the inner fibrous or woody parts of the stem. If a diseased stem
be cut across, the diseased areas in the form of dark spots arranged
somewhat in a circle about, and some distance from the center may
be readily observed. The germs make their way downward through
the stems to the tubers.
In the tubers much the same appearance may be noted. On
cutting a diseased tuber, a part or all of the fibrous part will be
seen to be dusky black in color. (See Plate IV).
If the tuber be squeezed in the hand minute drops of a creamy
substance will be forced out of the diseased spots. This substance
contains almost pure cultures of the bacterium causing the disease.
The disease is spread largely through the agency of insects.
Potato beetles are not present in the Florida fields, but grasshop-
pers, leaf-hoppers and other insects perform the work of carry-
ing the disease from infected to uninfected plants.

Methods of Control.
1. Infected seed should not be planted.
2. Since the disease is carried by insects, these should be de-
stroyed as far as possible.
3. In small areas or wherever feasible, the diseased plants
should be taken out and destroyed.










196 BULLETIN NO. 75.

In Florida the disease seems to attack those fields which are
especially well drained and aerated, worse than those in which
less attention has been given to soil drainage. It may be prefer-
able to secure drainage by ridging the hills for planting, rather
than by underdrainage.

Acknowledgements.
The writer desires to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. C. G.
White, of Hastings, Fla., with whom the experimental work was
carried out and whose lively interest and accurate powers of ob-
seryation contributed much to the success of the work.
H. HAROLD HUME.





PLATE IV,






Fig, A. Tubers affected by Late Blight,


-Al
S...








.' :&.'ls, l~ . .
~ ,,,
, jV '":, ..' ,~FI, ~L
" '"" ':i ''" ~ .L:b;BP'r :. ,





PLATE III,















Fig. A. Tubers showing Rhizoctonia. A clean tuber at the right for comparison.


















Fig. B. Tubers affected by Scab, Note the roughness of the skin.
















The following publications of the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion are available for free distribution, and may be secured by
addressing the director of the Experiment Station, University of
Florida, Lake City, Fla.:


22 Fertilizers..........................pp. 48 53 Some Citrus Troubles...........pp. 35
24 Annual Report ................... 32 54 Pecan Culture..................... '31
25 Leeches and Leeching ............ 17 55 Feeding With Florida Feed Stuffs 95
26 Big Head .......................... 19 56 The Cottony Cushion Scale....... L 48
27 Pineapple ....................... 14 57 Top-working of Pecans........... 124
28 Liver Fluke--Southern Cattle 58 Pomelos............................ '. 43
Fever............................. 15 59 Cauliflower ......................... 20
29 The San Jose Scale................. 28 60 Velvet Beans ..................... 24
30 The Culture of Tobacco.......... 28 61 Two Peach Scales. ................ 32
32 Cotton and Its Cultivation ........ 4 62 Peen-to Peach Group.............. 22
33 Orange Groves.................... 33 63 Packing CitrusFruits ........... Folio
34 Insect Enemies ................... 96 64 Texas Fever and Salt Sick....... pp. 31
36 Insects Injurious to Grain ....... 31 65 The Kumquats..................... 14
37 Pineapple ..........................." 15 66 The Mandarin Orange Group......" 32
38 Tobacco in Florida ............... 63 67 The White Fly .................. 94
39 Strawberries ...................... 48 68 Pineapple Culture. I. Soils...... 35
40 The Fall Army Worm............. 8 69 Cultivation of Citrus Groves...... 30
41 The San Jose Scale.............. 30 70 Pineapple Culture. II. Varieties 32
42 Some Strawberry Insects........ 55 71 Japanese Persimmons............." 48
43 A Chemical Study of Some Typi- 72 Feeding Horses and Mules on
cal Florida Soils ............... 128 Home-Grown Feed-Stuffs..... 16
51 Some Common Florida Scales.... 24 73 The Honey Peach Group .......... 20
52 Baking Powders................... 15 74 Anthracnose of the Pomelo...... 20



PRESS BULLETINS.



1 Directions for Preparation of Bordeaux 26 Lumpy Jaw.
Mixture. 27 Cover Crops.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Agriculture. 28 Moon Blindness.
3 Seed Testing. 29 Food Adulteration.
4 The White Fly. 30 Dehorning Cattle.
5 Basic Slag. 31 Coffee.
6 Nursery Inspection (part 1). 32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
7 Nursery Inspection (part 2). 33 Red Soldier Bug or Cotton Stainer.
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Harvested in 34 Ox Warbles.
the Spring and Held for Fall Planting. 35 Butter.
9 Sore Head. 36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot. 37 Velvet Bean.
11 Vinegar. 38 Practical Results of Texas Fever Inoc-
12 Seed Beds and Their Management. ulations.
13 Treatment for San Jose Scale. 39 Lung Worms in Swine.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava. 40 and 41 Glanders.
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests. 42 Food Adulterations-Spices and Con-
17 Preservatives in Canned Goods diments.
18 Cantaloupe Blight. 43 How to Feed a Horse.
19 Cut Worms. 44 Tree Planting.
20 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. 45 The Sugar-cane Borer.
21 Parturient Paralysis. 46 Selecting Seed Corn.
"22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer. 47 The Rabid Dog.
23 Protection Against Drought. 48 Adulterated Drugs and Chemicals.
24 Orange Mites. 49 Saw Palmetto Ashes.
25 Roup. 50 Insect Pests to Live Stock.





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