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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Pork production in Florida
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Title: Pork production in Florida
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Creator: Scott, John M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1917
Copyright Date: 1917
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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 141 (a revision of Bulletins 113 and 131) November, 1917



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station




PORK PRODUCTION IN

FLORIDA


By JOHN M. SCOTT









1----------------------






FIG. 16.-Ready for market





Bulletins will be sent free upon application to Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA











CONTENTS
PAGE
PORK PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA ..................................... 35
Pen feeding unprofitable ................................... 35
Choosing a breed .......................................... 36
Grading-up ........................................... 36
Location and green crops ................................. 37
Care of the herd .......................................... 38
THE PRINCIPLES OF FEEDING ..................................... 39
Composition of the animal body and animal products.......... 39
Composition of feeds ................. .................... 40
How to calculate rations ................................. 41
Some good rations ........................................ 42
SOME FEEDING EXPERIMENTS ........................................ 44
Experiment I .......................................... 44
Experim ent II ................ ........................ 45
Experim ent III .............. ............................ 46
Experiment IV .......................................... 47
Experiment V ......................................... 48
Experiment VI ......................................... 49
Experim ent VII .......................................... 49
Experim ent VIII ......................................... 50
Experiment IX ........................................ 51
Experiment X ......................................... 52
Experiment XI ..................... .................... 53
W ORMS IN SW INE ................ .............................. 54
Kidney worms .......................................... 54
Stomach and intestinal worms ............................ 55

SUMMARY
1. This bulletin gives the results of experiments with 163
pigs. The experiments were conducted at different seasons of
the year, with feeding periods of varied length.
2. Green cowpeas when fed with shelled corn produced bet-
ter results than green sorghum and shelled corn.
3. As the amount of peanuts in the rations was increased,
there was a noticeable increase in the daily gain per head.
4. The greatest average daily gain was made with young
pigs fed shelled corn, shorts and milk.
5. Pigs fed Japanese cane only lost weight. Neither can pigs
maintain their weight when two-thirds of the ration is Japanese
cane.
6. Pen-feeding is not profitable. Pigs should be made to har-
vest the crops grown for feed.
7. Raw dasheens were not satisfactory as a feed for pigs.
8. When shelled corn, velvet beans in the pod, and Japanese
cane were fed, satisfactory gains were obtained.
9. Best gains will be made when pigs are fed a balanced
ration.










PORK PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
By JOHN M. SCOTT
Pork production in Florida is not receiving the attention it
deserves. At the present time there are more than a million
head of hogs in the State. This number, however, does not sup-
ply the demand for pork. Twenty-five percent, or more, of the
pork consumed in Florida is produced in states farther north.
Florida farmers can certainly produce pork more cheaply than
the cost of production elsewhere plus the freight.
To make the largest profit from hogs they should be put on the
market at the youngest age possible. Many of the native hogs
are from one year to a year and a half old before they are ready
for market. The Florida market demands a hog that will weigh
175 to 300 pounds. Animals of such weight can be produced in
eight to twelve months. When they must be kept and fed for a
year to a year and a half, the risk of loss and the cost of feed
becomes too great to yield an assured profit. Farmers in the
corn belt, where the demand is for hogs weighing from 200 to
250 pounds, have their hogs ready for market within nine
months to one year.
There is a too common impression among farmers that the hog
is a sort of scavenger, that any refuse will do for it to eat, and
any filthy pen will do for it to live in. It is true that hogs do
often act as scavengers, and also that they can live in filthy
places, but these conditions are generally brought about when
the animals have no choice in the matter. Hogs are not naturally
filthy animals, but they are capable of existing under unsanitary
conditions.
PEN FEEDING UNPROFITABLE
If we are to get the largest possible returns from raising hogs
it will be necessary to make the hogs pay for their keep. How
can this be done? One of the best ways will be to insist upon
them harvesting the crops grown for feed. The cost of harvest-
ing the various crops adds considerably to the cost of production.
This, in a measure, explains the high cost of production when we
try to raise hogs by keeping them in small pens. When they are
kept in small pens we not only have to harvest and carry the feed
35






36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

to them, but in many cases we are obliged to carry all the water
which they drink. Therefore we should make the hogs harvest.
as many of the crops as is practicable.
In the small pen it is impossible to keep the animals under
sanitary conditions. If they are not kept under healthy condi-
tions we are inviting disease to visit the herd, which means a loss
instead of a profit. It will also be found that hogs will not make
as rapid growth while kept shut up in small pens as when given
the run of a small field.
CHOOSING A BREED
There are many breeds of hogs. Some breeds are better
adapted to certain climatic conditions than others. For Florida
there are several breeds that will be found well adapted to our
needs.
Farmers wishing to produce pork should raise Berkshires,
Poland-Chinas, Duroc-Jerseys, or Essex. Those wishing to pro-
duce bacon should raise Hamshires or Tamworths. A hog that
is raised for pork alone or for bacon alone is more profitable to us
than one that is raised for both pork and bacon. In general,
Florida conditions are more favorable for pork than for bacon
production.
In selecting a breed for Florida conditions it will be found
advisable not to select a white one, as these do not do so well in
our climate as the black or red breeds. White hogs sun-scald
easily and become scurfy and mangy. When in such a condition
they cannot be expected to grow and develop as they would if
healthy. If given an abundance of shade and water at all times
there is less trouble from this source.
However, the selection of the breed is a personal matter. A
person should choose the one he fancies most and which will pro -
duce the results he desires. It may be that the Duroc-Jersey will
meet with one's approval, while a neighbor will say that the
Berkshire is the only breed for him. This is because he has hd
better success with Berkshires, and is probably better adapted
temperamentally to that breed. Therefore, select the breed best
liked, barring the white ones.
GRADING-UP
The disappearance of unimproved blood by the continuous







Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 37

use of purebred sires is shown in the customary way in the fol-
lowing table:
Sires Dams Offspring
Pet. of Pet. of Pct. of
Generations Pure breed Pure breed Pure breed
First ....... ................... 100 0 50
Second .. ....................... 100 50 75
Third .......................... 100 75 87.5
Fourth ......................... 100 87.5 93.75
Fifth .......................... 100 93.75 96.87
Sixth ........................... 100 96.87 98.44
Hypothetically, the offspring from the sixth generation will
have retained on the average 1.55 percent of unimproved blood
from the original dam or the dam of no breeding. (This applies
only to the average of large numbers, and does not apply to in-
dividuals.)
The breeder must be reminded that to produce the high-grade
no other sire than a purebred of the breed selected can be used.
No progress will be made by using a grade, scrub, or crossbred
sire. Nor can progress toward eventual purity of blood be made
by using purebred sires of different breeds for each cross or oc-
casional cross. Grading-up means using a purebred sire for the
first cross and continuously crossing the female offspring with
purebred sires of the breed first selected, until all impure blood
has been practically bred out.
It is not necessary for the farmer who is producing pork for
the market to keep a breeding herd of registered sows. A herd
of high-grades will answer the purpose nearly as well and they
can be purchased at a much cheaper rate. The one important
thing is that the breeder use a purebred sire. If he must start
with a herd of inferior sows, by using a purebred sire it will only
be a question of two or three years until he will have a herd of
good grades.
LOCATION AND GREEN CROPS
The ideal farm for raising hogs is one that will afford an
abundance of shade, with enough fresh running water, and in
addition a liberal amount of grazing. It may not be possible to
find all of these conditions naturally in one field, but they can be
supplied at a comparatively small outlay. Shade can be fur-
nished in a short time by planting some quickly-growing trees or
shrubbery. If necessary, some annuals may be grown for the
first year until the permanent plantings become large enough to
supply the shade. If there is not already a sufficient amount of
water at hand, it can be supplied by putting down a well and







38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

erecting a windmill or installing a gasoline engine. The supply
of fresh water is as important to the welfare of the hog as is the
grain given. It is well known that if pigs are not given an
abundance of water they will not fatten as rapidly as they should.
Some kind of green feed for the hogs to graze on, or as soiling,
will go a long way toward reducing the cost of production. The
green feed supplied will not entirely replace the grain; but it will
replace a part of it, and at the same time increase the gain that
it is possible to get from a given amount of grain. For instance,
100 pounds of corn fed alone will produce 8 or 10 pounds of pork,
this same amount of corn when fed with some green feed will
produce from 12 to 15 pounds of pork. This is not entirely due
to the food value of the green feed, but partly to the fact that
the green feed regulates and tones up the digestive and circu-
latory system and keeps the animals in healthy condition.
There is hardly any grass or grain that hogs will not eat when
it is green, and there are many weeds on which they will feed.
The following is a list of useful forage crops for hogs in Florida.
The crops in this list will give pasture thruout the entire year.
See Florida Extension Bulletin 7, "Hog Pastures and Feeds," for
a more nearly complete list, showing what to plant, when to feed,
etc., and how many hogs an acre will support.
Can be pastured from
Dwarf Essex Rape................................December to March
Japanese Cane ................................. November to March
Rye, Oats, Barley................................... November to April
Sorghum ................................ .......... May to November
Chufas ................... .....................August to December
Sweet Potatoes............................... October to December
Cowpeas and Soybeans .............................. July to November
Peanuts ...................................... September to December
For a permanent pasture it is doubtful if we can get anything
better than Bermuda and Johnson grass. These do not furnish
pasturage for the entire year, but can be depended upon from
early spring until late fall.
CARE OF THE HERD
The brood sow and boar are the foundation of the hog indus-
try. It is important, therefore, that the most careful attention
be given to these. They must receive such food and care as will
ensure good healthy brood sows and strong, healthy litters of
pigs.
Prolificacy, tho more or less an inherited characteristic, is, to a
large extent, controlled by the feed and care of the sow. Good







Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 39

breeding sows are often reduced in value as breeders by improper
feeding. If the sows are fed largely on a carbonaceous ration
they are likely to become too fat. When the sows are kept too
fat they are not regular breeders. When they do farrow, the
result is a small litter of weak pigs.
The sows should not be starved at any time. They should be
fed on a well-balanced ration with plenty of protein to produce
an abundant flow of milk. After the pigs are weaned the sow
requires nearly the same ration. It is a common practice with
many farmers to put the brood sow on a starvation ration as
soon as the pigs are weaned. It is as bad to feed them on corn
only. Corn alone may do for fattening an animal, but when fed
alone to pregnant sows it does not supply enough protein to
develop properly the growing fetus. The result is the sows will
farrow small litters and weak pigs. If we wish to maintain a
prolific strain of brood sows we must give attention to how they
are fed.
THE PRINCIPLES OF FEEDING
The proper feeding of animals is not a process to be deter-
mined by guessing. Best results will come to the feeder who
knows the composition of the feeds he is using, and has sufficient
knowledge to combine them into a proper ration. An insight
into those principles is given here, and will be found useful in
determining the combination of feeds to be used.

COMPOSITION OF THE ANIMAL BODY AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS
Investigators have found that the bodies of animals, as well
as animal products, are made up mainly of water, ash, protein,
and fat. These substances occur in the animal body in varying
proportions, depending upon the age, condition, treatment, and
other factors. Water is an essential constituent of the animal
body, and composes from 40 to 60 percent of the live weight.
Ash occurs mostly in the bones, and forms from 2 to 5 percent
of the live weight. The fat occurs in greatly varying propor-
tions, but rarely constitutes less than 6 percent, or more than 30
percent. Protein includes most of those substances which con-
tain nitrogen in their composition. It is an important group,
and is largely present in lean meat. The whites of eggs also
consist mainly of protein and water. In its pure state protein
contains about 16 percent of nitrogen. The flesh, internal
organs, brains and nerves, contain a large proportion of it.

*







40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

COMPOSITION OF FEEDS
Plants also contain water, ash, fat and protein. In addition
to these the plants which compose the food of herbivorous
animals contain a group of substances called carbohydrates
(starches, sugars, etc.) which may be converted into fat or
energy.
WATER.-All food-stuffs, no matter how dry they may seem,
contain a considerable amount of water. In grains and dry feeds
the water ranges from 3 to 15 percent of the material; in green
forage and silage it is about 80 percent; while in some tubers
and fleshy roots the water reaches as high as 90 percent. Water
is essential to animal life, and in food it fulfills the same func-
tion as that drunk by the animal. In calculating the food value
of any feeding material the water contained is, of course, not
taken into consideration.
ASH.-When a food-stuff is burned until the organic matter
is all driven off, the residue is the ash. It is composed largely of
lime, magnesia, potash, sulphuric and phosphoric acids, and a
few other oxides. The ash of the food is the source of the min-
eral matter found in the animal body, and as such is of import-
ance. Ordinary combinations of feeding stuffs, however, usually
contain an abundant supply of mineral matter for the use of the
animal; so this is not often a matter of practical concern except
as it has a bearing on the mineral elements of fertility in the
manure.
FATS.-This class of substances includes the fat in the meat
or butter which we eat. The proportions of fat in feeding stuffs
vary within wide limits. In general, seeds and their by-products
contain more fat than coarse fodder. Straws contain less fat
than hays, the amount varying from one-half to one and a half
percent. But little fat is found in the dry matter of roots or
tubers. Corn and oats contain from four to five, while cotton-
seed meal contains from eight to twelve percent of fat.
CARBOHYDRATES.-This class includes starch, sugar, gum and
other minor substances, and also the fiber or woody part of
plants. The first are quite freely digested; the last is much less
so, tho fulfilling the same function as far as it is digested. The
carbohydrates constitute the largest part of most vegetable
foods. They are not stored in the body as such, but are con-
verted into fat, or used to produce heat and energy. Since the






Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 41

carbohydrates and fats serve nearly the same purpose in the ani-
mal body, they may, for convenience, be grouped together. Ex-
periments, however, have shown that fat, as a food, is about two
and one-fourth times as effective, weight for weight, as are the
carbohydrates. That is, one pound of fat will produce about as
much heat or energy as two and one-fourth pounds of carbo-
hydrates.
PROTEIN.-The protein of foods, like that of the animal body
is characterized by containing nitrogen. It is, therefore, in-
cluded in what is termed "nitrogenous matter." The function of
protein in the food is first of all to build up new tissue and repair
the working machinery of the body, and to supply material for
the production of milk, wool, muscle, and repair of organs. No
other food constituent can fulfill this function.
Since the animal body and all animal products are composed
of the same group of substances as food-stuffs contain, we have
a basis on which to begin the feeding of animals. Rational feed-
ing of animals is to supply these different elements in sufficient
quantity and in the proper proportions for the needs of the
animal's body. This is what is known as a balanced ration. We
should not, or cannot, expect an animal to grow and develop as it
ought unless we supply it with the proper amounts of the dif-
ferent substances its body needs. There is no one hog feed,
excepting milk, that supplies all of the necessary nutriments in
the correct ratio. It is necessary, therefore, to use a mixture of
two or more feeds to get the best results.
In selecting and combining feeds it is not only necessary to
take into consideration their composition, but also their digesti-
bility and palatability. It is worse than useless to give an ani-
mal a food that cannot be digested, and one that is not palatable
will not be eaten in sufficient quantity.
HOW TO CALCULATE RATIONS
From the table which gives the percentage of digestible
nutrients in the various feeds we can easily work out a balanced
ration. For example, suppose we are feeding flint corn 12
pounds, sweet potatoes 12, cottonseed meal 1.75, and cowpeas 5
pounds per day. To find the amount of protein in 12 pounds of
corn, we divide the amount in 100 pounds (the percentage) by
100, and multiply by 12, and so on. We will thus get the follow-
ing results:






42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

CORN
In 100 pounds In 12 pounds.
Crude protein................................. 8.0 0.96
Carbohydrates .............................. .. 66.2 7.94
F at .......................................... 4.3 0.51
SWEET POTATOES
In 100 pounds In 12 pounds
Crude protein ................................. 0.8 0.09
Carbohydrates ................................ 22.9 2.75
F at .......................................... 0.2 0.03
COTTONSEED MEAL
In 100 pounds In 1.75 pounds
Crude protein ................................. 37.6 0.66
Carbohydrates ................................ 21.4 0.37
F at .......................................... 9.6 0.17
COWPEAS
In 100 pounds In 5 pounds
Crude protein ................................. 16.8 0.84
Carbohydrates ................................ 54.9 2.74
F at .......................................... 1.1 0.06
If we then arrange these results in another table we have:
Protein Carbohydrates Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn ...................... 12 0.96 7.94 0.51
Sweet potatoes ............. 12 0.09 2.75 0.03
Cottonseed meal ............ 1.75 0.66 0.37 0.17
Cowpeas .................. 5 0.84 2.74 0.06
Total ................. 30.75 2.55 13.80 0.77
One pound of fat is equal to 2.25 pounds of carbohydrates;
therefore, we can reduce the fat to carbohydrates by multiplying
0.77 pounds of fats by 2.25 and the result is 1.73. Adding this
to the carbohydrates, we get 15.53 pounds total carbohydrates.
Dividing the total carbohydrates, 15.53, by the total protein, 2.55,
gives 6.09. The nutritive ratio then is one part protein to 6.09
parts carbohydrates, and is written 1:6.09.
SOME GOOD RATIONS
Any one of the following rations should be found satisfactory
for fattening hogs. The question of cost will, of course, enter
into the selection of a ration. It will be found necessary, per-
haps, to estimate the cost of the different feeds and see which
will be the most economical to use.
RATION I
i Protein | Carbohyd. I Fat
SPounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn ................... 12 0.96 7.94 0.51
Sweet potatoes ........ 12 0.09 2.75 | 0.03
Cottonseed meal ........ 1.75 0.66 0.37 0.17
Cowpeas .............. 5 0.84 2.74 | 0.06
Total.............. 30.75 2.55 13.80 0.77
Nutritive ratio, 1:6.






Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 43

RATION II
Protein Carbohyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn ..................1 15 1.20 9.93 0.64
Soybeans .............. 3 0.87 0.70 0.44
Dwarf Essex rape...... 25 0.50 2.02 0.05
"Total............. 43 2.57 12.65 1.13
Nutritive ratio, 1:5.9.
RATION III
SProtein Carbohyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Sorghum seed .......... 1 10 0.45 6.11 0.28
Corn .................. 10 0.80 3.31 0.43
Cowpeas ................ 7.5 1.26 4.11 0.08
Total............. 27.5 2.51 13.53 0.79
Nutrative ratio, 1:6.
FEEDS
AVERAGE PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBLE MATTER
Percentage Composition Percentage
Carbohy- Digestible
drates

Feeding Stuffs




Flint corn ........ 11.3 I 10.5 1.7 70.1 5.0 8.0 66.2 4.3
Corn meal ........ 15.0 9.2 1.9 68.7 3.8 1 6.7 64.3 3.5
Corn and cob meal. 15.1 8.5 6.6 | 64.8 I 3.5 j 4.4 60.0 2.9
Wheat bran ....... 11.9 15.4 9.0 53.9 4.0 11.9 42.0 2.5
Shorts ............ 11.2 16.9 6.2 I 56.2 5.1 1 13.0 45.7 4.5
Cowpeas ... ....... 14.6 20.5 i 3.9 1 56.3 1.5 16.8 54.9 1.1
Soybeans ......... 11.7 33.5 4.5 i 28.3 17.2 29.1 23.3 14.6
Velvet bean,seed and -
pod .. ......... 12.3 17.1 14.3 47.7 4.6 14.9 51.7 3.8
Kaffir corn ........ i 9.9 11.2 2.7 j 71.5 I 3.1 5.2 44.3 1.4
Sorghum seed ..... 1 12.8 9.1 2.6 69.8 3.6 I 4.5 61.1 I 2.8
Milo maize seed.... 1 9.0 10.7 3.0 1 72.2 I 2.8 1 4.9 44.8 I 1.3
Sunflower seed .... 1 8.6 16.3I 29.9 21.4 | 21.2 1 14.8 29.7 I 18.2
Cottonseed ....... 10.3 18.4 23.2 1 24.7 -19.9 I 12.5 30.0 17.3
Cottonseed meal . .1 7.0 45.3 | 6.3 24.6 10.2 I 37.6 21.4 I 9.6
Sorghum, green.... .. ... |. .... 7 ... | 0.6 11.6 0.3
Cowpeas, green .... .. I .... .... . 1.8 8.7 0.2
Skim milk ...... 1 90.4 3.3 1 .... 4.7I 0.9 2.9 5.3 0.3
Buttermilk ........ 90.1 4.0 ..... 4.0 1.1 3.8 3.9 1.0
Dwarf Essex rape. ... ...... .... .. ........ 2.0 t 8.1 0.2
Sweet potatoes .... ..... ..... ......... ... 0.8 22.9 0.3
Chufa ............ 79.5 0.7 | 2.2 10.5 6.6 I 0.6 1 9.1 I 5.6
Bermuda grass .... ... 1 1.3 1 13.4 ] 0.4






44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

SOME FEEDING EXPERIMENTS
The greatest trouble the Florida farmer has is to select the
best hog feeds from the many that can be raised in the State.
The Experiment Station started a series of feeding tests in 1910
to determine the practical value of some of these feeds. From
the resulting data it is hoped that farmers may select without
delay and expense the crops which will supply the best and
cheapest feeds.
The pigs in all of the experiments discussed in this bulletin
were divided into lots as nearly equal in size and quality as pos-
sible. The weights at the beginning and the close of all of the
feeding experiments are the average of three weighing taken
on consecutive days.
All pigs used in the first ten experiments were Berkshires.
These pigs were not all registered, but they were all eligible to
registration. Those in experiment XI were a mixed lot of pigs.
Five were Berkshires and the other 14 were by a Duroc-Jersey
boar and out of Tamworth sows. Each lot contained both Berk-
shire and Duroc-Jersey-Tamworth crosses.

EXPERIMENT I
The first test was conducted with five Berkshire pigs. The
test was begun January 29, 1910, and continued for fifty-one
days, closing March 20, 1910. The object of this experiment was
to test the value of corn (one part), velvet beans in the pod (one
part), and Japanese cane (two parts by weight), for pork pro
duction. During the time the pigs were under observation, they
were fed shelled corn and velvet beans in the pod, equal parts by
weight. In addition, they were given two pounds of Japanese
cane for each pound of corn fed. At the beginning of the test
the five pigs averaged 118.6 pounds per head, and weighed alto-
gether 593 pounds. At the end of the feeding test they weighed
775 pounds, making a gain of 182 pounds, with an average daily
gain per head of 0.71 pounds.
The records show that after feeding the pigs for thirty days
they weighed 704 pounds. From a practical standpoint they
should have been sold at that time. When sold at the close of the
test the buyer objected that the pigs were too fat to furnish the
best quality of pork.






Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 45

TABLE 1.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
Weight at beginning of test, January 29, 1910 (5 pigs) ........... 593
Weight at end of test, March 20, 1910 (51 days, 5 pigs) .......... 775
Average daily gain ........................................... 0.71
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight .................. 6.02
Pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of gain...................... 1406
EXPERIMENT II
The second test was conducted with twenty-five pigs. This
test began December 13, 1910, and lasted sixty days, closing
February 11, 1911. The twenty-five pigs in this test were
divided into five equal lots, of five pigs each, size and quality
being considered. The feeds used were velvet beans in the pod,
Japanese cane, and sweet potatoes. These were fed just as they
came from the field, except the Japanese cane, which was cut
into short pieces with a hatchet.
Lot I was fed velvet beans in the pod only. Lot II was fed
equal parts by weight of velvet beans in the pod and Japanese
cane. Lot III was fed velvet beans in the pod, one part, and
Japanese cane, two parts, by weight. Lot IV was fed Japanese
cane only. Lot V was fed velvet beans in the pod and sweet
potatoes, equal parts by weight.
The three crops used in this feeding experiment are grown,
or can be grown, in all parts of Florida. It is evident from the
results of this feeding test that, in the proportions in which the
feeds were fed, they were not all satisfactory in financial returns.
However, it is the information that comes from such work that
is of value to the livestock interests of the State.
TABLE 2.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
I Lot I Lot III Lot IIII Lot IV Lot V
Weight at beginning, Dec. 13, 1910.. 230 230 1 235.0 215 215.0
Weight at end, Feb. 11, 1911 (60 i I
days) ........................ !255 1234.3 227.3 154 227.3
Total gain or loss in 60 days ........ 25 4.3 -7.7 1-61 12.3
Average daily gain or loss ......... 0.081 0.011 -0.031 -0.20 0.04
Average daily gain or loss per 1,0001 I | |
pounds live weight ............1 1.8 | 0.301 -0.531 -4.84 0.95
TABLE 3.-Pounds of Feed Consumed
Feeds I Lot I ILot II Lot IIII Lot IVJ Lot V
Velvet beans in pod ................ 673 | 450 405.5 | ... 474
Japanese cane .................... .. I 450 804.5 3046.5
Sweet potatoes ................... ... 489

If we should judge the results of this feeding test by the gain
in pounds produced by the different feeds, we would be likely to
condemn the whole test, and say it was a failure, and that the






46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

feeds were no good for pork production. But the information
obtained from this work is of considerable value to the farmers
of the State. who are feeding hogs. To know that Japanese cane
when fed alone to small pigs is not a maintenance ration, is
worth more to the farmers of the State than the cost of the whole
experiment.
Table 2 shows the weights at the beginning of the test, the
weights at the close, and the gain or loss in pounds during the
sixty days the pigs were in the test. It will be seen also that all
lots of pigs were of nearly equal weight. They were also of
nearly equal age, being about three months old when the experi-
ment began. At the end of the experiment, sixty days later, lot
IV had lost 61 pounds in weight. This fact was quite evident,
and it could easily be seen that the pigs were daily becoming
smaller and weaker.
It is not necessary to make much comment on this table. It is
evident that when the ration is composed entirely of Japanese
cane, or when as much as two-thirds of the ration is Japanese
cane, especially when feeding young pigs, it will not maintain the
original body weight. The reason for this is evident. Altho hogs
eat a considerable amount of grass and green feeds of various
kinds, yet the arrangement and size of their digestive organs is
such that they cannot handle and digest large quantities of for-
age, such as Japanese cane. In fact they ate but little of the
cane, other than the juice. They would chew a mouthful of cane
until nearly all of the juice had been extracted, then spit out the
refuse, and take a fresh mouthful, and so on. The trouble with
the Japanese cane is that it requires too much work from the
hogs for what they get out of it. That is, they must work over-
time to get enough food to satisfy their appetites. In feeding
velvet beans in the pod, the pigs did not eat any of the pods. They
became, in a short time, quite expert in shelling out the beans.
The only advantage in feeding the beans in the pod is saving the
cost of shelling, which may amount to anywhere from 10 cents
to 25 cents per hundred pounds.
EXPERIMENT III
In this test, twenty pigs were used. The pigs were separated
into four lots of five pigs each. Lot I was fed shelled corn only.
Lot II was fed shelled corn and cull velvet beans, equal parts by
weight. Lot III was fed shelled corn, cull velvet beans, and
shorts, equal parts by weight. Lot IV was fed equal parts of






Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 47

shelled corn and cull velvet beans, and all the green sorghum the
pigs would eat. The cull velvet beans were the refuse taken from
the seed velvet bans. They were composed of broken beans and
small, immature, shriveled seed. The beans as they came from
the field were put thru the bean huller, and were afterward
screened thru a screen of three-eighths inch mesh. All that went
thru the screen were considered as culls. The corn, cull velvet
beans, and shorts, were soaked before feeding. The evening feed
was weighed out in the morning and soaked until evening, and
so on.
The experiments began March 21, 1911, and closed June 16,
1911, lasting ninety days. Feeding green sorghum was begun
on May 9, 1911.
TABLE 4.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
I Lot I ILot III Lot III| Lot IV
Weight of pigs at beginning, Mar. 21, 1911..1291.0 1266.6 274.6 265.6
Weight at end, June 16, 1911 .............. 406.6 1345.0 390.0 373.3
Gain per lot (90 days) .................... .1115.6 78.4 116.0 i 108.0
Daily gain per head ........ ... ....... 0.261 0.171 0.26| 0.24
Daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight.... 4.4 3.3 4.7 4.5
Pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of gain|546.2 797.2 641.7 11118.1*
*552 pounds of this was green sorghum.
TABLE 5.-Pounds of Feed Consumed
I Lot I ILot III Lot III Lot IV
Corn .................................... .631.4 1312.5 [ 248.1 | 327.8
Velvet beans, culls....................... . ... . 312.5 I 248.1 327.8
Shorts ................................... ... .... 248.1 ....
Green sorghum .......................... .... .... .... 552.0

The weights of the different lots of pigs were nearly the same
at the beginning. The average daily gain per head was about
the same for all lots of pigs, except for the pigs in lot II, which
were fed corn and cull velvet beans, equal parts by weight. The
cheapest pork was produced, however, with lot IV, fed equal
parts of corn and cull velvet beans, and all the green sorghum
they would eat.
EXPERIMENT IV
Experiment IV was conducted with young pigs. They were
weaned and then placed in the experimental feed lot. In this
test were seventeen head of pigs. Their total weight was 590
pounds, or 34.7 pounds per head.
The pigs in this test were taken from four litters. The age
of the pigs varied from two to three months. The feeds given
were shelled corn, and shorts (equal parts by weight). In addi-






48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

tion, the pigs were given about forty pounds of milk per day,
and all the green sorghum they would eat (14 to 16 pounds per
day). The pigs made satisfactory gains. The daily gain per
head was nearly one pound. During the first thirty days the
seventeen pigs almost doubled their weight.
The object of the experiment was to get the cost of producing
a pound of pork with young pigs. Additional information was
also wanted in regard to the length of time from weaning until
the pigs are ready for market.
The experiment began June 1, 1911, at which time the seven-
teen pigs weighed 590 pounds. On July 1, 1911, thirty days after
the experiment started, the seventeen pigs weighed 1081 pounds.
The seventeen pigs made a gain in weight of 491 pounds during
the thirty days. The amount of feed required to make 100
pounds of gain during the thirty days was: Corn 148.5; shorts,
153.4; milk, 239.3; and green sorghum, 83.9; or a total of 625
pounds.
TABLE 6.-Weights and Gains of Pigs, in Pounds
Weight at beginning of experiment, June 1, 1911 ............... 590
W eight at end of thirty days..................................1,081
Total gain in thirty days ..................................... 491
Average daily gain per head ................................... 0.96
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight ................ 27.40
TABLE 7.-Feed Consumed During Thirty Days, in Pounds
C orn ........................................ ............. 729
Shorts ...................................................... 753
M ilk ........................................................ 1,175
Green sorghum .............................................. 412
TABLE 8.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
Weight at beginning of test, June 1, 1911 (17 head) ............. 590.0
Weight at close of feeding test, September 22, 1911.............. 2,461.6
Total gain in 114 days ....................................... 1,871.6
Average gain per head in 114 days ........................... 110.09
Average daily gain per head.................... .............. 0.97
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight.................. 27.95
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain .............................. 716.00
TABLE 9.-Feeds Consumed, in Pounds
C orn .......................... .............................. 3,585
Shorts ....................................................... 3,105
Sorghum green .............................................. 3,268
M ilk .......................................... ............ 3,448

EXPERIMENT V
Experiment V was conducted with ten head of Berkshire pigs.
These pigs were considerably older than were those used in the
preceding test. The average weight at the beginning of the test
was 99 pounds. The feeding test began on July 18, 1911, and
closed August 29, 1911, covering a period of forty-three days.








Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 49

During the test the ten pigs gained 339.3 pounds in weight. They
made an average daily gain per head of 0.79 pound. The aver-
age daily gain in this test was not so good as in the preceding
test, but it is satisfactory.

TABLE 10.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
Weight at beginning of test, July 18, 1911 (10 head).......... 990.0
Weight at closing of feeding test, August 29, 1911............. 1,329.28
Total gain in 43 days .................. ... .................... 339.23
Average gain per head ...................................... 33.9
Average daily gain per head.................................. 0.79
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds, live weight ............... 7.97
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain............................ 1,413.75
TABLE 11.-Feeds Consumed, in Pounds
Corn .................................................... . 2,216
Green sorghum ........................................... 2,580
EXPERIMENT VI
Experiment VI was conducted during the winter season. The
test began January 16, 1912, and continued thirty days, closing
February 15, 1912. Ten Berkshire pigs were used in this test.
The average weight of the pigs in this test was nearly the same
as in the preceding one, 101 pounds. The feeds used were corn
and sweet potatoes, fed in equal parts by weight.

TABLE 12.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
Weight at beginning of test, January 16, 1912 ................. 1,010
Weight at close of test, February 15, 1912 ..................... 1,207
Total gain in thirty days ..................................... 197
Average gain per head ...................................... 19.7
Average daily gain per head................................ 0.65
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight ................ 6.43
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain ............................. 512.68
TABLE 13.-Feeds Consumed, in Pounds
Corn .. ....................................................... 505
Sweet potatoes ............................................. 505
EXPERIMENT VII
This test was conducted with eight pigs divided into two equal
lots. The pigs in each lot at the beginning of the experiment
averaged nearly 75 pounds a head. Lot I was fed shelled corn
and green cowpeas. Lot II received shelled corn and green
sorghum. Each lot of hogs received the same number of pounds
of feed. The shelled corn and green feed were fed in equal
amounts.
The feeding test began September 3, 1912, and continued
forty-six days. During that time the four pigs in lot I consumed
466 pounds of shelled corn and 466 pounds of green cowpeas.
The four pigs in lot II consumed 466 pounds of shelled corn and








50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

466 pounds of green sorghum. At the close of the test the pigs
of lot I showed an average gain of 19.9 pounds a head, those in
lot II, 16.6 pounds a head. Thus shelled corn and green cowpeas
produced more gain than an equal amount of shelled corn and
green sorghum. The detailed results of this test are given in
tables 14, 15, and 16.

TABLE 14.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
I Lot I Lot II
Weights at beginning of test, Sept. 3, 1912 (four pigs) 293.3 296.6
Weight at close of test............................. 373.0 363.0
Gain in forty-six days ............................. 79.7 66.4
Average gain per head............................( 19.9 16.6
Average daily gain per head........................ .43 .36
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight...... 5.9 4.9
Pounds of feed to make one pound of gain........... 11.7 14.0
TABLE 15.-Pounds of Feed Consumed
| Lot I Lot II
Shelled corn ...................................... 466.0 466.0
Green cowpeas ................................... 466.0 ...
Green sorghum ................................... .... 466.0

TABLE 16.-Daily Rations, Pounds per Pig
Lot I Lot II
Shelled corn ..................................... 2.53 2.53
Green cowpeas ................................... 2.53 ...
Green sorghum ............................. .. . .. .. 2.53

EXPERIMENT VIII
The second experiment was begun January 31, 1913, and
lasted forty-three days. This experiment was conducted with
three lots of pigs: four pigs in lot I and five pigs in lot II, and lot
III. The pigs in lot I were fed shelled corn. Those in lot II
were fed three parts of shelled corn, one part by weight of pea-
nuts. Those in lot III were fed equal parts by weight of shelled
corn and peanuts. All lots were fed dwarf essex rape in addition
to the other feeds.
The results of this test, which are given in tables 17, 18, and
19, bring out one point clearly. As the amount of peanuts in the
rations was increased, there was a noticeable increase in the
daily gain per head. The average daily gain of the pigs in lot I,
which were fed corn and dwarf essex rape, was 0.68 of a pound.
The average daily gain of the pigs in lot II, fed corn three parts,
peanuts one part, and dwarf essex rape, was 0.72 of a pound.
The average daily gain of the pigs in lot III, fed corn and peanuts







Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 51

equal parts by weight, and dwarf essex rape, was 0.77 of a
pound.
The hogs that were fed peanuts presented a better appearance
than those fed corn and rape only. Their coats were much
smoother, and they were more thrifty generally.
TABLE 17.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
Lot I* LotII LotIII
Weights at beginning of test, Jan. 31, 1913 |
(five pigs) ............................. 335.0 469.0 469.0
Weights at close of test..................... .453.0 624.0 635.0
Gain in forty-three days .................... 118.0 155.0 166.0
Average gain per head ..................... 29.5 31.0 33.3
Average daily gain per head .................. 0.6861 0.72 0.774
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight| 8.2 7.7 8.25
Pounds of feed to make one pound of gain.... 4.67 i 4.44 I 4.14
"* Four pigs in Lot I
TABLE 18.-Pounds of Feed Consumed
SLot I Lot II LotIII
Shelled corn ............................... 551.0 516.0 344.0
Dwarf Essex rape .......................... 103.0 I 129.0 129.0
Peanuts ........... ...................... ..... .. 172.0 344.0
TABLE 19.-Daily Rations, Pounds per Pig
SLot I Lot II Lot III
Shelled corn ................................. 3.2 I 2.4 1.6
Dwarf Essex rape .......................... .6 i .6 .6
Peanuts ............... ........... .... ... .8 1.6
EXPERIMENT IX
The third experiment was conducted with fifteen head of pigs.
The pigs in lot I were fed shelled corn and dwarf essex rape. Lot
II was fed shelled corn, three parts; ground velvet beans, one
part by weight, and dwarf essex rape. Lot III was fed shelled
corn and ground velvet beans equal parts by weight and dwarf
essex rape. All of the lots received the same amount of dwarf
essex rape.
The experiment began January 9, 1914, and continued thirty-
one days. During this time the pigs in lot I, fed shelled corn and
dwarf essex rape, gained 47.3 pounds. During the same time,
pigs in lot II, fed shelled corn three parts and velvet-bean meal
one part by weight with dwarf essex rape, gained 35.3 pounds.
The pigs in lot III, fed shelled corn and ground velvet beans
equal parts by weight with dwarf essex rape, gained 31 pounds.
These results (see tables 20, 21, and 22) indicate that corn and
dwarf essex rape produced the best results in this test. However,
the gains were not satisfactory in any of the lots in this experi-
ment.







52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 20.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
I Lot I Lot II LotIII
"Weights at beginning of test, Jan. 9, 1914
(five pigs) ........................... 439.0 446.3 430.6
Weights at close of test ..................... 486.3 481.6 461.6
Gain in thirty-one days ..................... 47.3 35.3 31.0
Average gain per head ...................... 9.46 7.0 6.1
Average daily gain per head ................ 0.31 0.23 0.20
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight 3.47 2.55 2.32
Pounds of feed to make one pound of gain.... 18.3 24.5 28.00
TABLE 21.-Pounds of Feed Consumed
I Lot I Lot II I LotIII
Shelled corn ............................... 248.0 186.0 124.0
Velvet beans, ground ........................|....... 62.0 124.0
Dwarf Essex rape .......................... 620.0 620.0 620.0
TABLE 22.-Daily Rations, Pounds per Pig
SLot I Lot II Lot III
Shelled corn ............................... 1.6 [ 1.2 I .8
Velvet beans, ground ...................... ....... .4 | .8
Dwarf Essex rape ........................ 4.0 4.0 4.0
EXPERIMENT X
This experiment was begun June 2, 1914, and continued thirty
days. In this test twenty pigs, divided into five lots of four pigs
each were used. From table 23 it will be seen that the pigs were
small, since they averaged only 60 to 65 pounds each.
The pigs in lot I were fed corn only; those in lot II corn three
parts and cracked velvet beans one part by weight; lot III corn
and cracked velvet beans equal parts by weight; lot IV corn
and cracked velvet beans equal parts by weight, plus iron sul-
phate; lot V corn three parts, cracked velvet beans one part by
weight plus iron sulphate.
The iron sulphate was used in an attempt to improve the velvet
bear ration, since previous results had been unsatisfactory. This
salt has been used successfully with cottonseed meal, but results
of this test did not indicate that iron sulphate was beneficial in
producing gains.
TABLE 23.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
W h LotI | Lot II Lot III Lot IVI LotV
Weight at beginning of test, | -
June 2, 1914 (four pigs) . 250.6 253.3 255.6 254.6 250.0
Weight at close of test. ...... 307.3 328.3 1 322.6 317.3 314.0
Gain in thirty days .......... 56.7 1 75.0 67.0 62.7 64.0
Average gain per head ...... 14.1 18.7 1 16.7 15.6 16.0
Average daily gain per head..1 0.47 I 0.63 1 0.56 i 0.52 1 0.53
Average daily gain per 1000 I
pounds live weight ...... 7.54 1 9.87 1 8.73 8.20 ( 8.53
Pounds of feed to make one 1 I
pound of gain ......... I 6.35 1 4.80 1 5.37 1 5.74 i 5.62






Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 53

TABLE 24.-Pounds of Feed Consumed
I Lot I I Lot II | Lot III Lot IV*| Lot V*
Shelled corn .................. 360.0 I 270.0 180.0 1 80.0 270.0
Velvet beans, cracked ........ ....... 90.0 180.0 180.0 90.0
*Lots IV and V were given iron sulphate at each feed.

TABLE 25.-Daily Ration, Pounds per Pig
I Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV ILotV
Shelled corn ................ 3.00 1 2.25 1.50 I 1.50 2.25
Velvet beans, cracked ....... ... ... I .75 1.50 1 1.50 .75

The results given in tables 23, 24, and 25 show that the pigs in
all lots made more satisfactory gains than those in the previous
experiment. The largest daily gain was made by the pigs in lot
II which received corn three parts and cracked velvet beans one
part by weight. The least daily gain was made by the pigs in
lot I, fed corn alone. The cheapest pork was produced by the pigs
in lot III, fed corn and cracked velvet beans equal parts by
weight. The most expensive pork was produced by the pigs in
lot I, fed corn alone.
EXPERIMENT XI
In this experiment nineteen pigs, which were divided into four
lots of five pigs each, except lot III, which contained four, were
used.
Lot I was fed shelled corn only, lot II was fed shelled corn one
part and raw dasheens four parts by weight. Lot III was fed
shelled corn and raw dasheens equal parts by weight. Lot IV
was fed shelled corn one part, dasheens four parts by weight, and
a small amount of velvet-bean meal.
This experiment began March 4, 1915, and continued fifty-nine
days. It will be seen by looking over the table of weights and
gains that the pigs in lot I and lot III are the only one that ap-
proached satisfactory gains. Lot II did little more than main-
tain their initial weight, and lot IV made an average daily gain
of only 0.187 of a pound, which is a very unsatisfactory gain for
hogs on feed.
This, however, is probably the first feeding experiment to be
conducted with dasheens. It is possible that as we learn more
about this crop we will learn methods of feeding that will give
good results. It is evident that in this experiment raw dasheens
were not satisfactory for fattening pigs. The results of this test
are given in detail in tables 26, 27, and 28.






54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 26.-Weights and Gains, in Pounds
I Lot I Lot II Lot III* LotIV
Weights at the beginning of test, |
March 4, 1915 (five pigs) ........ 344.0 338.4 268.0 340.3
Weight at close of test ............... 478.6 370.0 359.0 359.6
Gain in fifty-nine days ............... 134.6 31.6 91.0 55.3
Average gain per head .............. 28.5 6.3 22.7 11.0
Average daily gain per head..........) 0.45 0.107 0.38 0.187
Average daily gain per 1000 pounds
live weight .................... 6.63 1.58 5.75 2.75
Pounds of feed to make one pound of
gain ........................... 6.35 32.63 8.20 20.04
*Four pigs in lot III.

TABLE 27.-Pounds of Feed Consumed
SLot I Lot II Lot III I Lot IV
Shelled corn ........................ 855.0 207.4 373.3 207.4
Dasheens ........................... ...... 824.0 373.3 824.0
Velvet teans, ground ................ .. ... .. . . ... 77.0

TABLE 28.-Daily Ration, Pounds per Pig
| Lot I I Lot II | Lot III Lot IV
Shelled corn ........................ 2.8 0.7 1.4 0.7
Dasheens ........................... ...... 2.8 1.4 2.8
Velvet beans, ground ................ .... ... I ....... I .35

WORMS IN SWINE
Worms in swine is one of the worst troubles that the Florida
hog raiser has to contend with. Worms cause nearly as great a
loss of hogs as does cholera. They are a serious pest since they
keep many hogs in an unthrifty condition, and, if the worms
become sufficiently numerous, cause the death of the hogs.
There is a number of different kinds of worms that attack
swine. Lung worms cause bronchitis and pneumonia or thumps,
or pants; these latter names being the popular ones. The symp-
toms may be a cough and a discharge from the nose. The dis-
charge may or may not contain worms. In general appearance,
the pigs are unthrifty, do not grow and develop as rapidly as
they should, and the coat becomes rough. Lung worms attack
only young pigs. They cause little or no loss among pigs more
than three or four months old. As the name indicates, these
worms are found in the lungs, bronchial tubes, and sometimes
in the trachea.
KIDNEY WORMS
Kidney worms are found in the region of the kidneys. They
are sometimes found in the muscles over the kidneys, sometimes







Bulletin 141, Pork Production in Florida 55

in the kidneys, or in the fat around the kidneys, and occasionally
they get into the spinal column.
The infested animal may first show a weakness in the loin or
hind legs, move with a staggering or wabbling gait and when
down has difficulty in regaining its feet. In severe cases, when
the worms get into the spinal column, the hind legs may become
paralyzed. As a rule animals that become paralyzed rarely if
ever recover. Young hogs, that is, those less than six months
old, are not likely to show such pronounced symptoms. Animals
a year old or older are more likely to be heavily infested with
kidney worms.
The only satisfactory treatment for lung worms and kidney
worms is a rotation of pasture and feeding pens and a thoro
disinfection of the sleeping quarters. Smoking the hogs may
give some relief from lung worms. This can be done by putting
the hogs in a tight room and then burning leather, feathers, or
rags, causing the hogs to cough and sneeze. The hogs should be
kept in the smoke for twenty to thirty minutes. By coughing
and sneezing, the hogs will discharge some of the worms.

STOMACH AND INTESTINAL WORMS
There are several different kinds of worms likely to be found
in the digestive tract. These are much easier to control and
eradicate than are the lung worms and kidney worms.
Vermifuges such as santonin, areca nut, iron sulphate and
turpentine, if given systematically, will destroy worms in the
intestines. The following formula will give good results:
Santonin....................................... 2%/ grains
Areca nut ..................................... 1 drachm
Calomel.................... ....... ............ 2 grains
Sodium Bicarbonate............................. 2 drachms
Give as one dose. Do not repeat for two or three weeks and
not then unless worms are found.
Turpentine is very effective also. The dose is from 1 to 2
teaspoonfuls to each 100 pounds live weight of hogs. Turpen-
tine is best given in a mesh made up of shorts or bran and milk.
Milk is suggested because turpentine will not mix with water
but mixes readily with milk. It is not advisable to give turpen-
tine to pregnant sows as it is likely to cause abortion.







56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Best results will be obtained if the hogs are kept away from
feed and water for twenty-four hours before giving the first
dose. The hogs should be fed light rations during the time they
are receiving treatment. Give the turpentine once a day for
three days. After six or eight days repeat the dose. The tur-
pentine should be followed by a dose of salts, two tablespoonfuls
to each 100 pounds live weight of hogs.
Rotation of pens and pastures and thoro disinfection of pens
and sleeping places is of much importance in ridding hogs of
worms. Kerso or any other good disinfectant may be used.
Lime is also very effective and should be used liberally.





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