Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Pig-feeding
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027112/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pig-feeding
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Scott, John M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1913
Copyright Date: 1913
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027112
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aen2335 - LTUF
18160997 - OCLC
000921867 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
        Historic note
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida



Agricultural Experiment Station




Fig. 24.-Some of the pigs used in Experiment IV.

The Station Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment
Station, Gainesville, Florida.

Pepper Pub. & Ptg. Co., Gainesville, Fla.

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
F. P. FLEMING, JR., Jacksonville, Fla.
W. D. FINLAYSON, Old Town, Fla.

P. H. ROLFS, M.S., Director.
J. M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director.
B. F. FLOYD, A.M., Plant Physiologist.
J. R. WATSON, A.M., Entomologist.
H. E. STEVENS, M. S., Plant Pathologist.
S. E. COLLISON, M.S., Chemist.
JOHN BELLING, B.Sc., Assistant Botanist, and Editor.
O. F. BURGER, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist.
S. S. WALKER, M.S., Assistant Chemist.
J. H. CARPENTER, B.S., Assistant Chemist*.
JOHN SCHNABEL, Assistant Horticulturist.
U. C. LOFTIN, B.S., Laboratory Assistant in Entomology.
F. M. O'BYRNE, A.B., Laboratory Assistant in Plant Physiology.
M. S. PYLE, Librarian.
E. G. SHAW, Secretary.
B. V. GLOVER, Stenographer.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and Bookkeeper.
M. CREWS, Farm Foreman.

P. H. ROLFS, M.S., Superintendent.
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Assistant in Extension Work.
C. K. MCQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent Farmers' Institutes.
*Employed for citrus analytical work. Salary paid by the Florida
Gitrus Exchange.

Summary ....--------------....___. .._____. _.____._.._..._.. .... 45
Composition of the Animal Body and Animal Products .-----_------. 46
Composition of Feeds .---.--------......-----------.----..... ....... 46
How to Calculate Rations .......--------------_.------------------------ 48
Some Good Rations-.........------------------------------------------- 49
Pork Production ----------------. ----.---.------------------- 50
Pen-Feeding Unprofitable .----- .. ------..---------------... --------. 51
Choosing a Breed ...-..-------------------------------------------... .. 51
Grading-up ___...------_-... _____ _----- --------------------------_____.. 52
Location and Green Crops. --------------------- -------------_ 52
Care of the Herd ----------------------.--- -------------------.-----. 53
Experiment I .....___ ..------------ _-------_____-------- ----------...- 54
Experiment II ------- -------- ---..----- --------... ------------- --.. 55
Experiment Ill .---------_-----.----. --------____--------------------. 56
Experiment IV .--------------------------.. _._ -----------------...._ 57
Experiment V ...---._------ _---- ....-- ------------ --______....----. 58
Experiment VI .--------------------------...--------.---....-- .._- 59




This bulletin gives the results of experiments with eighty-
seven pigs. All of these pigs were pure-bred Berkshires. The
experiments were conducted at different seasons of the year.
The length of the feeding periods varied from 30 to 114 days.
The cost of producing a pound of pork was different with
the different rations. The cheapest pork was produced at a
cost of six and eight-tenths cents per pound. The feeds used in
producing this cheap pork were shelled corn and sweet potatoes
in equal parts by weight. This experiment was conducted dur-
ing January and February. During the thirty days the pigs
were fed they made a daily average gain of 0.65 of a pound, or
an average daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight of 6.43
pounds. It required 512.7 pounds of feed to make 100 pounds
of gain. (See Tables XIII and XIV).
The most unsatisfactory financial returns were in Experi-
ment II. In this test velvet beans in the pod, Japanese cane, and
sweet potatoes were used. Lot I, consisting of five pigs fed
velvet beans in the pod, made a gain of only 25 pounds in sixty
days. Lot II, consisting of five pigs fed equal parts by weight
of velvet beans in the pod and Japanese cane, gained only 4.3
pounds in sixty days. Lot III, consisting of five pigs fed velvet
beans one part and Japanese cane two parts by weight, lost 7.7
pounds in weight in sixty days. Lot IV, consisting of five pigs
fed Japanese cane, lost 61 pounds in weight in sixty days. Lot
V, consisting of five pigs fed velvet beans in the pod and sweet
potatoes, equal parts by weight, gained only 12.3 pounds in sixty
days. (See Tables III and IV.)
This shows clearly that none of these rations were satisfac-
tory. Velvet beans in the pod, when fed alone, gave better re-
sults than any of the other combinations. It is evident from
these results that Japanese cane is not a good feed for pork pro-
duction when fed alone. Neither was it satisfactory when it
made up as much as one-half of the ration.
In Experiment I, when shelled corn, velvet beans in the pod,
and Japanese cane were fed, satisfactory gains were obtained.
The cost per pound of gain was eight and six-tenths cents. In
this test it required 1400 pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of
gain. This large weight of feed was due to the Japanese cane.
(See Tables I and II).
In Experiment III, Lot I, fed shelled corn only, made a daily

46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

gain per 1000 pounds live weight of 4.4 pounds. The cost per
pound of gain was eight cents. For every 100 pounds of gain
produced it required 546 pounds of feed. Lot II, fed shelled corn
and cull velvet beans, equal parts by weight, made an average
daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight of only 3.3 pounds. With
this combination of feeds it cost ten cents to make a pound of
gain, and it required 797 pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of
gain. Lot III, fed equal parts by weight of shelled corn, cull
velvet beans and shorts, made an average daily gain per 1000
pounds live weight of 4.7 pounds. The cost per pound of gain
with these feeds was nine cents. With this combination it re-
quired 641 pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of gain. Lot IV
was fed the same as Lot II, with the addition of green sorghum.
This ration produced a daily gain of 4.5 pounds per thousand
pounds live weight. The cost per pound of gain was eight
cents. It required 1118 pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of
gain. When we remember that 520 pounds of this is green
sorghum, the total amount will not seem so excessive.

Investigators have found that the bodies of animals, as well
as animal products, are mainly made up of the following group
of substances: Water, ash, protein, and fat. These substances
occur in the animal body in somewhat varying proportions, de-
pending upon the age, condition, treatment and other factors.
Water is an essential constituent of the animal body, and com-
poses from 40 to 60 per cent. of the live weight. Ash occurs
mostly in the bones, and forms from 2 to 5 per cent. of the live
weight. The fat occurs in greatly varying proportions, but rare-
ly constitutes less than 6 per cent, or more than 30 per cent.
Protein includes most of those substances which contain nitrogen
in their composition. It is an important group, and is largely
present in lean meat. The white of eggs also consists mainly of
protein and water. In its pure state protein contains about 16
per cent. of nitrogen. The flesh, internal organs, brains and
nerves, contain a large proportion of it.

Plants also contain water, ash, fat and protein. In addition
to these the plants which compose the food of herbivorous animals
contain a group of substances called carbohydrates (starches,
sugars, etc.) which may be converted into fat or energy.
WATER.-All food-stuffs, no matter how dry they may seem,
contain a considerable amount of water. In grains and dry feeds
the water ranges from 3 to 15 per cent. of the material; in green
forage and silage it is about 80 per cent.; while in some tubers
and fleshy roots the water reaches as high as 90 per cent. Water

Bulletin 113 47

is essential to animal life, and in food it fulfills the same function
as that drunk by the animal. In calculating the food value of
any feeding material the water contained is, of course, not
taken into consideration.
AsH.-When a food stuff is burned until the organic matter
is all driven off, the residue is the ash. It is composed largely of
lime, magnesia, potash, sulphuric and phosphoric acids, and a
few other oxides. The ash of the food is the source of the min-
eral matter found in the animal body, and as such is of import-
ance. Ordinary combinations of feeding stuffs, however, usual-
ly contain an abundant supply of mineral matter for the use of
the arimal; so this is not often a matter of practical concern,
except as it has a bearing on the mineral elements of fertility in
the manure.
FATS.-This class of substances includes the fat in the meat
or butter which we eat. The proportions of fat in feeding stuffs
vary within wide limits. In general, seeds and their by-products
contain more fat than coarse fodder. Straws contain less fat
than hays, the amount varying from one-half to one and a half
per cent. But little fat is found in the dry matter of roots or
tubers. Corn and oats contain from four to five, while cotton-
seed meal contains from eight to twelve per cent. of fat.
CARBOHYDRATES.-This class includes starch, sugar, gum
and other minor substances, and also the fiber or woody part of
plants. The first are quite freely digested; the last is much less
so, though fulfilling the same function as far as it is digested.
The carbohydrates constitute the largest part of most vegetable
foods. They are not stored in the body as such, but are con-
verted into fat, or used to produce heat and energy. Since the
carbohydrates and fats serve nearly the same purpose in the ani-
mal body, they may, for convenience, be grouped together. Ex-
periments, however, have shown that fat, as a food, is about two
and one-fourth times as effective, weight for weight, as are the
carbohydrates. That is, one pound of fat will produce about as
much heat or energy as two and one-quarter pounds of carbo-
PROTEIN.-The protein of foods, like that of the animal
body is characterized by containing nitrogen. It is, therefore,
included in what is termed "nitrogenous matter." The function
of protein in the food is first of all to build up new tissue and
repair the working machinery of the body, and to supply materi-
al for the production of milk, wool, muscle, and repair of organs.
No other food constituent can fulfill this function.
Since the animal body and all animal products are composed
of the same group of substances as food stuffs contain, we have
a basis on which to begin the feeding of animals. Rational
feeding of animals is to supply these different elements in suffi-
cient quantity and in the proper proportions for the needs of
the animal's body. This is what is known as a balanced ration.

48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

We should not, or cannot, expect an animal to grow and develop
as it ought unless we supply it with the proper amounts of
the different substances its body needs. There is no one hog
feed, excepting milk, that supplies all of the necessary nutrients
in the correct ratio. It is necessary, therefore, to use a mix-
ture of two or more feeds to get the best results.
In selecting and combining feeds it is not only necessary to
take into consideration their composition, but also their digesti-
bility and palatability. It is worse than useless to give an ani-
mal a food that cannot be digested, and one that is not palatable
will not be eaten in sufficient quantity.

From the table which gives the percentage of digestible
nutrients in the various feeds we can easily work out a balanced
ration. For example, suppose we are feeding flint corn 12,
sweet potatoes 12, cottonseed meal 1.75, and cowpeas 5 pounds
per day, to find the amount of protein in 12 pounds of corn, we
divide the amount in 100 pounds (the percentage) by 100, and
multiply by 12, and so on. We will thus get the following
In 100 pounds In 12 pounds
Crude protein ------ ------------ ----- 8.0 0.96
Carbohydrates -----------_------------- 66.2 7.94
Fat -------------------------------------- 4.3 0.51

In 100 pounds In 12 pounds
Crude protein ----.--.--------- ------------- 0.8 0.09
Carbohydrates -------------------------- 22.9 2.75
Fat ---------------------------------------- 0.2 0.03

In 100 pounds In 1.75 pounds
Crude protein -------- ------------- 37.6 0.66
Carbohydrates ---------------------------- 21.4 0.37
Fat -------------------------------------- 9.6 0.17

In 100 pounds In 5 pounds
Crude protein ---- --------------------- 16.8 0.84
Carbohydrates ------------------------------ 54.9 2.74
Fat -------------------------------------- 1.1 0.06
If we then arrange these results in another table we have:
Protein Carbohydrates Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn---------------------- 12 0.96 7.94 0.51
Sweet potatoes ----------- -- 12 0.09 2.75 0.03
Cottonseed meal------------- 1.75 0.66 0.37 0.17
Cow-peas ------------------- 5 0.84 2.74 0.06
Total-------------- 30.75 2.55 13.80 0.77

Bulletin 113 4Q

One pound of fat is equal to 2.25 pounds of carbohydrates;
therefore, we can reduce the fat to carbohydrates by multiplying
0.77 pounds of fats by 2.25 and the result is 1.73. Adding this
to the carbohydrates, we get 15.53 pounds total carbohydrates.
Dividing the total carbohydrates, 15.53, by the total protein, 2.55,
gives 6.09. The nutritive ratio then is one part protein to 6.09
parts carbohydrates, and is written 1:6.09.

Any one of the following rations should be found satisfac-
tory for fattening hogs. The question of cost will, of course,
enter into the selection of a ration. It will be found necessary,
perhaps, to estimate the cost of the different feeds and see which
will be the most economical to use.


Protein Carbohyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn --_---_------ 12 0.96 7.94 0.51
Sweet potatoes---------- 12 0.09 2.75 0.03
Cottonseed meal------- 1.75 0.66 0.37 0.17
Cow-peas -------- 5 0.84 2.74 0.06
"Total------------- 30.75 2.55 13.80 0.77
Nutritive ratio, 1:6.


Protein Carbohyd. Fat
PPounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn ----------------- 15 1.20 9.93 0.64
Soy beans ------------- 3 0.87 0.70 0.44
Dwarf Essex rape ------I 25 0.50 2.02 0.05
Total------------I 43 2.57 | 12.65 I 1.13
Nutritive ratio, 1:5.9.


SProtein Carbohyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Sorghum seed---------- 10 0.45 6.11 0.28
Corn ------------------ 10 0.80 3.31 '0.43
Cowpeas ------------ 7.5 1.26 4.11 0.08'
Total--------------- 27.5 2.51 I 13.53 0.79
Nutritive ratio, 1:6.

i .i

50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station



ca 0 0
>L S H P Cd C
Flint corn--------- 11.3 10.5 1.7 70.1 5.0 8.00 -66.2 4.3
Corn meal---------- 15.0 9.2 1.9 68.7 3.8 6.70 64.3 3.5
Corn and cob meal-- 15.1 8.5 6.6 64.8 3.5 4.40 60.0 2.9
Wheat bran -------- 11.9 15.4 9.0 53.9 4.0 11.9 42.0 2.5
Shorts ------------ 11.2 16.9 6.2 56.2 5.1 13.0 45.7 4.5
Cowpea------------ 14.6 20.5 3.9 56.3 1.5 16.8 54.9 1.1
Soy bean--------- 11.7 33.5 4.5 28.3 17.2 29.1 23.3 14.6
Kaffir corn--------- 9.9 11.2 2.7 71.5 3.1 5.2 44.3 1.4
Sorghum seed------- 12.8 9.1 2.6 69.8 3.6 4.5 61.1 2.8
Milo maize seed---__ 9.0 10.7 3.0 72.2 2.8 4.9 44.8 1.3
Cottonseed -------- 10.3 18.4 23.2 24.7 19.9 12.5 30.0 17.3
Cottonseed meal----- 7.0 45.3 6.3 24.6 10.2 37.6 21.4 9.6
Sunflower seed------ 8.6 16.3 29.9 21.4 21.2 14.8 29.7 18.2
Chufa ----------- 79.5 0.7 2.2 10.5 6.6 0.6 9.1 5.6
Sorghum, green----- ----- ---- ____--- _- --- 0.6 11.6 0.3
Cowpeas, green -- ------- ____ _____- ___ _--_ 1.8 8.7 0.2
Skim milk--------- 90.4 3.3 ---- 4.7 0.9 2.9 5.3 0.3
Buttermilk --------- 90.1 4.0 ----- 4.0 1.1 3.8 3.9 1.0
Dwarf Essex rape-- ---------- --- ---- _----- 2.0 8.1 0.2
Sweet potatoes------ ----- --- ------ --- 0.8 22.9 0.3
Bermuda 'grass--- --------- ---- --- ------ -----_ 1.3 13.4 0.4


Pork production in Florida is not receiving the attention it
deserves. At the present time there are perhaps a half million
head of hogs in the State. This number, however, does not sup-
ply the demand for pork. Fifty per cent, or more, of the pork
consumed in Florida is produced in States farther north. Flor-
ida farmers can certainly produce pork more cheaply than the
cost of production elsewhere plus the freight.
To make the largest profit from hogs they should be put on
the market at the youngest possible age. Many of the Florida
hogs are from one year to a year and a half old before they are
ready for market. The Florida market demands a hog that will
weigh 125 to 160 pounds. Animals of such weight can be pro-
duced in five to seven months. When they have to be kept and
fed for a year to a year and a half, the risk of loss and the cost
of feed become too great to yield any assured profit. Farmers
in the corn belt, where the demand is for hogs weighing from
200 to 250 pounds, have their hogs ready for market at nine
months to one year of age.

Bulletin 113 51

There is a too common impression among many farmers
that the hog is a sort of scavenger, that any refuse will do for it
to eat, and any filthy pen will do for it to live in. It is true that
hogs do often act as scavengers, and also that they can live in
filthy places, but these conditions are generally brought about
when the animals have no choice in the matter. Hogs are not
naturally filthy animals, but they are capable of existing under
unsanitary conditions.

If we are to get the largest possible returns from raising
hogs it will be found necessary to make the hogs pay for their
keep. How can this be done? One of the best ways will be to
insist upon them harvesting the crops grown for feed. The cost
of harvesting the various crops adds considerably to the cost of
production. This, in a measure, explains the high cost of pro-
duction when we try to raise hogs by keeping them in small pens.
When they are kept in small pens we not only have to harvest
and carry the feed to them, but in many cases we are obliged to
carry all the water which they drink. Therefore we should
make the hogs harvest as many of the crops as is practicable.
In the small pen it is impossible to keep the animals under
sanitary conditions. If they are not kept under healthy condi-
tions we are inviting disease to visit the herd, which means a big
loss instead of a profit. It will also be found that hogs will not
make as rapid growth while kept shut up in small pens as when
given the run of a small field.

There are many breeds of hogs. Some breeds are better
adapted to certain climatic conditions than others. For Florida
there are several breeds that will be found well adapted to our
Farmers wishing to produce pork should raise Berkshires,
Poland Chinas, Duroc Jerseys, and Essex. Those wishing to
produce bacon should raise Hampshires and Tamworths. A hog
that is raised for pork alone or for bacon alone is more profitable
to us than one that is raised for both pork and bacon. In gener-
al, Florida conditions are more favorable for pork production
than for bacon.
In selecting a breed for Florida conditions it will be found
advisable not to select a white one, as these do not do as well in
our climate as the black or red breeds. White hogs sun-scald
easily and become scurfy and mangy. When in such a condition
they cannot be expected to grow and develop as they would if
healthy. If given an abundance of shade and water at all times
there is less trouble from this source.
However, the selection of the breed is a personal matter. A
person should choose the one he fancies most and which will
produce the results he desires. It may be that the Duroc Jer-

52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

sey will meet with your approval, while your neighbor across
the road will say that the Berkshire is the only breed for him.
This is because he has had better success with the Berkshire, and
is probably better temperamentally adapted to that breed. There-
fore select the breed you like best, barring the white ones.

The disappearance of unimproved blood by the continuous
use of pure-bred sires is shown in the customary way in the fol-
lowing table:
Sires Dams Offspring
Pet. of Pet. of Pet. of
Generations Pure breed Pure breed Pure breed
1-_---------------------------- 100 0 50
2 ------------_---_------ 100 50 75
3 -------- ----- ------- 100 75 87.5
4---------------------------- 100 87.5 93.75
5---------------------------- 100 93.75 96.87
6--------------------------- 100 96.87 98.44
Hypothetically the offspring from the sixth generation will
have retained on the average 1.55 per cent of unimproved blood
from the original dam or the dam of no breeding. (This applies
only to the average of large numbers, and does not apply to in-
The breeder must be reminded that to produce the high
grade no other sire than a pure-bred one of the breed selected
can be used. No progress will be accomplished by using a grade,
scrub, or crossbred sire. Nor can progress toward eventual
purity of blood be made by using pure-bred sires of different
breeds for each cross or occasional cross. Grading-up means
using a pure-bred sire for the first cross and continuously cross-
ing the female offspring with purebred sires of the breed first
selected, until all impure blood has been practically bred out.
It is not necessary for the farmer who is producing pork for
the market to keep a breeding herd of registered sows. A herd
of high grades will answer the purpose nearly as well and they
can be purchased at a much cheaper rate. The one important
thing is that the breeder use a pure-bred sire. If he must start
with a herd of inferior sows, by using a pure-bred sire it will only
be a question of two or three years until he will have a herd of
good grades.

The ideal farm for raising hogs is one that will afford an
abundance of shade, with enough fresh running water, and in
addition a liberal amount of grazing. It may not be possible to
find all of these conditions naturally in one field, but they can
be supplied at a comparatively small outlay. Shade can be fur-
nished in a short time by planting some quickly-growing trees
or shrubbery. If necessary, some annuals may be grown for the
first year until the permanent plantings become large enough to

Bulletin 113 53

supply the shade. If there is not already a sufficient amount
of water at hand, it can be supplied by putting down a well and
erecting a windmill or installing a gasoline engine. The supply
of fresh water is as important to the welfare of the hog as is
the grain given. It is well-known that if pigs are not given an
abundance of water they will not fatten as rapidly as they should.
Some kind of green feed for the hogs to graze on, or as soil-
ing, will go a long way toward reducing the cost of production.
The green feed supplied will not entirely replace the grain; but
it will replace a part of it, and at the same time increase the
gain that it is possible to get from a given amount of grain. For
instance, if one hundred pounds of corn fed alone will produce
eight or ten pounds of pork, this same amount of corn when fed
with some green feed will produce from 12 to 15 pounds of
pork. This is not entirely due to the food value of the green
feed, but partly to the fact that the green feed regulates and
tones up the digestive and circulatory system and keeps the
animals in healthy condition.
There is hardly any grass or grain that hogs will not eat
when green, and there are many weeds on which they will feed.
The following is a list of useful forage crops for hogs in Florida.
The crops in this list will give pasture through the entire year.
Can be pastured from
Dwarf Essex Rape -------------------------------December to March
Japanese Cane ---------------------------------November to March
Rye, Oats, Barley----------------------------------November to April
Sorghum-- ------------- ------------------May to November
Chufas------ --------------------------- August to December
Sweet Potatoes-------------------------------- October to December
Cowpeas and Soybeans------------------------------July to November
Peanuts ----------------------------------- September to December
For a permanent pasture it is doubtful if we can get any-
thing better than Bermuda and Johnson grass. These do not
furnish pasturage for the entire year, but can be depended upon
from early spring until late fall.
The brood sow and boar are the foundation of the hog
industry. It is important, therefore, that the most careful atten-
tion be given to these. They must receive such food and care as
will ensure good healthy brood sows and strong, healthy litters of
Prolificacy, though more or less an inherited characteristic,'
is, to a large extent, controlled by the feed and care of the sow.
Good breeding sows are often reduced in value as breeders by
improper feeding. If the sows are fed largely on a carbonaceous
ration they are likely to become too fat. When the sows are
kept too fat they are not regular breeders. When they do far-
row, the result is a small litter of weak pigs.
The sows should not be starved at any time. They should
be fed on a well-balanced ration with plenty of protein to pro-

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

duce an abundant flow of milk. After the pigs are weaned the
sow requires nearly the same ration. It is a common practice
with many farmers to put the brood sow on a starvation ration
as soon as the pigs are weaned. It is as bad to feed them on corn
only. Corn alone may do for fattening an animal, but when fed
alone to pregnant sows it does not supply enough protein to
properly develop the growing fetus. The result is the sows will
farrow small litters of weak pigs. If we wish to maintain a
prolific strain of brood sows we must give attention to how they
are fed.

All of the pigs used in the following experiments were Berk-
shires. These pigs were not all registered, but they were all
eligible to registration.
In caculating the cost of producing a pound of pork in the
experiments that follow, the feeds were valued at the prices
here given: Corn, $1.75; shorts, $1.70; velvet beans in the pod,
$0.30; sweet potatoes, $1.00; Japanese cane, $0.20, and sorghum,
$0.20 per hundred.
The first test was conducted with five Berkshire pigs. The
test was begun January 29, 1910, and continued for 51 days,
closing March 20, 1910. The object of this experiment was to
test the value of corn (one part), velvet beans in the pod (one
part), and Japanese cane (two parts by weight), for pork pro-
duction. During the time the pigs were under observation, they
were fed shelled corn and velvet beans in the pod, equal parts by
weight. In addition, they were given two pounds of Japanese
cane for each pound of corn fed. At the beginning of the test
the five pigs averaged 118.6 pounds per head, and weighed alto-
gether 593 pounds. At the end of the feeding test they weighed
775 pounds, making a gain of 182 pounds, with an average daily
gain per head of 0.71 pounds.
The cost per pound of gain in this test was 8.6 cents. The
records show that after feeding the pigs for thirty days they
weighed 704 pounds, and the cost per pound of gain was 6.5
cents. From a practical standpoint they should have been sold
at that time. When sold at the close of the test the buyer objected
that the pigs were too fat to furnish the best quality of pork.

Weight at beginning of test, January 29, 1910 (5 pigs)----------- 593
Weight at end of test, March 20, 1910 (51 days, 5 pigs) ------ 775
Total gain in 51 days -------------------------------------- 182
Average daily gain __------------------------------.----- 0.71
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight------------------ 6.02
Pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of gain -----___-- _____-----1406
Cost per pound of gain, $0.86.

Bulletin 113 55

642 pounds of corn at $1.75 a hundred ------------ ------ $11.23
642 pounds of velvet beans in pod at 30 cents a hundred---------- 1.93
1,275 pounds of Japanese cane at 20 cents a hundred------------ 2.55
Total----- ---------------------------------------$15.71

The second test was conducted with twenty-five pigs. This
test began December 13, 1910, and lasted sixty days, closing
February 11, 1911. The twenty-five pigs in this test were
divided into five equal lots, of five pigs each, size and quality
being considered. The feds used were velvet beans in the pod,
Japanese cane, and sweet potatoes. These were fed just as they
came from the field, except the Japanese cane, which was cut
into short pieces with a hatchet.
Lot I was fed velvet beans in the pod only. Lot II was fed
equal parts by weight of velvet beans in the pod and Japanese
cane. Lot III was fed velvet beans in the pod, one part, and
Japanese cane, two parts, by weight. Lot IV was fed Japanese
cane only. Lot V was fed velvet beans in the pod and sweet
potatoes, equal parts by weight.
The three crops used in this feeding experiment are
grown, or can be grown, in all parts of Florida. It is evident
from the results of this feeding test that, in the proportions in
which the feeds were fed, they were not all satisfactory in finan-
cial returns. However, it is the information that comes from
such work that is of value to the live-stock interests of the
ILot I Lot II | Lot III Lot IV | Lot V
Weight at beginning, Dec. 13, 1910-- 230 230 235.0 215 215.0
Weight at end, Feb. 11, 1911 (60
days)-- -------------------- 255 234.3 227.3 154 227.3
Total gain or loss in 60 days------- 25 4.3 -7.7 -61 12.3
Average daily gain or loss--------- 0.08 0.01 -0.03 -0.20 0.04
Average daily gain or loss per
1,000 pounds live weight------- 1.8 0.30 -0.53 -4.84 0.95

Velvet beans in pod--------------- 673 450 405.5 4'14
Japanese cane --------------------- 450 804.5 3046.5 -_
Sweet potatoes---------_ ------ --_- _- __ -- 489

If we should judge the results of this feeding test by the
gain in pounds produced by the different feeds, we would be

56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

likely to condemn the whole test, and say it was a failure, and
that the feeds were no good for pork production. But the informa-
tion obtained from this work is of considerable value to the
farmers of the State who are feeding hogs. To know that Japa-
nese cane when fed alone to small pigs is not a maintenance
ration, is worth more to the farmers of the State than the cost
of the whole experiment.
A glance at Table III will show the weights at the beginning
of the test, the weights at the close, and the gain or loss in
pounds during the sixty days the pigs were in the test. By
examining Table III it will be seen that all lots of pigs were of
nearly equal weight. They were also of nearly equal age, being
about three months old when the experiment began. At the end
of the experiment, sixty days later, Lot IV has lost 61 pounds in
weight. This fact was quite evident, and it could easily be seen
that the pigs were daily growing smaller and weaker.
It is not necessary to make much comment on this table. It
is evident when the ration is composed entirely of Japanese cane,
or when as much as two-thirds of the ration is Japanese cane,
especially when feeding young pigs, that it will not maintain the
original body weight. The reason for this is evident. Although
hogs eat a considerable amount of grass and green feeds of vari-
ous kinds, yet the arrangement and size of their digestive organs
is not such that they can handle and digest large quantities of
forage, such as Japanese cane. In fact they ate but little of the
cane, other than the juice. They would chew a mouthful of cane
until nearly all of the juice had been extracted. They would
then spit out the refuse, and take a fresh mouthful, and so on.
The trouble with the Japanese cane is that it requires too much
work from the hogs for what they get out of it. That is, they
must work overtime to get enough food to supply their appetites.
In feeding velvet beans in the pod, the pigs did not eat any of
the pods. They became, in a short time, quite expert in shelling
out the beans. The only advantage in feeding the beans in the
pod is saving the cost of shelling, which may amount to any-
where from 10 cents to 25 cents per hundred pounds.

In this test, twenty pigs were used. The pigs were sep-
arated into four lots of five pigs each. Lot I was fed shelled
corn only. Lot II was fed shelled corn and cull velvet beans,
equal parts by weight. Lot III was fed shelled corn, cull velvet
beans, and shorts, equal parts by weight. Lot IV was fed equal
parts of shelled corn and cull velvet beans, and all the green
sorghum the pigs would eat. The cull velvet beans were the ref-
use taken from the seed velvet beans. They were composed of
broken beans and small, immature shriveled seed. The beans
as they came from the field were put through the huller, and
were afterwards screened through a screen of three-eighths inch
mesh. All that went through the screen were considered as

Bulletin 113 57

culls. The corn, cull velvet beans, and shorts, were soaked be-
fore feeding. The evening feed was weighed out in the morning
and soaked until evening, and so on.
The experiment began March 21, 1911, and closed June 16,
1911, lasting 90 days. Feeding green sorghum was begun on
May 9, 1911.
Weight of pigs at beginning, Mar. 21, 1911_ 291.0 266.6 274.6 265.6
Weight at end, June 16, 1911---------- 406.6 345.0 390.0 373.3
Gain per lot (90 days) ----------- --- 115.6 78.4 116.0 108.0
Daily gain per head-- -------------- 0.26 0.17 0.26 0.24
Daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight__- 4.4 3.3 4.7 4.5
Cost per pound of gain ------------- $0.08 0.10 0.09 0.08
Cost per 100 pounds of gain---------- $8.19 9.96 8.98 7.96
pnlnn-, of feed to make 100 pounds of gain_] 546.2 797.2 641.7 1118.1*
*522 pounds of this was green sorghum.
I Lot I Lot II LotIIII Lot IV
Corn --------------- --------- 631.4 312.5 248.1 327.8
Velvet beans, culls-------------------------- 312.5 248.1 327.8
Shorts ------------------------------- -- --- 248.1 --
Green sorghum ------ -------------- --- ---- ---- 552.0

The weights of the different lots of pigs were nearly the
same at the beginning. The average daily gain per head was
about the same for all the lots of pigs, except for the pigs in Lot
II, which were fed corn and cull velvet beans, equal parts by
weight. The cheapest pork was produced, however, with Lot
IV, fed equal parts of corn and cull velvet beans, and all the
green sorghum they would eat.

Experiment IV was conducted with quite young pigs. The
pigs were weaned and then placed in the experimental feed lot.
In this test were seventeen head of pigs. Their total weight
was 590 pounds, or 34.7 pounds per head.
The pigs in this test were taken from four litters. The
age of the pigs varied from two to three months. The feeds
given were shelled corn, and shorts (equal parts by weight).
In addition, the pigs were given about forty pounds of milk per
day, and all the green sorghum they would eat (14 to 16 pounds
per day). The pigs made satisfactory gains. The daily gain
per head was nearly one pound. During the first thirty days
the seventeen pigs almost doubled their weight.
The object of the experiment was to get the cost of produc-
ing a pound of pork with young pigs. Additional information

58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

was also wanted in regard to the length of time from weaning
until the pigs are ready for market.
The experiment began June 1, 1911, at which time the sev-
enteen pigs weighed 590 pounds. On July 1, 1911, thirty days
after the experiment started, the seventeen pigs weighed 1081
pounds. The seventeen pigs made a gain in weight of 491
pounds during the thirty days. The amount of feed required
to make 100 pounds of gain during the thirty days was: corn,
148.5; shorts, 153.4; milk, 239.3; and green sorghum, 83.9, or a
total of 625 pounds.
Weight at beginning of experiment, June 1, 1911--------------- 590
Weight at end of thirty days---------------------------1,081
Total gain in thirty days-------------- ----------------- 491
Average daily gain per head-------------------------------- 0.96
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight--------------- 27.40

Corn ------------ ---------------------- 729
Shorts ------------------- ---- --- ---- ------ 753
Milk ----------------------------------- ------------1,175
Green sorghum ----- ------------- ------------ 412

Weight at beginning of test, June 1, 1911 (17 head)----------- 590.0
Weight at close of feeding test, September 22, 1911------------- 2,461.6
Total gain in 114 days------------- ----------- -- 1,871.6
Average gain per head in 114 days-------------------------- 110.09
Average daily gain per head----------------------- --------- 0.97
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight--------------- 27.95
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain------------------------- 716.00
Cost per pound of gain, $0.114.
Cost per hundred pounds of gain, $11.40.

Corn ------------------- --------------------------- 3,585
Shorts --------------------------------------------------- 3,105
Sorghum, green---------------------------- -------------- 3,268
Milk --------------------------------------------- 3,443

Experiment V was conducted with ten head of Berkshire
pigs. These pigs were considerably older than were those used
in the preceding test. The average weight at the beginning of
the test was 99 pounds. The feeding test began on July 18, 1911,

Bulletin 113 59

and closed August 29, 1911, covering a period of 43 days. Dur-
ing the test the ten pigs gained 339.3 pounds in weight. They
made an average daily gain per head of 0.79 pound. The aver-
age daily gain in this test was not so good as in the preceding
test, but it is quite satisfactory. The cost per pound of gain,
however, was about the same as in the preceding experiment.
Weight at beginning of test, July 18, 1911 (10 head)---------- 990.0
Weight at closing of feeding test, August 29, 1911--------- 1,329.23
Total gain in 43 days------------- ---------- ----- 339.23
Average gain per head--------- -- ------------------ -33.9
Average daily gain per head------------------------------- 0.79
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds, live weight------------- -- 7.97
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain------------------------- 1,413.75
Cost per pound of gain, $0.11.
Cost per hundred pounds of gain, $11.20.
Corn ------------------ ----------------------- 2,216
Green sorghum ------------------- -------- ---------- 2,580

Experiment VI was conducted during the winter season.
The test began January 16, 1912, and continued thirty days, clos-
ing February 15, 1912. Ten Berkshire pigs were used in this
test. The average weight of the pigs in this test was nearly the
same as in the preceding one, 101 pounds. The feeds used were
corn and sweet potatoes, fed in equal parts by weight.
The results of this test were satisfactory, when the cost
per pound of gain is considered. However, the daily average
gain was not as much as in some of the other feeding tests.
But the low cost per pound of gain makes the result quite satis-
Weight at beginning of test, January 16, 1912--------------- 1,010
Weight at close of test, February 15, 1912---------------- 1,207
Total gain in thirty days-------------------- ---- --- 197
Average gain per head--------------- ---------------- 19.7
Average daily gain per head----------------------------- 0.65
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds, live weight-------------- 6.43
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain--------------------------- 512.68
Cost per pound of gain, $0.068.
Cost per 100 pounds of gain, $6.85.

Corn --------------------------- ------------ 505
Sweet potatoes-------------- ------------------------------ 505

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