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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 347
Title: Propagation of ornamental plants
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027097/00001
 Material Information
Title: Propagation of ornamental plants
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 54 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1940
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Propagation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027097
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924578
oclc - 18229745
notis - AEN5205

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Full Text

Bulletin 347


August, 1940


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


PROPAGATION

OF

ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
BY JOHN V. WATKINS

Fig. 1.-Ground bench in half-shade house for the rooting of leafy cuttings.


~5~~
~i
ne~-






EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M. A., LL.D., President
of the University'
Wilmon Newell, U.Sc., Directors
Harold Mowry, M. S. A., Asst. Dir.,
Research
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Iaa Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant3
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist1
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomists
Fred. H Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2
W. A. CLarver, Pi.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Indus-
trialist3-
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandmans
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hus-
bandmans
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husband-
man3
R. M. Crown, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husbs
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
Husbandman3
L. L. Rusoff, Ph. D., Asst. in An.
Nutrition3
O. W. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry
Husbandmans
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist1'
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D.. Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor. B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, M.S., Asso. Biochemist
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist' a
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage. M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ-
omist1
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph. D., Truck Hort.3
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Fumigation
Specialist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Assistant
Horticulturist
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Assistant
Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist'
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' a
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agron. Acting in
Charge
R. R. Kinkaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whinenurst, B.S.A., Assistant An.
Husbandman
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge.
John H. Jefferies, Asst. in Cit. Breeding
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. H. Greathouse, Ph.D., Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate
Entomologist
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B. S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLAU.E
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in
Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage En-
gineer2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Horticulturist Act-
ing in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA.,
BROOKSVILLE
W F. Ward, MV.S., Asst. An. Husband-
man in Charge2
FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist.
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
Horticulturist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
Bradenton
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Horti-
culturist in Charge
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge. Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2
B. H. Moore, A.B.. Asst. Meteorologist2

'Head of Department
'In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
'Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.









PROPAGATION OF ORNAMENTAL
PLANTS
By John V. Watkinsl


CONTENTS

Page Page
Propagation by Cuttage 4 Propagation by Layering 28
Propagating Frames and Their Propagation by Budding ......... 30
Management .... .. ... 5 Propagation by Grafting -- 33
Rooting Media ...... 8 Propagation by Seeds ._.._._ 35
Irrigation Water ..... ................. 12 The Management of Growing Plants 40
Root-Inducing Substances ....._ 13 Recommendations for the Propagation
Making the Cuttings ............ 18 of Florida Ornamentals _..- _--- 45
Common Names of Plants for Easy
Propagation by Division 28 Reference to Propagation Table...... 50

INTRODUCTION

The multiplication of horticultural plants has engaged the at-
tention of many of the outstanding men in the history of America.
Plantsmen have worked hard and long to overcome obstacles that
temporarily barred the way to the successful increase of valued
plants. Through the years techniques have been developed that
enable the propagator to produce high quality, salable specimen
plants in comparatively short periods of time. Thanks to the
assiduous workers in the agricultural experiment stations and
other agencies for plant research, the keen operator of today can
accomplish feats in the multiplication of plants that his grand-
father would have considered well-nigh miraculous.
Although there is now and always will be an overproduction
of quick-growing, easy-to-propagate species in smaller sizes,
there is an excellent market for well grown specimen plants of
useful varieties. For instance, one can always obtain good prices
for healthy, well grown specimens of azalea, camellia, holly,
buginvillaea and hibiscus in the rarer varieties and there is every
indication that the demand for these excellent landscape subjects
will continue. Comparatively few persons are willing to take
the time and effort necessary to produce finished landscape
plants, and so it seems that there is little chance for overproduc-
tion in this particular field.
A country-wide survey has shown that ornamental stock repre-
sents 74.48 percent of all nursery sales in the United States, so it

lAssistant Professor, Horticulture, University of Florida.
The investigations reported in this publication were conducted in co-
operation with the Boyce-Thompson Institute for Plant Research.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


follows that plants sold by nurseries for their aesthetic use alone
have a much greater value than do the fruit-producing plants.
The sale of ornamental stock has increased markedly during the
past 15 years and there is every reason to believe that the trend
will, continue.
The Florida State Plant Board recently queried agricultural
officials in all Southeastern states. All but one reported that nur-
sery stock grown in their states is predominantly ornamental.
This indicates that, in the Southeastern states as well as in the
country at large, there is a distinct upsurge in the production of
ornamental plants.
Florida reports vastly more acreage in nursery stock than does
any other state in the Southeast, and almost twice as many
Florida nurseries grow ornamental stocks as grow plants that
bear fruits of commerce. It is gratifying to know that this vaca-
tion land ranks first in the South as a producer of trees and
shrubs. Homes in our resort towns are outstanding for the ex-
cellent treatment of their grounds and many rare and exotic
flowering shrubs are seen at their best in these gardens.
The growth of the Garden Club movement and the annual in-
crease in the number of tourists have contributed to a much
greater garden consciousness. An increased pride of ownership
resulting in the improvement of the average man's garden during
the past decade is apparent to everyone interested in growing
plants.
PROPAGATION BY CUTTAGE

It has been said that any living plant can be propagated by
cuttage, and although this is a very broad statement the fact re-
mains that the majority of horticultural plants may be so multi-
plied.
It is constantly being demonstrated that many time-honored
practices in the making of cuttings are inefficient if not actually
harmful. It is known that plants of the same species will behave
differently when subjected to slightly different environments
for the rooting period, so it is with considerable hesitation that
any general statement is made lest it be true for one plant but
untrue for a closely allied variety or species.
The rooting medium, temperature, humidity, light, time of
year, propagating frame, root-inducing chemicals and other perti-
nent factors have held the attention of scientific investigators and
amateur experimenters alike, with the result that there is con-
siderably less guesswork in plant propagation today than there






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


was 50 years ago. In spite of the remarkable strides already made
in the field of plant propagation, a great deal is yet to be learned
and each day we find that someone has made an important con-
tribution to the sum of knowledge in this field.
PROPAGATING FRAMES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
Elaborate propagating frames that are essential in colder cli-
mates are not necessary in Florida. However, some device is
necessary to establish and maintain a close, humid atmosphere if
a high percentage of well rooted cuttings is to be obtained. The
propagating frame may be merely a box of sand covered with
a pane of glass or it may be a special bench with hinged sash
inside a greenhouse. Many arrangements between these ex-
tremes are in use today and give perfect satisfaction.
The cutting bench must be located where it is possible to con-
trol the environment at all times. A congenial temperature is
important, and in this connection it has been pointed out by one
of the early investigators in the field that a temperature most
suitable for the growth of the mature plant is very congenial for
the rooting of its tips as cuttings.
The propagating case may be directly on the ground, but if a
raised bench is used it must have wide cracks between the bot-
tom boards as well as some half-inch holes to insure the free
passage of excess water out of the rooting medium. Pecky cy-
press is probably the best material for the construction of plant
beds or benches, as it will last longer than any other wood under
these very humid conditions.
The case must be at least eight inches deep so that there will
be room for five inches of rooting medium and adequate head
room for the tips of the cuttings. The sash that fits over the top
of the propagating case may be fitted with glass or covered with
a double thickness of cheesecloth. The latter material is quite
suitable for temporary use but it mildews badly and must be re-
newed very often so that enough light may get to the leaves.
Glass sash are vastly superior for a permanent installation.
The propagating frame, if not in a greenhouse or lath house,
should be placed on the south side of a building during the winter
so that it will receive the benefit of the sun's heat. It must have
supplementary shade during the summer so that the direct rays
of the sun do not strike the sash.
A water supply must be near at hand so that the cuttings can
be sprinkled at least once during each bright day. On very in-
tense, sunny days two sprinklings will be necessary to maintain



























Fig. 2.-Cheesecloth is used to protect the cuttings while they are
rooting. (Courtesy Boyce-Thompson Institute for Plant Research.)

high humidity. A watering can with a fine spray, a nozzle at-
tachment for the hose, or a florist's bulb sprinkler may be used
for this very important operation. In any case the water must
be broken into a fine mist as it is applied. The exact amount of
water needed can be determined only by trial, and each operator
must find out for himself the optimum amount of watering neces-
sary for his particular conditions. It is very important that high
humidity be maintained by frequent syringing. If glass sash is
used the drops of moisture must condense and cover the inside
of the glass each morning. On the other hand the rooting medium
must never become soggy or waterlogged.
During recent years extensive trials2 have been conducted in
which many thousands of cuttings were rooted in ground beds in
a standard lath house. These beds were made by simply placing
eight-inch planks of pecky cypress on edge and the medium was
packed between the board sides. Light bamboo frames, to which
double layers of cheesecloth had been sewed, protected the leafy
cuttings against the sun's rays and drying winds. These frames
were lifted for watering. During the months of May through
September this method was found to give perfect results with

2More than 70,000 cuttings representing 230 species and varieties of tropi-
cal and semi-tropical plants were used in tests at the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, in cooperation with the Boyce-Thompson
Institute for Plant Research.






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Fig. 3.-An electric unit for producing bottom heat.


many species of Florida plants, comparing very favorably with
the most elaborate equipment.
Electric heating appliances, available from horticultural supply
houses, are occasionally used in Florida nurseries for bottom heat
during the cooler months. With cheap electricity the cost should
not be prohibitive for certain plants for which there is a steady
demand and a good return. Figure 3 illustrates the use of one of
the electrical soil heating units. It goes without saying that bot-
tom heat is always available in greenhouses that have standard
heating systems using hot water or steam. Under Florida condi-
tions, however, this type of structure is rather rare, as very few
plantsmen find it economical and efficient to install and operate
a cumbersome hot-water system for bottom heat.
It has been mentioned that the temperature most suitable for
optimum growth of a mature plant is a very acceptable tempera-
ture for the rooting of its tips as cuttings. Hence, unless some
provision is made for heating, it is probably a great deal more
efficient and economical to propagate softwood leafy cuttings
during the spring and summer months.






Florida ,Agricuhural Experiment Station


Sanitation is extremely important and frequent renewal of the
rooting medium is positively essential in this climate. Soil-borne
diseases of several kinds are very likely to work into the beds and
play havoc with the cuttings unless fresh materials are used after
each batch of cuttings has been potted. The cost of the constit-
uents and the labor is certainly a great deal less than the value
of a batch of cuttings of good commercial plants. It is essential
that the site and all boards be thoroughly sterilized.
Sun heat frames are propagating cases built in the open and so
arranged that the solar heat, absorbed on black paper, is radiated
to the bottom of the rooting medium which rests on hardware
cloth. Plans and specifications for this type of propagating frame
may be secured from the United States Department of Agricul-
ture in Washington. In the experience of the writer, very few
persons have been successful in the operation of the sun heat
frames in Florida, and for this reason detailed information on
their construction and use is not given in this bulletin.
ROOTING MEDIA
A congenial medium for the cuttings is of utmost importance.
A rapid formation of suberin at the wound is known to be essen-
tial and to this end oxygen is necessary, as are darkness and a
slightly acid medium for most varieties of ornamental plants
grown in Florida. Materials for rooting media must be relatively
cheap, easily accessible, retentive of moisture and free from toxic
or rapidly decaying organic matter.
Fairly coarse material is preferable to very fine and an open,
porous, light, airy condition is to be desired.
It is quite probable that sand is the most widely used propagat-
ing material but investigations show that it is not always the
best substance for the rooting of cuttings. Other materials, either
in combination with sand or alone, are sometimes vastly superior
to this traditional medium. Progressive operators are seeing the
need for more than one medium and frequently they have several
propagating beds containing different mixtures.
After having inserted hundreds of cuttings of different species
of citrus at the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, it was observed that these plants prefer sand to any other
rooting substance. Placing a thin layer of live sphagnum moss
on the leaves of citrus cuttings prevented their curling and drop-
ping off, which is so characteristic of this class of material in the
propagation bench. Cuttings so protected rooted in a much
shorter time than did check cuttings without the covering of






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


sphagnum moss. The citrus leaves did not turn yellow under
the moss, but maintained their deep green coloring throughout
the rooting period. This phase of the study will be carried furth-
er as there may be a wide application of this treatment in propa-
gation.
Beginning in the autumn of 1937 tests have been run contin-
uously to determine the best rooting media for tropical and semi-
tropical ornamental plants. Partitions were built across the prop-
agating benches and different media were placed in the resulting
divisions. Several different organic substances were mixed with
the sharp quartz sand that plant propagators customarily use
in Florida nurseries.
It is well known that cuttings will root satisfactorily in a wide
range of media if handled properly as to water and shade. But
some plants of the species used in these trials showed a preference
for one or another of the media, and for this reason it is recom-
mended that divided propagating benches with different root-
ing mixtures be used.
The cuttings were made up in quantities that would allow for
10 cuttings for chemical treatment and 10 check cuttings in each
medium. The treated cuttings were immersed in solutions of





















Fig. 4.-Cuttings of Buxus microphylla korean (right) six weeks after treatment
with 20 ppm of indolebutyric acid for 24 hours and (left) untreated tapwater
checks. (Courtesy Boyce-Thompson Institute for Plant Research.)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


indolebutyric acid for 24 hours; the check cuttings were soaked
in tap water for the same period; then both were rinsed and set
in continuous lines in the propagation bench so that 10 treated
cuttings and 10 check cuttings stood side by side in every medium
that was being tested.
After inspection showed that some of each class of cuttings
were well rooted, the entire lot of that given variety was lifted
and data were carefully tabulated. Cuttings of most varieties
tested continued to respond favorably to the sand-peat mixture,
but many rooted well in other media which were found to be
acceptable substitutes for the older mixture. With most of the
plants tested the time-honored rooting medium, sand, gave poor-
est results.


Description of media:
Peat Moss and Sand-European peat moss
mixed half and half.


and quartz sand


Fig. 5.-Response of two semi-tropical shrubs to indolebutyric acid. Top, Gar-
denia jasminoides after 4V2 weeks in the rooting medium. L to R, tapwater, indo-
lebutyric acid 10 ppm, indolebutyric acid 40 ppm, indolebutyric acid 80 ppm. Bottom,
Eleagnus pungens treatments the same as with Gardenia. All cuttings had been im-
mersed in the liquids for 24 hours.







Propagation oj Ornamental Plants


Pecan Hulls and Sand-Ground pecan hulls and quartz sand
mixed in equal proportions.
Peanut Hulls and Sand-An equal mixture of finely ground
peanut hulls and quartz sand.
Norfolk Subsand-The fine yellow sand that underlies the soil
of the Norfolk series as its exists on the campus of the University
of Florida where the trials were conducted. The soil was taken
from a hole that was some three or four feet deep and was vir-
tually free of organic matter. Technically, the material is classed
as Norfolk Fine Sand, Subsurface.
Quartz Sand-A coarse yellowish sand that is taken from a
lake bottom and is widely used for building purposes.
European Peat Moss-The well known horticultural grade of
the imported product; used exactly as it came from the commer-
cial bales.
Typical data resulting from this experiment are listed in Table
1.

TABLE 1.-Response of Chemically Treated Cuttings of Semi-Tropical
Plants in the Preliminary Rooting Medium Trials.


Name of Plant
and Weeks
Needed for
Heavy Rooting

Buxus japonicus
81' weeks


Indolebu-
tyric Acid
in ppm.


Media


Tap water Peat moss and sand
40 ppm Peat moss and sand
iTap water Pecan hulls and sand
40 ppm Pecan hulls and sand
Tap water Peanut hulls and sand
40 ppm Peanut hulls and sand
Tap water Norfolk sand and peat
40 ppm Norfolk sand and peat


Tap water
20 ppm


3 weeks


Peat moss and sand
Peat moss and sand


STap water Pecan hulls and sand
20 ppm Pecan hulls and sand


Tap water
20 ppm
Tap water
20 ppm
Tap water
20 ppm
Tap water
20 ppm


Peanut hulls and sand
Peanut hulls and sand
Norfolk subsand
Norfolk subsand
Quartz sand
Quartz sand
European peat moss
European peat moss


Rooting Response



0 0 10 0
0 3 7 0
0 0 10 0
1 1 8 0
0 1 9 0
6 2 2 0
0 2 8 0
5 5 0 0
0 0 10 0
5 5 0 0
0 4 6 0
8 2 0 0
1 5 4 0
7 3 0 0
0 1 9
8 2 0 0
0 1 8 1
2 2 6 0
0 4 6 0
2 8 0 1 0







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 1.-Response of Chemically Treated Cuttings of Semi-Tropical
Plants in the Preliminary Rooting Medium Trials.
Name of Plant Indolebu- Rooting Response
and Weeks tyric Aci Media ., o
Needed for ppm.
Heavy Rooting i Pm


Cocculis
laurifolius
4 weeks


Tap water Peat moss and sand 0
20 ppm Peat moss and sand 1
Tap water Pecan hulls and sand 0
20 ppm Pecan hulls and sand 4
Tap water Tung hulls and sand 0
20 ppm Tung hulls and sand 0
Tap water Norfolk subsand 0
20 ppm Norfolk subsand 2
Tap water Quartz sand 0
20 ppm Quartz sand 0
Tap water Peat moss and sand 2
40 ppm Peat moss and sand 4
Tap water Pecan hulls and sand 0
40 ppm Pecan hulls and sand 0
Tap water Peanut hulls and sand 1
40 ppm Peanut hulls and sand 3
Tap water Norfolk subsand 2
40 ppm Norfolk subsand 6
Tap water Quartz sand 0
40 ppm Quartz sand 1
Tap water European peat moss 2
40 ppm European peat moss 4

Tap water Peat moss and sand 1
20 ppm Peat moss and sand 2
Tap water Pecan hulls and sand 1
20 ppm Pecan hulls and sand 0
Tap water Peanut hulls and sand 3
20 ppm Peanut hulls and sand 5
Tap water Norfolk subsand 1
20 ppm Norfolk subsand 2
Tap water Quartz sand 0
20 ppm Quartz sand 0
Tap water European peat moss 0
20 ppm European peat moss 0


IRRIGATION WATER
The University of Florida reports that most Florida well waters
arise from underlying calcareous rock strata and that these wat-
ers have a pH reading between 7.2 and 7.7, rarely reaching an al-
kalinity of 7.8. This report further states that surface waters
are almost always acid in reaction, reading around 6.5.


0 10 0
3 4 2
0 10 0
3 3 0
0 10 0

2 8 0
6 1 0
0 10 0
0 1 9
2 6 0
3 3 0
3 7 0
9 1 0
1 8 0
4 3 0
6 2 0
2 2 0
0 10 0
1 8 0
5 3 0
5 1 0
2 7 0
1 7 0
4 5 0
3 7 0
2 4 1
5 0 0
0 8 1
3 5 0
181
0 9 1
2 7 1
1 8 1
3 7 0


Podocarpus
macrophylla
9 weeks


Severinia
buxifolia
9 weeks







Propagation of Ornamental Plants


TABLE 2.-Reaction of the Different Rooting Media Used During the
1939 Season, and the Changes That Resulted from the Use of Water
That Was Slightly Alkaline.


Kind of Medium


Apalachicola River sand
Cocoanut fibre and quartz s
European peat moss
Quartz sand
Norfolk subsand
Peanut hull bran
Peanut hull bran and qua
Peat moss and quartz san
Peat moss and Norfolk s
Pecan shells, crushed
Pecan shells (crushed) and
Sawdust (cypress) and qua
Sphagnum moss and quartz
Tung hulls (crushed) and


pH Reading2
pH Reading After Water-
Before Water- ing With U.
ing With U. of of F. Tap
F. Tap Water Water for Sev-
eral Weeks
7.92 8.10
;and 5.63
3.95 5.37
5.80 8.0
4.29 5.98
5.47
rtz sand 5.80 6.29
d 4.45 6.11
ubsand 4.82 5.50
6.65
Iquartz sand 5.85 6.05
rtz sand 6.21
sand 5.70
quartz sand 6.31


1pH determinations by Dr. C. E. Bell.
2This indicates that irrigating water, even though it be
alkaline (in this case 7.40), will tend to sweeten an acid
ium after it has been used for some time.


only slightly
rooting med-


It is seen, therefore, that much of our Florida well water is un-
suitable for acid-loving plants and, when known to be alkaline,
should be acidified by the addition of one pint of commercial
acetic acid to 50 gallons of water. Rain water, pond or lake water
is almost always neutral or acid in reaction and is admirable for
use on the vast number of acid-loving tropical and semi-tropical
plants.
It is suggested that persons who live in cities consult their city
managers as to the alkalinity and presence of chlorides in the
municipal water and those living in rural sections contact their
county agents for information on water-testing facilities.
Thousands of valuable azalea cuttings have been lost because
the propagator unwittingly applied alkaline water to the cutting
benches. Where the reaction of the water was corrected the same
propagator consistently rooted more than 90% of his cuttings.

ROOT-INDUCING SUBSTANCES
Nurserymen have shown considerable interest, during recent
years, in chemicals that have come to be called root-inducing
substances. Many successful propagators are regularly using one
or another of these compounds to accelerate the rooting of the
cuttings. Fresh cuttings immersed or dipped in chemical solu-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tions or dusts employing methods developed both in this country
and abroad can generally be expected to force a heavy root sys-
tem more rapidly than untreated tap water checks otherwise
handled in the same manner.
At the outset of a discussion of growth-promoting substances
it must be forcefully stated that these chemical compounds are
not substitutes for skill but rather are definite aids in the rapid
formation of good root systems. The operator must control the
environment into which the cuttings are set just as carefully as
he would if no stimulant were used. Careful attention must be
given to temperature, humidity, irrigation water and shading so
that the environment will be as nearly perfect as possible.
Of the 50-odd chemicals listed by plant research organizations
as stimulants, two have been found to be of outstanding merit
in accelerating the rooting of cuttings. These are indolebutyric
acid and napthaleneacetic acid, with the former substance having,
possibly, the wider range of usefulness.
The chemicals can be bought in solution or in powder form
under proprietary names and are employed according to charts
that accompany the packages.
While the cuttings are standing in the liquid chemical solutions
they absorb the mixture through the cut basal ends and through
the bark to a lesser extent. At leaf scars and wounds there is a
certain amount of absorption also. If the dust form is used the
active ingredient is absorbed slowly while the cutting is in the
bench.
It is impossible to recommend any constant formula for the
use of root-inducing chemicals. Live cuttings are extremely
variable and environments cannot be made constant, so that any
treatment given to living material must be varied if injury to the
tissues is to be avoided. At the same time absorption must be
sufficient to accelerate the formation of an adequate root system.
If comparatively weak solutions (5 to 20 parts per million) are
used there is little danger of injuring cuttings if they soak for 20
to 30 hours. On the other hand if relatively high concentrations
(400 to 500 parts per million) are used a very short immersion
period is essential so that toxicity may be precluded.
A simple, quick method is available whereby the stimulant-
indolebutyric acid or naphthaleneacetic acid-is mixed with talc
and the cut basal end of the cutting is simply dipped into the
manufacturer's container. Since the chemical must go into solu-
tion before it can be absorbed it is a good plan to moisten the






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


base of the cutting with tap water before it is dipped into the
talc.
Rooting response varies markedly with the season and condi-
tions under which the cuttings are treated and are handled after
treating. Since nurserymen do not maintain the same cultural
conditions, varied reports are likely to be made after first at-
tempts to accelerate rooting with a chemical. The data presented
in Table 3 were selected as typical and are listed herewith in the

TABLE 3.-Response of Cuttings of Semi-Tropical and Tropical Orna-
mental Plants to Treatments with Indolebutyric Acid.
Weeksin Number Concen Response Per-
Name of Plant Rooting of trations cent
AMedium Cuttinns in ppm Good' Fair |None Dead Rooted

Abelia .. 10 Check 0 0 2 8 0
212 10 40 6 2 2 0 80

.lalea ctanescens 512 10 Check 0 3 7 0 30
10 40 9 1 0 0 100
Azalea indica 4 10 Check 0 2 8 0 20
Duc du Rohan 10 20 8 2 0 0 100
Bignolia speciosa 7 10 Check 0 0 10 0 0
10 20 6 0 4 0 60

Buginvillaea 15 Check 0 0 15 0 0
sanderiana 5 15 40 8 4 3 0 60
Camellia japonica 10 Check 0 1 9 0 10
Sarah Frost 7'2 10 20 6 1 3 0 70
Camellia asanquat 612 20 Check 0 1 19 0 5
Mino-no-vuki 20 60 7 10 3 0 85
Carissa ..... 5 10 Check 2 1 7 0 30
10 20 8 2 0 0 100

Cestrum nocturnum 3%/2 10 i Check 0 0 10 0 I 0
10 1 40 5 3 2 0 80

Cocculus laurifolius 3 20 Check 0 0 20 0 0
20 40 16 2 2 0 90

Dovyalis caffra 4 15 Check 0 0 15 0 0
15 40 10 2 3 0 80
Elaeagnus pungens 4 10 Check 0 1 9 0 10
10 20 5 2 3 0 70

Euonymus americanus 21/2 15 Check 0 0 15 0 0
15 40 13 2 | 0 I 0 100

lExperiments with root-inducing substances were conducted in coop-
eration with the Boyce-Thompson Institute for Plant Research.
2Note: ppm refers to parts per million and these are designated in
proprietary products as "units".






16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 3.-Response of Cuttings of Semi-Tropical and Tropical Orna-
mental Plants to Treatments with Idolebutyric Acid (Continued).


Name of Plant



Euonymus japonicus

Ficus pumila

Hibiscus rosa-
sinensis
"Single Scarlet"
Ilex cassine

Ilex cornuta

Ilex latifolia

Ilex opaca var.
"East Palatka'

Ilex rotunda

Illicium anisatum

Ixora coccinea

Jasminum humile

Juniperus excelsa

Lagerstroemia indica
Alba

Magnolia soulangeana

Myrtus communis

Pandorea ricasoliana

Pereskia aczdeata

Podocarpus nagi

Punictum granatum


Weeks in Numbe
Rooting of
Medium Cutting

8
5 8


Response
Good Fair None Dead

0 0 8 0
7 1 0 0

14 6 5 0


Per-
cent
I Rooted


3

8

3V1

7

9

3

8

5

3

4

8

3

31/2

4


3/2

1%2

8

7


25
25
10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

25
25

25
25

25
25

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

15
15

10
10

10
10

15
15


r Concen-
trations
s in ppm

SCheck
20

Check
20

Check
80

SCheck
20

SCheck
40

Check
40

Check
40

SCheck
80

SCheck
40

Check
40

Check
20

Check
40

Check
10

I Check
S40

SCheck
40

SCheck
40

SCheck
20

SCheck
60

Check
20


0
100

4
80

10
S100

0
90

0
S100

0
60

0
92

4
80

0
96

50
S100

0
100

40
90

0
100

0
80

0
80

7
73

20
90

10
S100

13
66






Propagation of Ornamental Plants 17
TABLE 3.-Response of Cuttings of Semi-Tropical and Tropical Orna-
mental Plants to Treatments with Idolebutyric Acid (Concluded).
Weeks in Number Concen- Response Per-
Name of Plant Rooting of trations cent
Medium Cuttings! in ppm Good Fair None Dead Rooted

Pyracantha crenulata 4 10 Check 1 1 8 0 20
10 20 9 1 0 0 100
Rosa chinensis 2 25 Check 0 2 23 0 8
Louis Philippe 25 20 11 7 7 0 72
Schinus terebinthi- 21'2 15 Check 0 0 15 I 0 0
folius 15 40 8 1 6 0 60
Spiraea cantoniensis 2 25 Check 0 0 25 0 0
25 20 13 9 3 0 88
Thryallis glauca 31/' 25 Check 2 4 19 0 24
25 20 14 6 5 0 80
Thuja orientalis 7 25 Check 0 0 25 0 0
25 40 21 2 2 0 92
Thunbergia erecta 312 10 Check 0 1 9 1 0 10
10 40 4 2 4 1 0 80
Viburnum 31; 25 Check 3 5 16 1 I 40
odoratissimum 25 40 16 2 4 3 90

hope that they may be of value to Florida propagators. However,
it is essential that each operator should standardize his own tech-
nique. Once the right methods are evolved repeated successes
should be possible. It is advisable to treat some of the cuttings
in the usual way as checks against the chemically treated cut-
tings and to work on a small scale until the operator can see def-
inite merit in the technique as it is perfected.
There is experimental evidence which indicates that cuttings
of certain temperate plants will form roots more quickly in wash-
ed quartz sand if applications of Vitamin Bi or Vitamin BG are
made in solutions of 1 part to 1, 5 or 10 million parts of water.
Tests in this field are being conducted by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture and other research agencies but definite
recommendations cannot yet be made for the universal adoption
of vitamins to stimulate the rooting of cuttings.
The physiological processes which take place while cuttings
are in the propagating bench can be abetted, it seems, by vitamins
in very dilute solutions.
From one of the large manufacturing chemists comes the
warning that, because alkaline water will render vitamin B1 in-
effective, it is necessary to use water that has a pH reading be-
low 7.






18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
MAKING THE CUTTINGS
Greenwood Cuttings.-By far the greatest number of cuttings
used in Florida ornamental horticulture are those that come un-
der the classification of "greenwood" or "softwood." These soft-
wood cuttings are leafy tips that are still immature, herbaceous,
nonwoody. Usually the half-hardening of the first spring flush in
Florida yields wood that produces excellent cuttings of this type.
Many species of azaleas will form root systems very quickly if tip
cuttings are taken from the plants in May while the ends of the
growing branchlets are still immature.
Azalea canescens, the so-called "wild honeysuckle" of northern
Florida hammocks, shows a marked resistance to propagation by
cuttings during most of the year. However, cuttings taken in
April and treated in exactly the same manner as they had been
handled during the fall and winter gave :.- rooted plants, while
cuttings taken in May and treated in precisely the same way de-
veloped heavy root systems on 100%c of the cuttings in 51/2 weeks.
Thus it is seen that the season at which cuttings are taken is often
of first importance and many so-called difficult plants may re-
spond in a highly gratifying manner if the propagator arrives at
the proper season through trial. This is a matter that must be
worked out for each particular locality and for the specific plants
concerned.
Cuttings must be taken from stock plants that are healthy, ro-
bust and free from pests. An Ilex cutting, for example, with
leaves covered with purple scale, will not respond satisfactorily
in the propagating case even though the operator has furnished
almost ideal environmental conditions.
Softwood tips three or four inches long are cut from healthy
plants with sharp pruning shears or with a sharp knife and im-
mediately covered with wet burlap or wet sphagnum moss until
carried to the work bench for trimming. It is very important
that all cutting material be carefully protected from the sun and
drying winds to prevent wilting. As soon as the plant material
is brought to the working space, it must be sprinkled at once with
a fine spray of cool water so that the leaves will remain turgid.
Cuttings may be made from wood below the terminal growth,
but the tips are preferred by most propagators.
The upper two or three leaves which are left on the cuttings
should remain intact as cuttings will produce heavy root systems
much more quickly when the leaf area is not reduced. Recent
investigations have shown that the old nursery practice of remov-






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


ing halves of the upper leaves is detrimental and the practice
actually prolongs the time that the cuttings must remain in the
propagation bench. Tip leaves on plants with unusually large fol-
iage, such as some of the newer croton hybrids, the hydrangeas
and the acalyphas, may be reduced if the bench space is limited.
Beginning at the base of the cutting, carefully strip off the
lower leaves with a steady pull and twist. If the bark tears away
with the leaves, sharp shears or a knife must be employed to trim
the foliage. If the leaves come away readily, however, consider-
able time can be saved by stripping rather than by laboriously
cutting through each individual petiole. Experiments have shown
that it is not necessary to trim the leaves carefully from the cut-
ting.
The last operation in the preparation of the cutting is the re-
slicing of the basal end. If the first cut is unusually ragged or if the
end has dried out, a new, fresh cut is made with a sharp instru-
ment. Another practice that has been outmoded is that of carefully
making the basal cut just below a node. It has been clearly dem-
onstrated that the position of the cut on cuttings of most orna-
mental plants grown in Florida is of no major importance.
The cuttings are inserted in one of the root-inducing substances
as described on page 14, if one of these aids is to be used. When
all cuttings have been prepared holes are opened in the rooting
medium some four or five inches deep and the cuttings are in-
serted with the leaves flat on the rooting substance. The mater-
ial is then pressed firmly with the hands about the cuttings and
leveled off, after which the bench is gently flooded with water.
It is no longer considered the best horticultural practice to
hammer the rooting medium solid with a brick, neither is it nec-
essary to use a straight edge and putty knife for laying off each
individual furrow for the cuttings. After a little practice it will
be found that the method described is rapid, sure and much
superior to the older system of cutting a furrow in packed sand.
When flooding has been completed the sash should be lowered
over the bed. A sash covered with glass or cloth will produce
a high percentage of rooted cuttings, if the other factors have
been properly controlled. The sash must be lifted each day so
that the leaves may be carefully sprinkled with a mist-like spray.
If cheesecloth covering is used this should be wet each noonday.
A shade of muslin must be suspended over the bench to inter-
cept the sun's rays if glass sash is employed for the bench cover-
ing.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Recent research has shown that callus is not necessary to root
formation in leafy cuttings. In fact, some types of cuttings form
huge calluses which are often partially cut away so that rooting
may be speeded. It is a good plan to dip the pared cutting in a
talc root-inducing substance.
Root Cuttings.-When root systems of certain plants are in-
jured by cultivating tools suckers very often arise from the cut
ends of roots. By driving a sharp spade deep into the ground
about well established plants of Breynia, Lagerstroemia, Plumbago
and other ornamentals, nurserymen may increase their stocks.
The small plants are set into rows and grown in the usual man-
ner.
A more refined method of making root cuttings is to expose
carefully some of the larger roots, trace them down until they
are about one-half or one-fourth inch in diameter, lift them and,
after cutting them into three-inch lengths, set them in a standard
propagating bench of sand or sand and peat moss. Root cuttings
may be set vertically in the rooting medium, in which case it is
essential that the end nearest the body of the plant be upward.
They may also be laid horizontally in the sand of the cutting
bench and covered with about a half-inch of the rooting medium.
Leaf-Bud Cuttings.-Investigations have shown repeatedly
that plant tissues in the region of buds are veritable storehouses
for food materials and phytohormones. There is every good
reason, therefore, to expect these tissues to make good propagat-
ing material, even though the amount of wood used is extremely
small as compared with a standard cutting with long internodes.
It is understood, of course, that the environment must be wholly
congenial if a high percentage of plants is to be obtained.
A method of increasing rare plants that has recently been
revived is the leaf-bud cutting technique. A bud with single
leaf attached is cut exactly as though it were to be used in shield
budding (see Fig. 6). This bud is dipped or immersed in one
of the root-inducing chemicals, following the suggestions already
given, if one of these aids is to be used. After the lapse of time
recommended for the chemical employed the cutting is placed
in the rooting medium that has been found best adapted for the
particular species being increased. The stem tissue and the
axillary bud are barely covered and the untrimmed single leaf
lies flat on the moist rooting medium. It has been conclusively
shown that standard cuttings with all possible leaves attached






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Fig. 6.-Typical leaf-bud cuttings ready to insert in the rooting medium. Top row,
Buginvillaea; center. Hibiscus; lower row, Croton.


will produce heavy root systems more rapidly than when the
leaf areas have been reduced partially by cutting back. It is
important, therefore, with most plants that the area of the leaf
attached to the bud be not reduced. With very large leaved
plants such as some of the crotons, as noted above, it may be
necessary to cut down the leaves some to get the greatest value
from the cutting benches.
The time required for a leaf-bud cutting to form a heavy root
system depends upon the season, the variety and the environ-
ment into which the cutting is introduced. The reaction of the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 7.--Croton leaf-bud cuttings about one month after they had been
inserted in the rooting medium of half European peat moss and half
sharp lake sand.

rooting medium and of the irrigating water must be, as in any
propagating operation, correct for the varieties of plants being
multiplied.
This leaf-bud cutting technique has given gratifying results
with certain varieties of azaleas, buginvillaeas, crotons and hibis-
cus in numerous trials.
An 18-inch cane from an azalea or hibiscus plant might give
but four regular cuttings, whereas the same shoot might yield
20 or more leaf-bud cuttings. Generally speaking it is best to
take these cuttings in the spring from shoots that are half-
hardened, non-woody of the first spring flush. They should be
neither succulent and sappy nor woody and hard. The keen
propagator will soon learn to distinguish at a glance the best
wood for the purpose. In the northern and western parts of the
state winter propagation by the leaf-bud cutting method is not
recommended unless provision can be made for heating the root-
ing medium and the irrigating water. It has been demonstrated






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Fig. 8.-Croton leaf-bud cuttings from the same group illustrated in
Fig. 7, after they had grown for about three months.

that this method has its greatest usefulness during the months
of March to September.
If there is a distinctly limited amount of propagating material
available, as is often the case with rare plants, it seems that this
technique would have a rather definite usefulness. Its use would
be restricted almost entirely to specialists or plant experts who
wish to work up a large stock of plants from a small quantity
of scarce propagating wood. Probably the casual propagator
would not find the leaf-bud cutting method superior to the older
method of making standard cuttings.
Members of certain families may be increased by using simply
a leaf and a piece of the petiole or leaf-stalk, without a chip of
stem tissue. Rex begonias, African violets, and other succulent
florists' pot plants are frequently multiplied in this manner. Most
woody plants must have this vital shield of stem tissue containing
an axillary bud to assure successful shoot growth.
Hardwood Cuttings.-This class of propagating material con-
sists of mature branchlets of deciduous plants from which the
leaves have already dropped. Some deciduous fruits, rose under-
stocks and several of the deciduous ornamental shrubs are pro-
pagated in this manner. In the autumn and winter dormant cut-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 4.-Response of Leaf-Bud Cuttings After Approximately One
Month in the Propagating Benchl.


Treated2
% Ready
Name of Plant for % Not
Potting Ready

Buginvillaea spectabilis 90 10
variety Crimson Lake
Cocculus laurifolius 90 10
Codiaeum variegatum 80 20
variety Maculata Katoni
Codiaeum variegatum 100 0
variety Tortilis
Hibiscus rosa sinensis 100 0
variety Single Red
Ipomoaea fistulosa 100 0
Ixora coccinea 80 20
Thunbergia grandiflora 100 0
variety Alba


No.
Dead

0

0
0

0

0

0
0
0


Untreated3
% Ready
for % Not No.
Potting Ready Dead

70 30 0

80 10 1
60 40 0

30 70 0


0 100 0

No Control Cuttings
I I
No Control Cuttings
0 100 I 0
I


1The medium was half European peat moss and half quartz sand by
volume and the acidity was pH 4.45.
2Ten cuttings were dipped in indolebutyric acid in talc (5 mg/g)
before they were set in the propagating bench.
3Ten comparable cuttings for each variety were set directly, without
treatment, as controls.

tings are made from 10 to 18 inches in length and are tied in
bundles with old insulated telephone wire, waxed cord or other
binding material. The bases of the cuttings, rather than the tips,
should be even.

A hole two to two and one-half feet deep is dug in sandy soil
in a well drained sunny location, and into this callusing pit the
bundles of hardwood cuttings are introduced. They are care-
fully placed top end down so that the bases of the cuttings stand
about 10 inches below the surface of the soil. The sand should
be filled in and left so that a shallow basin stands over the callus-
ing pit to gather water and allow it to percolate through the cut-
tings. The heat of Florida's winter sun is sufficient to induce
heavy callusing in three to eight weeks. When inspection shows
that there is considerable callus formation the bundles are lifted,
washed and untied. The callused cuttings are then set directly
in the nursery rows, at intervals that will vary with the species,







Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Fig. 9.-Hardwood cuttings of Pineapple pear and Rosa odorata showing callus
formation after about eight weeks in the callusing pit.
the use, and the cultivating system that is being employed. Two
inches of each cutting is allowed to stand above the soil. Firming
with the feet and watering should follow setting to eliminate
air pockets and to insure a good contact between the plant ma-
terial and the earth. This method is recommended for small-
scale operations where care can be used in protecting the callus
from drying and in inserting it with caution so that it is unin-
jured. In very large nurseries the callus pit method is not used
extensively.
Commercial rose nurseries in northern and western Florida
have found that thornless strains of Rosa multiflora are excellent
understocks for budding the improved cutting roses that are so
much in demand today. Their practice is simply to cut the leaf-
less canes during the early winter into 8 or 10-inch lengths and
insert these directly in the nursery rows. The method usually
results in a high percentage of live plants, so it is felt that treat-
ment in a callusing pit is entirely superfluous. Recent investiga-


:Y~"i;~
I
:P"' f :''
, .1






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 10.-Zephyranthes grandiflora propagated by slicing the mature bulbs into
sections.

tions have shown that, with rose cuttings, the type or position of
the basal cut is unimportant.
The coniferous evergreens are often increased by hardwood
cuttings in northern and western Florida nurseries. Usually in
the autumn or winter one year old wood is employed to make
tip-cuttings about four to six inches long.
Rapid Multiplication of Bulbs.-Several genera of the bulbous
plants are widely grown in Florida, both commercially and as
garden subjects. For the most part they are propagated "true to
type" by separating the slabs or offsets at digging time. These
small bulbels are re-set and treated as individuals and usually
bloom in two or three years.
There is a marked tendency in the Hippeastrums (amaryllis),
the Crinums and other bulbs to grow improved varieties by name,
as is done with roses. As many of the improved bulbs of hybrid






Propagation of Ornamental Plants 27

origin do not form offsets readily, various methods have been
worked out whereby rapid multiplication is possible.
One such method is to cut mature bulbs into longitudinal pieces
so that each section contains a fragment of the stem tissue. These
wedges are then inserted in flats containing a moist mixture of
peat moss and sand in equal parts. In a warm, humid atmosphere
small bulbels will begin to form between the scales of the bulbs
and usually will be large enough to pot off after one growing
season, blooming after two or three. Figure 10 shows Zephy-
ranthes grandiflora being propagated in this manner.


Fig. 11.-Dividing a herbaceous perennial to provide more plants.


Another method, closely akin, involves the making of several
longitudinal upward cuts through the center of the bulb, about
three-fourths of the way to the neck. This bulb, intact but with
many longitudinal cuts, is planted in a box of peat moss and sand
to about three-fourths its depth. Numerous young plants should
arise from the mutilated stem area and these should be potted
up as they become large enough.






28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
PROPAGATION BY DIVISION
This easy and rapid way of increasing plants is the method
used with several of our well known shrubs, the bamboos, most
of the herbaceous perennials, and some of the more important
ornamental palms.
The plants, excepting in the case of the large specimen palms,
are dug and shaken free of soil. It will be apparent, then, that
the clumps can be divided up into units or small plants, each
having roots, stems, buds or leaves. These units are separated
and planted as individuals where they are to grow permanently.
Plants are best divided after their season of blossoming but with
care they may be so increased at any season of the year.
With such palms as Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Caryota mitis and
some Phoenix species, division is accomplished by carefully separ-
ating the small suckers as they appear at the base of the older
plants. These separated suckers may be potted up and handled
the same as small seedlings.
PROPAGATION BY LAYERING
This popular and simple method of plant propagation is the
art of laying a branch or a stem down on the earth, covering it
with soil and allowing it to root while it is still attached to the
parent plant. Usually it is considered good horticultural practice
to cut or wound the bottom of the stem where it comes into con-
tact with the earth. This multilation induces more rapid rooting.
A brick or a bent wire stake should be used to hold the layered
branch in firm contact with the soil. Watering should be attend-
ed to frequently, as a moist medium is necessary for the proper
formation of a satisfactory root system.
Air layering, Chinese layering or marcottage is a method used
to increase rare buginvillaeas, Hawaiian hibiscus, while dracae-
nas, Ficus and other species of tropical plants that have become
"leggy" and have shed their lower leaves are given new root sys-
tems by this method. Just below the leaf mass a cut is made
partly through the stem and a splinter is inserted into this incis-
ion so that it does not grow shut. A mass of moist sphagnum moss
the size of a baseball is placed around the stem where the incis-
ion is made and this is firmly bound with waxed or plain cord.
If plain string is used several turns of fine copper wire should
be made around the ball to hold it securely when the unwaxed
cord rots. Sometimes fibrous material from the branches of coco-
nut palms is used as a wrapping on this type of layer, as illus-
trated in Figures 12 and 13. This ball of sphagnum moss must





Propagation of Ornamental Plants


be kept continuously moist so that roots will grow quickly and
abundantly in the rooting medium. When inspection shows that
the ball is well
filled with roots,
the stem should
be cut through
and the new plant
potted up in fresh
soil. Thus, the
plant has a more
attractive habit of
growth than it
formerly display-
ar ed with its long,
leafless stem.


Air layering is
be st practised
during the sum-
mer months when
abundant r a i n-
fall, high temper-
atures and high
humidity contrib-
ite toward quick-
er rooting.
Mound layering
or stool layering
is the horticul-
tural practice of
mounding s a n d
or sandy loam in
a conical pile
around the crown
of a many-stem-
med plant. If the
individual to be
increased does
not have many
sprouts it will be
necessary to cut
it back severely


Fig. 12.-Typical air layer on a young Hibiscus
plant. The ball of moss has been wrapped with
fibre from the coconut palm.


I






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


so that the formation
When the mound is
will form root
systems in the
congenial me d-
ium. Ordinarily
the rooted stems
may be potted up
or set in their
permanent posi-
tions after one
growing season.
In Florida this
method, in com-
mon with all
classes of layer-
age, is most effi-
cient if it is prac-
tised during the
rainy season.

PROPAGATION
BY BUDDING


of many shoots will be encouraged.
kept constantly moist many of the sprouts


/


Although most
ornamental plants
are propagated
by other means,
some few choice
kinds-for exam-
ple, roses, rare
hibiscus, or n a-
mental citrus, Ilex I
and Ixora lutea-
t bud Fig. 13.-A Dracaena plant to which an air layer
are often budded. has been applied so that the long, leafless stem
After growth is can be eliminated.
resumed in the
early spring and the bark will peel easily, a good percentage of
buds should be made to "take" as the operator becomes adept.
The common shield bud with the incision in the understock in
the form of a T, or an inverted T, is almost universally used in
Florida nursery practice. The buds can be cut from bud sticks
that are merely firm, round twigs, slightly smaller than a pencil
in diameter. The leaves should be carefully cut off with a sharp








Propagation of Ornamental Plants



*"I A -


7.4
* 15;-


Fig. 14.-Initial steps in the budding process. A, making the vertical cut; the
cutting stroke is usually downward but may be made upward if desired. B, making
the cross cut at the bottom of the vertical slit; note tilt of knife blade. C, cutting
the bud shield from the bud stick. o


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I %%


j


's'
r .
r







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


7 '1,12Yl ~_~

I~~~ I V-
% %i






i. i .



4-


Fig. 15.-The final steps in the budding process. D, inserting bud shield in stock;
bud is being held on knife blade. E, Bud shield in place in stock; note that it is en-
tirely within the flaps of bark. F, a closer view of the shield bud in place. G, taping,
the bud; taping is started at the bottom in inverted "T" budding and at the top in
erect "T" budding. H, taping finished; end of tape is brought back on tape wraps so
that it will stick.


k"' .. V







Propagation of Ornamental Plants


instrument, leaving a short piece of each petiole for easy han-
dling. After the budsticks are prepared they should be carried
in a small box of sphagnum moss to prevent their drying.
Figures 14 and 15 clearly demonstrate the steps in inserting a
shield bud. The photographs show the work being done on citrus,
but the technique is identical for many sorts of Florida orna-
mental plants.
Today there is an almost universal tendency to use budding
strips made from rubber. These new budding strips exert an
even pressure without cutting the plant, do not require as close
attention as do older budding materials, and ordinarily do not
have to be cut as they deteriorate after a short while and fall
to the ground. The bands, available at horticultural supply houses,
are convenient and inexpensive and can be used very efficiently
after a little practice.
Ordinarily the bud may be inserted about two or three inches
above the ground level for hibiscus but should be inserted at or
slightly below the surface of the soil for roses.
As soon as the bud starts to grow the stock plant is carefully
cut off at an angle just above the bud. Sometimes it is a good
plan to lop certain types of plants, that is, cut the understock
part way through directly above and on the same side as the
bud and allow it to lie over on the ground. In some cases this
system will start buds that are lying dormant and will also help
to prevent drowning by excessive sap.
Staking is important to prevent the bud from being broken at
the point of union and for this purpose a cypress or wire stake
must be driven by each budded plant so that it may be tied se-
curely every six or eight inches as the plant grows taller.

PROPAGATION BY GRAFTING
Grafting, the method of reproducing plants whereby a twig
with buds is inserted into a cleft of the stock plant, is very re-
stricted in the ornamental field. However, as some plants such
as Camellia, Ilex, Ligustrum, Hibiscus, Magnolia and the cacti are
so propagated, a short discussion of the procedure will be in-
cluded.
When the stocks are rather large in diameter they may be
split with a grafting iron and the wedge-shaped scion inserted
into this cleft (Fig. 17). Care must be used to make certain that
the wedge is even on both sides and that two of the edges are in
contact with the cambium of the understock. After binding with






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 16-Rubber strip used
in shield budding, with the
bud tied in place, left. Bud-
ding knife, right.


a rubber strip or grafting tape, the whole is usually waxed or
banked with sand or peat moss to prevent drying out. There are
various formulas for grafting wax to be found in textbooks on
plant propagation but if only a small amount of work is to be
done it is suggested that a proprietary wax be ordered from a
horticultural supply house.
Although cleft grafting is usually done above the ground level
this method as well as the other kinds of grafting can be done
just below the surface of the ground so that the finished job may






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


be easily banked with clean sand. In this case plain twine is used
as the binding material.
Side grafting as it is practiced with avocados is quite applicable
for use with succulents or with woody plants that are still young


Fig. 17.-Cleft grafting. A, splitting the stub down the sides; this gives
a cut for insertion of scion. B, splitting the stub. C, inserting scions. D,
scions inserted and stub taped and ready for waxing.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


or in a herbaceous condition. A slot is cut into the side of the
understock, and a small wedge of the scion is set firmly into this
incision. Binding is usually done with a rubber budding strip as
discussed under the section on budding. Care must be exercised
that the cambiums of both stock and scion are in contact. In
grafting cacti by this method the scion is held firmly in place
by driving three or four cactus thorns diagonally from one side
of the stock through the scion into the main part of the under-
stock.
Another system of grafting that is important in the horticul-
ture of Florida is the whip graft. A long, slanting cut is made
at the bottom of the scion and another oblique incision is worked
through between the base and the pith, slightly across the grain.
The understock is cut in exactly the same way. The two are
fitted carefully together so that the 'tongues interlace and the
cambiums are in contact. Most operators will find that it is a
good plan to have both members about the same caliper, but ex-
pert propagators can successfully work materials that are vastly
different in size. It is essential that the cambiums on at least
one side fit exactly. After the fitting has been completed, the
graft is bound with twine, which may be either waxed or plain,
and sand is packed about the finished job to prevent drying.
Several other excellent methods of grafting plants have been
developed for particular crops but for the most part have little
application in propagating ornamental plants in Florida.
PROPAGATION BY SEEDS
Those two great classes of ornamental plants, the annuals and
the herbaceous perennials, have been discussed in detail in Ex-
tension Bulletins 92 and 89, and for this reason they will not be
considered a part of this publication except to mention, in pass-
ing, that most palms, many trees and the annuals are usually
propagated by seeds and the perennials are largely increased
by lifting and separating the old clumps, which practice is known
as division.
For sowing seeds of most Florida ornamentals it is suggested
that, whenever possible, flats be used rather than sowing the
seeds directly in the open ground. A flat is a shallow box of any
convenient size that has provision for plenty of drainage-holes
or cracks in the bottom which allow the excess water to pass
quickly out of the compost. Thorough drainage is very impor-
tant in soils where tender seedlings are grown as a sour, water-






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


logged medium is fatal to most young garden plants. In the bot-
tom of the flat should be placed a layer of pine straw, dead grass
clippings or other coarse material so that the earth will not sift
or wash through the drainage holes.
The compost used in the flats may be any good grade of garden
soil which contains a fair amount of well rotted organic matter
such as cow manure, oak leaves or peat moss. Earth that is free
of root-knot nematodes is desirable and this is often secured in
heavily wooded areas.
Sterilizing the soil is very important and some arrangement
should be made for thus destroying soil-borne organisms. Small
quantities of soil can be baked in the oven; larger quantities, if
no standard sterilizer is at hand, may be treated with formalin
or one of the proprietary soil-sterilizing agents. These commer-
cial forms that your seed house carries should be used according
to the directions on the container.
Firm the soil to within a half inch of the top of the flat with
a brick or block of wood. Flood this gently packed medium with
water or with a water solution of one of the agents mentioned
above. After this solution has drained off, sift the seeds broad-
cast on the wet surface. Cover lightly by sifting sand or sand
and peat moss through a coarse screen over the seeds. Covering
the seeds too deeply is a common error. Generally speaking, if
the seeds are just barely hidden good results may be expected.
After the seeds have been covered place a wet newspaper or
piece of wet burlap over the flat. Water should be applied to
this covering whenever it is needed. In this way there is no
danger of washing the seeds out and the soil is kept uniformly
moist. The wet covering should remain on the flat until the
seeds germinate. Place the flat on a box or bench that is pro-
tected from ants, which often carry away the seeds.
After germination the flat must be placed where the seedlings
will get an abundance of light; if they are left in the shade they
will grow into weak, "leggy" individuals. It has been found that
a muslin shade as illustrated in Figure 18 allows sufficient light
to penetrate to the seedlings of annuals and perennials. The
woody plants and palms can be grown in a standard half shade
house of cypress laths.
Shortly after germination tender seedlings should receive an
application of a compound for the control of damping-off and
great care should be exercised so that water is not applied too
freely.









c',
? 0 0


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r


Fig. 18.-Muslin shade for protecting tender seedlings from direct rays of the sun. (USDA photo.)


Ih-ll O


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Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Certain classes of ornamental plants may be handled by sow-
ing the seeds directly in the nursery rows in the same manner
as many vegetables are planted. This method is used only with
low cost species, as it is difficult to control the environment and
to avoid adverse growing conditions. The method of sowing
plants in flats is always to be preferred for small-seeded species.
It should be pointed out that coconuts and other large fruits of
palms should be planted in seedbeds rather than in flats. These
beds should be made up of enriched soil and should be protected
from the direct rays of the sun. Seeds of some species of palms,
hollies and other ornamental plants are very slow to germinate
and these may require careful attention for many months be-
fore they will sprout, even under the best of conditions.
Stratification is employed with certain extra hard-coated seeds
that germinate with difficulty. Optinum moisture conditions
are readily maintained in the manner described below.
A box with large cracks or drainage holes is buried in sandy
soil and in the bottom of the box is placed an inch or so of sand
or sawdust. On this stratum is scattered a thin layer of seeds.
Sand is sprinkled over the seeds and alternating layers are built
up in this manner until the box is almost full. A final blanket
of sand is put over the top of the seeds and the whole is protected
from animals by a tight-fitting screen top.
Some growers find it unnecessary to use containers and simply
build up the strata of seeds and sand in a pit in the ground.
Hardware cloth must cover the pit to protect the seeds from
rodents.
Stratified seeds should be potted up or lined out in nursery
rows when inspection shows that the coats are just beginning
to crack.
The box containing stratified seeds may be kept in a cold
storage room at low temperatures for several months. During
this storage period the moisture within the medium may be al-
lowed to fluctuate, but the sand or sawdust must never become
dry.
Seeds of most Florida ornamental plants should be sown as
soon as they are ripe but the seeds of certain species will germin-
ate with great difficulty and after the lapse, in some cases, of
many months. Storing these seeds in moist peat moss at tem-
peratures between 40 and 47 degrees Fahrenheit will often aid
in breaking the rest period.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


THE MANAGEMENT OF GROWING PLANTS
When the young plants, whether seedlings, rooted cuttings or
rooted layers, show an abundance of well developed roots about
an inch in length they should be potted.
Potting soil should be loose in texture, high in fertility and
organic matter, free of toxic substances and, for most Florida
plants, slightly acid in reaction.
The presence of muck taken from tidal salt marshes along
the seacoast will be most injurious to plants and this material
must be carefully avoided. Muck that has been collected from
fresh water ponds is, of course, a safe and widely used ingredient
of potting compost.
An alkaline reaction of the potting soil, as occasioned by the
presence of such materials as phosphatic rock, bits of builders'
lime, limerock or shell, is unsuited to many of our prized plants
and it is recommended that these substances be carefully avoided
in building up the potting soil pile.
The potting soil pile should be located in a well shaded spot
so that decomposition of the organic matter will not be exces-
sive. Satisfactory ingredients are rotted cow manure or peat
moss, hammock top soil and sods of fertile field soil in about
equal proportions. These components should be piled in alternat-
ing layers, sprinkling each layer lightly with bonemeal. The
top of the pile should not be peaked or pointed but should
form a basin that will hold water that may seep through the
compost. It is important that the compost be kept constantly
moist. In two or three months the soil should be sliced down
with a shovel, thoroughly remixed and repiled. Aging improves
the quality of potting soil, so it should be allowed to stand for
six to 12 months if possible. Weeds must be kept off lest they
devitalize the compost by their heavy feeding. Finally, when
the compost is needed for potting or for seed flats, it should be
turned through a screen of half-inch hardware cloth to assure
proper pulverizing and mixing. Sufficient water should be added
as necessary. When a handful of the compost is squeezed, then
released, the soil should show the mold of the fingers and should
crack slightly. In no case should the potting soil be so wet that
it will retain the mold of the fingers without cracking, nor should
it be possible to squeeze water from the soil at potting time.
Standard red clay pots are the most satisfactory containers for
growing ornamental plants. Their first cost and the frequency






pr'opagfalion? 0f Ornanzicltal Mlo uts


with which they are broken make them expensive, especially
for the small operator.
In the southern part of the peninsula nurseries frequently
use cypress avocado boxes for growing ornamental plants, as
shown in Figure 19. Bands of heavy asphalt paper may be used
as bottomless plant containers.
Since the selling of motor oil in refinery sealed cans has be-
come an almost universal practice many of these used tins find
their way into nurseries. The objection to using these vessels
for the growing of plants has always been that it is almost im-
possible to extract the root system in a presentable condition.
Customers invariably shy away from plants that are so grown.
Figure 20 shows how these discarded oil cans are used so that
the root systems may be extracted with little disturbance.
Drainage holes must be punched in the bottom and a wire must
bind the can together around the top. Plunging to their rims
in the soil of the lath house is necessary when these split cans
are employed. The full quart of compost allows many plants to
attain a good salable size and, when rapid-growing species are
to be produced cheaply and in large numbers, this container
should be wholly satisfactory.
Regardless of the type of container used the drainage must
be good and the hole covered with a piece of broken flower pot.
After partially filling the container with soil set the young plant
so it will stand at about the same level it stood in the propagat-
ing bench or seedbed. Fill around the root system with com-
post, gently firming it in with the finger tips. Finally the soil
should stand about a quarter of an inch below the rim of the
container. Newly potted plants must be watered heavily and
plunged in the sand of a lath house or greenhouse bench at
once. Plunging the containers to the rims is very important in
Florida lath houses. It prevents the fluctuation of soil mixture,
tends to keep the soil temperature about the roots moderate and
contributes toward a much neater appearance in the plant house.
Investigations have shown that vitamin Bi definitely stimu-
lates root growth under laboratory conditions. It has been dem-
onstrated that plants grown in soils deficient in organic mat-
ter, and therefore deficient in micro-organisms, are benefitted
by the addition of this substance in very dilute solutions (1 part
to 1, 5 or 10 million parts of water). However, from the Boyce-
Thompson Institute for Plant Research and the California In-
stitute of Technology and the Phipps Conservatory comes the





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


I














Fig. 19.-Three popular plant containers-empty oil can, cypress avo-
cado box, and flower pot.
information that, when plants are grown in highly organic soils
that contain animal manures, peat moss and leaf mold, there is
usually no outstanding benefit from applications of vitamin B1
even when the chemical is applied according to the best infor-
mation available. It will be noted that this publication repeatedly
recommends the use of a complex organic potting soil. As noted
on page 17, hard water is known to inactivate vitamin B1, so
gardeners must use soft water in applying this chemical.
Tests at the University of Florida corroborate the findings re-
corded above.






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Ar~a
1 *1


Fig. 20.-Discarded motor oil cans may be split down the sides and
bound at the tops with wire before they are used as plant containers. In
this way the root systems may be extracted without damage.

As the plants grow they must be shifted to larger containers
lest they be stunted as a result of becoming pot-bound. Occa-
sional inspection during the growing season will enable the op-
erator to ascertain when this moving to a larger container is
necessary. The art of shifting is similar to the potting of the
newly rooted cutting. The plant should stand at the same level
and the new soil must be firmly packed between the ball of
earth and the container. It is important that the shifted plant
be watered copiously and plunged in the plant house bench at
once.
Certain classes of ornamental stock may be lined out in nursery
formation after they have become pot-bound in three- or four-
inch pots. The rows are laid off at predetermined intervals, and
into these rows the plants are set at proper distances. It is
usually the practice to set the plants slightly deeper than they
stood in the pots so as to cover the ball with about an inch of
field soil. After transplanting, watering must be carefully at-
tended to. It is possible to line out some of the hardy, quick-
growing species directly from-the seedbed or cutting bench but
in general this practice is not recommended for the more val-
uable classes of ornamental nursery stock.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 21.-Plants of Ilex opaca, American holly, grown from cuttings that had
been treated with indolebutyric acid to accelerate rooting. The plants were one
year old when the picture was made. (Courtesy Boyce-Thompson Institute for
Plant Research.)







Propagation of Ornamental Plants


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PROPAGATION OF
ORNAMENTALS


Name of Plantl


Abelia grandiflora
Acacia spp.3
Achras sapota
Acalypha spp.
Acer rubruml
Agave spp.
Albiszia spp.
Aleurites spp.
Allamanda spp.
Aloe spp.
Antigonon leptopus
Araucaria spp.
Ardisia spp.
Arecastrum romianzoffianumn
Aristolochia spp.
Arundinaria spp.
Asystasia coromandeliana
Azalea spp.

Baccharis halimifolia
Bambusa spp.
Bauhinia spp.
Beaumontia '.-ii
Beloperone guttata
Bignonia spp.
Bischofia javanica
Bixa orellana
Bombax malabaricum
Breynia nivosa
Brunfelsia spp.
Bucida buceras
Buddleia spp.
Buginvillaea spp.
Buxus spp.

Caesalpinia spp.
Callicarpa americana
Callistemon spp.
Camellia spp.
Carissa spp.
Caryota spp.
Cassia spp.
Casuarina spp.
Catalpa longissinma
Catesbaea spinosa
Cedrus deodara
Cephalotaxus spp.
Cercis canadensis
Cestrum spp.
Chaenonmeles japonica


1The nomenclature
Hortus, 1935.


follow


Climatic
Range2


N C
N C
S
C S
N C
N C
N C
N C
C S
C S
N C
N C
N C
C S
C S
N C
S
N C

N C
N C
C S
S
C S
N C
S
S
S
C S
C S
S
C S
C S
N

S
N
N C
N C
S C
C S
S
C S
S
S
N
N C
N C
C S
N
ed in this


Methods in Order of
Importance


Hardwood, softwood cuttings
S Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Seeds
S Division, axillary bulbils
S Seeds
S Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Division
S Seeds
S Seeds, softwood cuttings
S Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds
Seeds
S Division
Lavers
Softwood cuttings

S Softwood cuttings
S Division, hardwood cuttings
Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings and division
S Layers, softwood cuttings, seeds
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Root cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, layers
Softwood cuttings

Seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings
S Softwood cuttings, seeds
Softwood cuttings, grafting, layering, seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings, layers
Seeds
Softwood cuttings, seeds, division
Division, seeds
Seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Seeds, budding, grafting
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood, hardwood cuttings
bulletin is that used by Dr. L. H. Bailey in


2Sections of Florida. N-northern and western Florida; C-central Florida; S-ex-
treme southern section where sub-freezing temperatures are rare.
3Spp. indicates that there are several species of the genus commonly grown in Florida.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Name of Plat'


Chamaecyparis thyoides
Chilopsis linearis
Chionanthus virginiana
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens
Chrysophyllum oliveiforme
Cinnamomum spp.
Citrus spp.
Clerodendron spp.
Coccolobis uvifera
Cocculus laurifolius
Cochlospermum vitifolium
Cocos nucifera
Codiaeum variegatum
Coffea arabica
Cornus florida
Cotoneaster spp.
Cryptostegia spp.
Cuphea spp.
Cupressus spp.
Cycas spp.
Cydista aequinoctialis

Datura spp.
Daubentonia punicea
Delonix regia
Diervilla spp.
Dioscorea spp.
Dombeya wallichii
Dovyalis spp.
Doxantha unguis-cati
Dracaena spp.
Duranta repens

Ehretia microphylla
Elaeagnus pungens
Elaeagnus philippensis
Eriobotrya japonica
Ervatamia coronaria
Erythrina spp.
Escallonia spp.
Eugenia spp.
Euonymus spp.
Euphorbia pulcherrinma

Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus pumila
Ficus spp.
Fortunella spp.

Gardenia jasminoides
Gelsemium sempervirens
Gordonia lasianthus
Grevilleg robusta
Guaiacum spp.

Hamelia erecta
Hedera helix
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Hibiscus schizopetalus
Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus moscheutos


Climatic
Range2

N C
N C S
N C


C S



C S


Methods in Order of
Importance


Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, hardwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Seeds, division
Seeds
Seeds
Budding, grafting, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Seeds, hardwood cuttings
Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings, grafting
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings, layers
Softwood cuttings
Firm tip, softwood cuttings, seeds
Seeds, offsets
Softwood cuttings

Softwood cuttings, seeds, layers
Seeds
Seeds
Suckers, softwood cuttings
Tubers
Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, seeds, hardwood cutting
Seeds, layers, softwood cuttings
Layers, softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings

Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Seeds
Seeds, budding, grafting
Softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Hardwood, softwood cuttings

Seeds
Layers, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Budding

Softwood cuttings, grafting
Layers
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds

Softwood cuttings, seeds
Layers, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, grafting
Softwood cuttings
Hardwood, softwood cuttings
Seeds







Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Climatic Methods in Order of
Name of Plant Range2 Importance


Holmskioldia sanguine
Hydrangea macrophylla
Hylocereus spp.

Ilex spp.
Illicium spp.
Ipomoea spp.
Ixora coccinea

Jacaranda acutifolia
Jasminum spp.
Jatropha spp.
Juniperus spp.

Kigelia pinnata
Koelreuteria spp.

Lagerstroemia indica
Lantana spp.
Laurus nobilis
Ligustrum, large-leafed
Ligustrum, small-leafed
Liquidambar spp.
Liriodendron tulipifera
Livistona chinensis
Lonicera spp.


types
types


Macadamia ternifolia
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia soulangeana
Magnolia stellata
Magnolia virginiana
Mahonia spp.
Malpighia spp.
Malvaviscus grandiflorus
Mangifera indica
Melaleuca spp.
Michelia fuscata
Monstera deliciosa
Murraea exotica
Musa spp.
Myrica cerifera
Myrtus communis

Nandina domestic
Nerium oleander

Olea spp.
Osmanthus spp.

Pandanus spp.
Pandorea spp.
Parkinsonia aculeata
Pedilanthus spp.
Petrea volubilis
Philadelphus spp.
Phoenix spp.
Photinia spp.
Phyllocarpus septentrionalis


C S
N C
S

N C
N C
N C
C S

C S
N C
S
N C

S
N C

N C
N C
N
N C
N C
N C
N
N C
N C

S
N C
N
N
N C
N
C S
C S
S
C S
N C
S
S
C S
N C
N

N
N C

N C
N C

S
C S
N C
C S
S
N
N C
N
S


Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Layers, softwood cuttings

S Softwood cuttings, budding, grafting, seeds
Softwood
S Layers, seeds, softwood cuttings, grafting
Softwood cuttings

Seeds
S Softwood cuttings, layers
Seeds
Firm tip cuttings

Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds

S Hardwood cuttings, softw'd, root cut.,seeds
S Softwood cuttings, layers, seeds
Softwood cuttings
S Softwood cuttings, grafting
Hardwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, grafting, seeds
Seeds
S Seeds
Layers, seeds

Seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Grafting, softwood cuttings
Grafting, softwood cuttings
Seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, hardwood cuttings
Grafting
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, layers
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Division
S Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings

Seeds
S Softwood cuttings

S Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, seeds

Division
Layers, softwood cuttings
S Seeds
Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Softwood, hardwood cuttings, layers
S Seeds, offsets
SSoftwood cuttings
iSeeds







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Name of Planti


Pithecellobium spp.
Pittosporum spp.
Platanus spp.
Plumbago capensis
Plumeria spp.
Polyscias spp.
Pongamia pinnata
Porana paniculata
Potentilla spp.
Prnius caroliniana
PrIunous mume 71
Psidium spp.
Pterocarpa stenoplera
Punica granatium
Pyracantha spp.
Pyrostegia ignea
Pyrus anguslifolia

Quercus spp.
Quisqualis indira

Rhapis excels
Ravenala madagascariensis
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa
Rosa spp.
Roystonea regia
Russelia spp.

Sabal palmetto
Samanea saman
Sambucus canadensis
Schefflera digitata
Schinus terebinthifolius
Scindapsus aureus
Senecio confusus
Serissa foetida
Severinia buxifolia
Solandra guttata
Solanum spp.
Spathodea campanulata
Spiraea spp.
Stenolobium stains
Stephanotis floribunda
Swietenia spp.

Tabebuia spp.
Tamarindus indica
Tecomaria capensis
Terminalia spp.
Tetranygia bicolor
Thea sinensis
Thespesia populnea
Thevetia nereifolia
Thryallis glauca
Thuja orientalis
Thunbergia spp.
Tibouchina semidecandra
Trachelospermum jasminoides
Triphasia trifolia

Ulmus spp.


Climatic
Range2


S
C
C

S

C S
C
S

C S
S

C

S
C S

S

C S

C S

S

S

C S
S
S


S


S
S
C S
S
S
N C
S
C S
C S
N C
C S
C S
N C
S

N C


Methods in Order of
Importance

Seeds
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Seeds, hardwood cuttings
Division, softwood cuttings, seeds
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Softwood cuttings
Seeds
Softwood cuttings, layering
Softwood cuttings
Seeds, division
Softwood cuttings, grafting
Seeds, softwood, root cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Hardwood, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Layers, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, grafting

Seeds
Firm tip cuttings

Division
Seeds
Seeds
Budding, hardwood, softwood cuttings
Seeds
Layers, softwood cuttings

Seeds
Seeds, root cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Layers, softwood cuttings
Layers, seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Softwood cuttings
Layers, seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Hardwood, softwood cuttings, division
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Softwood cuttings
Seeds

Seeds, layers
Seeds
Softwood cuttings, seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds, softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
Layers, softwood cuttings, seeds
Softwood cuttings
Layers, softwood cuttings
Seeds, softwood cuttings

Softwood cuttings, seeds






Propagation of Ornamental Plants


Name of Plant1

Vaccinium arboreum
Vanieria tricuspidata
Vanilla spp.
Iiburnum spp.
Vitex agnus-castus

WIashingtonia spp.
TWedelia trilobata
Tcigclia spp.
Wisteria sinensis


Yucca spp.

Zamia spp.


Climatic
Ranac2


Methods in Order of
Importance


Seeds
C S Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings
C Softwood cuttings, layers
Softwood cuttings


C S
S


Seeds
Layers, division
Softwood cuttings
Hardwood, softwood cuttings


N C S Division

N C S Seeds, division







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


COMMON NAMES OF PLANTS FOR EASY REFERENCE TO
PROPAGATION TABLE


COMMON NAME
Adam's needle
Air potato
American holly
Angel's trumpet
Anise tree
Annatto
Arabian jasmine
Aralia
Arborvitae
Argentina
Arrow wood
Assonia
Australian pine

Bamboo
Banana
Banana shrub
Barbados cherry
Bear grass
Beauty berry
Beefwood
Black-eyed Susan
Black olive
Bleeding heart
Blue cypress
Bottlebrush
Boxwood
Brassaia
Brazilian pepper
Bridal wreath
Bush honeysuckle
Butterfly bush

Cabbage palm
Cajeput tree
Calamondin
Calico flower
Canary Island date palm
Carolina yellow jasmine
Cape honeysuckle
Cape jasmine
Cat's claw
Cat's claw vine
Cattley guava
Century plant
Ceriman
Ceylon gooseberry
Chalcas
Chalice vine
Chaste tree
Cherry laurel
Chinese fan palm
Chinese hat plant
Chinese hibiscus
Cigarette plant
Classic myrtle
Clock vine
Coconut palm


SCIENTIFIC NAME

Yucca filamentosa
Dioscorea
Ilex opaca
Datura
Illicium anisatum
Bixa orellana
Jasminmn sambac
Polvscias
Thuia
Potentilla
Vib urn uin
Dombeya
Casuarina

Arundinaria or Bombusa
Musa
Michelia
Malpighia
Yucca
Callicarpa
Casuarina
Thllnbergia
Bucida
Clerodendron
Cupressus lusitnica
Cal/istemon

Schefflera
Schinus
Spiraea
Azalea canescens
Buddleia

Sahal palmetto
Melaleuca
Citrus mitis
Aristolochia
Phoenix canariensis
Gelsemium
Tecomaria
Gardenia
Pithecellobiun unguis-cati
Doxantha
Psidium
A gave
Monstera
Dovyalis
Murraea
Solandra
Vitex
Prunus
Livistona
Holmskioldia
Hibiscus
Cuphea
Myrtus communis
Thunbergia
Cocos nucifera







Propagation of Ornamental Plants


COMMON NAME
Cocos plumosa
Coffee
Confederate jasmine
Coontie
Copperleaf
Coral plant
Coral tree
Coral vine
Cordyline
Coromandeliana
Crabapple
Crape jasmine
Crape myrtle
Cross vine
Croton
Cudrania
Cup-and-saucer-plant
Cydonia
Cypress

Dahoon holly
Date palm
Day iasmine
Deodar cedar
Desert willow
Devil wood
Dilly
Dogwood
Downy myrtle
Dutchman's pipe
Dwarf poinciana


Elderberry
Elm
English ivy

Fig
Firethorn
Fishtail palm
Flamboyant
Flame azalea
Flame tree
Flame vine
Flowering dogwood
Flowering quince
Flowering willow
Fountain plant
Fountain tree
Frangipani
French mulberry
Fringe tree

Gallberry
Garlic vine
Glory bush
Gold Coast jasmine
Golden dewdrop
Golden rain tree
Groundsel

Heavenly bamboo


SCIENTIFIC NAME

Arecastrum
Coffca
Trachelosperntmai
Zanmia
. calypha
Russclia
Erythriwa
Antigonotn
Dracaena
Asysta iia

Ervatami.tta
Lagerstroemia indira
Bignonia
Codiacum
Vanieria
Holmskioldia
Chacnomclcs
Cuprrssus

!ex cassieic
Phoenix
Ce'sttrum
Cedrus
Chilopsis
Osinantlhus iiiamerican
Achras
Cornus
Rhodomyrt s
A rist lociaii
Caesalpiina (South) or
Daubentonia (North"

Sambmuri
Ulnms
Hedera

Ficus
Pyracantha
Caryota
Delonix
Azalea
Delonix
Pyrostegia
Cortnus
Chaenomeles
Ch'lopsis
Russelia
Spathodea
Plumeria
Callicarpa
Chionanthus

Ilex glabra
Cydista
Tibouchina
Jasminum
Duranta
Koelreuteria
Senecio

Nandina






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


COMMON NAME
Herald's trumpet
Hill gooseberry
Holly
Holly olive
Honeysuckle
Hunter's robe

Icacorea
Inkberry

Japanese apricot
Japanese euonymus
Japanese holly
Japanese juniper
Japanese medlar
Japanese oleaster
Japanese plum
Japanese sweet gum
Japanese yew
Japonica
Jasmine
Jerusalem thorn
Joseph's coat
Juniper

Kei-apple
Ketembilla
Kine's mantle
Kumquat

Lemon vine
Lily thorn
Limeberry
Loblolly bay
Loquat
Lucky nut
Lignum-vitae

Madagascar jasmine
Madagascar rubber vine
Mahogany
Mango
Manilla tamarind
Marlberry
Mimosa
Mock-orange
Monkey puzzle tree
Morning glory
Mountain ebony

Natal plum
Night-blooming cereus
Night jasmine
Norfolk Island pine

Oak
Old man's beard
Oleander
Olive
Orange jasmine
Orchid tree


SCIENTIFIC NAME

Beaumontia
Rhodomyrtus
Ilex
Osmanthus
Lonicera
Scindapsus

Ardisia
Ilex glabra

Prunus mume
Euonymus
Ilex cornuta
Juniperus chinensis
Eriobotrya
Elaeagnus
Eriobotrya
Liquidambar formosana
Podocarpus
Camellia japonica
Jasminuml
Parkinsonia
Breynia
Juniperus

Dovyalis caffra
Dovyalis hebecarpa
Thunbergia erecta
Fortunella


Pereskia
Catesbaea
Triphasia
Gordonia
Eriobotrya
Thevetia
Guaiacum


Stephanotis
Cryptostegia
Swietenia
Mangifera
Pithecellobium
Adrisia panicidata
Albizzia julibrissin
Prunus caroliniana
Araucaria
Ipomoea
Bauhinia

Carissa j Y
Hylocereus
Cestrun
Araucaria excelsa


or Philadelphus


QiLercus
Chionanthus
Nerium
Olea
Murraea
Bauhinia







Propagation of Ornamental Plants


COMMON NAME
Paradise flower
Philippine tea
Phyllanthus
Physic nut
Pigmy date palm
Pindo palm
Pineapple guava
Pink ball
Pitanga
Plum yew
Poinciana
Poinsettia
Pomegranate
Pongam
Poonga oil tree
Portia tree
Portugese cypress
Pothos
Princess flower
Privet
Punk tree
Purging nut
Purple wreath

Queen palm
Queen's wreath
Queensland nut

Rain tree
Rangoon creeper
Redbud tree
Red gum
Retinospora
Roebelen palm
Rosa de Montana
Rose of Sharon
Royal palm
Royal poinciana

Sago palm
Salt bush
Sapodilla
Satinleaf
Saucer magnolia
Sausage tree
Scarlet bush
Screw pine
Sea grape
Seaside mahoe
Senna
Shrimp plant
Silver thorn
Sky flower
Snail seed
Snow bush
Southern crabapple
Spanish bayonet
Sparkle berry
Spiceberry
Spindle tree
Star jasmine
Star magnolia


SCIENTIFIC NAME
Solanum
Ehretia microphylla
Breynia
Jatropha
Phoenix
Butia
Feijoa
Dombeya
Eugenia
Cephalotaxus
Delonix
Euphorbia
Punica
Pongamia
Pongamia
Thespesia
Cupressus
Scindapsus
Tibouchina
Ligustrum
Melaleuca
Jatropha
Petrea

Arecastrum
Petrea
Macadamia

Samanea
Quisqualis
Cercis
Liquidambar
Chamaecyparis
Phoenix
Antigonon
Hibiscus syriacus
Roystonea
Delonix

Cycas
Baccharis
Achras
Chrysoplyllum
Magnolia soulangeana
Kigelia
Hamelia
Pandanus
Coccolobis
Thespesia
Cassia
Beloperone
Elaeagnus
Thunbergia
Cocculus
Breynia
Pyrus
Yucca
Vaccinium
A rdisia
Elonvnlus
Trachelospermum
Magnolia stellata







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


COMMON NAME
Strawberry bush
Surinam cherry
Sweet bay
Sweet gum
Sweet olive
Sycamore

Tabernaemontana
Tarajo
Tea-olive
Tea plant
Tecoma
Temple tree
Toddy palm
Traveler's tree
Tropical almond
Trumpet vine
Tulip tree
Tung oil tree
Turk's cap
Turk's turban

Umkokolo

Vanilla bean

Wax myrtle
Weeping lantana
Wild honeysuckle
Wild olive
Wing nut
Winter creeper
Woman's-tongue tree

Yam
Yaupon
Yellow elder
Yellow oleander
Yellow palm
Yellow poplar
Yerba mate


SCIENTIFIC NAME
Euonymus
Eugenia
Magnolia virginiana
Liquidambar
Osmanthus
Platanus

Ervatamia
Ilex latifolia
Osmanthus fragrans
Thea sinensis
Tecomaria
Plum eria
Caryota
Ravenala
Terminalia
Bignonia
Liriodendron
Aleurites
Malvaviscus
Clerodendron

Dovyalis

Vanilla

Myrica cerifera
Lantana
Azalea
Osmanthus
Pterocarpa
Euonymus
Albizzia

Dioscorea
Ilex
Stenolobium
Thevetia
Chrysalidocarpus
Liriodendron tulipifera
Ilex paraguayensis


The following bulletins should be helpful to Florida gardeners:
Fla. Agri. Ext. Bul. 84-Native and Exotic Palms of Florida
"85-Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida
Fruits
89-Herbaceous Perennials for Florida
92-Growing Annual Flowers
95-Ornamental Trees
96-Citrus Propagation
102-Roses in Florida
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 323-Ornamental Hedges for Florida
U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul. 1567-Propagation of Trees and Shrubs
1591-Transplanting Trees and Shrubs




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