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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 580
Title: Reconnaissance soil survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valley in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027115/00001
 Material Information
Title: Reconnaissance soil survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valley in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 40 p. : map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Leighty, R. G ( Ralph George ), 1912-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1957
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Kissimmee River Valley   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Saint Johns River Valley   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Ralph G. Leighty.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "In cooperation with Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service"--T.p.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027115
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926787
oclc - 18287382
notis - AEN7487

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Full Text


Bulletin 580


January 1957


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
in cooperation with
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
and
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE


Reconnaissance Soil Survey of

Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys

in Florida


By

Ralph G. Leighty, in charge, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
and Soil Survey, Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of
Agriculture; L. C. Murphree, E. D. Matthews, E. H. Evenson, S. H. Mc-
Collum, Francisco Matanzo, Soil Survey, Soil Conservation Service, United
States Department of Agriculture; and G. M. Thompson, Central and South-
ern Florida Flood Control District.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







CONTENTS
Page
IN TRODUCTION ......... ............. .... .. ... ........
AREA SURVEYED ....... ....... ... .... 3
METHOD AND PROCEDURE ......................................-- --- 4
SOIL ASSOCIATIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS LAND TYPES AND
THEIR USE-SUITABILITIES ...................--.. --------- ----. ..... ------... 6(
I. DOMINANTLY EXCESSIVELY DRAINED DEEP SOILS ...................-.....-..... 9
Lb* Lakewood and St. Lucie fine sands, nearly level phases
La Lakewood and St. Lucie fine sands, rolling phases
II. DOMINANTLY SOMEWHAT EXCESSIVELY DRAINED TO MODERATELY
W ELL DRAINED DEEP SOILS ..................................----. ---- ------------ -----. 10
Bb Blanton and Lakeland fine sands, nearly level phases
Ba Blanton and Lakeland fine sands, rolling phases
Ob Orlando fine sand
III. DOMINANTLY MODERATELY WELL DRAINED TO SOMEWHAT POORLY
DRAINED SOILS, OVER MARL OR LIMESTONE ...-.............. ---...----..------.... 13
Cc Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, nearly level phases
Cb Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, rolling phases
Pa Palm Beach, Keri, and Parkwood fine sands
Pc Parkwood, Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton fine sands and
loamy fine sands
Sc Sunniland and Broward fine sands
IV. DOMINANTLY SOMEWHAT POORLY DRAINED SOILS ..........-...... --- ... 20
Oa Ona and Scranton fine sands
V. DOMINANTLY SOMEWHAT POORLY DRAINED SOILS WITH HARDPANS...... 21
Lc Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands
Pe Pomello and Leon fine sands
Sb St. Johns, Leon, and Immokalee fine sands
VI. DOMINANTLY POORLY DRAINED SOILS, OVER NON-CALCAREOUS
M ATERIALS ..................... ........ ..... ..-- ---. -- .. 26
Pd Plummer and Rains fine sands
Ra Rutlege and Portsmouth fine sands and loamy fine sands
VII. DOMINANTLY POORLY DRAINED SOILS, OVER CALCAREOUS MATERIALS 29
Da Delray and Manatee fine sands and fine sandy loams
Pf Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell fine sands
VIII. DOMINANTLY VERY POORLY DRAINED ORGANIC SOILS ................... 33
Be Brighton peat and mucky peat
Ea Everglades peat and mucky peat
Ia Istokpoga peat and mucky peat
La Loxahatchee peat and mucky peat
Pb Pamlico muck and peaty muck
IX. MISCELLANEOUS LAND TYPES ............ --............................ 38
Aa Alluvial soils
Ca Coastal beach
Fa Fresh water swamp
Sa Shallow ponds
Ta Tidal swamp
Symbols refer to those used on the compiled map.







Reconnaissance Soil Survey of

Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys

in Florida

INTRODUCTION
A reconnaissance soil survey was made of the Kissimmee and
Upper St. Johns valleys and of the eastern portion of Martin and
northeastern portion of Palm Beach counties, Florida, to provide
basic data on the kinds, characteristics, distribution, extent, and
use-suitabilities of soils in the Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control District.1
The survey shows that vast areas of native forest and prairie
now used as unimproved grazing land or left idle can be brought
into cultivation of adapted crops or improved for grazing if mar-
ket prices and cost of land improvement make such enterprises
economically feasible. Previously, heavy losses have occurred to
unprotected areas during prolonged inundation of crop and pas-
ture lands following heavy rains or hurricanes. During other
periods of prolonged drought crops and animals have suffered
from lack of water. Factors affecting these conditions are heavy
rainfall, unevenly distributed throughout the year, large areas
of nearly level terrain with slow run-off, high underground water
levels, lack of fast natural drainage to the sea, and high evapora.
tion.
To formulate an overall water control program, an inventory
of the soil resources was necessary in relating the use of different
kinds of soils to the inter-related purposes to protect human life,
reduce flood damages, benefit city and farm development, en-
hance farm production, improve municipal and agricultural water
supplies, and to aid in soil and water conservation and the control
of over-drainage and salt water intrusion, as well as aid navi-
gation, public health, sanitation and recreation.

AREA SURVEYED
The reconnaissance soil survey of the Kissimmee and Upper
St. Johns valleys, Florida, included all of Indian River, Brevard,
1The reconnaissance survey was made by the Division of Soil Survey,
Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering and the Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station with financial support from the Cen-
tral and Southern Florida Flood Control District and with cooperation from
the Soil Conservation Service. Most of the work was done prior to transfer
of the Division of Soil Survey from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils,
and Agricultural Engineering to the Soil Conservation Service, November
15, 1952.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and Osceola counties and a large part of St. Lucie, Okeechobee,
Highlands, Polk, Orange, Seminole, Martin, Palm Beach, and
Volusia counties, a total area of approximately 5,647 square
miles in the east central part of Florida, distributed as follows:
Sq. Miles
Indian River County .... 502 (100 square miles taken from SCS farm
planning maps and revised)
St. Lucie County .............. 480
Okeechobee County ........ 645
Osceola County ................ 1,206
Highlands County ........... 308 (218 square miles taken from SCS farm
planning maps and checked)
Polk County ...................... 423 (57 square miles taken from SCS farm
planning maps and checked)
Brevard County ............ 1,019 (10 square miles taken from SCS farm
planning maps and revised)
Orange County ................. 524 (100 square miles taken from SCS farm
planning maps and checked)
Seminole County .......... 74
Volusia County ............... 41
Martin and
Palm Beach Counties.... 425
Total......................... 5,647 (485 square miles taken from SCS farm
planning maps and checked or revised)

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

In making a reconnaissance soil survey the soils are ex-
amined, classified and mapped in the field and their character-
istics recorded, particularly in regard to the suitability for vari-
ous crops.
Soil scientists traversed available roads and trails with four-
wheel-drive vehicles, walked into inaccessible areas, and used
"air boats" in the large marshes. The soils were examined at
intervals with the aid of a spade or auger where they could not
be examined in road cuts and canal banks. On the basis of these
observations, the soils were classified and their boundaries were
outlined on aerial photographs used as field sheets. Cultural
features, such as roads, trails, railroads, streams, lakes, and
houses were also recorded on the field sheets. Soil areas smaller
than 30 acres in size were not delineated on the map but were
included within an area of another soil association. The nation-
wide system of soil classification developed through the National
Cooperative Survey was used as a basis for the field work.

2 Reconnaissance Soil Mapping. Soil Survey Manual, U. S. Department
of Agriculture Handbook No. 18, pp. 435-441. 1951.






Soil Survey of Kissiimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 5

Soil conservation surveys of parts of Indian River, Brevard,
Highlands, and Polk counties had been made recently by the
Soil Conservation Service. The soil data from these surveys
were transferred to the aerial photographs, checked, and revised
in the field. The soil survey map of Polk County, published in
1927, was used as a reference for parts of the field work in east-
ern Polk County.


M Area surveyed



Fig. 1.-Map showing the area surveyed.


A manuscript soil map was compiled by the Cartographic Sec-
tion of the Division of Soil Survey from the field sheets. Copies
of this manuscript map are on file and may be examined at the
offices of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Dis-
trict, West Palm Beach, at the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, Gainesville, and at the County Agricultural Agent's and
Work Unit Conservationist's offices for each county in the
District.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


SOIL ASSOCIATIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS LAND TYPES
AND THEIR USE-SUITABILITIES
A soil association is a group of soils, with or without common
characteristics, geographically associated in an individual pat-
tern. For the purpose of comparison, soil associations can be
likened to the various associations of native plants which orig-
inally covered the different parts of Florida. In the same way,
certain soils characteristically occur together, and the area in
which they occur in a characteristic pattern is a soil association.
Each plant association is given a name composed of its more
important components. Likewise, the soil association carries
the name of one to three of the more extensive or more impor--
tant soil series or soil types it contains.
In addition to soil associations, there are miscellaneous land
types consisting of soils that cannot be identified and classified
into soil series and types. For the most part, the soils in a mis-
cellaneous land type have poorly developed features and occur
with little regularity of pattern.
The soils of the area covered in this survey were mapped into
23 soil associations and 5 miscellaneous land types. The dom-
inant soils of these associations differ from one another in drain-
age, relief, color of horizons, reaction, contents of organic mat-
ter, and other characteristics. At the same time, the soils of
any one association are largely derived from one kind of geologi-
cal material and are chiefly useful for the same general systems
of farming. In many cases, soils within a single association are
alike in drainage and in principal management requirements for
successful production.
For the convenience of users who are chiefly interested in
possible uses and adapted management, the soil associations
and miscellaneous land types recognized in the reconnaissance
survey have been placed into nine groups. Each of the soil as-
sociations, however, is described in terms of its major soils.
In most instances, profile descriptions are given for the principal
soil types of an association, and the chief inclusions are noted.
In some cases, profile descriptions are not given in the descrip-
tion of a specific association because the soils are also component
parts of other associations under which they are described.
The usefulness of each soil association and miscellaneous land
type for crops, citrus, pasture, and forest is indicated in the text.
Management requirements for given kinds of use are also con-
sidered. Because each association does consist of more than






Soil Survey of Kissim mee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 7

one soil type and because the soils of the region are readily
affected by past management, there may be large variations in
current management requirements among farms within a single
soil association. Past management history, as well as the nature
of soils, is important in determining best management at the
present time. Consequently, specific recommendations are not
given in the bulletin. Readers should get in touch with their
County Agricultural Agents or Farm Planners for recommenda-
tions on liming, fertilization, the selection of crops, water control,
and use of cover crops on specific tracts.

USE-SUITABILITY GROUPING OF MAPPING UNITS3
I. Dominantly excessively drained deep soils
Lb 4 Lakewood and St. Lucie fine sands, nearly level phases
La Lakewood and St. Lucie fine sands, rolling phases
Use-suitability:-Not generally recommended for cultivation
or improved pasture. With special management, including fer-
tilization and irrigation, selected areas are suitable for limited
production of citrus and other subtropical fruits. Under natural
conditions, these soils produce very poor range grazing and
forest.
II. Dominantly somewhat excessively drained to moderately well
drained deep soils
Bb Blanton and Lakeland fine sands, nearly level phases
Ba Blanton and Lakeland fine sands, rolling phases
Ob Orlando fine sand
Use-suitability:-With good management,5 suitable for cul-
tivation to adapted crops, production of citrus and other sub-
tropical fruits, improved pasture, and forest.
III. Dominantly moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained soils, over marl or limestone
Cc Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, nearly level phases
Cb Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, rolling phases
Pa Palm Beach, Keri, and Parkwood fine sands
The group headings are descriptive headings and are not mutually ex-
clusive, since the mapping units are soil associations rather than individual
soil types. Valid comparisons with interpretive groupings of other sur-
veys require comparisons of individual mapping units rather than groups
of mapping units.
'Symbols refer to those used on the compiled map.
Good soil management includes the combinations of practices that
maintain an abundant and balanced supply of nutrients, air, and water for
the plants to be grown and that maintain or improve the fertility and tilth
of the soil for subsequent crops.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Pc Parkwood, Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton fine sands
and loamy fine sands
Sc Sunniland and Broward fine sands
Use-suitability:-Highly variable soils suitable for improved
pasture and forest. With adequate water control where needed,
selected areas are suitable for citrus and special crops.
IV. Dominantly somewhat poorly drained soils
Oa Ona and Scranton fine sands
Use-suitability :-Well adapted for improved pasture and for-
est. With adequate water control where needed, suitable for cul-
tivated crops and citrus.
V. Dominantly somewhat poorly drained soils with hardpans
Pe Pomello and Leon fine sands
Lc Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands
Sb St. Johns, Leon, and Immokalee fine sands
Use-suitability: Under natural conditions, suitable for
range and improved pastures and forest. Adequate water con-
trol beneficial for improved pasture. Not generally recom-
mended for citrus and cultivated crops.
VI. Dominantly poorly drained soils, over non-calcareous ma-
terials
Pd Plummer and Rains fine sands
Ra Rutlege and Portsmouth fine sands and loamy fine sands
Use-suitability:-Under natural conditions, best suited for
grazing on native vegetation, wet-land forest, and limited water
storage. With adequate water control, suitable for improved
pasture, forest, and limited truck crops.
VII. Dominantly poorly drained soils, over calcareous materials
Pf Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell fine sands
Da Delray and Manatee fine sands and fine sandy loams
Use suitability:-With adequate water control, suitable for
improved pasture and limited cultivation to truck and special
crops. With special management, selected areas may be used
for production of citrus.
VIII. Dominantly very poorly drained organic soils
Pb Pamlico muck and peaty muck
Ea Everglades peat and mucky peat
Ld Loxahatchee peat and mucky peat
Be Brighton peat and mucky peat
la Istokpoga peat and mucky peat






Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 9

Use-suitability:--With adequate water control, suitable for
truck and special crops and improved pasture. Under natural
conditions, best suited for water storage, wildlife, and recreation.

IX. Miscellaneous land types
Fa Fresh water swamp
Ta Tidal swamp
Ca Coastal beach
Sa Shallow ponds
Aa Alluvial soils
Use-suitability :-Suitable for such use as grazing on native
vegetation, forest, water storage, wildlife, and recreation. Not
recommended for cultivation or improved pasture.

I. DOMINANTLY EXCESSIVELY DRAINED DEEP SOILS
Lb Lakewood and St. Lucie fine sands, nearly level phases
La Lakewood and St. Lucie fine sands, rolling phases
A large portion of the Lakewood and St. Lucie soils occurs
near the coast in Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Martin, and
Palm Beach counties. Smaller areas exist at some distance in-
land.
Lakewood and St. Lucie soils are commonly referred to as
"scrub land" because of their natural vegetative cover of sand
pine, scrub live oak, and a sparse growth of saw palmetto, rose-
mary, runner oak, prickly-pear cactus, and wiregrass.
Areas of mapping unit Lb have nearly level or gently un-
dulating relief with slopes up to 8 percent, and the areas of
mapping unit La have rolling relief with slopes ranging from
8 to 25 percent. Derived from thick beds of acid, unconsoli-
dated sands, these soils are strongly acid throughout. Lake-
wood soils consist of nearly white sands to depths of 10 to 24
inches underlain by brownish-yellow or reddish-yellow sands,
whereas St. Lucie soils are nearly white to a depth of 42 inches
or more.
A representative profile description of Lakewood fine sand
is as follows:
0 to 2 inches, light gray 6 (10YR 7/1) loose, incoherent fine
sand.
2 to 16 inches, white (10YR 8/1) loose, incoherent fine sand.

SSoil color names follow Soil Survey Manual, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture Handbook No. 18, pp. 189-203. 1951. Colors are of moist soil
unless otherwise stated.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


16 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) or reddish-
yellow (7.5YR 6/8) loose, incoherent fine sand.
42 to 48 inches plus, pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) loose, incoherent
fine sand grading to lighter colors with increasing depth.

A representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand is as follows:
0 to 2 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) loose, incoherent fine
sand.
2 to 42 inches plus, white (10YR 8/1) loose, incoherent fine
sand.
Small areas of Pomello, Leon, Blanton, Lakeland, and Plum-
mer soils may be included in areas designated as Lakewood and
St. Lucie fine sands. These other soils are described in later
sections of this report.
Lakewood and St. Lucie fine sands are geographically associ-
ated with the Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns; Pomello and
Leon; and Blanton and Lakeland soil associations.
Several areas of the Lakewood fine sand have been planted to
citrus. The soils produce very poor range grazing and forest,
and they are not generally recommended for cultivated crops or
for improved pastures. They are very low in organic matter
and mineral plant nutrients and are very drought, which must
be remedied for satisfactory crop production. However, under
favorable weather conditions and under a good management sys-
tem, some citrus could be produced on selected areas of the Lake-
wood soils. If water is available for adequate irrigation, small
acreages of citrus, other subtropical fruits, and improved pas-
ture could be grown under a good management system; but it
is doubtful if the enterprises would be economically feasible.
Many areas near the coast and near lakes are suitable for build-
ing sites.

II. DOMINANTLY SOMEWHAT EXCESSIVELY DRAINED
TO MODERATELY WELL DRAINED DEEP SOILS
Bb Blanton and Lakeland fine sands, nearly level phases
Ba Blanton and Lakeland fine sands, rolling phases
Ob Orlando fine sand
Blanton and Lakeland soils occur on high ridges or knolls with-
in or bordering the flatwood regions in Polk, Osceola, Orange,
Seminole, Brevard, and Okeechobee counties. These soils have
been developed from moderately thick beds of unconsolidated






Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 11

acid sands and loamy sands and have slow to rapid runoff and
rapid internal drainage. They are strongly acid throughout.
Blanton soils are characterized by pale yellow or spotched pale
yellow, light gray, and white deeper layers. Lakeland soils have
yellow, yellowish-brown, or brownish-yellow lower layers. The
areas of mapping unit Bb are dominantly nearly level or gently
undulating with slopes of 0 to 8 percent, and the areas of Ba
have rolling relief, generally 8 to 15 percent slope.
A representative profile description of Blanton fine sand is as
follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) to grayish-brown (10YR
5/2) nearly loose fine sand.
6 to 18 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) to light brownish-
gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand.
18 to 42 inches plus, light gray (10YR 7/1) or very pale brown
(10YR 8/3) loose fine sand with few streaks of pale yellow
(2.5Y 8 '4) and white (10YR 8/1).
A brown layer phase of Blanton fine sand included in the as-
sociation differs from the modal in having a brown-stained layer
3 to 9 inches thick at 14 to 18 inches below the surface. This
soil occurs on similar positions and has somewhat similar drain-
age and vegetative cover as the modal Blanton fine sand. It is
gradational between Blanton fine sand and Leon fine sand. It
occupies low ridges or slight knolls which are surrounded by
Leon soils or is between the modal Blanton and the Leon.
The following is a profile description of Lakeland fine sand:
0 to 6 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) to dark gray (10YR
4/1) nearly loose fine sand.
6 to 12 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) loose fine
sand.
12 to 42 inches plus, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) to yollow
(10YR 7/6) loose fine sand.
In places, heavier textured materials such as fine sandy loam
or fine sandy clay loam may occur at 30 to 42 inches in Lakeland
soils.
An area of Eustis fine sand was observed along U. S. Highway
92 in the northwestern part of Osceola County and was included
in Blanton and Lakeland fine sands. This soil has a grayish-
brown or dark grayish-brown surface layer, 4 to 8 inches thick,
and strong brown to yellowish-red lower layers.
Blanton and Lakeland soils are geographically associated with






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the Ona and Scranton; Orlando; Pomello and Leon; and Leon,
Immokalee, and St. Johns soils.
Small areas of Pomello, St. Lucie, Lakewood, Leon, Scranton,
and Orlando soils may be included in areas of the Blanton and
Lakeland association. Pomello and St. Lucie soils have deeper
layers of white fine sands as compared to the pale yellow, light
gray, and white sands of Blanton. Lakewood soils have a 10-
to 24-inch white layer over reddish-yellow or brownish-yellow
fine sand. The somewhat poorly drained Leon soils have an
organic hardpan within depths of 42 inches. Scranton and
Orlando soils have darker surface layers than Blanton and Lake-
land. All of these are described in other places in the report.
Many areas of Blanton and Lakeland fine sands have been
cleared and planted to citrus. The remaining areas support a
growth of turkey, bluejack, and live oaks, pines, and a few shrubs
and grasses. Under favorable weather conditions and a good
management system, which included liberal applications of fer-
tilizers and lime when needed, good yields of oranges and grape-
fruit are obtained. A few areas, chiefly of Blanton soils, are
in improved pastures which, under good management, give fair
to good grazing. On the whole, they are suitable for cultivation
to adapted crops, production of citrus and other subtropical
fruits, improved pasture, and forest. Most areas have relief
favorable for good air drainage for citrus and subtropical fruits.
During a portion of the year the rolling areas may be somewhat
drought for citrus and improved pasture. If water is available,
the crops, fruit trees, and pastures could be irrigated during
dry seasons. Under favorable weather conditions and under a
good management system, fair to good crop yields can be ob-
tained. Poor growth of citrus may occur on small areas of Leon,
Immokalee, and Pomello soils included in the association.
Additional acreage of these soils could be cleared and planted
to citrus. In the prospective grove land, it is important to have
good air drainage. Areas less suitable for citrus could be used
for watermelons and improved pastures. Since these soils are
relatively low in natural fertility and somewhat drought, cover
crops should be grown in the cultivated areas to increase the
humus content for better moisture and plant nutrient-holding
capacities.
Ob Orlando fine sand
Orlando fine sand occurs on nearly level relief in the northern
portion of the Flood Control District. The largest mapped area






Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 13

lies in the southern part of Seminole County. It supports a
growth of bluejack, turkey, live, and laurel oaks, pine, and a few
shrubs and grasses. Small areas have been included in areas
of Blanton and Lakeland fine sands and Ona and Scranton fine
sands. Orlando soils have been derived from moderately thick
beds of sands and loamy sands. They have a dark-gray to black
surface layer, 12 to 18 inches thick, and yellowish-brown to light
gray deeper layers. Runoff is moderate and internal drainage
is rapid. These soils are strongly or medium acid throughout.
A representative profile description of Orlando fine sand is as
follows:
0 to 12 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand.
12 to 24 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4 2) fine sand,
slightly variegated with yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4).
24 to 48 inches plus, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine
sand.

Small areas of Blanton, Lakeland, Ona, and Scranton fine
sands may be included in the areas mapped as Orlando fine sand.
Blanton and Lakeland soils have thinner and lighter colored sur-
face layers than Orlando soils.
Orlando fine sand is associated geographically with Blanton
and Lakeland fine sands. The largest area mapped has a vegeta-
tive cover of oaks and pine trees. If cleared, it could be planted
to citrus or developed into improved pasture. In other sections
of the state, Orlando fine sand is used for the production of
citrus and a few truck crops. Under favorable weather condi-
tions and under a good management system, citrus and other
crops give good returns. Since the soil is somewhat drought,
the citrus and other crops should be irrigated during the dry
seasons.

III. DOMINANTLY MODERATELY WELL DRAINED TO
SOMEWHAT POORLY DRAINED SOILS, OVER
MARL OR LIMESTONE
Cc Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, nearly level phases
Cb Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, rolling phases
Pa Palm Beach, Keri, and Parkwood fine sands
Pc Parkwood, Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton fine sands and
loamy fine sands
Sc Sunniland and Broward fine sands







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Under natural conditions these soils support mostly a dense
growth of trees, shrubs, and grasses that is difficult and expen-
sive to remove. After clearing, the soils are suitable for im-
proved pastures and selected areas are suitable for citrus and
truck or special crops. Adequate water control is beneficial for
citrus and the other crops. Cocoa and Palm Beach soils are
moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained, but during
dry seasons the crops on them should have irrigation for good
growth. The other soils in this group are somewhat poorly
drained, and when freed of a relatively high water table they
have slow to moderate internal drainage through the marl or
sandy clay loam layers. All of these soils are nearly neutral or
alkaline in reaction somewhere in their profile. Since a high
pH tend to reduce the availability of some plant nutrients, special
fertilizing and management practices are needed for the crops
planted on these soils.

Cc Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, nearly level phases
Cb Cocoa fine sand and loamy fine sand, rolling phases
Cocoa soils occur as narrow strips near the coast between
Titusville and Melbourne and on Merritt Island, all in Brevard
County, and north and southeast of Juno in Palm Beach County.
The areas of mapping unit Cc are level to undulating with 0 to 8
percent slopes; those of mapping unit Cb have rolling relief of
8 to 15 percent slopes. These soils have been derived from thin
beds of marine sands resting upon or partially mixed with
materials from coquina shells. They have moderate runoff and
rapid internal drainage. The upper horizons are slightly acid
to neutral in reaction, the lower horizons neutral or alkaline.
A representative profile of Cocoa fine sand is described as
follows:
0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loose fine sand.
4 to 14 inches, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6) nearly loose fine
sand.
14 to 24 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) loamy fine sand or
fine sand with a loamy feel. A few coquina shells are mixed
with the loamy fine sand in the lower portion.
24 to 36 inches plus, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8 to 8/6) coquina
shells and pieces partially cemented together.

In cultivated areas the plowed layer consists of material from
the first and second layers and is therefore yellowish-brown or







Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 15

brown in color. The second and third layers range from yellow-
ish-red through strong brown and reddish-yellow to yellowish-
brown. In places a thin layer, one to two inches thick, of yellow-
ish-red (5YR 4/8) fine sandy loam or fine sandy clay loam, over-
lies the coquina shells. Depth to the shells is 12 to 36 inches,
averaging less than 24.
Small areas of Pomello, St. Lucie, Lakewood, and Leon soils
may be included in the Cocoa soils.
Cocoa soils are geographically associated with Lakewood and
St. Lucie; Pomello and Leon; Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns;
and Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell soil associations.
Over half the total area of Cocoa fine sand supports a natural
cover of saw and cabbage palmettos, live oak, pine, vines, shrubs,
and grasses. Most of the cleared areas are planted to citrus.
Under favorable weather conditions and good management prac-
tices, fair to good yields of oranges and grapefruit are obtained.
Owing to the high pH of the soil, special attention is needed to
supply the correct fertilizers to the citrus trees. Additional acre-
ages could be cleared and used for citrus and other crops or im-
proved pastures. The soil, relatively low in organic matter, may
be benefited by growing leguminous cover crops. Also, the
citrus and other crops might need irrigation during long dry
periods.

Pa Palm Beach, Keri, and Parkwood fine sands
Palm Beach, Keri, and Parkwood fine sands occur principally
on the islands off the eastern coast in Brevard, Indian River, St.
Lucie, Martin, and Palm Beach counties. Primarily, the areas
consist of Palm Beach fine sand but include small acreages of
Keri and Parkwood soils. Palm Beach fine sand is a pale brown
or yellowish-brown mixture of sands, shells, and shell fragments.
It has slow to rapid runoff and rapid internal drainage. Keri and
Parkwood soils have layers of sand and marl in their profiles.
Keri fine sand has a 6-12 inch layer of marl at 12 to 24 inches,
underlain by light gray and yellow sands. The sandy layers of
Parkwood soils are underlain by a thick layer of marl. Keri and
Parkwood soils have slow to moderate runoff and, when freed
of a relatively high water table, they have slow to moderate in-
ternal drainage through the marl layer.
A representative profile description of Palm Beach fine sand
is as follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


6 to 22 inches, pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand, containing
many small shells and shell fragments.
22 to 42 inches plus, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) and brown-
ish-yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand containing numerous small
shells and shell fragments.

A representative profile of Keri fine sand is as follows:
0 to 5 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) nearly loose fine sand with
a salt and pepper appearance.
5 to 20 niches, light gray (10YR 7/2) or light brownish..gray
(10YR 6/2) fine sand.
20 to 29 inches, light gray (10YR 7/2) marl of fine sandy clay
loam texture streaked with brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8).
29 to 42 inches plus, mottled light gray (10YR 7/2), brownish-
yellow (10YR 6/8), and yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand.

A profile description of Parkwood fine sand is as follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand.
6 to 18 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand.
18 to 36 inches plus, light gray (10YR 7/2) marl of fine
sandy clay loam texture.

Small areas of Pompano, Charlotte, Delray, Manatee, Leon,
Immokalee, Pomello, St. Lucie, and Lakewood soils may be in-
cluded in the delineated areas of the Palm Beach, Keri, and
Parkwood association.
The Palm Beach, Keri, and Parkwood fine sands are geograph-
ically associated with Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils;
with Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell soils; with Delray
and Manatee soils; with Coastal-beach; and with Tidal swamp.
Nearly all areas of Palm Beach, Keri, and Parkwood fine sands
support a natural growth of cabbage and saw palmettos, coconut
palms, shrubs, and a few grasses. In Indian River County a few
areas have been planted to citrus. Under favorable weather con-
ditions and good management practices, the grapefruit and
orange trees yield fair returns. Crops on some areas near the
coast are affected by salt spray from the ocean and by salinity
of the ground water. Many areas are used for building sites.

Pc Parkwood, Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton fine sands and
loamy fine sands
This soil association occurs as relatively small areas adjacent
to the marshes, predominantly in Brevard, Indian River, St.







Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 17

Lucie, Okeechobee, Martin, and Palm Beach counties. It occu-
pies flat or nearly level sites which are somewhat poorly drained.
The soils have slow to moderate runoff, and when freed of a rel-
atively high water table they have slow to moderate internal
drainage through the marl or sandy clay loam layers. They have
gray or dark gray surface layers 4 to 8 inches thick, except
Copeland soils which have a black or very dark gray surface
layer 8 to 12 inches thick. Parkwood soils have a thin sand
mantle over a thick layer of marl. Keri soils have a thin layer
of marl, 6 to 12 inches thick, sandwiched between sand layers
within the 42-inch depth. The dark surface layer of Copeland
soils is underlain by a thick layer of sandy clay loam or sandy
clay over limestone. Bradenton surface soil is underlain by light
gray fine sands over grayish-brown sandy clay loam or sandy
clay above heavy-textured marl.
A profile description of Parkwood fine sand is as follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand.
6 to 18 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand.
18 to 36 inches plus, light gray (10YR 7 '2) marl of fine sandy
clay loam texture.
In places Parkwood soils have loamy fine sand layers above
the marl.
Depth to marl is 18 to 30 inches in the modal profile, less than
18 inches in the shallow phase, and more than 30 inches in the
deep phase.
A representative profile of Keri fine sand is as follows:
0 to 5 inches, dark gray (10YR 4 1) nearly loose fine sand with
a salt and pepper appearance.
5 to 20 inches, light gray (10YR 7/2) or light brownish-gray
(10YR 6 2) fine sand.
20 to 29 inches, light gray (10YR 7/2) marl of fine sandy clay
loam texture with streaks of brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8).
29 to 42 inches plus, mottled light gray (10YR 7/2), brownish-
yellow (10YR 6/8), and yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand.
Depth to marl is 18-30 inches in the modal profile, less than 18
inches in the thin-surface phase, and more than 30 inches in the
thick-surface phase.
A representative profile description of Copeland fine sand is
as follows:
0 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2 1) fine sand.
12 to 16 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


16 to 20 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy clay.
20 to 30 inches plus, hart limestone.

In places the top two layers are loamy fine sand. Oftentimes,
the sandy layers rest directly on the limestone.
A profile description of Bradenton fine sand is as follows:
0 to 4 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) nearly loose fine sand.
4 to 14 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand.
14 to 20 inches, pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand.
20 to 26 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) mottled with
yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6); fine sandy clay loam or sandy
clay.
26 to 30 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sandy
clay loam or sandy clay.
30 to 42 inches plus, light gray (10YR 7/2) marl of fine sandy
clay loam or sandy clay.

Small areas of Sunniland, Broward, Leon, Immokalee, Pomp-
ano, Felda, Charlotte, Delray, and Manatee soils may be included
in areas mapped as this association. Parkwood, Keri, Copeland,
and Bradenton soils are geographically associated with Leon,
Immokalee, and St. Johns soils; with Pompano, Felda, Charlotte,
and Arzell soils; and with Delray and Manatee soils.
Many areas of Parkwood, Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton soils
have a natural cover of cabbage palmetto, shrubs, vines, and
grasses. In the eastern portions of Brevard, Indian River, and
St. Lucie counties, numerous areas have been cleared and planted
to citrus. Under good management practices, including fertiliza-
tion and water control (primarily drainage), grapefruit and
orange yields are fair to good. Improved pastures have been de-
veloped on several areas. Since the lower layers of these soils
are alkaline in reaction, special attention should be given to fer-
tilizer practices.

Sc Sunniland and Broward fine sands
The Sunniland and Broward association occurs as relatively
small areas in Palm Beach, Martin, Indian River, Osceola,
Orange, Brevard, Okeechobee, Highlands, and St. Lucie counties.
It occupies somewhat poorly drained positions adjacent to
marshes and among the many ponds and depressions in the in-
terior of the District. Sunniland soils have developed from a
thin bed of marine sands over alkaline clayey materials which
frequently contain calcareous concretions or fragments of lime-







Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 19

stone. The thin sandy layer of Broward soils is underlain by
limestone. Sunniland and Broward soils have slow to moderate
runoff, and when freed of their high water table they have mod-
erate internal drainage through the sandy clay loam layer.
A representative profile description of Sunniland fine sand is
as follows:
0 to 5 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) nearly loose fine sand of
salt and pepper appearance.
5 to 20 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) loose fine sand.
20 to 36 inches, mottled strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellowish-
brown (10YR 5/6), and light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy
clay loam. Surface of this horizon may be slightly acid.
36 to 42 inches plus, mottled light gray (10YR 7,2) and yel-
lowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy clay loam. In places a
few concretions or fragments of limestone occur at 40 to 60
inches.
A profile description of Broward fine sand is as follows:
0 to 4 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) nearly loose fine sand of
salt and pepper appearance.
4 to 10 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) loose fine sand.
10 to 14 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand.
14 to 26 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8 3) fine sand.
26 to 36 inches plus, nearly white hard limestone.
In places a layer, 1 to 2 inches thick, of light gray and yellow-
ish-brown fine sandy clay loam overlies the rock. Sunniland
soils may contain a brown organic stained layer above the clayey
materials, and the Broward soils may have a similar layer above
the limestone.
Small areas of Keri, Parkwood, Leon, Immokalee, Felda, Pom-
pano, and Charlotte soils are included in delineations of the Sun-
niland and Broward association. Keri and Parkwood soils have
a layer of marl in their profile; Leon and Immokalee have organic
hardpans; and Felda, Pompano, and Charlotte soils occur on lower
sites which are covered with water during many months of the
year under natural conditions.
Sunniland and Broward fine sands are geographically associ-
ated with Parkwood, Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton soils; with
Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils; and with Pompano, Felda,
Charlotte, and Arzell soils.
Under natural conditions Sunniland and Broward fine sands
support scattered pines and a rank growth of saw palmetto,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cabbage palmetto, runner oak, gallberry, and wiregrass and other
grasses. This vegetation furnishes fair grazing for cattle. A
few areas have been cleared and planted in citrus or developed
into improved pastures. Under good management practices,
including water control (primarily drainage) and fertilization,
grapefruit and orange yields are fair to good. Improved pas-
tures are good on these soils after liming where needed and with
annual fertilization. A large acreage could be used for improved
pastures. Under adequate water control and good management
practices, these soils could be used for truck crops and citrus.

IV. DOMINANTLY SOMEWHAT POORLY DRAINED SOILS
Oa Ona and Scranton fine sands
Ona and Scranton fine sands occur on nearly level sites in the
flatwoods region or lie between the flatwood soils and the soils on
the relatively high sandy ridges, primarily in the northern por-
tion of Osceola County, in the central portions of Orange and
Seminole counties, and in the eastern portion of Polk County.
These soils have been derived from moderately thick beds of
sands and loamy sands. They have slow to moderate runoff and
moderate to rapid internal drainage when freed of a relatively
high water table. These soils are strongly acid throughout.
Scranton fine sand has a black or very dark gray surface layer
10 to 15 inches thick, underlain by light brownish-gray to pale
yellow fine sands. Generally, Ona soils have a dark gray to
black surface layer, 8 to 12 inches thick, underlain by a brown
organic stained layer, grading into lighter colored fine sands with
increasing depths. Sometimes heavier materials of fine sandy
loam or fine sandy clay loam occur at 30 to 42 inches.
A typical profile of Ona fine sand is as follows:
0 to 10 inches, very dark gray or black (10YR 3/1 or 2/1)
fine sand.
10 to 14 inches, brown or dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
organic stained layer.
14 to 30 inches, light gray (10YR 7/2) loose fine sand.
30 to 42 inches plus, mottled light gray (10YR 7/2), yellow
(10YR 7/6), and brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) fine sand.
A representative profile description of Scranton fine sand is
as follows:
0 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand.
12 to 18 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand.






Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 21

18 to 32 inches, pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand.
32 to 42 inches plus, mottled pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4), yellow
(10YR 7/8), and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand.

Small areas of Leon, Immokalee, St. Johns, Rutlege, Blanton,
and Orlando soils may be included in areas delineated as Ona
and Scranton fine sands. Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils
differ from Ona soils in having a light gray or white leached
layer between the surface horizon and a prominent organic hard-
pan, whereas Ona soils have the organic stained layer immedi-
ately beneath the surface horizon. Scranton soils are better
drained than Rutlege, have a thicker and darker colored surface
layer than Blanton, and are less well drained than Orlando soils.
Ona and Scranton fine sands are associated geographically
with Blanton and Lakeland; with Leon, Immokalee, and St.
Johns; and with Rutlege and Portsmouth soil associations.
These soils are well adapted for improved pasture and forest.
With adequate water control where needed, they are suitable for
truck and cultivated crops, citrus, and other subtropical fruits.
Some areas of Ona fine sands need artificial drainage before they
will produce citrus satisfactorily. Under favorable weather con-
ditions and a good management system, high yields can be ex-
pected from the crops and fruit trees on these soils. The un-
cleared areas support a natural cover of pine, runner oak, blue-
jack oak, gallberry, myrtle bushes, saw palmetto, wiregrass and
other grasses. This vegetation provides fair range pasture. The
pine trees make fair to good growth on these soils.
Additional acreages of Ona and Scranton fine sands could be
cleared and used for the production of citrus, vegetable crops,
and improved pastures. These soils usually have enough mois-
ture for the crops during normal seasons; but during extremely
dry periods the vegetable crops and citrus should be irrigated.
Generally, it is desirable to have water control-drainage and
irrigation-for the citrus trees on the Ona soils. In other areas
of the state, a considerable volume of strawberries is produced
on Ona and Scranton soils.

V. DOMINANTLY SOMEWHAT POORLY DRAINED SOILS
WITH HARDPANS
Lc Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands
Pe Pomello and Leon fine sands
Sb St. Johns, Leon, and Immokalee fine sands






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands and Pomello and
Leon fine sands occur in the flatwood areas throughout the Flood
Control District, whereas St. Johns, Leon, and Immokalee fine
sands occur chiefly in Seminole and Orange counties and the
northern portions of Osceola and Brevard counties. Under nat-
ural conditions these soils are suitable for range and improved
pasture and forest. A few ditches to remove excess surface
water during rainy seasons and to add irrigation water during
extremely dry seasons are beneficial for the improved pasture.
These soils are not generally recommended for citrus, truck, and
cultivated crops, but under favorable weather conditions and a
good management system which includes liberal applications of
fertilizer and lime and adequate water control it is possible to
produce fair yields of truck crops on them. Fair citrus yields
also can be expected from selected areas when the trees are
planted on beds or ridges and have adequate water control and
good management.
The dominant natural cover of these soils consists of pine
trees, saw palmetto, gallberry, runner oak, and few shrubs and
grasses. In the southern portion of Osceola County and in the
northern portion of Okeechobee County, large areas lack the
pines. The pine trees make fair growth on these soils, and they
could give profitable returns under a good forest management
system.

Lc Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands
Sb St. Johns, Leon, and Immokalee fine sands
These associations occur on flat or nearly level sites in the
flatwood regions under a natural growth of many low saw pal-
mettos. The soils are characterized by a black or dark brown
organic hardpan which occurs at depths between 14 and 42
inches. Leon, Immokalee and St. Johns fine sands, consisting
predominantly of Leon and Immokalee soils, occur throughout
the District but are especially extensive in the central and
southern parts. St. Johns, Leon, and Immokalee association is
mapped in Seminole, Orange, and the northern portions of
Osceola and Brevard counties. The soils of this association have
darker surface layers and perhaps a slightly better capacity for
holding moisture and plant nutrients than those of Leon, Im-
mokalee, and St. Johns association. All of these soils have been
developed chiefly from thick beds of unconsolidated sands. They
are strongly acid throughout. Runoff is slow and internal drain-







Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 23

age is slow to moderate through the organic hardpan when the
soil is freed of a high water table. Generally, the high water
table exists near the level of the hardpan layer which occurs at
depths between 14 and 30 inches in the Leon and between 30
and 42 inches in the Immokalee profiles. The St. Johns soils
have a darker surface layer than the Leon and Immokalee soils.
In places fine sandy loam or fine sandy clay loam materials occur
between depths of 30 and 42 inches.

A representative profile of Leon fine sand is as follows:
0 to 5 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) loose fine sand with a
salt and pepper appearance.
5 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loose fine sand.
12 to 22 inches, light gray (10YR 7 1) loose fine sand.
22 to 26 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand cemented by or-
ganic materials; organic hardpan.
32 to 48 inches plus, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6,'4) loose
fine sand.

A profile description of Immokalee fine sand is as follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark gray (10YR 4 '1) loose fine sand with a salt
and pepper appearance.
6 to 14 inches, gray (10YR 5 1) loose fine sand.
14 to 32 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) loose fine sand.
32 to 37 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) weakly cemented
fine sand; organic hardpan.
37 to 48 inches plus, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4 2) fine sand
grading to lighter colors with increasing depth.

The following is a profile description of St. Johns fine sand:
0 to 9 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand containing a large
quantity of partly decayed organic matter.
9 to 18 inches, light gray (10YR 7 2) loose fine sand.
18 to 22 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand cemented with
organic materials; organic hardpan.
22 to 36 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) loose fine sand.
36 to 42 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand
grading to light gray with depth.

Small areas of Pomello, St. Lucie, Blanton, Ona, Plummer,
Rutlege, Pompano, Charlotte, Felda, Delray, and Manatee soils
may be included in delineations of Leon, Immokalee, and St.
Johns fine sands. Pomello and St. Lucie soils have lighter colored







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


surface layers, are better drained, and lack the organic hardpan
within the 42-inch depth. Blanton soils are better drained and
also lack the hardpan layer. Ona soils usually have a darker
surface layer and have a stained organic layer at or above a
depth of 14 inches. Plummer, Rutlege, Pompano, Charlotte,
Felda, Delray, and Manatee soils occur in ponds or depressions
adjacent to Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils.
Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands are situated geo-
graphically with about all of the other soil associations mapped
in the Central and Southern Flood Control District and occupy
approximately half of the total area.
These soils have a natural cover of saw palmetto, pine, runner
oak, huckleberry, gallberry, broomsedge, wiregrass and other
grasses. In addition, St. Johns fine sand supports myrtle
bushes, fetter bush, and an abundance of gallberry. In the
southern portion of Osceola County and the Northern portion
of Okeechobee, a large acreage of these soils lacks the pine trees.
The vegetation on these soils furnishes fair to poor grazing.
Many farmers have cleared or destroyed the palmettos and other
shrubs and have developed improved pastures which, after liming
and with annual application of fertilizers, give good grazing for
cattle. Small selected areas have been planted to vegetables and
citrus. Under adequate water control, which includes drainage
and irrigation when necessary, and under good management
practices, the citrus trees planted on ridges have given fair re-
turns, but it is quite expensive to produce fruit on these soils.
It appears that the best use for these soils is range and im-
proved pastures and woodland. Under adequate water control
and good management practices, truck crops could be grown on
selected areas. Pine trees make fair growth generally.
Pe Pomello and Leon fine sands
This soil association occurs on nearly level relief on the low
ridges or knolls in the flatwood regions throughout the Flood Con-
trol District. Runoff is slow to moderate and internal drainage
is moderate to rapid when the soils are freed of a relatively high
water table. These soils become very drought after prolonged
dry periods. Derived from thick beds of sands and strongly acid
throughout, they are low in organic matter and in mineral plant
nutrients. Pomello fine sand has a gray or light gray surface
layer, 1 to 4 inches thick, underlain by white fine sands to a
depth of 42 inches or more. It may have an organic stained layer
between 42 and 60 inches. Leon fine sand, light-colored surface







Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 25

phase, is very similar to Pomello fine sand to depths ranging from
24 to 40 inches. At that depth range the Leon profile has an
organic hardpan which may retard the movement of water
through the soil.
A representative profile of Pomello fine sand is as follows:
0 to 3 inches, gray (10YR 3 1) loose fine sand.
3 to 20 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) loose fine sand.
20 to 45 inches, white (10YR 8 2) loose fine sand.
45 to 55 inches plus, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; organic
stained layer which grades to lighter colors with depth.
A profile description of Leon fine sand, light-colored surface
phase, is as follows:
0 to 2 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loose fine sand.
2 to 28 inches, white (10YR 8 1) loose fine sand.
28 to 32 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) fine
sand; organic hardpan.
32 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5 '6) fine sand.
36 to 48 inches plus, pale yellow (2.5Y 7 4) fine sand.
Small areas of modal Leon, Immokalee, St. Lucie, and Blanton
soils are included in delineated areas of Pomello and Leon associ-
ation. Compared with the Pomello fine sand and Leon fine sand,
light-colored surface phase, the modal Leon and Immokalee soils
have darker surface layers and are more poorly drained; St. Lucie
soils occupy more undulating relief and are better drained; and
Blanton soils are better drained and have darker surface layers.
Pomello and Leon soil association is geographically associated
with Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands; with Lakewood
and St. Lucie fine sands; with Blanton and Lakeland fine sands;
and with Plummer and Rains fine sands. It occurs on slightly
higher and better drained positions than those occupied by Leon,
Immokalee, and St. Johns fine sands; and generally it occupies
smoother relief and retains moisture better than Lakewood and
St. Lucie fine sands.
Most areas of Pomello and Leon fine sands occur under a nat-
ural cover of scrub live oak, runner oak, a few pines, wiregrass
and other grasses. The vegetation furnishes poor to fair range
pasture for cattle. Some areas have fair to good stands of pines.
Few areas have been cleared and planted to citrus or developed
into improved pastures. Under favorable weather conditions
and good management practices, which include liberal fertiliza-
tion and adequate water control, fair returns are obtained from







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


citrus and pastures. Additional areas could be cleared and im-
proved for pasture.

VI. DOMINANTLY POORLY DRAINED SOILS, OVER
NONCALCAREOUS MATERIALS
Pd Plummer and Rains fine sands
Ra Rutlege and Portsmouth fine sands and loamy fine sands
These two soil associations occur in the wet, flat or depres-
sional areas in the flatwood region, principally in Osceola, Okee-
chobee, Highlands, Polk, Orange, and Brevard counties. Under
natural conditions these soils are best suited for grazing, for
wet-land forest, and for limited water storage. With adequate
water control the soils are suitable for improved pasture, forest,
and limited production of truck crops. Commonly, the natural
vegetative growth on these soils consists of short grasses, small
shrubs, and water-tolerant plants, but on some areas of Rutlege
and Portsmouth soils there are also pine, cypress, bays, and other
trees. Many areas of these soils should remain under their pres-
ent natural drainage conditions in order to serve as natural water
reservoirs.
Pd Plummer and Rains fine sands
Plummer and Rains fine sands occur on flats and in depressions
in the flatwood region in the interior of the Flood Control Dis-
trict, principally in Osceola, Okeechobee, Highlands, Polk, Orange,
and Brevard counties. These soils have slow runoff and rapid
internal drainage when freed of a high water table. During sev-
eral months of the year they may be covered with a few inches
of water. These soils have been derived from moderately thick
beds of sands and loamy sands. The modal Plummer fine sand
consists of fine sands to depths greater than 42 inches, whereas
a shallow phase has heavier-textured materials at 30 to 42 inches.
These soils are strongly acid throughout.
A profile description of Plummer fine sand is as follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) loose fine sand.
6 to 12 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) loose fine sand.
12 to 42 inches plus, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) loose fine
sand grading to light gray with increasing depth.
In places the lower portion of the profile has a brown or gray-
ish-brown stained layer.






Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 27

A representative profile of Rains fine sand is as follows:
0 to 5 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) nearly loose fine sand.
5 to 15 inches, light gray (10YR 7 '2) loose fine sand.
15 to 22 inches, pale brown (10YR 6/3) loose fine sand.
22 to 27 inches, dark gray (10YR 4 1) streaked slightly with
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), fine sandy clay loam.
27 to 48 inches plus, light brownish-gray (10YR 6, 2) streaked
with strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), fine sandy clay loam.
Small areas of Rutlege, Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils
may be included in delineated areas of Plummer and Rains associ-
ation. Rutlege soils have darker and thicker surface layers than
Plummer soils. Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils have or-
ganic hardpans within depths of 42 inches. Such hardpan layers
are absent in Plummer and Rains soils.
Plummer and Rains fine sands are associated geographically
with Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns; Rutlege and Portsmouth;
and Sunniland and Broward associations.
Generally, Plummer and Rains soils support a natural cover
of short grasses and shrubs, a few clumps of saw palmettos, and
a few pines and water-tolerant plants. Range pastures are fair
to good. Several areas of these soils have been partly drained
and sown to improved pasture grasses which, after liming and
with annual fertilization, provide good grazing. Some areas
have been placed under water control (primarily drainage) and
produce fair to good yields of vegetables under good manage-
ment. Additional areas could profitably be developed for veg-
etable production, others for improved pastures.

Ra Rutlege and Portsmouth fine sands and loamy fine sands
Rutlege and Portsmouth soils occur in low wet areas, princi-
pally in Osceola, Okeechobee, Highlands, Polk, and Orange coun-
ties. These soils occupy flat, nearly level, or depressed areas in
the flatwood region. Runoff is very slow and internal drainage
is moderate to rapid when the soils are freed of a high water
table. During a portion of the year Rutlege and Portsmouth
soils may be covered with several inches of water. These soils
were formed under very poor drainage from moderately thick
beds of acid sands. The modal Rutlege soils are sands or loamy
sands to depths greater than 42 inches; a shallow phase has
heavy-textured materials between depths of 30 and 42 inches.
Portsmouth soils have heavy-textured materials within 30 inches.
These soils are strongly acid throughout.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The following is a profile description of Rutlege fine sand:
0 to 8 inches, black (10YR 2/1.) fine sand.
8 to 20 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand.
20 to 32 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand.
32 to 42 inches plus, mottled light gray (10YR 7/2), pale
yellow (2.5Y 7/4), and yellow (2.5Y 7/6) fine sand.

Rutlege soils of the association include fine sand; loamy fine
sand; fine sand, shallow phase; and mucky fine sand. The mucky
fine sand has a considerable quantity of organic matter mixed
with the fine sand surface.
A profile description of Portsmouth fine sand is as follows:
0 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand.
12 to 30 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy clay loam.
20 to 30 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) mottled slightly with
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6); fine sandy clay loam.
30 to 42 inches plus, mottled grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) and
yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy clay loam.

In places the surface soil is loamy fine sand or may have a
thin mucky layer over the sandy materials.
Small areas of Plummer, Rains, Leon, Immokalee, St. Johns,
Ona, Pamlico, and Brighton soils may be included in delineated
areas of the association.
Rutlege and Portsmouth soils are geographically associated
with Puummer and Rains soils; with Leon, Immokalee, and St.
Johns soils; and with Ona and Scranton soils.
Rutlege and Portsmouth soils largely support a natural cover
of grasses, sedges, ferns, myrtle, gallberry, pine, bays, and other
trees and water-tolerant plants. When the areas are not deeply
covered with water, the vegetative cover furnishes fair to good
grazing for the cattle. Several areas have been partly drained
and planted to improved pasture grasses which, after liming and
with annual fertilization, give good grazing. Some areas have
been placed under water control and used for the production of
vegetables. Under favorable weather conditions and good man-
agement practices, good yields are obtained from the vegetable
crops. Additional areas could be developed for the production
of truck crops and improved pastures. Due to the great expense
in clearing the land, the areas that are supporting a heavy
growth of trees and shrubs should probably remain in forest.
Many of these areas act as drainageways for the flatwoods re-
gion, and extensive ditching or draining enterprises in the Rut-






Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 29

lege and Portsmouth soils would lower the effective ground-
water level in the adjacent higher lying soils.

VII. DOMINANTLY POORLY DRAINED SOILS, OVER
CALCAREOUS MATERIALS
Da Delray and Manatee fine sands and fine sandy loams
Pf Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell fine sands
These two soil associations occupy flat or depressional areas
in the flatwoods regions throughout the Flood Control District.
Under natural conditions, these soils are poorly drained and may
be covered with water during a portion of the year. If freed of
their high water tables they have moderate to rapid internal
drainage through the sandy layers and slow to moderate drain-
age through the sandy clay loam and marl layers. Commonly,
these soils support a natural cover of grasses, sedges, and small
shrubs which provide fair to good grazing and can easily be
removed for cultivation of crops. In some areas, however, the
natural vegetation includes bay, gums, myrtle bushes, cypress,
cabbage palmettos, and other trees which are expensive to re-
move.
During the normal, relatively dry winter and spring seasons
it is possible to produce many vegetables and some improved
pastures on these soils under a good management system. With
water control (primarily drainage) high yields of truck crops
and improved pastures can be obtained except when cold weather
damages or kills the plants. It is not advisable to try to grow
citrus on these poorly drained soils without adequate water con-
trol. With adequate control, favorable weather conditions and
good management, fair to good yields can be expected if the
citrus trees are planted on ridges.
Da Delray and Manatee fine sands and fine sandy loams
Delray and Manatee soils occur on flat or depressional areas
in the flatwoods regions, principally in Brevard, Indian River,
St. Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, Osceola, and Orange
counties. They are poorly drained, with very slow or no runoff
and slow to moderate internal drainage when freed of a high
water table. Under natural conditions they are covered with
water for many months of the year. Delray soils have been
formed from moderately thick beds of sands over alkaline ma-
terials, and the Manatee soils from a thin layer of sands or loamy
sands over alkaline clayey materials usually underlain by marl.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


These soils are slightly acid to neutral in reaction in the surface
layers and nearly neutral or alkaline in lower horizons. The
modal Delray profile consists of sands or loamy sands to depths
greater than 42 inches; a shallow phase has heavier-textured
materials at 30 to 42 inches. The Manatee soils have heavy-
textured materials within 30 inches.
A representative profile of Delray fine sand is as follows:
0 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand containing a large
quantity of organic matter.
12 to 24 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand.
24 to 42 inches plus, light gray (10YR 7/2) streaked with pale
yellow (2.5Y 7/4), fine sand.

The dominant textures of Delrays soils are fine sand, mucky
fine sand, and loamy fine sand.
A profile description of Manatee fine sandy loam is as follows:
0 to 9 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam, containing a
considerable amount of organic matter.
9 to 24 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy clay
loam.
24 to 42 inches plus, mottled gray and light gray (10YR 5/1
and 7/1) marl of fine sandy clay texture.

Manatee soils have textures of fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine
sandy loam, fine sandy clay loam, mucky fine sand, mucky loamy
fine sand, and mucky fine sandy loam.
Small areas of Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, Parkwood, Keri,
Copeland, Bradenton, Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils may
be included in delineated areas of Delray and Manatee associa-
tion. These included soils are described in other places in this
report.
Delray and Manatee soils are associated geographically with
Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell soils; with Parkwood,
Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton soils; with Sunniland and Brow-
ard soils; with Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils; with Ever-
glades peat and mucky peat; and with Loxahatchee peat and
mucky peat.
The natural cover of Delray and Manatee soils includes various
grasses, sedges, maiden cane, gallberry, myrtle bushes, a few
cabbage palmettos, sawgrass, cypress, gum bays, arrowheads.
and other water-tolerant plants. Areas covered only by shallow
water furnish fair to good grazing for cattle. The wooded areas






Soil Surcey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 31

harbor many wild animals. Several areas of these soils have
been drained or placed under water control within the various
drainage districts and planted to vegetables, citrus, and improved
pasture grasses. The citrus trees are planted on ridges approxi-
mately 24 to 30 inches higher than the swale or ditch between
the tree rows. Under good management practices, which include
water control and fertilization, fair to good yields are obtained
from the grapefruit and orange trees, vegetables, and improved
pastures. Additional areas could be placed under adequate water
control and used for vegetable production or improved pastures.
Under natural conditions many areas act as water reservoirs for
runoff from the adjacent higher lying soils.

Pf Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell fine sands
Large areas of this association occur in Brevard, Indian River,
St. Lucie, Okeechobee, Osceola, Polk, Martin, and Palm Beach
counties. These soils occupy flat, nearly level, or depressional
areas in the flatwood regions. They have very slow runoff and
moderate to rapid internal drainage through the sandy layers
when freed of a high water table. Under natural conditions
these soils may be covered with a few inches of water for several
months at a time. They are medium acid to neutral in reaction
in the surface layers and nearly neutral or alkaline in their
lower layers. Pompano, Charlotte, and Arzell soils have been
derived from moderately thick beds of sands over calcareous ma-
terials. Felda soils are from thin beds of sands or loamy sands
over alkaline clayey materials which may contain calcareous
fragments, shells, or limestone. Pompano soils have a dark
gray or gray surface layer, 3 to 8 inches thick, underlain
by grayish-brown or light gray fine sand to 30 inches or more.
Felda soils have similar colors above the gray or mottled light
gray and yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam that occurs with-
in 30 inches. Charlotte soils have a gray or grayish-brown sur-
face layer underlain by light gray fine sand that breaks abruptly
to brownish-yellow fine sand at 18 to 30 inches. Arzell soils have
a 1-2 inch gray surface layer underlain by white fine sand to a
depth of 30 inches or more.
A representative profile of Pompano fine sand is as follows:
0 to 8 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) loose fine sand.
8 to 24 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5 2) loose fine sand.
24 to 42 inches plus, light gray (10YR 7/2) streaked or slightly
mottled with brownish-yellow (10YR 6 8), loose fine sand.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


A shallow phase of Pompano fine sand has fine sandy loam or
fine sandy clay loam materials at 30 to 42 inches.
A profile description of Felda fine sand is as follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) nearly loose fine sand.
6 to 16 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loose fine sand.
16 to 24 inches, light gray (10YR 7/2) loose fine sand streaked
with yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6).
24 to 30 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sandy
clay loam streaked with yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) and
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8).
30 to 42 inches plus, mottled light gray (10YR 7/1) and brown-
ish-yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sandy clay loam grading to fine
sandy loam and loamy fine sand with depth.

A representative profile description of Charlotte fine sand is
as follows:
0 to 6 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) loose fine sand.
6 to 18 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) loose fine sand.
18 to 30 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) loose fine sand.
30 to 42 inches plus, pale brown (10YR 6/3) loose fine sand
grading to light gray or white with depth.
A shallow phase of Charlotte fine sand has mottled brownish-
yellow and light gray fine sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam
material at 30 to 42 inches below the surface.
The following is a profile description of Arzell fine sand:
0 to 2 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loose fine sand.
2 to 30 inches, white (10YR 8/1) loose fine sand.
30 to 42 inches plus, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loose fine sand.

Small areas of Delray, Manatee, Parkwood, Keri, Sunniland,
Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils may be included in the
delineated areas of Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell as-
sociation. Delray and Manatee soils have darker and thicker
surface layers; Parkwood, Keri, and Sunniland soils occupy bet-
ter drained positions; and Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils
have organic hardpans.
Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell fine sands are associ-
ated geographically with the Delray and Manatee; Parkwood,
Keri, Copeland, and Bradenton; Sunniland and Broward; and
Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soil associations.
Many areas of Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, and Arzell fine
sands are included in range pastures. When the areas are not






Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 33

deeply covered with water the vegetative cover, which consists
of various grasses, sedges, shrubs, maiden cane, a few myrtle
bushes, gallberry, cypress, pine, cabbage palmetto, and a few
clumps of saw palmettos, furnishes fair to good grazing for
cattle. A few areas have been partly drained and planted to
improved pasture grasses which provide good grazing. During
the dry winter and spring months many areas are diked and are
planted to tomatoes and other vegetables which give good re-
turns under favorable weather conditions and good management.
Afterward, the areas are seeded to grasses for pasture.
In Indian River, St. Lucie, and Brevard counties large areas
of these soils have been placed under water control and are used
for the production of tomatoes and other vegetables, for citrus,
and for improved pastures. With favorable weather and good
management, good yields are obtained from the crops. The
citrus trees are planted on ridges with a swale or ditch between
the rows of trees to provide better drainage. If adequate water
control is provided, a large additional acreage of these soils in
Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Okeechobee, Martin, and Palm
Beach counties could be used for the production of vegetables,
for improved pastures, and for citrus.

VIII. DOMINANTLY VERY POORLY DRAINED
ORGANIC SOILS
Be Brighton peat and mucky peat
Ea Everglades peat and mucky peat
la Istokpoga peat and mucky peat
La Loxahatchee peat and mucky peat
Pb Pamlico muck and peaty muck
The mucks and peats occur in very wet areas, principally near
the headwaters of the St. Johns River in Brevard and Indian
River counties and near lakes in Highlands, Orange, Osceola,
and Polk counties. Under natural conditions the mucks and
peats are best suited for water storage and wildlife habitats.
During many months of the year they are covered with several
inches of water, but where the water is very shallow the natural
vegetation of water-tolerant plants gives some grazing for cattle.
Under favorable weather and good management, which includes
the application of fertilizers and lime and adequate water control
(primarily drainage), good yields can be obtained from many






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


truck and special crops and from improved pastures. After
drainage the organic soils shrink rapidly through oxidation.
When the drained areas are not in crops or in improved pastures
the water table should be kept as near the surface as possible to
prevent unnecessary subsidence of these organic soils. Many
of the undeveloped areas should remain under natural conditions
to serve as natural water reservoirs.
The depth of the organic materials are recorded to the right
of the soil number on the field maps, as follows:
1-less than 36 inches of organic materials.
2-36 to 60 inches of organic materials.
3-60 to 96 inches of organic materials.
4-96 inches or more of organic materials.
Example: 21-2 is Everglades mucky peat with 36 to 60 inches
of orgniac materials.

Be Brighton peat and mucky peat
Brighton peat and mucky peat occur principally in Highlands,
Orange, Osceola, and Polk counties. Resting on acid sands, they
are derived from the remains of sawgrass, bonnets, sedges, and
other aquatic plants. The organic materials range in depths
from 12 to 84 inches. These soils occur in large marshes or
shallow depressions in the flatwood regions. They are very
poorly drained and may be covered with water for several months
of the year. They are associated with Pamlico, Leon, and Im-
mokalee soils. Pamlico soils are more decomposed and black in
color than the Brighton soils. Everglades and Loxahatchee soils
are nearly neutral or alkaline rather than acid in reaction.
A profile description of Brighton peat is as follows:
0 to 12 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fibrous peat.
12 to 24 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) fibrous
felty peat.
24 to 42 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fibrous felty
peat.
42 to 54 inches plus, dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand.
Brighton soils are used chiefly for pasture. When the areas
are not deeply covered with water the natural cover furnishes
fair to good grazing. Areas partly drained or under water con-
trol are used for improved pasture or for vegetables. Yields are
good under favorable weather conditions and good soil manage-
ment.






Soil Surrey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 35

Ea Everglades peat and mucky peat
Everglades peat and mucky peat occur principally northwest
of Fellsmere in Indian River County and in Polk and Osceola
counties. Resting on neutral or alkaline sands and sandy clays,
they have been derived from the remains of sawgrass, sedges,
lilies, myrtle bushes, and grasses. These soils occur on flat or
depressed areas. They are very poorly drained and may be
covered with water during many months of the year. Ever-
glades peat and mucky peat are closely associated with Loxa-
hatchee peat and mucky peat. They have a black or very dark
brown non-fibrous mucky peat or peat surface layer underlain
by brown fibrous peat, whereas the Loxahatchee soils have
brown or grayish-brown fibrous peat surface and deeper layers.
Brighton mucky peat and peat are similar to the Everglades soils
in morphology but are strongly acid in reaction. Depth ranges
of less than 36 inches and 36 to 60 inches are recorded on the field
maps by symbols principally within and adjacent to the sugar
cane plantings near Fellsmere. Indian River County.
The natural vegetative cover of the Everglades peat and mucky
peat consists of maiden cane, native grasses, lilies, sedges, clumps
of sawgrass, and myrtle bushes.
A representative profile of Everglades mucky peat is as fol-
lows:
0 to 15 inches, black (10YR 2/1) non-fibrous fairly well de-
composed mucky peat containing a small amount of min-
eral matter.
15 to 30 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fibrous peat.
30 to 36 inches, gray (10YR 5 1) fine sand.
36 to 42 inches plus, gray or light gray (10YR 5/1 or 6/1)
fine sandy clay loam.
Under natural drainage the areas serve as a wildlife habitat.
During dry periods the natural cover furnishes good grazing for
cattle. With drainage and cultivation the organic layers de-
compose very rapidly and may become very thin. Organic ma-
terials for lawns, compost, and filler for fertilizer are taken from
some of the areas. Near Fellsmere some areas have been
drained and planted to sugar cane. Yields are high under good
management.

Ia Istokpoga peat and mucky peat
Istokpoga peat and mucky peat occur on low flats or in slight
depressions, principally southeast of Lake Istokpoga in High-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


lands County. Resting on acid sands, they have been formed
from the remains of woody plants rather than from grasses,
sedges, lilies, and other succulent aquatic plants, as are Brighton
soils. These soils are very poorly drained and may be covered
with water during many months of the year. They are strongly
or very strongly acid throughout.
The natural vegetative cover consists of white and red bays,
some maple, cypress, gum and other hardwood trees, myrtle
bushes, briers, vines, ferns, and few grasses.
A generalized profile description of Istokpoga peat is as fol-
lows:
0 to 8 inches, black or very dark brown (10YR 2/1 or 2/2)
woody peat containing small pieces of hard wood.
8 to 66 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) or dark-brown
(7.5YR 4/4) woody peat.
66 to 84 inches plus, gray or light gray (10YR 5/1 or 7/1)
fine sand to sandy clay.
Near Lake Istokpoga, Highlands County, the woody organic
materials range from 36 to 96 inches in thickness. The lower
portion contains some admixture of mineral matter from be-
neath.
Some areas of Istokpoga soils are used for the production of
vegetables. Under a good management system, which includes
water control and liberal applications of lime and fertilizers,
fair to good yields are obtained. Some areas are in range pas-
ture; still others support some merchantable cypress and hard-
wood.

La Loxahatchee peat and mucky peat
Loxahatchee peat and mucky peat occur principally in Indian
River, Brevard, and Palm Beach counties. They have been
formed from the remains of succulent aquatic plants, such as
lilies, bonnets, bladderwort, arrowhead, pickerel weed, maiden
cane, sedges, and clumps of sawgrass and myrtle bushes and
overlie neutral or alkaline sands or sandy clays. During the
greater part of the year these soils are covered with water.
They are associated with the Everglades soils but differ in hav-
ing brown or brownish-gray felty, fibrous peat surface layers,
whereas the Everglades soils have black, nonfibrous surface
layers. Loxahatchee soils are nearly neutral or alkaline in re-
action. The organic materials range in depths from 12 to more
than 96 inches.







Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 37

A representative profile of Loxahatchee peat is as follows:
0 to 8 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) or dark
grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) soft, felty, fibrous peat contain-
ing partially decayed leaves, stems, and roots from aquatic
plants.
8 to 38 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) soft, felty,
fibrous peat.
38 to 42 inches plus, dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy clay
loam.

Practically the entire acreage of this soil supports natural
vegetative growth, and is a feeding and breeding ground for
birds and wild animals. When the soil is not deeply covered
with water the vegetative cover provides fair to good forage.
It would be quite expensive to install water control and to plant
vegetables or establish improved pastures on these soils. If the
areas were drained, lowering of the water table in Loxahatchee
soils would also lower ground-water levels of adjacent higher
lying soils.

Pb Pamlico muck and peaty muck
Pamlico muck and peaty muck occur principally in Orange.
Osceola, and Polk counties. They have been formed from the
remains of sedges, lilies, arrowheads, hyacinths, myrtle bushes,
gallberry, and grasses and overlie acid sand and clay. The or-
ganic materials are fairly well decomposed and are mixed with
mineral matter, their organic matter contents ranging from 30
to 60 percent. These soils are very poorly drained and are cov-
ered with water for many months of the year. They are strongly
to very strongly acid throughout. Pamlico muck and peaty muck
are associated with Brighton peat and mucky peat but are more
completely decomposed and contain more mineral matter. Depth
ranges of 0-36 inches and 36-60 inches are mapped.
A representative profile of Pamlico muck is as follows:
0 to 18 inches, black (10YR 2/1) well decomposed muck mixed
with mineral matter varying from 30 to 60 percent of the
total mass.
18 to 24 inches, black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand.
24 to 36 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand.
36 to 42 inches plus, gray or light gray (10YR 5/1 or 7/1)
fine sand.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


A large portion of Pamilco muck and peaty muck is used for
range pasture. When not covered too deeply with water, the
vegetative cover furnishes fair to good grazing. During the
dry seasons and under water control, which includes drainage
and irrigation, some areas are planted to vegetables. Under good
management practices, fairly high yields are obtained from the
crops.

IX. MISCELLANEOUS LAND TYPES
Aa Alluvial soils
Ca Coastal beach
Fa Fresh water swamp
Sa Shallow ponds
Ta Tidal swamp
The Miscellaneous land types are suitable for such uses as
grazing on native vegetation, forestry, water storage, and wild-
life. The land units consist of a variety of soils and soil ma-
terials.
Aa Alluvial soils
These soils occur on the flood plains of Kissimmee and St.
Johns rivers and other large streams. The areas are dissected
by numerous swales, oxbows, and ditches and are inundated fre-
quently by flood waters from adjacent streams. These flood
plains include a variety of soils. Some of them have black mucky
surface layers and others have light and medium colored sandy
or sandy clay surface layers. The soils resemble those of Delray,
Manatee, Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, Pamlico, Brighton, Ever-
glades, and Loxahatchee series. The vegetation is a growth of
grasses, sedges, aquatic plants, vines, shrubs, and few willows
and bays.
When not covered deeply by water, these soils provide fair to
good grazing. Some areas can furnish a little timber.
Ca Coastal beach
This unit includes narrow strips of land along the eastern
shores of "keys" or islands and of the mainland, adjacent to the
Atlantic Ocean. The beaches are composed of deposits of wind-
and water-worked sand and shell fragments. Most of them are
devoid of vegetation or have a sparse growth of beach morning-
glory, sea grape, sea oats, other salt-tolerant plants, and a few
coconut trees. The plants near the shore are affected by salinity
of the soil and by salt spray in the air.






Soil Surrey of Kissimnmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys 39

Some areas are used for recreational purposes and others as
building sites.

Fa Fresh water swamp
This unit consists of low lying forested areas which may be
covered with water during many months of the year. It sup-
ports a mixture of trees and shrubs such as red and white bays,
cypress, gums, oaks, myrtle, and vines and ferns. Some areas
serve as natural drainageways in the flatwoods regions. The
swamps include a variety of soils. In many places the upper 4-
to 8-inch layer is a black to dark gray mucky fine sand or mucky
peat. The lower layers are usually gray to light gray in color
and vary from fine sands to sandy clay in texture. In some of
the larger areas the organic materials may extend to depths of
36 to 72 inches. Some of the soils occurring in the wet forested
areas belong to Rutlege, Plummer, Delray, Manatee, Pompano,
Felda, Charlotte, and Istokpoga series.
Fresh water swamp is used primarily for forest and as a wild-
life habitat. Some trees yield good lumber and others furnish
poles. Many swamps serve as drainageways and water reser-
voirs for runoff from adjacent soils.

Sa Shallow ponds
This unit includes shallow and moderately deep fresh water
ponds and marshes which are covered with water for the greater
part of the year. These ponds support thick stands of grasses,
water lilies, bonnets, arrowhead, pickerel weed, sedges, cattail,
and other aquatic plants. The soils in a pond include one or
more of the Plummer, Rutlege, Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, Del-
ray, Manatee, Everglades, Loxahatchee, Pamlico, and Brighton
series.
The shallow ponds have limited usefulness except for wildlife.
When not deeply covered with water, the vegetative cover fur-
nishes some grazing. It would be very expensive to install water
control systems and grow improved grasses or vegetables. If
these ponded areas were drained, the soils on adjacent higher-
lying areas would have less ground water for crops and grasses.

Ta Tidal swamp
This unit occupies flat or nearly level low lying coastal areas
along the bays and Atlantic Ocean. Generally, the tidal swamp
carries a thick growth of mangrove trees; a few small areas
have a cover of salt-tolerant grasses and shrubs. The land is






40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

inundated frequently by salt water. The swamps include a vari-
ety of soils. The surface layer generally consists of a mixture
of sand and mucky or peaty materials. The lower layers contain
gray or light gray fine sands to fine sandy clay loams.
These tidal areas are used mainly for wildlife. The larger
mangrove trees could be used as sources of tannin, charcoal, and
lumber.




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