• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Main














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 717
Title: Principal soil areas of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027089/00001
 Material Information
Title: Principal soil areas of Florida a supplement to the General soil map
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 64 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Francis Benjamin
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p.60-61.
Statement of Responsibility: F.B. Smith ... et al. ; University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations in cooperation with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027089
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001595670
oclc - 03114835
notis - AHL9765

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text
Bulletin 717


PRINCIPAL SOIL AREAS OF FLORIDA

A Supplement to the General Soil Map


MAJOR LAND


I 1.

- III.
- Ill.V
IV.
-V.
-VI.


LEGEND
SOUTHERN COASTAL PLAIN

GULF COAST FLATWOODS
CENTRAL FLORIDA RIDGE
ATLANTIC COAST FLATWOODS
SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLATWOODS
EVERGLADES AND ASSOCIATED AREAS


University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations
J. R. Beckenbach, Director
in cooperation with the
U. S. Department of Agriculture


August 1967







CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ........................... ----- 5
PHYSIOGRAPHY AND PARENT MATERIALS ...............------........ 5
GENERAL SOIL MAP -......- .... ......................... ...- 7

SOIL ASSOCIATIONS ....-........................... --.-------- 8
Areas Dominated by Excessively Drained Soils
Soils dominantly thick acid sands -........... .. .. ......... .. ...---.... 8
1. St. Lucie-Lakewood-Pomello Association
Soils dominantly thick neutral to alkaline sands .......................... 11
2. Palm Beach-Cocoa Association

Areas Dominated by Well-Drained to Moderately Well-Drained Soils
Soils dominantly thick to moderately thick acid sands .................. 12
3. Lakeland-Eustis-Blanton Association
3a. Lakeland-Eustis-Norfolk Association
Soils dominantly thick to thin sands influenced by alkaline materials 15
4. Jonesville-Chiefland-Hernando Association
9. Hernando-Chiefland-Jonesville Association
Soils dominantly thick to thin phosphatic sands and loamy sands
overlying finer textured materials ......... ....... ........... ................-.... 17
5. Arredondo-Gainesville-Fort Meade Association
8. Hague-Zuber-Fellowship Association
Soils dominantly thin acid sand to sandy loam overlying finer tex-
tured subsoils ... ....... ................. ... -....-..................----........ 21
6. Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg Association
7. Magnolia-Faceville-Tifton Association
10. Shubuta-Cuthbert-Lakeland Association
11. Kalmia-Cahaba Association
Soils dominantly thick to thin acid sands, some of which overlie
finer textured subsoils .............-- .....---.~... .....-......... 28
12. Blanton-Klej Association
12b. Kanapaha-Blanton Association
17a. Rex-Blanton Association
17b. Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna Association
17c. Goldsboro-Lynchburg Association
Areas Dominated by Somewhat Poorly Drained Soils
Soils dominantly thick acid sands with organic pans; interspersed
with soils without a pan formation .........-.... ...-....-- .......... 33
13a. Leon-Plummer-Rutlege Association
13b. Leon-Immokalee-Pompano Association
13c. Leon-Pomello-Plummer Association
13d. Leon-Blanton-Plummer Association
Soils dominantly thick acid sands with dark surface soils ................. 39
14. Scranton-Ona Association
Soils dominantly thick to thin sands overlying finer textured alka-
line m materials .......... .................... --.....-. ... -..................... 41
15. Adamsville-Pompano Association
18a. Sunniland-Bradenton Association
18b. Panasoffkee-Bushnell Association
21. Broward-Parkwood-Keri Association







Areas Dominated by Poorly to Very Poorly Drained Soils
Soils dominantly thick to thin sand to sandy loam surface soils
overlying finer textured acid subsoils .............-----------------
19. Coxville-Bladen-Weston Association
20. Leaf-Bladen-Rains Association
22. Plummer-Rutlege Association
24b. Bayboro-Portsmouth-Rains Association
Soils dominantly moderately thick to thin sands to sandy loams
overlying finer textured alkaline materials .............----
23. Pompano-Charlotte-Delray Association
24a. Manatee-Felda Association
Soils dominantly moderately thick to thin marly materials overly-
ing limestone ..........------ -.... --- ----
25. Perrine-Ochopee Association I
Soils dominantly peats and mucks .- ...----- --
26. Everglades-Brighton-Pamlico Association
Miscellaneous Land Types -.............-----------
27. Fresh Water Swamp-Marsh
28. Tidal Marsh-Coastal Beach-Coastal Dunes
31. Rockland
LITERATURE CITED --------.---------
APPENDIX --------------


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
in cooperation with
The Soil Conservation Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture









PRINCIPAL SOIL AREAS OF FLORIDA
A SUPPLEMENT TO THE GENERAL SOIL MAP
F. B. Smith, R. G. Leighty, R. E. Caldwell
V. W. Carlisle, L. G. Thompson, Jr., and T. C. Mathews1

INTRODUCTION

The field survey for the General Soil Map of Florida pub-
lished by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations in May
1962 was initiated in the spring of 1957 by the Soil Conserva-
tion Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and the Depart-
ment of Soils, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, coop-
erating. Generalized soil maps were made for counties where
recent detailed soil surveys were available. In the remaining
counties, the maps were prepared from detailed soil surveys of
2% of the area in a county. The areas selected for the detailed
soil surveys consisted of 160-acre blocks located at random sites
in each county. The randomized sites were selected by the
Statistical Laboratory at Ames, Iowa, and it was determined
statistically that surveys made in this manner would give pro-
jections of approximately 67% accuracy for the entire county.
Thirty-four soil associations and three miscellaneous land type
areas were separated on a general soil map of the state based
upon parent materials, drainage, and profile characteristics. The
soil associations were separated on the map in 14 color groups
based on kinds of parent materials. These associations were
then grouped into five dominant drainage conditions.
The purpose of this bulletin is to describe the associations
separated on the General Soil Map of Florida and give their
occurrence, distribution, characteristics of the principal soils in-
cluded, and their suitability for agricultural use.

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND PARENT MATERIALS

Many factors of soil formation have been active in producing
the great variety of soils that occur in Florida (6, 13, 14).2
More than 300 soil types have been mapped (16). Parent ma-
terials have had a dominating influence on topography and
genetic soil profile development in many parts of the state.' To
1 Microbiologist, Associate Soil Surveyor, Associate Soil Chemist, Assistant
Soil Chemist, Soil Chemist, and Assistant Soil Surveyor, Agricultural
Experiment Station, Gainesville.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






understand the complex pattern of soils represented on the Gen-
eral Soil Map of Florida, one needs to consider the parent ma-
terials from which these soils have formed, climate, the time
involved, topographic and drainage conditions, and the vege-
tation (3).
According to Cooke (10), the oldest sediments of the Flo-
ridian Plateau were deposited in shallow water and appear to
be of Paleozoic age. Upon the Paleozoic rocks lie a thick series
of shallow marine deposits, dominantly limestone, that range in
age from lower Cretaceous to Recent. The oldest formation ex-
posed at the surface is the Avon Park Limestone of Middle
Eocene age. The older Oligocene series and all divisions of the
Miocene are representedin Florida and crop out at many places
in the northern part of the state. Seven formations deposited
during the Pliocene epoch underlie about two-thirds of the state;
namely, the Alachua formation, which is terrestial; the Bone
Valley formation, which is partly estuarine and partly marine
in origin; the Caloosahatchee formation, which contains marine
shells in unconsolidated sand; the Buckingham marl, a marine
calcareous clay; the Tamiami formation, which is a sandy lime-
stone or calcareous sandstone; the Charlton formation, an estu-
arine calcareous clay or limestone; and the Citronelle, a littoral
formation composed of red or orange sand, gravel, and clay. The
four marine formations underlie all of Florida south of Tampa.
The immediate surface at most places in the state is under-
lain by Pleistocene deposits. Most widely distributed is a series
of seven sandy formations corresponding to seven different
stages of sea level probably caused by the withdrawal of water
in the formation of the continental ice caps during the Ice Age.
Oscillations of sea level induced by their advances and retreats
influenced the topography of the state. Much of the Floridian
Plateau was dry land during each glacial epoch and was sub-
jected to erosion during each glacial stage. While the land stood
above sea level, erosion by solution was particularly active.
Sinkholes and caverns were opened in the area underlain by
limestone.
At the beginning of the Pleistocene epoch, all Florida stood
above sea level. With the melting of the ice formed during the
Nebraskan glacial period, most of the land area was inundated.
Sand probably covered the sea bottom as far south as Polk
County. South of this region a bed composed chiefly of marine
shells accumulated during the interglacial Aftonian period. With
the withdrawal of the sea during the Kansan glaciation, south-
ern Florida emerged as a land mass. This process was repeated






when the sea rose not quite so high during Yarmouth time and
fell again during the Illinoian glaciation. A third submergence
during the Sangamon time restored marine conditions to south-
ern Florida, but more land area farther north was exposed.
Later, in the same interglacial period, the sea dropped from 100
feet to 70 feet and then to 42 feet above the present sea level.
The region became land again during the early Wisconsin gla-
ciation, but was flooded to a depth of 10 to 25 feet during the
mid-Wisconsin recession. Waves and currents of this shallow
sea swept a thin sheet of sand over the older formations. The
sea withdrew again during late Wisconsin time and has not since
risen higher than its present level. The deposits in Florida
assigned to the Pleistocene epoch vary greatly in extent and
composition. In the southern part of the state, they are chiefly
calcareous; elsewhere they are primarily silicious sandy ma-
terials. Recent deposits include quartz sand mixed with shells
which have drifted along the beaches. Some of the sand has
blown from the beaches into dunes.
The predominantly sandy formations have been little altered
by weathering since deposition, and soils developed on such
materials lack well-developed profile characteristics. Such soils
are classified with the Regosol great soil group. Soils with
distinct, genetically related horizons that reflect the dominating
influence of some local factor of topography or parent material
over the effects of climate or living organisms are classified as
Ground-Water Podzol, Ground-Water Laterite, Humic Gley, Low-
Humic Gley, or Planosols, depending upon their profile char-
acteristics. The soils in Florida that have developed profile char-
acteristics that reflect the dominating influence of the active
factors (climate and living organisms) of soil genesis are classi-
fied as Red-Yellow Podzols.

GENERAL SOIL MAP

The soils of Florida are grouped into 34 associations and
three miscellaneous land types.3 Soil associations usually contain
a few major soils and several minor soils that occur in geo-
graphic areas as characteristic patterns. Miscellaneous land
types are classes of land that are named and defined primarily
for some feature or features other than soils.

In this publication the soil series are described in accordance to their defi-
nitions prior to January 1965. Since that date, many soil series have been
redefined in relation to the criteria in the new system of soil classification
and may differ somewhat from the former descriptions. (See Appendix.)






Within any one association the soils may differ from each
other in one or many properties; for example, slope, color, relief,
depth, natural drainage, or some other characteristic known to
influence land use and soil management. Thus, the General Soil
Map shows areas of soils. Several different kinds of soils occur
in each area.
Each association is named for the major soil series in it, but
as previously noted, soils of other series may be present. Major
soils of one soil association may also be present in another asso-
ciation, but in a different pattern and to a minor extent.
The General Soil Map shows the location and distribution
of soil associations or patterns in Florida. It presents a general
idea of the soils, and is valuable for comparison of relatively
large areas suitable for a certain kind of land use. The approxi-
mate acreage and proportionate extent of the soil associations
are given in Table 1.


SOIL ASSOCIATIONS

Areas Dominated by Excessively Drained Soils

Soils Dominantly Thick Acid Sands

The early geological history of Florida is of little significance
in connection with the study of the soils of this group. The
earlier rock deposits were buried by later deposits of deep,
marine sands during the several fluctuations of .the.aea-.leeel
induced by advai\:nes and retreats of glaciers (10). These-de-
posits ate of the Pleist:ceneee epoch and i-ere pl:o l.,l.l ftl nne1
during the interglacial stages. Consequently, the maria lstia om
which these soils were, formed, were. subjecteAdtoonsid-erable
leaching and sorting by wave action (11). The soils, of this
group consist primarily of excessively drained Regosols, or Pod-
zols that intergrade toward Regosols, derived from thick beds
of acid sands which are almost devoid of easily weatherable
minerals. They lack or have only weakly devehloped.-fine=tex.tured
subsoil horizons. These soils occur on nearly level to steep sand-
hills, knolls, or ridges. The one association in this group is com-
prised primarily of St. Lucie and Lakewood series with inclu-
sions of small areas of Pomello, Leon, Immokalee, and Plummer
soils. The soils of this gto.up, occ.ui. for the.most- part.-along- the
east and west coast- with small areas in the southern part of
the central ridge in Highlands County. The largest single area
occurs in Marion and Lake Counties. The native vegetation on







Table 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soil associations.*


Symbol Associations Acres Percent


1 St. Lucie Lakewood Pomello 1,160,462 3.34
2 Palm Beach -Cocoa 113,100 .33
3 Lakeland Eustis Blanton 4,373,068 12.60
3a Lakeland Eustis Norfolk 383,019 1.10
4 Jonesville Chiefland Hernando 468,176 1.35
9 Hernando Chiefland Jonesville 57,215 .16
5 Arredondo Gainesville Fort Meade 578,425 1.67
8 Hague Zuber Fellowship 200,158 .58
6 Norfolk Ruston Orangeburg 1;262,727 3.64
7 Magnolia Faceville Tifton 249,960 .72
10 Shubuta Cuthbert Lakeland 369,903 1.07
11 Kalmia Cahaba 29,653 .09
12 Blanton Klej 1,938,665 5.58
12b Kanapaha Blanton 71,662 .21
17a Rex- Blanton 328,845 .95
17b Blanton Bowie Susquehanna 215,935 .62
17c Goldsboro Lynchburg 440,044 1.27
13a Leon Plummer Rutlege 5,036,271 14.51
13b Leon Immokalee Pompano 2,848,216 8.20
13c Leon Pomello Plummer 906,510 2.61
13d Leon Blanton'- Plummer 444,226 1.28
14 Scranton Ona 361,159 1.04
15 Adamsville Pompano 796,071 2.29
18a Sunniland Bradenton 482,243 1.39
18b Panasoffkee Bushnell 219,927 .63
21 Broward Parkwood Keri 801,773 2.31
19 Coxville Bladen Weston 249,960 .69
20 Leaf Bladen Rains 69,951 .20
22 Plummer Rutlege 835,608 2.41
24b Bayboro Portsmout Rains 42,199 .12
23 Pompano Charlotte Delray 1,425,058 4.11
24a Manatee Felda 428,259 1.23
25 Perrine Ochopee 986,725 2.84
26 Everglades Brighton Pamlico 2,304,196 6.64
27 Fresh Water Swamp Marsh 2,655,091 7.65
28 Tidal Marsh Coastal Beach Coastal Dunes 1,421,067 4.09
31 Rockland 165,753 .48

Total 34,721,280 100.00


Calculations by V. W. Carlisle equating weights of color separations representing indi-
vidual soil associations and sum of all color separations shown on the Generalized Soil
Map with total land area of Florida.






these soils consists of sand pine, scrub oak, ..turkey._aks.cat-
tered saw palmetto, and native grasses.

1. St. Lucie Lakewood Pomello Association

TJe-St.--Lucie soils occupy low to high dune-like ridges in the
state. They are characterized by the virtual absence of silt and
clay and by their loose, open, drought mltuiie. Thei sul ft:e soil
is light g ay. Ihi.'e. inheetient sau.i.. The -subMil i i white.
loose, incl-helient sands from 30 to more than 42 inches thick.
They are most commonly associated with the Lakewood, Pomello,
and Leon soils. They are nut:h bel.let- di ined tand lack the
organic-stained layer in the subsoil.characteristic-oJhe Leon
and Pomello soils. They also have thinner and more weakly
developed A horizons than the Leon soils. The St. Lucie soils
are light gray or white below the surface horizon, whereas the
Lakewood soils are strong brown or brownish-yellow within
depths of 30 inches. St. Lucie soils are widely distributed. They
are not important to agriculture.
The Lakeit-\\od soils occupy the excessively drained scrub
ridges of the peninsula and dunes ,lng the beach and have
nearly level to strongly sljiing relief. The surface soils consist
of nearly white sands to depths of 10 to 24 inches underlain
by brownish-yellow or reddish-yellow sands. The principal
types are coarse sand, sand, and fine sand. Pebbles may occur
in any horizon. Most sand particles are quartz, but commonly,
there are small amounts of dark minerals that may be more
concentrated in some strata than others. Small areas of Pomello,
Blanton, Lakeland, and Plummer soils may be included in this
association. These other soils are described in later sections of
this report. The Lakewood soils are low in organic matter and
mineral nutrients, and they are very drought. Small areas of
Lakewood soils in Highlands County and along the east coast
have been planted to citrus. Many of the areas near the coast
and lakes are suitable for building sites. Generally, the Lake-
wood soils are not suitable for cultivated crops. However, if
water is available for irrigation, small acreages of citrus and
other subtropical fruits and improved pasture could be grown
under a good management system.
The Pomello soils include dry sands which occur on nearly
level relief on low ridges or knolls in the flatwootl- legli n. They
have a gray or light gray surface layer 1 to 4 inches thick,
iiderlain by white fine sands to a depth of 42 inches or more.
T he :have an orggailic-stained layer between 42 and 60 inches.






This layer, known as the spodic horizon, may retard the move-
ment of waTeerthrough the soil. These soils have formed from
thick-ie Il., of -1ll. They ;ne usually associated with the Leon,
St. Lucie, and Blanton soils. Pomello soils are lighter in color
and have a much thicker layer above the spodic horizon than the
Leon soils. The Pomello soils have smoother topography and a
slightly better moisture-holding capacity than the St. Lucie
soils. These soils are of limited extent and of little agricultural
importance. However, a few areas have been cleared and planted
to citrus or improved pastures.

Soils Dominantly Thick Neutral to Alkaline Sands

The Pamlico. sand, the lowest of the Pleistocene marine ter-
races, is underlain by deposits of several types--in-i different
areas. (9). The Anastasia formation, composed of fossil- sea
shells mixed with quartz sand, extends along the east coast
from Duval County to Palm Beach. At Melbourne, Vero Beach,
and at several other places the Anastasia formation is overlain
by a firm fine sand called the Melbourne bone bed which contains
the remains of many land animals. When the sea-level-dropped
to its presentlevel, these deposits were exposed, probably as
bars along the coast. The soils of this group were formed from
these deep, neutral toi ill ~llft'1. shelly sands, which are nder-
lain by shells or shelly marl (10, 11). Theie soils occur chiefly
along the east coast, but a few areas occur along the Gulf Coast.
The natural vegetation consists of cedar, pine, _.'.eetgurn.
hicki.ry, sea grapes, native grasses, palmetto, scrub oaks, and
cacti.

2. Palm Beach Cocoa Association

The Palm Beach soils occur on nearly level to sloping areas
along the Atlantic Ocean, parallel to the beach and the sand
ridges. These soils are moderately well to well-drained with,
shells occurring throughout the profile. The surface soil is dark
gray to brown and the subsoil is gray to yellow. There is little
profile development except for slight organic matter accumula-
tions in the surface horizon. The depth of the profile ranges
from 2 to 6 feet, depending upon position on the ridge. These
soils are generally neutral to alkaline, but slightly acid areas
occur in some locations. They are low in organic matter, water-
holding capacity, and inherent fertility. They do not occur ex-
tensively (Table 1) and are sparsely used for agriculture. How-






ever, several large areas in Indian River County have been used
for citrus. Because of their location near the coast they are
being used extensively for urban development.
The Cocoa soils are Regosols with Red-Yellow Podzolic color
profiles. These soils differ from Palm Beach soils in that they
developed from thin beds of sand over coquina limestone or beds
of shells and depth to underlying rock varies from a few inches
to 3 to 4 feet. The upper horizons are acid to neutral in reaction
and the lower horizons are neutral to alkaline. The surface
horizon color is brown to yellowish-brown, and the lower horizon
may range from light brown to yellowish-red. In some profiles,
a thin layer of yellowish-red fine sandy loam has developed
from the weathered, underlying shell beds. Cocoa soils occur in
relatively small areas, and the total acreage is small. They are
fairly important agriculturally in these very localized areas.
Most of the cleared areas are planted to citrus. Under good man-
agement practices, fair to good yields of oranges and grapefruit
are obtained where weather conditions are favorable.


Areas Dominated by Well-Drained to Moderately
Well-Drained Soils

Soils Dominantly Thick to Moderately Thick Acid Sands

The soils in these associations occur extensively in parts of
the counties from Escambia eastward to Madison County and
south from the (;eol gi line in H amilt.in County to Highlands
County, and less extensively in other parts of the a. This
are:a I.ighly in ludes the Central Highlands5 and Westernigh-
lands topogr_ s divsions described by Cooke (10). The soils
are dmllljj.iyll\...t dle--[.sands, iir: .bab1l-derved-feom.-ei.stoje ne
marine terraces, Miocene Hawthorn formation, and Pliocene
C~taroniwo fomation. Elek'.ti:,ns range from' less than 40 feet to
more than 300 feet above sea level. Two soil associations occur
principally on the long, gentle slopes and broad, nearly level
ridge tops. The Lakeland, Eustis, and Blanton soils dominate
"Association 3," and the Lakeland, Eustis, and Norfolk dominate
"Association 3a" in the northwestern part of the state. All of
these soils have developed from similar materials. The Klej,
Orlando, Leon, Plummer, and Rutlege soils occur as minor in-

'Vernon (32) proposed another terminology for the physiographic division
of the state based on origin, but the terms used by Cooke (10) are followed
here to be consistent with those used in earlier soil survey reports.






clusions with these associations. The native vegetation on these
soils consists mainly of longleaf and 1idj)lykll.\pn.as .aks,
dogwood, hickory, sweetgum, holly, wiregrass, and in lower posi-
tions _s.iriie gallbel i l nii ii\ ,s yi tie.

3. Lakeland Eustis Blanton Association

The Lakeland soils (5) consist of somewhat excessively
drained, deep acid sands. These soils were formed from thick
or moderately thick beds of sands, which in many cases overlie
finer textured sediments. The principal types are sand, fine
sand, loamy sand, and loamy fine sand. The surface layer color
ranges from grayish-brown to pale brown, and the subsurface
layers from light yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow. Average
thickness commonly ranges from 42 to 72 inches to fine-textured
materials, although it may range up to 30 feet or more and
may be as little as 30 inches. Lakeland soils are associated
with Eustis, Blanton, and Norfolk soils. Lakeland soils are yel-
lower and paler than the Eustis soils and are not so pale as
the Blanton soils. They differ from the Norfolk soils in having
loose sandy materials to depths more than 30 inches. They
occur on nearly level to gently sloping relief. The Lakeland soils
are widely distributed and are important to agriculture. In the
citrus area, the Lakeland soils are considered the most impor-
tant soils for the "production of oranges, grapefruit, and tan-
gerines. In north central and west Florida, the Lakeland soils
are used extensively for general farm crops, pasture, and vege-
tables. These soils are drought and require fertilization for
high productivity.
The Eustis series consists of thick, well to excessively
drained, strongly acid soils. They occur on level to strongly
sloping relief in association with Lakeland, Ruston, Orangeburg,
Red Bay, and Norfolk soils in west Florida and with Lakeland
and Blanton soils in central Florida. The principal types are
sand, fine sand, loamy sand, and loamy fine sand. Color of the
surface soils ranges from dark brown to brownish-gray. Subsoil
color commonly ranges from strong brown to yellowish-red.
Eustis soils resemble the Lakeland soils in texture, but Lake-
land soils are yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow in the deeper
profile as compared to the strong brown to yellowish-red of the
Eustis soils. Eustis soils are widely distributed, and the total
acreage is large. In the ridge section, large acreages have been
planted to citrus which produce good yields when well man-
aged. In other areas of the state, these soils are used to a






limited extent for general farm crops and improved pasture.
These soils are drought and low in inherent fertility.
The Blanton series are deep, moderately well-drained, strong-
ly acid soils that have developed from thick beds of acid sands
on nearly level to sloping uplands. Color of the surface soil may
range from dark gray to light gray. The color of the lower
layers ranges from light gray to pale yellow or pale brown.
Two distinct phases, high and low, are used in classifying Blan-
ton soils. The high phase occupies a higher position and is
typically more variable in relief. The low phase occupies broad,
level or gently sloping areas in lower positions, and the water
table is generally higher. The high phase is commonly asso-
ciated with drought soils like St. Lucie and Lakeland, whereas
the low phase is associated more closely with Klej, Plummer,
Pomello, Immokalee, and Leon soils. The low phase is more
extensive than the high phase. The Blanton soils are grayer
in color, are not so rapidly drained, and generally occur on
topography that is smoother than Lakeland soils. These soils
are used for general farm crops, watermelons, pasture, and
citrus where the climate is favorable.

3a. Lakeland Eustis Norfolk Association

The Lakeland and Eustis soils are described above in "Asso-
ciation 3."
The Norfolk (25) soils are deep, well-drained, Red-Yellow
Podzols. They are strongly acid and occur on uplands in nearly
level to -trl.ngly -l,.lig areas. These soils have developed from
thick beds of acid sandy loam and sandy clay materials. They
have very dark gray to grayish-brown loamy sand to sandy loam
surface soils. The subsoil, which occurs within 30 inches of the
surface, is typically a friable, porous sandy clay loam. The color
of the subsoil ranges from yellow to brownish-yellow. Below
the subsoil is a distinctly mottled sandy clay loam parent ma-
terial. The Norfolk soils are commonly associated with the
Lakeland, Ruston, Orangeburg, Marlboro, Tifton, and Golds-
boro soils. The Norfolk soils have developed from less sandy
sediments than the Lakeland soils, which have a lower degree
of horizonation and are sandier to greater depths. During the
early soil survey, nearly all of the well-drained yellow soils were
included with the Norfolk series. As detailed mapping pro-
gressed, the thick sandy soils were separated from those with a
sandy loam or sandy clay subsoils and recognized as the Lake-
land series. Since that time, the Norfolk series has been de-






scribed as soils having sandy loam or sandy clay loam horizons
within 30 inches of the surface. The Norfolk soils have thicker
surface horizons, more friable subsoil horizons, and sandier
solums than the Marlboro soils. They have less clayey subsoil
horizons, and fewer hard concretions throughout the profile than
Tifton soils. The Norfolk subsoil is yellow to brownish-yellow
instead of yellowish-red or strong brown like that in Ruston
soils, or red as occurs in Orangeburg soils. The Norfolk soils
have a medium internal drainage and surface runoff. Permeabil-
ity is moderately rapid to rapid in the sandy surface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. These soils are well-aerated and com-
monly have good tilth. They have a high moisture-holding ca-
pacity, retain plant nutrients well, and crops grown on these
soils respond to fertilization. They are well-adapted to a large
variety of cultivated crops. Norfolk soils are considered among
the best in the Atlantic Coastal Plain for the production of
bright leaf tobacco.

Soils Dominantly Thick to Thin Sands
Influenced by Alkaline Materials

This group of soil associations occurs in a broad belt in the
Central Highlands (10) extending from the southern tip of
Sulti anie C.I.i nty-- trjugI',i h all- GoLGiAchrist, achia~ ~vy,
a ri,,. Suinter. Cit rui-. H-rnaid'',_,. 'Pasco,. Hills.l.ioru ugh, and
Polk Counties (Major Land Resources Areas of Florida Map5 -
Area III). The topography of this area Jighlyl ariahble._nd
includes hills, lakes, and high swampy plains. Lakes, prairies,
and iinl;h;..i fiidicate the occurrence of soluble limestone not
far below the-surface. Ocvala- anidHawthorn geologic formations
outcrop in the area. These soils have developed from Pleistocene
marine terrace sands overlying finer sediments which rest on
limestone. The finer sediments and probably some of the sands
were derived from the weathering of sandy limestone. The na-
tive vegetation consists of pines; scrub and live oaks; and gum.
hickory, dogwood, magnolia, ash elm, and wiregrass,

4. Jonesville Chiefland Hernando Association

Jonesville soils (29) are Regosols beginning to show a few
characteristics of Red-Yellow Podzolic soils. The surface hori-
zons are gray to dark gray, and the lower horizons are pale
yellow to yellowish-brown in color. Fine sand is the most com-
SInset in "General Soil Map of Florida."






mon type, although sand and loamy fine sand may occur. Depth
of sand over finer textured materials ranges from 30 to 100
inches. Thickness of the finer material between the sandy de-
posit and the underlying rock ranges from 2 to 12 inches, but
is more commonly about 6 inches. Texture of this finer material
is usually a fine sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam. Jonesville
soils are associated with the Chiefland and Hernando soils. The
Jonesville and Hernando soils were formed from similar sedi-
ments. The sandy mantle is much thicker where the Jonesville
and Chiefland soils are formed. Chiefland soils differ from
Jonesville soils by having light gray to pale brown lower layers.
Jonesville soils are drought and require fertilization for high
productivity.
The Chiefland soils are moderately well- to well-drained
Regosols. These soils are developed from moderately thick beds
of fine sand resting on thin layers or sandy clay loam or sandy
clay overlying limestone. The surface layers are grayish-brown
fine sand. The lower layers are pale brown to white fine sand
with few medium brownish-yellow splotches. The subsoil is a
mottled reddish-yellow, yellow, or yellowish-brown fine sandy
clay loam resting on soft limestone. The principal type is fine
sand; there are a few areas of sand. Chiefland soils are asso-
ciated with the Jonesville, Hernando, and Lakeland soils. They
have paler colors in the deeper horizons than the Jonesville and
Lakeland soils. Chiefland soils are derived from coarser tex-
tured sediments, have a lower degree of horizonation, and have
paler colors than the Hernando soils. They have a higher base
saturation and are less acid than Blanton and Lakeland soils,
both of which lack limestone substrata. A common character-
istic of Chiefland soils is the uneven surface of the underlying
limestone formation. Small limestone outcrops and lime sinks
are common. About half of the area of Chiefland soils is cleared
and used for peanuts, flue-cured tobacco, watermelons, improved
pasture, and other general farm crops.
The Hernando soils are well-drained or moderately well-
drained Red-Yellow Podzols derived from thin layers of marine
sands overlying sandy clay loam or sandy clays derived wholly
or partly from limestone residuum. The surface layers are very
dark gray, dark grayish-brown, or brown to dark brown fine
sand, loamy fine sands, or fine sandy loam. The subsurface lay-
ers are yellowish-brown, light yellowish-brown, or pale brown
loamy sands or sandy loams. The subsoil is pale brown fine sandy
clay with common, distinct, medium mottles of strong brown
and gray. The principal types are fine sand and loamy fine sand.






Thickness of the sandy surface material ranges from 8 to 30
inches. Thickness of the fine materials over limestone ranges
from 6 to 48 inches. The Hernando soils are associated with
the Jonesville, Chiefland, and Kanapaha soils. The Hernando
soils have fine-textured materials within 8 to 30 inches of the
surface, whereas the sandy surface materials are more than 30
inches thick in the Chiefland and Jonesville soils. They are not
as drought as the Chiefland and Jonesville soils. A few stones
and outcropping of silicious limestone occur in places. Small
depressions or lime sinks are common. Small areas contain a
minor amount of phosphatic material. The Hernando soils are
largely cleared, and utilized mainly for general farming. Some
of the area has been planted to slash pine.

9. Hernando Chiefland Jonesville Association

The Hernando soils are the dominant soils of this associa-
tion, whereas the Jonesville soils are the dominant soils of
"Association 4." There are minor inclusions of Lakeland, Blan-
ton, Kanapaha, and Archer soils in both of these associations
in areas too small to show on the General Soil Map.

Soils Dominantly Thick to Thin Phosphatic Sands and
Loamy Sands Overlying Finer Textured Materials
The soils in this group_ ,ccl.ir in a belt about 35 mile-_ wide
exteindirg in a l:I.utheai-terl,1 diirectiin from thet Gerpgia state
line in Madison and Hamilton Counties to Hillsborough and
Polk C..unties -rM1i'Tr Lindl Re.'-urce Areas of Florida Map-
Area III)-. Rbwland and Fiskell (21) reported a detailed study
of the major geologic formations with surface exposures in
parts of this area and distinguished two groups of older forma-
tions which are, in part, the parent materials from which the,
soils of. the area were derived. The Avon Park, Ocala, Suwan-
nee, and Tampa limestones influenced the soils of "Associations
4 and 9"; the Hawthorn and Alachua formations of later age
contained phosphatic material and influenced the soils in "Asso-
ciations 5 and 8." These formations were covered by more re-
cent deposits of sands and clay. Dissolving of the underlying
limestones, collapse of the overlying soils, erosion of the surface,
and the mixing of deposits during the interglacial periods left
a complex matrix on which these soils have formed. The area
is well to moderatelwell-drained nearly__leve gently sloping
to rolling, with elevations ranging from less than 40 feet to
more than 200 feet above present sea level. There are two asso-






ciations, 5 and 8, in this group. The soils in "Association 8"
differ from those in "Association 5" by having finer textured
material occurring within depths of 30 inches. The native vege-
tation consists of longleaf and loblolly pines, various oaks,
hickory, sweetgum, ji.-ririinu.n, -i.inan. myrtle, aniId iiegr i .

5. Arredondo Gainesville Fort Meade Association

The Arredl ld,~ ..- rif. i (26) .....niTt' -..f deer.. \'ell-draintd.
medium acid soils. They have developed from deep beds of un-
consolidated sands and loamy sands which are mixed with phos-
phatic materials. They occur on level to gently rolling uplands
with a few small areas on steeper slopes. These soils have gray
to dark grayish-brown surface layers 4 to 8 inches thick. They
are underlain by yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow horizons
that extend to depths of more than 42 inches. These horizons
are underlain by a mottled fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay
loam. Types include sand, loamy sand, fine sand, and loamy fine
sand. The subsurface and subsoil layers may range in color from
yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow or yellow. In places, espe-
cially in the shallower spots, limestone fragments or silicious
rocks may be encountered in the deeper horizons. Weathered
phosphatic pebbles usually occur on the surface and in the pro-
file. Arredondo soils are associated with the Gainesville, Fort
Meade, Fellowship, and Zuber soils. These other soils will be
described in a later part of this report. The Arredondo soils
have a lighter colored subsoil than the Gainesville soils and
thicker, coarser textured subsoil than the Fellowship soils. The
fine-textured materials occur at depths of more than 30 inches in
Arredondo soils, whereas they are at depths less than 30 inches
in the Fellowship and Zuber soils. The profile characteristics
of the Arredondo soils are similar to the Lakeland soils, but
Arredondo soils have a higher content of phosphorus. They are
more brown than the Lakeland, less brown and more yellow
than the Gainesville, and much less gray than the Fellowship
soils. Arredondo soils have good surface and internal drainage,
a somewhat low available moisture-holding capacity, and are
rather drought. They are used mainly for corn, peanuts, small
grains, vegetables, and improved pastures. Except for phos-
phorous, the native I'fertility is usually low; but with fertilization
and good management, these soils are fairly productive of gen-
eral farm crops. The chemical analysis of a typical Arredondo






loamy fine sand profile in Alachua County showed surface soil
contained 0.29% total phosphorous (13).
The Gainesville series is a Regosol with strong phosphatic
influence. These soils are well-drained, medium acid, and occur
on level to sloping relief. The surface layer is dark grayish-
brown to very dark grayish-brown 4 to 10 inches thick. Color
of the subsoil is generally reddish-brown, but ranges from strong
brown to red. Types include sand, loamy sand, fine sand, and
loamy fine sand. Phosphatic pebbles occur on the surface and
throughout the soil. Gainesville soils are associated with Arre-
dondo, Fort Meade, Zuber, and Hague soils. They are similar
to Arredondo soils but differ in having more brown and reddish-
brown in the subsoil. They lack the grayish- and yellowish-
brown colors in the subsoil usually associated with the Fort
Meade soils. The surface layers are thinner than in the Fort
Meade soils, and they have a thicker sandy deposit over the
finer textured subsoils than Zuber or Hague soils. The Gaines-
ville soils have developed from deep loamy sands influenced by
phosphatic materials. Most of them have loamy fine sand sur-
face horizons more than 30 inches thick. They are well-drained,
the moisture-holding properties are somewhat low, and they
are fairly low in fertility. These soils are well-suited to citrus
where climatic conditions are favorable. They are commonly
used for general farm crops and pastures, as they respond well
to fertilization.
The F,.,rt Meade soils are Regz'ols influenced by phosphatic
materials. They are deep, moderately, well- to well-drained, very
strongly acid soils that occur on level to gently sloping areas.
The surface horizon is very dark gray to black changing at
depths of 10 to 30 inches to brown or very pale brown. Gen-
erally the sandy horizons extend to depths more than 42 inches.
Weathered phosphatic pebbles commonly occur on the surface
and throughout the profile. The Fort Meade soils occur in asso-
ciation with the Arredondo, Gainesville, Blichton, Kanapaha,
Fellowship, Zuber, and Hague soils. They have thicker, darker
surface horizons than the Arredondo, Gainesville, and Kanapaha
soils and generally have more yellow or brown and less gray
in the lower horizons than the Kanapaha soils. They lack the
finer textured subsoil horizons of the Blichton, Fellowship,
Zuber, and Hague soils. These soils are well-suited for citrus
where climatic conditions are favorable, and large acreages are
used for general farm crops and vegetables.






8. Hague Zuber Fellowship Association


The Hague series consists of well-drained, medium acid,
phosphatic soils. These soils developed from unconsolidated
sands, clays, and phosphatic materials. They have brownish-
gray to very dark grayish-brown surface horizons grading to
yellowish-brown, brown, or reddish-brown with depth. The
Hague soils occur on level, sloping, or steep uplands. They occur
in association with the Arredondo, Gainesville, Fellowship, and
Blichton soils. The Hague soils are similar to the Gainesville
soils, but differ by having a fine-textured, reddish-yellow to
reddish-brown subsoil within 30 inches of the surface. They
differ from the Arredondo soils by having the fine-textured sub-
soil at depths less than 30 inches and having a redder colored
subsoil. The Hague soils differ from the Fellowship and Blichton
soils by having a browner surface and a browner or redder sub-
soil. Where the land is fairly level, these soils are well-suited to
cultivated crops and improved pastures. Large areas of this
association occur in Marion County where they are highly prized
for horse pastures.
The Zuber soils are well- to moderately well-drained, Red-
Yellow Podzolic soils derived from thin layers of acid marine
loamy fine sands and fine sandy clay loams mixed with phos-
phatic materials. The phosphatic pebbles occur on the surface
and throughout the profile in many places. They have dark
grayish-brown to brown surface horizons and pale brown to
brownish-yellow subsoils. Thickness of the sandy materials
over sandy clay loam or sandy loam ranges from 12 to 30 inches.
Types include sand, loamy sand, fine sand, and loamy fine sand.
The Zuber soils are associated with the Arredondo, Gainesville,
and Fort Meade soils. They differ from these soils in having
finer textured materials within depths of 30 inches. They re-
semble the Arredondo soils in color but are not as brown or
red as the Gainesville or Hague soils. They differ from the Fort
Meade soils in having thinner surface horizons and fine-textured
subsoils within 30 inches. Most of the area is cleared and used
for general farm crops.
The Fellowship soils are formed from thin beds of sands and
sandy clays weathered from phosphatic materials. They occur
on nearly level to moderately steep slopes. The surface horizon
is black to very dark grayish-brown, 8 to 14 inches thick. The
subsoil is generally dark gray overlying a gray sandy clay par-
ent material. The principal types are loamy fine sand, fine sandy
loam, and sandy clay loam. The Fellowship soils are associated






with the Arredondo, Gainesville, Fort Meade, Blichton, and
Kanapaha soils. They are similar to Blichton soils, but have
darker colored, thicker surface horizons. They differ ifom the
Arredondo, Gainesville, Fort Meade, and Kanapaha soils by hav-
ing a gray, finer textured subsoil horizon within a depth of 18
inches. Most of the area of Fellowship soils is in native vege-
tation, but small areas have been cleared and are used for gen-
eral farm crops and improved pastures. These soils have more
native fertility than the average Florida soil, but liberal applica-
tions of fertilizers are needed for high crop production.

Soils Dominantly Thin Acid Sand to Sandy Loam
Overlying Finer Textured Subsoils
These soils ,i.i.:ur in tl-. So utliheri Coai.tal Pliin section of
Fi.~l~iic li\IMa.i.r Laind Resource Areas of Florida Map-Area I)
as upland projections between the major streams of West Flor-
ida from Escambia County to the eastern part of Madison
County. According to Vernon (31), who reported on the geology
of Holmes and Washington counties, most of western Florida
was covered by a large delta deposited during Pliocene or early
Pleistocene time, and the source of the sediments at the 250 to
320 foot surface was probably from the Appalachian and Pied-
mont areas. The oldest rock outcropping in Holmes and Wash-
ington counties is of Eocene age. These counties are in the cen-
tral portion of western Florida, and the formations found here
are probably representative of the parent materials from which
the soils of these associations were derived. Detailed reports
on the geology of Jackson County by Moore (19), Gadsden
County by Rowland (22), and Washington County by Rowland
and Powell (21) show that the area is underlain by Ocala lime-
stone, Marianna limestone, the Flint River formation, Suwanee
limestone, Tampa limestone, clayey sands of the Hawthorn
formation, the Citronelle formation, or Pleistocene marine ter-
races. Elevation ranges from about 60 feet to more than 300
feet above sea level. The topography is gently rolling to hilly,
with broad gently undulating areas between the streams. The
soils include associations 6, 7, 10, and 11. They are dominantly
well-drained uplands to somewhat poorly drained river bottom-
lands, loamy sands to sandy loam surface soils less than 30
inches thick, and well-aerated sandy loam to sandy clay loam
subsoils. They occur on slopes ranging from nearly level to
strongly sloping positions. The native vegetation consists of
longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines, various oaks, hickory, gum,
dogwood, holly, cypress, bay, native shrubs, and wiregrass.






6. Norfolk Ruston Orangeburg Association


The Norfolk soils (25) are deep, well-drained Red-Yellow
Podzols. They are strongly acid, and occur on uplands in nearly
level to strongly rolling areas. These soils have developed from
thick beds of acid sandy loam and sandy clay materials. The
principal types are loamy sands and sandy loams. Color of the
surface horizon ranges from dark gray to gray or grayish-
brown. The subsoil is yellow to brownish-yellow. Norfolk soils
are commonly associated with Ruston, Orangeburg, Marlboro,
Tifton, Goldsboro, and Lakeland soils. The Norfolk soils have
thicker surface horizons, have more friable subsoils, and are
sandier than Marlboro soils. They have lighter and less brown
colors, less clayey subsoils, and fewer concretions throughout
the profile than Tifton soils. The Norfolk soils have developed
from less sandy sediments than the Lakeland soils, which have
a lower degree of horizonation and are sandier to greater depth.
During the early soil survey nearly all of the well-drained yellow
soils were included with the Norfolk series. As detailed mapping
progressed, these thick sandy soils were separated from those
with a sandy loam or sandy clay subsoil and recognized as the
Lakeland series about 1947. Since th;it time, the Norfolk series
has been described as soils having sandy loam or sandy clay
loam horizons within 30 inches of the surface. The Norfolk soils
have a medium internal drainage and surface runoff. Perme-
S ability is moderately rapid to rapid in the sandy surface layers
, : and moderate in the subsoil., Tlt:'.s soils are wtll-a eritld and
h; \e good tilth. They have a relatively high moisture-holding
capacity, retain plant nutrients well, and crops gri'.i\ on these
soils respond well to fertilization. They are well-adapted to a
large variety of cultivated crops. Norfolk soils are considered
among the best soils in the Atlantic Coastal Plain for the pro-
duction of bright leaf tobacco.
The Ruston series consists of deep, well-drained soils occur-
ring in upland areas on nearly level to. strongly sloping posi-
tions. They have developed from thick beds of unconsolidated,
acid, sandy clay loam materials. They have very dark gray to
grayish-brown loamy fine sand to loamy sand surface soils. The
subsoil, which occurs within 30 inches of the surface, is typ-
ically a friable, porous sandy clay loam. The color of the subsoil
ranges from strong brown to reddish-yellow. Below the subsoil
is a distinctly mottled sandy clay loam parent material. Ruston
soils are closely associated with the Norfolk, Orangeburg, Car-
negie, Faceville, and Eustis soils. They most nearly resemble






the Orangeburg and Norfolk soils in all characteristics except
color of the subsoil. Their subsoils are redder than those of
the Norfolk series, but not as red as the Orangeburg series.
They are similar to the Eustis soils, but have finer textured sub-
soils. Ruston soils have coarser textured and more friable sub-
soils than the Faceville soils. They are similar to Carnegie soils,
but they lack the iron concretions found in the Carnegie series,
and they have coarser textured and more friable subsoils than
the Carnegie. Ruston soils have medium surface and internal
drainage. They have moderately rapid to rapid permeable sur-
face soils and moderately permeable subsoils. Ruston soils are
well-aerated and have good tilth, a moderately high water-
holding capacity, and moderate natural fertility. They retain
applied nutrients and crops grown on these soils respond well to
fertilization. Ruston soils are used for general field crops,
watermelons, and forage crops.
The Orangeburg series are deep, well-drained, and strongly
acid. They occur in upland positions on nearly level to strongly
sloping areas. These soils have been developed predominantly
from unconsolidated stratified sediments consisting chiefly of
sandy clay loams and sandy loams. They have dark gray to
grayish-brown loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam surface soils.
The subsoils, which occur within a depth of 30 inches of the
surface, are red fine sandy clay loams. These subsoils are fria-
ble, porous, and moderately permeable. Below the subsoil is a
distinctly mottled fine sandy clay loam parent material. The
principal types are loamy sands and sandy loams. Orangeburg
soils are associated with Ruston, Norfolk, and Red Bay (4),
differing from them chiefly in color. Their subsoils are red, as
in contrast to yellowish-red of the Ruston soils and yellowish-
brown of the Norfolk series. They differ chiefly from Red Bay
by having less brown colored surfaces. The Orangeburg soils
have coarser textured and more friable subsoils than the Mag-
nolia series. Orangeburg soils have good surface and internal
drainage. They have moderately rapid to rapidly permeable
surface soils and moderately permeable subsoils. Orangeburg
soils are well-aerated and have good tilth, a moderately high
water-holding capacity, and a moderately high inherent fertility.
Crops grown on these soils respond well to fertilization and good
management. These soils are highly prized for general farm
crops.






7. Magnolia Faceville Tifton Association


The Magnolia soils are well-drained Red-Yellow Podzols.
These upland soils have been formed in moderately fine-textured,
stratified marine sediments. Magnolia soils are associated main-
ly with Ruston, Orangeburg, Marlboro, Faceville, Greenville,
and Red Bay series. They have redder finer textured subsoils
than Ruston soils. The color of the subsoil is similar to that of
the Orangeburg soils but is finer textured. Marlboro and Face-
ville soils are less red in the subsoil than are the Magnolia soils.
The Magnolia soils are widely distributed, but occupy a rela-
tively small total acreage. They are important to agriculture.
The principal types are loamy sand, fine sand, sandy loam, and
fine sandy loam. Undisturbed areas have surface horizons that
are mostly very dark grayish-brown in color and 1 to 4 inches
thick. The color of the subsurface horizon ranges from grayish-
brown to pale brown and, in many places, is thin and weakly
expressed. The subsoil horizons are characters tcally red in
color and sandy clay in texture. Thickness of the solum ranges
from 36 to 72 inches. The deeper layers are variable in color
and texture. These soils are well-drained with medium runoff
and medium internal drainage. They are moderately permeable.
The principal crops grown on these soils are general farm crops,
fruits, vegetables, and shade tobacco.
The Faceville soils are well-drained Red-Yellow Podzols.
These soils have been formed from thick beds of moderately fine
marine sediments in association with the Ruston, Orangeburg,
Magnolia, Marlboro, Tifton, Carnegie, Dunbar, and Coxville
soils. The surface soil textures range from loamy fine sand to
sandy loam and the color from dark gray to very dark grayish-
brown. Subsoil colors range from strong brown to brown and
yellowish-red. The soils now comprising the Faceville series
were formerly included in the Ruston series. They generally
have thinner surface horizons, and finer textured subsoils than
the Ruston and Orangeburg soils. They are not as red as the
Magnolia, and contain very few iron concretions in comparison
to Tifton and Carnegie soils. Texture of the subsoil may range
from heavy sandy clay loam to sandy clay and may be strongly
mottled in places in the lower portion. These soils are dominant-
ly sloping, but range from level to strongly sloping. They are
well-drained with medium surface runoff and medium internal
drainage. The Faceville soils are fairly widely distributed in
relatively small areas, but the total acreage is not large. Lo-
cally they are important to agriculture. The majority of these






soils are cleared and used for general field crops, pasture, fruit,
and vegetable crops.
The Tifton soils are Red-Yellow Podzols with some features
of the Ground-Water Lateritic soils. They have been formed
from thick beds of reticulately mottled sandy clay marine de-
posits and occupy upland positions in association with Carnegie,
Sunsweet, Irvington, Norfolk, Marlboro, Faceville, Lakeland,
and Goldsboro soils. The surface is usually dark gray but may
range to dark grayish-brown. The subsoil is light yellowish-
brown to brownish-yellow. The presence of an appreciable num-
ber of small, rounded, brown iron concretions on the surface
and throughout the profile is an outstanding feature of the
Tifton soils. These soils are less red and more yellow than the
Carnegie soils. They have finer textured subsoils, have darker
and thinner surface layers, and contain many more iron con-
cretions throughout than the Norfolk, Goldsboro, and Lakeland
series. The Tifton soils have less strong brown and reddish-
yellow colors than Faceville soils, and have slightly coarser tex-
ture than the Marlboro series, but contain many more iron con-
cretions throughout the profile than either of these series. The
Tifton soils have a rather wide but scattered distribution and
are important to agriculture. Textures of the surface soils in-
clude coarse sandy loams and loamy sands. Concretionary peb-
ble and quartz pebble content varies from place to place on the
surface and within the profile. In a few places, especially on
broad flats, the concretionary materials tends to become weakly
cemented together, forming a type of iron crust in the lower
subsoil. The subsoil ranges in color from brownish-yellow
through yellowish-brown, and in texture from sandy clay loam
to sandy clay. Strong brown and yellowish-red mottling may
occur 28 to 38 inches below the surface. Both thick surface and
thin solum phases are mapped. Tifton soils are well drained,
with medium runoff and internal drainage. These soils are used
extensively for a wide variety of cultivated crops.

10. Shubuta Cuthbert Lakeland Association

The Shubuta series consists of moderately well-drained to
well-drained soils of the Gulf Coastal Plains. These soils are
underlain by thinly stratified beds of acid clays, sandy clays,
sands, and clay shales. The Shubuta soils occupy gentle to mod-
erately steep slopes in geographic association chiefly with the
Cuthbert soils. These soils were formerly included in the Cuth-
bert series. Shubuta soils are not very extensive but are mod-






erately important to agriculture. The surface horizon is usually
dark grayish-brown; textures range from loamy sands to sandy
loams, with fine sandy loams dominant. The subsoil horizons
range in texture from sandy clay to clay. Thick surface phases
are recognized where the surface soils are more than 18 inches
thick and not over 30 inches thick. Thin solum phases may be
recognized where the solum is less than 24 to 30 inches thick,
and fine-textured substratum phases may be recognized where
the underlying material is sticky plastic clay. The subsoil
ranges in color from strong brown to red through yellowish-red
to dark red. These soils have medium to rapid surface runoff
and medium internal drainage; permeability is moderate. These
soils have been largely cleared and are used for general field
crops, although some areas are idle and reverting to forests.
The Cuthbert series consists of moderately well-drained soils
with a low degree of horizonation. These soils have developed
in beds of marine clays, silty clays, and sandy clays that are
highly stratified with lenses of sandy material. The Cuthbert
soils occur on gently sloping to steep upland areas primarily
in associations with Shubuta and Ruston soils, and to a lesser
extent with the Susquehanna, Eustis, and Lakeland. They have
thinner subsoil horizons than Shubuta soils. Cuthbert soils are
better drained, have more profile development, are less sticky
and plastic, and are underlain by stratified materials (clays and
sands) as compared to the Susquehanna soils. The Cuthbert
soils are extensive along slopes of intermittent drainageways
and not very important agriculturally. The principal types are
fine sandy loam, sandy loam, and loamy fine sand. Minor types
are very fine sandy loam, loamy sand, and sand. Gravel, cobbly,
and flaggy phases are recognized. In many places, thin platy
ironstone or iron crust fragments are on the surface and in the
profile. The amount and size of these fragments are extremely
variable; number ranges from none to many. Color of the sur-
face horizon may range from grayish-brown to dark yellowish-
brown. In uneroded areas, the surface horizon is usually dark
grayish-brown. Color of the subsoil usually ranges from strong
brown to red; texture from clay loam to clay. This horizon may
also be faintly to distinctly mottled with pale brown and gray.
Below the subsoil, the underlying material is extremely variable,
ranging from highly stratified thinly laminated strata of clays
and sandy material to alternately interbedded tough clays and
very friable loose sands and coarse sands. Surface runoff on
these soils is medium to rapid, and internal drainage and perme-






ability are slow. The Cuthbert soils are used mostly for forests.
A small acreage is used for cultivated crops and pasture.

11. Kalmia Cahaba Association

The Kalmia series consists of deep, well-drained strongly
acid soils. These soils occur in nearly level areas on stream ter-
races. They have developed from medium-textured sediments
that washed from the acid soils of the uplands in the Coastal
Plains. The Kalmia soils have loamy fine sand surface layers,
15 to 18 inches thick. They are black to dark gray in the upper
part and grayish-brown to yellowish-brown in the lower part.
The subsoil is a yellow to yellowish-brown, friable fine sandy
loam to sandy clay loam. It is underlain by a mottled fine sand
to sandy clay loam parent material. Kalmia soils are associated
with the Blanton, Izagora, Congaree, and Myatt soils. They are
better drained and finer textured than the Blanton soils and are
not so pale in the subsoil. Kalmia soils are better drained than
the Myatt soils and have a yellow instead of a gray subsoil. They
are better drained and lighter colored in the subsoil than the
Congaree soils and are less susceptible to flooding. Kalmia soils
have medium external drainage and internal drainage. Their
permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layers and mod-
erate in the subsoil. They have a high water-holding capacity,
and are well aerated throughout the profile. Tilth is good and
natural fertility is moderate. These soils retain plant nutrients
and crops grown on these soils respond well to fertilization.
They are well-suited to improved pasture, woodland, and wild-
life habitats. Kalmia fine sandy loam, level phase, is not ex-
tensive, but it is important on the farms where it occurs.
The Cahaba series is well-drained and has developed from
old alluvium on stream terraces in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal
Plains in association with the Kalmia soils. They differ from
the Kalmia soils in having strong brown to red rather than
yellow to yellowish-brown subsoils. The Cahaba soils most near-
ly resemble the Ruston soils of the uplands, but have darker
surface layers and commonly have thinner solums with sandier
materials at shallower depths. The Cahaba soils are widely
distributed and locally very important to agriculture. Types in-
clude sandy loams and loamy sands. The texture of the subsoil
horizon ranges from sandy loam to the lower range of sandy
clay, with loam and sandy clay loam dominant. The color of the
surface horizon ranges from dark grayish-brown to brown and






the subsurface horizon from grayish-brown to yellowish-brown.
Surface layers of severely eroded phases may range from strong
brown to red. Yellowish-brown, strong brown, pale brown, or
red mottles may occur in the lower part of the subsoil. The sub-
soil may rest directly upon a horizon ranging in texture from
sands to clays (often with lenses or beds of rounded quartz
gravel), with a wide color range with or without mottles. These
soils are largely cleared and used for truck and general farm
crops.

Soils Dominantly Thick to Thin Acid Sands,
Some of Which Overlie Finer Textured Subsoils

The dominant soils in this group of associations consist of
thick or thin deposits of acid sands overlying finer textured sub-
soils. They are associated with thesame-Mnds-of-sei&in both
higher and lower drainage positions (6). All are derived from
marine deposits of sands and clays intermixed with or influ-
enced by weathered materials from older gel.,.'gi il fnir,;ti-ii.n.
These soils are widely distributed and occur as sand caps on
ridges, broad level areas, hill]~ih. rain on marine and river ter-
races in the Major Land Resource Areas I, II, III, and IV.
Carlisle (6) and Carlisle and Fiskell (7) concluded from
physical, mineralogical, and chemical soil data that all horizons
of Weston, Leon, and Blanton soils studied were of similar origin
and that the present sandy horizons were deposited simultane-
ously with the finer textured horizons. There were no outstand-
ing differences between soils of the same series located on differ-
ent terrace levels, and the distinguishing properties of the Wes-
ton, Leon, and Blanton soils investigated were principally
morphological.
Detailed studies on the geology of a portion of this area were
reported by Rowland and Fiskell (21), Rowland (22), and Row-
land and Powell (23, 24). The major soils in the deep sands,
some of which overlie finer textured materials, are the Blanton,
Klej, Kanapaha, Rex, Bowie, Susquehanna, Goldsboro, and
Lynchburg. The Leon, Rutlege, Plummer, Portsmouth, Bay-
boro, Weston, and Rains soils occur as minor inclusions in lower
positions; the Lakeland, Eustis, Norfolk, Tifton, Faceville, Rus-
ton, and Carnegie soils in the higher positions. The native vege-
tation consists of a variety of deciduous and coniferous forest,
shrubs, and native grasses. In the lower positions are cypress
and swamp grasses.






12. Blanton Klej Association


The Blanton series is a Regosol formed from thick beds of
marine sands. These soils are commonly associated with Lake-
land, St. Lucie, Pomello, Kershaw, Klej, and Plummer soils.
They are lighter colored than Lakeland soils, and generally
contain less coarse and medium sands, but more fine sand. They
are less loose and white than the St. Lucie and Pomello soils.
They have much better natural drainage than the Plummer or
Leon soils and lack the spodic horizon that characterizes the
Leon and Immokalee soils. A high phase and a low phase of
the Blanton are distinguished chiefly on the difference in water
relationships. Although the low phase overlaps the Klej series
in a range of drainage, it is generally lighter colored through-
out the profile and lacks the distinct or prominent mottling
characteristics of the latter. The Blanton series is widely dis-
tributed and has a large total acreage. It is agriculturally im-
portant, especially in the citrus belt. The principal type is fine
sand, though there are a few areas of sand or loamy sand. In
the average profiles, fine-textured material does not occur within
42 inches of the surface. Two distinct phases are not always
evident, but in general, the high phase has more white in the
profile and exhibits less mottling or splotching in the subsurface
layers. It occupies a higher position and is typically more vari-
able in relief. The low phase occupies broad level or very gently
sloping areas in lower positions, and the water table is closer
to the surface. The high phase is commonly associated with
drought soils like St. Lucie, Kershaw, and Lakeland, while the
low phase is associated more often with Klej, Plummer, Pomello,
Immokalee, and Leon soils. Color of the surface soil ranges from
dark gray to light gray. The subsurface color may range from
light gray to pale yellow or pale brown. Mottling or splotching
of the deeper layers may range from only slight in the high
phase to distinct in some of the lower areas of the low phase.
The low phase is more extensive than the high phase. The topog-
raphy of the high phase ranges frpm level to sloping. These soils
are used for general farm crops, watermelons, pasture, and
citrus in areas where the climate is favorable. Much of the area
remains in cut-over forest.
The Klej soils (30) are thick, coarse-textured, moderately
well and somewhat poorly drained Regosols derived from ma-
rine sediments. These soils are essentially uniform in texture
throughout the profile and are mottled in the deeper layers.
Related soils formed from the same kinds of sandy sediments





are Lakeland, Kershaw, St. Lucie, Blanton, Plummer, and Rut-
lege. The Lakeland, St. Lucie, and Kershaw soils are better
drained and lack the indications of wetness found in Klej soils.
Blanton soils are paler in color and lack distinct or prominent
mottling in the deeper profile. Plummer and Rutlege soils are
wetter and grayer in the deeper horizons. The Klej soils are
widely distributed, have a large total acreage, and are important
to agriculture. Loamy sand and fine sand are more common
surface textures with minor areas of loamy fine sand. A few
pebbles may be present on the surface and throughout the soil.
Undisturbed areas may have a gray or dark gray surface 3 to
5 inches thick or a thin bleached layer 1 to 3 inches thick imme-
diately below the forest litter. The color of the surface horizon
ranges from dark brown through very dark grayish-brown to
very dark gray. The lower horizon may be pale yellow, brown,
or yellowish-brown with gray mottlings within a depth of 30
inches. Soil reaction ranges from strongly acid through very
strongly acid. A large portion of Klej soils is in forest; cleared
areas are used for truck crops, general farm crops, and pastures.

12b. Kanapaha Blanton Association

The Kanapaha soils are moderately well-drained Regosols
found mostly in Central Florida from Polk County north to the
Georgia line. These soils have been formed chiefly from ma-
rine sands over finer textured materials of the Hawthorn forma-
tion. They are commonly associated with the Fellowship, Blich-
ton, Gainesville, Arredondo, Fort Meade, Hague, Zuber, Chief-
land, and Jonesville soils. The Kanapaha soils are sandier to
a greater depth over finer textured materials than the Fellow-
ship, Blichton, Hague, and Zuber soils. They are less well-
drained and are paler in the subsurface layers than the Gaines-
ville, Arredondo, Fort Meade, Zuber, and Jonesville and to some
extent with others. They contain more phosphatic materials and
are not as drought as the Chiefland soils. The Kanapaha soils
are rather widely distributed in Central Florida, but the total
acreage is small. The principal type is fine sand; minor types
are loamy fine sand and sand. Surface soil color ranges from
light gray to dark gray. Subsurface colors range from very
light gray to gray or grayish-brown. Thickness of sandy ma-
terial over finer textured material ranges from 30 inches to sev-
eral feet; where it is 30 to 42 inches, a moderately shallow phase
may be recognized. Rock may be encountered in places beneath
the sandy mantle. These soils are moderately well-drained with







medium runoff and rapid to medium internal drainage. They
are permeable to the movement of air and water. The Kanapaha
soils have a characteristic hammock growth. They are largely
forested; some areas have been cleared and used for the pro-
duction of vegetables, watermelons, corn, hay, and improved
pastures.

17a. Rex Blanton Association

The Rex soils are found chiefly in north Florida where they
were derived from thick beds of unconsolidated, acid sands and
loamy sands overlying finer textured materials. Color of the
surface layer is gray to dark gray; the subsurface is light yel-
lowish-brown to yellow; the subsoil is a mottled pale yellow to
yellowish-red, or mottled light olive gray, yellowish-red and
red. At depths of 36 to 48 inches soft iron concretions frequently
occur. Rex soils are associated especially with the Leon series
and, to a lesser extent, with the Blanton and Lakeland series.
They differ from the Leon soils in that they lack the spodic
horizon within the profile and normally overlie finer sediments
at shallower depths. They are also shallower to fine-textured
materials and are less well-drained than are Blanton and Lake-
land soils. The series has a small total acreage and is agricul-
turally important locally. The principal type in the series is
the loamy fine sand. In the typical soil, the depth to clayey
materials is commonly less than 30 inches. The Rex soils occur
chiefly on long gentle slopes and low gently rounded ridge crests
with gradients commonly ranging from 2 to 6% with a few
going up to 8 %. They have moderate external and slow internal
drainage. Most areas are used largely for forest. The cleared
areas are used for truck and general farm crops. Citrus fruits
are grown where the climate is favorable.

17b. Blanton Bowie Susquehanna Association

The Bowie soils are well-drained and generally occur on
gentle slopes. The surface layer ranges in color from dark gray
to yellowish-brown and in texture from fine sand to loamy sand.
The subsoil is yellow to yellowish-brown mottled with strong
brown to red and ranges in texture from sandy clay loam to
clay. This finer textured horizon begins at a depth of less than
30 inches and usually is 6 to 24 inches thick. These soils are
strongly acid, low in organic matter content, and low in natural
fertility. They are closely associated with the Susquehanna and







1i :.nt.n soils. Their friable, yellowish-brown subsoils and less
I...rniriintlll mottled substrata distinguish them from Susque-
hanna soils, and they do not have deep sandy layers like Blan-
ton soils.
The Susquehanna series is gently sloping to strongly sloping,
moderately deep, and moderately well- to somewhat poorly
drained. The surface layer is a dark gray or very dark gray
i lt. sand, 3 to 7 inches thick. Their subsurface layer is brown
or light brownish-gray fine sand, 4 to 16 inches thick. These
overlie a layer of mottled, firm to very firm clay. Normally, the
depth to this layer is less than 18 inches, but in places it is 18
to 30 inches. Susquehanna soils are associated with Blanton
and Bowie soils. The clayey material within the upper 30 inches
of their profile distinguishes them from Blanton soils. Their
more mottled, finer textured subsoil distinguishes them from
Bowie soils. In many areas, these three soils were mapped to-
gether as a complex. Most of the acreage has been cleared and
used for general farm crops and pastures.

T7c. Goldsboro-Lynchburg Association

The Goldsboro series consists of moderately well-drained
soils formed from thick beds of unconsolidated sandy loams and
sandy clay loams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The surface
layer is dark gray to dark grayish-brown which grades to a
light olive brown in its lower parts. The subsurface is yellow
to yellowish-brown. Faint mottles of pale brown, pale yellow,
and strong brown normally occur about 24 inches below the
surface. These mottles increase in intensity with depth, and
gray mottles occur within 36 inches. The subsoil is a distinctly
mottled sandy clay loam. Goldsboro soils are associated chiefly
with the Lynchburg, Norfolk, Ruston, and Marlboro soils. The
Goldsboro soils have coarser textured subsoils than the Bowie
soils. They are also less well-drained than the Bowie soils. The
Goldsboro soils have fairly wide distribution in the Middle and
Lower Coastal Plains, and the total acreage is moderately large.
Types include sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loamy sand, loamy
fine sand, and very fine sandy loam. Subsoil texture ranges from
sandy loams to sandy clay loams with inclusions of sandy clays.
The topography is dominantly level to nearly level with gentle
slopes. These soils are moderately well-drained with medium
runoff and medium internal drainage. Most of the area is in
cultivation and pasture. The principal crops are corn, cotton,
Irish p..lahi, peanuts, sweetpotatoes, soybeans, tobacco, and






small grains. Goldsboro soils are considered less suitable than
Norfolk soils for tobacco, peanuts, sweetpotatoes, and cotton.
For most other crops, they are preferred to the Norfolk soils.
The Lynchburg series is a somewhat poorly drained Red-
Yellow Podzol that intergrades toward Low-Humic Gley. These
soils were formed from moderately deep, sandy, unconsolidated,
coastal plain deposits. Color of the surface horizon is gray, and
the subsoil is light olive brown or light yellowish-brown. They
are commonly associated with the Goldsboro, Norfolk, Rains,
Plummer, Marlboro, Dunbar, Coxville, and Lakeland soils. The
Lynchburg soils have paler, more mottled subsoils than the
Goldsboro, but their subsoils are not dominantly gray like those
of the Rains series. The Lynchburg soils have wide distribution
in the Middle Coastal Plain and the northern portion of the
Lower Coastal Plain. Their acreage is moderately large, but
their agricultural importance is limited. Soil types within the
series include sandy loams and loamy sands. In cultivated fields
the surface horizons may be lighter colored, but may also be
very dark gray in a few places. The subsoils range in color from
pale yellow to a mottled gray, strong brown, and light yellowish-
brown. The sandy surfaces range from about 10 to 30 inches
in thickness. Subsoil textures range from fine sandy loam to
sandy clay loam. The topography ranges from level to gently
sloping. These soils are somewhat poorly drained; with slow
runoff and slow internal drainage due to shallow depth to water
table. A large part is still in cut-over timber and open range,
although some has been cleared and is used for vegetable crops,
corn, soybeans, hay, tobacco, and pastures.

Areas Dominated by Somewhat Poorly Drained Soils

Soils Dominantly Thick Acid Sands With Organic Pans;
Interspersed With Soils Without a Pan Formation

he soils inthis_ ro pLf- Q oiass i ne-- rn- r ijiIly in
th.C,. itl Li:, l), ,!dh ( l)hHdch-be4oe-the eoast-a-nd-i-n the
high si anipy plains of the Central Highlands- (Major Land
Resource Areas II, III, IV, and V). The Coastal Lowlands
consist of nearly level plains which have been dissected by
stream action very little since the last recession of the sea. One
invasion of the sea left successive shore lines at 100, 70, and 42
feet above the present sea level, and a later invasion reached
only 25 feet. The older geological formations were covered for
the most part by thin to thick beds of Pleistocene sands and






clays that form the parent material from which these soils were
derived. The soils of the Central Highlands were derived chiefly
from Pleistocene marine sands, the Hawthorn formation, and
the Citronelle formation. Elevations range from less than 40
feet to more than 300 feet above present sea level. Four great
soil groups namely, the Regosols, Ground-Water Podzols,
Humic Gley, and Low-Humic Gley -- are represented by the
soils in these associations. Regosols are derived from recent
soil material deposits that are too young to have well-developed
profile characteristics, or the parent material has remained
relatively unaltered by weathering. Ground-Water Podzols re-
flect the dominating influence of passive factors in soil forma-
tion such as parent material, relief, or time. The Humic Gley
soils are hydromorphic, poorly to very poorly drained, with thick
dark-colored surface horizons that are moderately high in or-
ganic matter. The Low-Humic Gley soils are also poorly drained,
but have thinner surface soils that are not as dark nor contain
as much organic matter. These surface layers are underlain by
mottled gray and brown mineral horizons that differ but little
in texture. These soils have developed under impeded drainage.
The native vegetation consists of longleaf, slash, and loblolly
pines; scrub, turkey, post, and water oaks; saw and cabbage
palmettos; tupelo, gum, bay, maple, cypress, and other hard-
woods; gallberry; runner-oak; myrtle; wiregrass, and other
native grasses.

13a. Leon Plummer Rutlege Association

The Leon soils (18) are Ground-Water Podzols formed from
moderately thick beds of sand in the seaward portions of the
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. These soils are most often
associated with the St. Lucie, Blanton, Immokalee, Ona, Pomello,
Plummer, Rutlege, and St. Johns soils. They may also be asso-
ciated with a number of other soils which represent great soil
groups much different from Ground-Water Podzols. The pres-
ence of a prominent spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches
is the distinguishing feature of the Leon series. The spodic
horizon consists primarily of sands more or less cemented by
organic matter commonly referred to as an organic pan. The
Leon soils are not as wet and have lighter colored and thinner
surface layers and thicker subsurface layers than the St. Johns
soils. They have more distinct spodic horizons at shallower
depths than the Immokalee soils. They have lighter colored and
thinner surface horizons and a more distinct spodic horizon






than the Ona soils which lack the leached subsurface horizon.
Leon soils are widely distributed and are assuming increased
importance in Florida. Principal types in the series are fine
sand and sand. The surface horizon ranges in color from gray
to very dark gray and commonly consists of a mixture of very
dark gray and white sands which gives a salt and pepper effect.
The upper portions of the spodic horizon range from black to a
very dark brown in color. This horizon may be weakly to strongly
cemented or lack cementation entirely depending upon its mois-
ture content. Upon exposure to the air many of these spodic
horizons become very hard upon drying. Mottled gray and yel-
low sandy clay loam to sandy clay or alkaline layers may be
found at depths of 31/. to 5 feet in some localities. Loamy sub-
stratum phases are recognized for such soils. Pebble phosphate
underlies Leon soils in places in Central Florida, usually at great
depths. One or more buried spodic horizons may also occur be-
neath the solum, commonly at depths of five feet or more. The
topography of Leon soils is dominantly level to nearly level with
occasional, but rarely more than gentle, slopes. Leon soils are
somewhat poorly to poorly drained. Permeability of the spodic
horizon is variable, but seldom slow if not impeded by the water
table. The water table is generally shallow and is responsible
for wetness of the soils. These soils have been used primarily
for forestry and open range, but large acreages have been de-
veloped for improved pasture or special crops. When water man-
agement is provided, the Leon soils are used for a variety of
truck crops and citrus where the climate is favorable. Leon soils
are the most extensive soils in the state (Table 1).
The Plummer series is a sandy Low-Humic Gley occurring
in the Coastal Plains along the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards.
These soils have been formed from moderate to thick beds of
acid sands and loamy sands with finer textured materials, if
present, below a depth of 30 inches of the surface. The soils
occupy broad flats, drainageway depressions, and seepage slopes.
The Plummer soils are associated chiefly with the Leon, Klej,
Lynchburg, Rains, Portsmouth, Rutlege, Blanton, Lakeland, and
Eustis series. More poorly drained than the Leon soils, they
lack the brown to black spodic horizon normal to the latter.
The Plummer soils are more poorly drained than the Klej series,
as indicated by the dominantly gray or light gray colors below
the surface soil. They are also more poorly drained than the
Lynchburg soils, which have faint to definite subsoil horizons
of clay accumulation. The Plummer series is comparable to the






Rains soils in drainage, but lacks the sandy clay loam layer
within 30 inches, which is normal to Rains soils. The surface
horizons of Plummer soils are thinner and lighter colored than
those of the Portsmouth and Rutlege, and are coarser textured
throughout the profile than the Portsmouth soils. Plummer soils
are much more poorly drained than Blanton, Lakeland, and
Eustis soils. They are widespread and have a relatively large
acreage, but are of limited importance to agriculture because of
their sandy nature, low plant nutrient supply, and poor drain-
age. The principal types in the series are sand, fine sand, loamy
sandy, and loamy fine sand. Color of the surface horizon is com-
monly gray or dark gray, but may range from light gray to
black. Where Plummer and Rutlege soils merge, the limit be-
tween the two series is keyed to a surface horizon 8 inches thick
with a very dark gray or black color. Soils with thinner or lighter
colored surface layers are placed in the Plummer series and the
others in the Rutlege series. Typically, the Plummer profile be-
low the surface horizon consists of light gray or white (occa-
sionally gray) sand to depths of 4 feet or more, although finer
textured sediments may occur at depths shallower than 4 feet.
Where Plummer and Rains soils grade into each other, an arbi-
trary limit of 30 inches of sand or loamy sand over sandy loam
or finer sediments is used as a guide in establishing boundaries
between the two. Phases may be mapped to recognize depths
to finer textured sediments in the Plummer series. Plummer
soils are poorly to very poorly drained with slow or very slow
runoff and rapid to slow internal' drainage depending on depth
to the water table. Permeability is rapid. Plummer soils are
used chiefly for forestry, although some areas have been cleared
and used for field crops, vegetable crops, and pasture.
The Rutlege soils are Humic Gley which have been developed
on unconsolidated sands or loamy sands of the Atlantic and
Gulf Coastal Plains. These soils have formed under conditions
of a fluctuating, but relatively shallow ground water level. They
occur in association with the Plummer, Portsmouth, Leon, St.
Johns, Klej, and Lakeland series. The Rutlege series is the very
poorly drained member of the Lakeland, Klej, Plummer, and
Rutlege sequence. Profiles of all four series consist of sands or
loamy sands throughout. The Rutlege soils are comparable to
Portsmouth soils in drainage and color, but they have coarser
textured subsoils of sand or loamy sand rather than of sandy
loam or finer textured materials within 30 inches. They are
more poorly drained and have thicker dark-colored surface hori-
zons than the Plummer soils and lack the spodic horizon char-







acteristic of the St. Johns soils. Rutlege soils are more poorly
drained than soils of the closely related Scranton series. They
are widely distributed and have a relatively large total acreage.
The principal types in the series are sand, fine sand, and loamy
fine sand. Thickness of the very dark gray to black surface hori-
zon may range from 8 to 24 inches. A thickness of 8 inches and
colors of very dark gray to black are used as limits between the
Rutlege and Plummer series when the two merge. In forested
areas, a very dark brown partially decomposed litter of leaves
and twigs may be present on top of the soil. Subsoil colors are
predominantly gray but may have some yellow, white, or strong
brown mottling and may be darkened by organic matter. In a
few places, there is evidence of the beginning of an accumula-
tion of organic matter or an incipient spodic horizon in the lower
portion of the profile. The sandy deposit in which the Rutlege
soil is formed may be underlain by finer textured sediments
usually at depths greater than 42 inches. Soils with a finer tex-
tured stratum between 30 and 42 inches may be set apart from
deeper ones as phases. Rutlege soils commonly occur in depres-
sional areas. A few seepage areas on hillsides occur on gradients
up to 12%. The Rutlege soils are very poorly drained with
ponded to very slow surface runoff. Permeability is very rapid.
These soils are used mainly for forests. A few areas have been
planted to improved pastures, hay, grain, and truck crops.

13b. Leon Immokalee Pompano Association

The Immokalee series was formed from thick beds of uncon-
solidated sands. It occurs on somewhat poorly drained, level to
nearly level areas, but the slope gradient ranges up to 5% in
some places. It is characterized by a dark brown to black spodic
horizon at depths of 30 to 42 inches. This soil is associated with
the Leon, Ona, Pomello, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. The spodic
horizons in the Leon soil is usually denser and nearer the sur-
face than in the Immokalee soil. The brown organic-stained
layer in the Ona soils occurs within 14 inches of the surface.
The Pomello soils have a lighter colored surface layer and the
spodic horizon occurs at greater depths than in Immokalee soils.
Plummer and Rutlege soils occupy wetter areas. The surface
layer of Immokalee soils ranges from gray to very dark gray in
color and from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. In places, the spodic
horizon extends to depths of more than 48 inches before the
sandy material grades to lighter colors. Surface runoff is slow.
Internal drainage is medium to rapid, if not retarded by a high






water table. This soil is excellent for improved pastures, and
under good management it is fairly productive of vegetable
crops. It requires liberal application of fertilizer and water
control for satisfactory crop production.
The Pompano series (27) occurs chiefly in the southern part
of Florida. These soils are derived from thin to moderately
thick beds of marine sands overlying alkaline materials. They
are associated with the Immokalee, Charlotte, Arzell, Broward,
Delray, Felda, Keri, and Sunniland soils. Pompano soils are
lighter colored and less poorly drained than the Delray soils;
they are darker colored in the upper profile than Arzell soils;
and they have white or grayish lower layers as compared to
the brownish-yellow or reddish-yellow of the Charlotte soils.
Pompano soils differ from the Felda and Sunniland series in
lacking finer textured materials overlying the limestone. Com-
pared with the Keri, they do not have a marl layer and are more
poorly drained. The Pompano soils resemble the Plummer soils
in most respects, but are neutral to alkaline rather than acid to
very strongly acid throughout the profile. Textures include fine
sand and sand. The surface layer may be gray to light gray,
especially where cultivated for a short period. In a few places
a sandy loam or sandy clay loam layer may occur at 30 to 42
inches giving rise to a moderately shallow phase. It occurs in
slight depressions on level topography and is poorly drained;
ponded conditions are common after heavy rains. Water moves
off slowly because of lack of slope. Some areas have been cleared
and placed under water management, and are used mostly for
improved pasture, some citrus, and vegetables. Intensive water
control and other good management practices produce fair to
good yields of citrus.

13c. Leon Pomello Plummer Association

This soil association occupies nearly level flatwoods inter-
spersed with occasional knolls, ridges, and swamps. The Leon
soils occur in the nearly level somewhat poorly drained posi-
tions, have fine sand or sand textures more than 30 inches thick,
and spodic horizons above 30 inches. The moderately well-
drained ridges and knolls are occupied by the Pomello soils
which have gray to very light gray surface soils 1 to 3 inches
thick and spodic horizons below 30 inches. The poorly drained
Plummer soils occupy the ponded and depressional areas of this
association and are described more completely under "Associa-
tion 13a." Most of these soils are influenced by a relatively high






water table, which normally fluctuates within 2 to 4 feet of the
surface in the somewhat poorly drained soils and within 1 to 3
feet of the surface in the poorly drained areas. The water table
normally is below 3 feet in the Pomello soils, but frequently rises
above the surface of the wetter Plummer areas which occur as
small isolated swamps or as long, narrow indistinct swampy
drains.

13d. Leon Blanton Plummer Association

This soil association occurs on nearly level to gently sloping,
low ridges interspersed with numerous, small swamp areas. The
dominant Leon soils are somewhat poorly drained to poorly
drained, strongly acid sands over a spodic horizon. Included are
areas of gray or light gray, moderately well-drained sands and
numerous small swamps. The dominant soils are Leon, Blanton,
and Plummer with inclusions of Klej, Scranton, Rutlege, and St.
Johns. The areas represented by this soil association are not
well suited for agricultural development, and are not usually de-
veloped for cultivated crops. Most areas are now in a native
vegetation of cut-over pine forest with an undergrowth of pal-
metto and wiregrass. With adequate water control, liming, and
fertilization, these soils can be highly productive. Descriptions
of these soils appear in other sections of this report.

Soils Dominantly Thick Acid Sands with Dark Surface Soils

These soils are Regosols or Humic Gley soils occurring pri-
marily in the flatwoods region or between the flatwoods and the
soils on the relatively high sandy ridges. They were derived
from moderately thick to thick beds of Pleistocene marine ter-
race sands and loamy sands. The largest areas were developed
in Alachua, Putnam, St. Johns, Bay, Walton, and Hillsborough
Counties. Small areas occur in Santa Rosa, Calhoun, Gulf, and
Manatee Counties. They occur in areas too small to be shown
on the general soils map in Charlotte, Seminole, Orange, Polk,
Osceola, and other counties. The natural vegetation consists
mostly of longleaf, loblolly, and slash pines; some laurel, live,
and blackjack oaks; and an undergrowth of saw palmettos,
myrtle, gallberry, runner-oak, and wiregrass.

14. Scranton Ona Association

The Scranton soils (8) are somewhat poorly drained Rego-
sols with dark-colored surface layers. They have been formed






from thick beds of acid sands and loamy sands in the seaward
portion of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. They are gen-
erally associated with the Rutlege, Ona, Portsmouth, Orlando,
Blanton, Klej, Lynchburg, Plummer, and Leon soils. The Scran-
ton soils have thicker and darker surface layers and are more
poorly drained than the Blanton and Klej series. They are better
drained and have less gray and more yellow immediately below
the surface horizon than the Rutlege soils. They lack the spodic
horizons of the Ona and Leon series. They are less well-drained
than the Orlando soils; have darker and thicker surface hori-
zons than the Lynchburg, Plummer, and Leon soils; and lack
the clay accumulation in the subsoil of the Lynchburg soils. The
Scranton soils are widely distributed, of a fairly large acreage,
and locally important to agriculture. The principal types are
fine sand, sand, loamy fine sand, and loamy sand. The surface
horizon ranges from 8 to 24 inches in thickness and from a very
dark grayish-brown to black in color. The lower layers range
from light yellowish-brown to pale yellow and may, in places,
be mottled with a few splotches of grayish-brown or gray. The
sandy layers are underlain in places by finer textured sediments
at depths generally greater than 42 inches. Areas bordering
phosphatic soils may have a higher phosphate content than
normal. A few iron concretions may occur in the lower portion
of the profile. The Scranton soils are somewhat poorly drained
with slow surface runoff and rapid internal drainage if not
impeded by a high water table. This water table fluctuates quite
widely with the frequency and intensity of the rainfall, but it is
normally about 3 to 5 feet below the surface. The soil is used
for vegetable crops, citrus, and improved pasture.
The Ona series consists of somewhat poorly drained soils
of the flatwoods that have developed from thick beds of marine
sands. It is closely associated with the Scranton, Leon, St. Johns,
and Rutlege series. It has a dark-colored sandy surface soil that
immediately overlies, a dark brown organic-stained horizon. The
presence of this layer differentiates the Ona soils from Scranton
soils. Ona soils differ from Leon soils in having a thicker and
darker surface layer; from the St. Johns in having a very weak
spodic horizon and in lacking the leached horizon underlying
the surface layer; and from the Rutlege by being better drained
and in having a slightly lighter colored surface layer. Ona soils
occur on dominantly level to nearly level relief. Runoff is very
slow and internal drainage is slow to rapid depending on the
height of the water table, which fluctuates seasonally. The prin-
cipal type is fine sand. Ona soils are important because of their






inherent productivity. If water is carefully managed, Ona soils
are well-adapted to vegetable crops, general farm crops, im-
proved pasture, and citrus where the climate is favorable.

Soils Dominantly Thick to Thin Sands
Overlying Finer Textured Alkaline Materials

Parent materials of soils in the central, southern, and coastal
areas of Florida consist of sands, clays and marl laid down
during --ee i estoc nepoch- or olderlimestone formations (20,
11). Elevations over a large part of the area ranges from
below 15 feet to 50 or 60 feet above the present sea level. The
soils in this group of associations were developed extensively
in the Southern Flatwoods, Atlantic Coast Flatwoods, and the
Gulf Coast Flatwoods section of the state (Major Land Re-
source Areas of Florida II, IV, and V). These soils, for the
most part, developed under a relatively high water table and
are all somewhat poorly to poorly drained. They are character-
istically different from other soils in that most of them have
been derived from thin beds of sands overlying alkaline clays,
marl, or limestone; and, for the most part, are not quite so
poorly drained. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf, lob-
lolly, and slash pines; laurel, and live oaks; hickory; sweetgum;
bay; saw palmettos; cabbage palmettos; runner-oak; cypress;
wiregrass; sawgrass; watergrass; and pickerel weed.

15. Adamsville Pompano Association

The Adamsville soils are moderately well-drained sandy Reg-
osols derived from moderately thick, 30 inches or more, beds of
sands and loamy sands, over marl or other alkaline materials.
These soils are associated chiefly with Pompano, Charlotte, Del-
ray, Manatee, Felda, Sunniland, Keri, Parkwood, Bushnell, and
Panasoffkee soils. They are better drained than the Pompano,
Charlotte, Delray, Manatee, and Felda soils. The Adamsville
soils are sandy to a greater depth than the Sunniland, Felda,
Bradenton, Panasoffkee, and Bushnell soils. They lack the marl
layer at depths less than 30 inches which characterizes the Keri
and Parkwood soils. These soils are widely scattered in central
and southern Florida, but the areas are commonly small and
the total acreage is not large. They are moderately important
to agriculture. The principal types are fine sand and sand.
Color of the surface horizon ranges from gray to very dark
gray; the subsurface horizon is usually light gray to light






brownish-gray; and the deeper layers are light yellowish-brown
or very pale brown. Thin discontinuous brown-stained layers
may occur in the lower horizons. Soil reaction ranges through
medium acid in the surface and neutral in the subsurface to
mildly alkaline in the deeper layers and strongly alkaline in the
marly or limestone horizons. The topography is level to gently
sloping, and drainage is moderate with slow runoff; mainly
permeability is rapid. These soils are used for truck crops, hay,
pasture, and citrus. A large percentage of the total acreage
is still in cut-over forest.
The description of the Pompano series is given in "Associa-
tion 13b."

18a. Sunniland Bradenton Association

The Sunniland soils are somewhat poorly drained Red-
Yellow Podzols that intergrade toward the Low-Humic Gley.
These soils have been formed from relatively thin layers of
sands and loamy sands overlying alkaline clayey materials which
commonly contain calcareous concretions or fragments of lime-
stone in the lower portion of the profile. The Sunniland soils
are associated with the Adamsville, Broward, Keri, Parkwood,
Felda, Pompano, Charlotte, and Leon soils. The presence of a
clayey subsoil distinguishes them from the Adamsville, Broward,
Parkwood, Pompano, and Charlotte soils. They lack the marl
layer in the upper part of the profile that characterizes the Keri
soils and they lack the spodic horizon of the Leon soils. They
are better drained and have more yellow and less gray colors
in the upper part of the profile than do the Felda soils. Indi-
vidual areas of Sunniland soils are commonly small and the total
acreage is not large. Locally they are important to agriculture.
The principal types are sand, fine sand, loamy sand, and loamy
fine sand. The surface horizon ranges from gray to very dark
gray in color. The subsurface layer is usually light gray, espe-
pecially when the sandy layers are more than 18 inches thick.
Dominant color in the clayey subsoil ranges from pale yellow
to yellowish-brown. Mottles range from few to common and
from fine to medium. Commonly, the amount of yellow decreases
and the amount of light gray and gray increases with depth in
the subsoil layers, and a few red streaks may be present. Tex-
ture of the subsoil horizon ranges from sandy clay loam to sandy
clay. Soil reaction is commonly strongly acid in the surface hori-
zon, slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the upper subsoil, and
moderately alkaline in the lower subsoil layers. A large part is







in cut-over forest and rangeland; but some areas have been
cleared and used for truck crops, improved pasture, and citrus.
The Bradenton soils are Low-Humic Gley derived from thin
beds of sands and loamy sands over sandy clay loams and clay
loams which rest on marl. The Bradenton soils are associated
with the Manatee, Parkwood, Delray, Sunniland, Copeland, and
Felda soils. They have lighter colored surface layers, are better
drained, and occupy a slightly higher topographic position than
do the Delray and Manatee soils. They overlie marl instead of
calcareous fine-textured materials that occur in the Sunniland
and Felda soils. The Bradenton soils also have less yellow and
more gray and brown colors in the subsoils than the Sunniland
soils. They have thinner lighter colored surface layers than the
Copeland soils. They are more acid in the upper horizons and
are finer textured above the marl than the Parkwood soils; there
are no layers of fine-textured materials above the marl in the
Parkwood soils. Small areas of Bradenton soils are widely scat-
tered in the middle and southern parts of Florida, but the total
acreage is not large. Locally they are important to agriculture.
The principal types are loamy fine sand and fine sand. The sur-
face horizon ranges in color from gray to very dark gray. The
sandy material above the subsoil varies from 10 to 20 inches in
thickness. Subsoil colors are usually gray, but may include mot-
tles of light gray, grayish-brown, and reddish-yellow. Locally,
the profile may contain a thin brown-stained layer immediately
above the fine-textured materials. Shells may or may not occur
in the underlying marl layer. These soils are developed on level
to very gently sloping topography. They are somewhat poorly
to poorly drained with slow runoff. Permeability is rapid in
the surface soil but slow in the subsoil. The Bradenton soils are
used for truck crops, citrus, improved pasture, and cut-over
rangeland.

18b. Panasoffkee Bushnell Association

The Panasoffkee series consists of somewhat poorly drained
to moderately well-drained soils formed from moderately thin
layers of sandy materials over limestone. These soils are asso-
ciated with the Bushnell, Meggett, Adamsville, Sunniland,
Bradenton, and Felda series. They are better drained than any
of the associated soils except the Adamsville series. The Pana-
soffkee soils are underlain by hard limestone that is very silic-
ious in places. In contrast, the Bushnell soils are underlain at
shallower depths by purer limestone, and the other associated






soils are underlain by softer limestone, calcareous clays, or
marly materials. In most places the sandy material of the Pana-
soffkee soils is thicker and the neutral to alkaline materials are
deeper beneath the surface than in the Bushnell soils. Both the
Bushnell and Panasoffkee soils have numerous rock fragments
on the surface and in the profile. Rock fragments in the Bush-
nell soils are generally calcareous, while those of the Panasoffkee
soils are silicious. The other associated soils are derived from
softer, more marly materials. The Panasoffkee soils do not have
the yellowish colors in the subsoil commonly found in the Sunni-
land profiles. The Panasoffkee soils are limited and are of little
agricultural importance except in local areas. The principal
types are fine sand and loamy fine sand. Color of the surface
horizon ranges from gray to very dark gray. The sandy upper
horizons generally range from 18 to 30 inches in thickness. The
subsoil horizons range considerably in color and intensity of
mottling from place to place. In many places, silicious limestone
boulders or outcrops occur on the surface and within the profile.
Calcareous materials are present below 24 to 36 inches in most
profiles. Soil reaction of the upper subsoil horizon may range
from slightly acid to mildly alkaline. In a few places, a dis-
continuous brown-stained layer may occur at 18 to 24 inches, com-
monly just above the fine-textured materials. In places, some
soft limestone or marly nodules may occur at a depth of 36
inches or more. Some areas are used for truck crops, citrus,
and improved pasture.
The Bushnell series consists of somewhat poorly drained soils
formed from a thin deposit of moderately fine or fine-textured
marine sediments overlying residuum from limestone. The Bush-
nell soils are associated with soils of the Panasoffkee, Meggett,
Adamsville, Felda, Bradenton, Hernando, and Sunniland series.
They are shallower to hard limestone and contain more lime-
stone out-cropping and boulders than any of the associated soils.
The Bushnell soils are similar to the Bradenton and Sunniland
Soils in drainage; are slightly less well-drained than the Her-
nando, Adamsville, and Panasoffkee soils; and better drained
than the Meggett and Felda soils. They are less acid in the sur-
face layer and alkaline at shallower depths than most of the
associated soils. The Bushnell soils are limited in acreage and
are not agriculturally important except in a few small localities.
The principal types are fine sand, loamy fine sand, and fine sandy
loam. The surface horizon may range in color from gray or
very dark grayish-brown, in structure from loose to friable, and







in reaction from slightly acid to mildly alkaline. The subsoil
may range in color from pale brown to yellowish-brown, in tex-
ture from the sandy loam to clay, and in thickness from 10 to
30 inches. The amount and color of mottling varies widely from
place to place. Some rounded lime nodules occur in the deeper
layers in places. A very large part of the acreage of this soil
is still in cut-over forest, but some areas are used for citrus,
truck crops, and improved pasture.

21. Broward Parkwood Keri Association

The Broward series is a Low-Humic Gley which occurs most-
ly in the southern part of Florida. These soils were derived
from moderately thin beds of sand (usually 18 to 30 inches
thick) over relatively hard limestone. Color of the surface layer
is dark gray to brownish-gray, the subsurface layer is grayish-
brown, and the deeper sandy layers grade to a pale brown with
streaks of light gray or pale yellow in places. The soil is under-
lain by light gray or white limestone. In a few places, a thin
layer of sandy clay overlies the rock. The Broward soils are
associated with the Adamsville, Arzell, Charlotte, Felda, Park-
wood, Pompano, and Sunniland soils. They are underlain by
limestone at depths less than 30 inches, whereas the Adamsville
soils are underlain by calcareous materials at greater depths
which, in a few places, may be hard limestone. The Parkwood
soils are underlain by soft marl. The Sunniland and Felda soils
are underlain by alkaline clays. The Arzell, Charlotte, and Pom-
pano soils are composed of sands to depths of at least 30 inches
and usually to more than 42 inches. The Broward soils are of
small acreage and are important to agriculture only locally. The
predominant type is fine sand. Locally soft brown iron con-
cretions and fragments of limestone may be present in the lower
horizons. A shallow phase is recognized where the limestone is
less than 18 inches below the surface. Limestone outcrops and
loose boulders occur in a few places. Permeability of these soils
is rapid. The vegetation consists mostly of slash pine, cabbage
palmetto, some pond pine and cypress, and an undergrowth of
saw palmetto and grasses. Where the limestone is deeper be-
neath the surface, these soils are used extensively for vegetable
crops. Other areas are used primarily for pasture.
The Parkwood series is a Humic-Gley in the Red-Yellow Pod-
zol Region. These soils have formed from relatively thin beds
of sand over marl. They are associated most commonly with the
Keri, Broward, Sunniland, Bradenton, Manatee, Delray, Pom-






pano, and Charlotte soils. The Parkwood soils lack the inter-
bedded layers of sands and marls of the Keri soils and are
formed where thicker beds of marl underlie the bed of sand.
They are deeper than Broward soils, which have limestone oc-
curring at shallow depths. They lack the clayey subsoils of the
Sunniland, Bradenton, and Manatee soils. The Parkwood soils
are not as poorly drained as the Delray, nor do they have as
deep and dark surface. They differ from the Pompano and
Charlotte soils by overlying marl rather than calcareous sands.
They occur in small widely scattered areas and are of small total
acreage, but they are important to local agriculture. The prin-
cipal types are fine sand and loamy fine sand. The surface hori-
zon ranges from dark gray to almost black in color; the sub-
surface is usually a grayish-brown or gray; and the marl a
gray or light olive gray. Texture of the marl is usually either
a sandy loam or sandy clay loam. In places, a few pale yellow
to yellowish-brown streaks may occur in this layer. Soil re-
action is usually near neutral in the surface, mildly alkaline in
the subsurface, and moderately to strongly alkaline in the marl
layers. These soils are rather poorly drained with slow surface
runoff. Permeability is rapid in the surface soil if not impeded
by a high water table, which fluctuates from 10 to 60 inches
below the surface. Most areas of Parkwood soils are in for-
est. Some areas have been cleared and drained, and are used
largely for citrus fruits, truck crops, and improved pasture.
The Keri series is somewhat poorly drained and occurs most-
ly in the southern part of Florida near the coast. These soils
were derived from moderately thin stratified beds of marine
sands and marl. They occur in association with the Parkwood,
Broward, Ruskin, Sunniland, Adamsville, Leon, Immokalee,
Pompano, Charlotte, and Delray soils. The Parkwood soils have
sandy materials underlain by a thick layer of marl which ex-
tends to depths greater than 42,inches as compared to the layer
sequence of sand, marl, and sand within the 42-inch profile of
the Keri soils. The Broward soils have sandy layers underlain
by limestone. The Ruskin and Sunniland soils have clayey ma-
terials between the sand layers and marl or limestone concre-
tions. The Adamsville soils have sands throughout their 42-inch
profile. The Leon and Immokalee soils have black or dark gray-
ish-brown spodic horizons which are not present in the Keri
soils. The Pompano, Charlotte, Felda, and Delray soils occupy
depressional areas and lack the marl layer characteristic of the
Keri. In places, the Keri soils may be underlain by limestone






at 40 to 72 inches or more. The topography is nearly level with
a few slight depressions. The Keri soils are somewhat poorly
drained with very slow surface runoff and slow to moderate
internal drainage. They are of limited extent but rather im-
portant where found, being used principally for vegetable crops
and pasture.

Areas Dominated by Poorly to Very Poorly Drained Soils

Soils Dominantly Thick to Thin Sand to Sandy Loam Surface Soils
Overlying Finer Textured Acid Subsoils

The soils of this group are hydromorphic soils of the Humic
Gley, Low-Humic Gley, and Planosols great soil groups. They
were derived from thick to thin beds of acid sands and clays
deposited during the late Pleistocene period. These soils occur
on nearly level depressions, stream terraces, and in poorly de-
fined drainageways and have developed under conditions of im-
peded drainage. They occur along streams of north and west
Florida and in low positions in all other portions of the state.
The largest single area probably occurs in eastern Marion Coun-
ty. The Humic Gley soils are poorly drained and have mod-
erately thick dark-colored surface horizons underlain by mottled
gray horizons. The Low-Humic Gley soils are also poorly
drained, but have a thinner or light-colored surface horizon
overlying mottled gray gleyed mineral horizons. The Planosols
S are characterized by a claypan. The stream terrace soils have
been influenced by sediments washed from older geological for-
mations of the uplands. The natural vegetation consists of pines,
various water-tolerant hardwoods, saw palmetto, shrubs, wire-
grass, native grasses, and reeds.

19. Coxville Bladen Weston Association

The Coxville soils are light-colored hydromorphic Red-Yellow
Podzols. These soils occur chiefly in the seaward part of the
Atlantic Coastal Plain and to a lesser extent in the Gulf Coastal
Plain. They were formed from thick beds of sandy clays and
clays. Color of the surface soil is dark gray to nearly black.
The subsurface is light gray which may have faint yellow mot-
tles. Color of the subsoil is mottled gray, yellow, pale olive, and
pale brown marked with red and reddish-brown mottles. Cox-
ville soils are associated mainly with Bladen, Dunbar, and Wes-
ton soils. The Coxville and Bladen soils are similar in drainage






and in texture of horizons, but the former is slightly less gray
in the deeper layers and is also somewhat less plastic. The
deeper horizons of Coxville soils are also marked by red mot-
tlings of high contrast. Coxville soils are widely distributed,
have a large total acreage, but have limited importance to agri-
culture. The principal types are loamy sand and sandy loam
and lesser ones are loam, sandy loam, and clay loam. Under cul-
tivation, the surface soil is light gray to gray in color. The
deeper part of the profile may include thin layers of sandy loams
and sands. The relative proportions of colors in the deeper sub-
soil ranges from predominantly gray and yellow with a little
red to about equal proportions of gray and yellow. The Coxville
soils are poorly drained with slow to very slow external and in-
ternal drainage. Most of the area is in cut-over forest and
improved pasture. The cultivated areas are used for general
field crops and vegetable crops.
The Bladen soils occur on nearly flat relief mostly in the
northern portion of the state. They were formed from beds of
sands and loamy sands over acid clays. These soils have poor
drainage. Bladen soils are associated with the Coxville, Weston,
Leon, and Bayboro soils. They differ from the Bayboro soils in
having a thinner and lighter colored surface layer, and from
the Leon soils in having a finer textured subsoil and the absence
of spodic horizon. The Bladen soils have a gray to dark gray
surface, overlying mottled gray, yellow, and yellowish-brown
sandy clay or clay layers. The depth at which the sandy clay
or clay occurs is variable, usually between 10 and 20 inches
below the surface. The principal types are sand, loamy sand, and
loamy fine sand. These soils are strongly acid in reaction. They
are good agricultural soils, but artificial drainage is necessary
for satisfactory crop production. Truck crops and citrus, where
the climate is favorable, can also be grown on this soil. Its best
use under present conditions is improved pasture.
The Weston soils are poorly drained Low-Humic Gley formed
in stratified intermediate to fine-textured sediments on low ma-
rine terraces of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. Color of
the surface horizon is black or dark gray. Subsurface colors are
light to dark gray with a few fine mottles of grayish-brown and
yellowish-brown. The subsoil is gray with many medium dis-
tinct yellowish-brown mottles. Weston soils are most commonly
associated with the Bladen, Coxville, Portsmouth, Rains, and
Dunbar soils. They characteristically have fine-textured subsoil
horizons that contain thin lenses and pockets of sandy or silty







materials. Weston soils have finer textured subsoils and a more
abrupt change from the sandy surface to the subsoil than the
Rains series. They have lighter colored and thinner surface
horizons than the Portsmouth series. Soil reaction ranges from
medium to slightly acid in the surface horizon and from strongly
to slightly acid in the surface and subsoils. These poorly drained
soils occur on nearly level relief or slight depressions. Perme-
ability is moderate to slow. The Weston soils are widely dis-
tributed and are of moderate importance to agriculture. Types
commonly occurring in the series are sands and loamy sands. A
considerable acreage of Weston soils is in forest. Cleared areas
are used for truck crops, improved pastures, and some general
farm crops.

20. Leaf Bladen Rains Association

The Leaf series is a poorly drained claypan Planosol of the
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. These soils have developed on
stream terraces from old alluvium washed chiefly from such
series as Boswell, Shubuta, Susquehanna, Cuthbert, and Marl-
boro soils. The principal types are fine sandy loam, very fine
sandy loam, loam, and silt loam. The surface horizon is rela-
tively thin and ranges in color from gray through dark gray
to dark grayish-brown. The subsurface is usually gray, light
gray, or light brownish-gray also containing yellowish-brown
mottles. The subsoil ranges in color from gray to pale brown
and is distinctly mottled with shades of brown and some red in
the deeper layers. The texture of the subsoil ranges from a
sandy clay to clay. Surface and internal drainage are slow to
very slow. The cleared areas are used primarily for pasture, al-
though some corn and sorghum are grown on this soil.
The Bladen series is described in "Association 19" above.
The Rains series is a fight-colored poorly drained gray hydro-
morphic soil occurring mainly in the Red-Yellow Podzolic re-
gion. These soils were formed from thick beds of sands and
clays in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. The surface hori-
zon is generally a gray to dark gray fine sand or loamy fine sand.
The subsurface layer is a light gray or light brownish-gray
material of the same texture as the surface. The subsoil is light
gray to white sandy loam to clay loam and may have mottles
of yellowish-red. They are associated with the Plummer, Ports-
mouth, Leon, Rutlege, Scranton, and Lynchburg soils. The Rains
soils generally contain more fine-textured material in the surface
layers and are finer textured in the subsoil than the Plummer






soils. The Rains soils occur at the base of slopes near the foot
of upland soils like Lakeland, Norfolk, or Tifton, but more com-
monly are found on the broad flats or slightly depressed areas
in the flatwoods. The principal types are fine sand and loamy
fine sand. These soils are poorly drained with very slow if any
runoff and slow internal drainage. They are best suited for for-
estry; however, with drainage and fertilization they are well-
suited for improved pasture, corn, and vegetable crops.

22. Plummer Rutlege Association

This soil association occurs in small areas throughout the
central and northern part of the state on level or nearly level
relief. The largest single area is in Gulf County. These soils
are strongly acid, poorly to very poorly drained, and derived
from rather thick deposits of sandy materials. The Plummer and
Rutlege series are dominant, with Portsmouth and Rains soils
and fresh water swamp occupying smaller areas within the
association. These soils are adapted to forest production, but
with adequate drainage could be used for truck farming and
improved pasture. The soils of the Plummer and Rutlege series
were described in another part of this report.

24b. Bayboro Portsmouth Rains Association

The Bayboro series is very pIrly drained Humic GlC y de-
\elolped in relatively thick beds of acid marine dep1,:its of sandy
loams and clays in the Lower Coastal Plain. These soils have
formed under conditions of a flhictunting but relatively shallow
ground water level and characteristically have thick very dark
gray to black surface soils, gray to grayish-brown subsurface
layers, and light fine-textured subsoils mostly mottled with
light gray, gray, dark gray, and grayish-brown. They occur in
association with the Bladen, Portsmouth, and Rains soils. The
Bayboro soils are more poorly drained and have thicker and
darker surface soils than the Bladen soils. Compared \with-the
Portsmouth soils, they generally have ine-tEtiured and sme-
wJ-t 4hicker surface horizons and contain- ~rger animounts of
claN in their subsoils. They have thicker darker surface and
are finer textured throughout the profile than the Rains soils.
Bayboro soils are widely distributed, but are not agriculturally
important unless drained. The dominant types in Florida are
fine sandy loam, loam, and mucky loam. Thickness of the dark
surface horizon ranges from 8 to 18 inches. Soil reaction of







the profile ranges from strongly to very strongly acid. In some
areas a thin brown-stained layer may occur just below the
surface horizon. A major part of the acreage remains in forest,
but small areas have been cleared, drained, and planted to truck
crops and improved pasture.
The Portsmouth soils are Humic Gley developed on relatively
thick beds of medium-textured acid sediments of the Atlantic
and Gulf Coastal Plains. These soils have formed under condi-
tions of a fluctuating but relatively shallow ground water level.
They occur chiefly in association with the Bayboro, Rains, Bla-
den, and Coxville soils. Portsmouth soils are coarser textured
in their subsoils than the Bayboro soils. They are more poorly
drained and have a thicker darker colored surface higher in
organic matter than the Rains, Bladen, and Coxville soils.
Portsmouth soils are widely distributed, have a fairly large total
acreage, and are important agriculturally. The principal types
in the series are sandy loam, loamy fine sand, and fine sandy
loam. Thickness of the dark-colored surface soil ranges from
8 to 20 inches. Color of the surface soil ranges from very dark
brownish-gray to black in previously non-cultivated areas to
very dark gray in cultivated areas. Subsoil colors are predom-
inantly gray but may be mottled with light gray, dark gray, and
brown. Portsmouth soils are very poorly drained with ponded
to very slow runoff. Permeability is moderate. Much of the
acreage remains in forest. Portsmouth soils are productive
when drained and properly fertilized. Many areas are used for
the production of truck crops, with small areas devoted to hay
and pasture.
The Rains series was described in "Association 20" above.

Soils Dominantly Moderately Thick to Thin Sands to Sandy Loams
Overlying Finer Textured Alkaline Materials

These soils have developed on moderately thick to thin beds
of late Pleistocene sands over calcareous sandy clay, marl, or
limestone (11, 15). They occur principally in the southern
Florida Flatwoods region on low relief and are hydromorphic,
Humic Gley and Low-Humic Gley, poorly to very poorly drained
soils. The Pompano, Charlotte, and Felda soils are somewhat
less poorly drained than the Delray and Manatee soils. The
natural vegetation consists of slash pines, live oak, laurel oak,
maple, bay, tupelo, sweet gum, cabbage palmettos, large saw pal-
mettos, cypress, myrtle, gallberries, sawgrass, sedges, maiden-
cane, pickerel weed, and numerous other grasses.






23. Pompano Charlotte Delray Association


The Pompano soils were described in "Association 20" above.
The Charlotte series includes the poorly drained sands which
have iron coatings on the sand grains beneath the surface. The
subsoils were formed from relatively thin beds of fine sands over
limestone, and the profile is probably affected to some extent by
the underlying limerock. The Charlotte soils are associated
with the Pompano and Delray soils, but differ from them mainly
in having a brownish-yellow to yellowish-red sand below depths
of about 10 to 15 inches. Soil reaction is usually slightly acid
at the surface and becomes neutral to mildly alkaline with depth.
The soils occur on level to slightly depressed areas and are thus
poorly drained. Artificial drainage is usually required for grow-
ing cultivated crops. The Charlotte soils are largely in their
native vegetation, but a few large areas in Indian River, St.
Lucie, Brevard, and Collier counties have been drained and are
cultivated for winter truck crops and some citrus.
The Delray soils are very poorly drained Humic Gley. They
were formed from moderately thin beds of sands overlying lime-
stone and are usually associated with the Pompano, Charlotte,
Adamsville,/Broward, Bradenton, Felda, Manatee, Keri, Park-
wood, and Sunniland soils. The Delray soils are more poorly
drained, have a much higher content of organic matter, and have
thicker darker colored surface layers than any of the associated
soils except Manatee. The Delray soils have thicker sandy layers
over fine-textured materials than the Manatee soils. Principal
types are fine sand, loamy fine sand, and mucky fine sand. The
surface horizon ranges in color from very dark gray to black and
is 8 inches or more in thickness. The subsurfaces are lighter in
color and grade into gray or light gray with depth. In places,
a fine-textured subsoil horizon may occur in the profile,
but it lies at depths of 30 inches or more beneath the surface.
Surface soil reaction generally ranges from slightly acid to
neutral. The pH increases with depth, becoming strongly alka-
line if calcareous materials are encountered. Permeability is
rapid. Delray soils occur in relatively small scattered spots in
central and southern Florida. The total acreage is relatively
small, but the soils are important for agricultural purposes lo-
cally where drainage is feasible and truck crops and pasture can
be grown.







24a. Manatee Felda Association


The Manatee soils (2) are very poorly drained Humic-Gley.
These soils have formed from thin beds of sandy materials over
loamy marls or other unconsolidated calcareous materials. They
are associated with the Delray, Meggett, Felda, Sunniland, Keri,
Parkwood, Adamsville, Pompano, and Charlotte soils. The Mana-
tee soils have coarser textured subsoils than the Meggett soils.
They are more poorly drained and have darker colored surface
soils than the Felda and Sunniland soils. They differ from the
Delray soils by having fine-textured subsoils within 30 inches
of the surface. They also differ from the Keri soils in lacking
the marl layer sandwiched in between sandy horizons and from
the Parkwood, Adamsville, Pompano, and Charlotte soils in hav-
ing a distinct fine-textured subsoil within 30 inches. Manatee
soils are locally important to agriculture where drainage is
feasible. The principal types in Florida are loamy fine sand,
mucky fine sand, fine sand, and sandy loam. The surface horizon
ranges from very dark gray or very dark brownish-gray to black
in color. In places, the layer beneath the surface horizon is
gray; in others, it is light gray but usually quite thin. The sub-
soil is predominantly gray or light gray, and may have a few
mottles of pale yellow, yellow, brownish-yellow, or yellowish-
brown. Lower portions of this subsoil horizon may be calcareous
or underlain by soft marl which has a sandy loam or sandy clay
loam texture. Soil reaction is usually neutral in the surface
horizon and mildly to strongly alkaline in the subsurface and
subsoil layers. Drainage of the Manatee soils is very poor with
ponded or very slow runoff. Permeability is moderate. Many
areas have been cleared, drained, and used for vegetable crops,
citrus, and improved pasture.
The Felda soils are Low Humic-Gley derived from thin beds
of sands and loamy sands over sandy clay loams and clay loams
which rest on marl or alkaline materials. The Felda soils are
more commonly associated with the Manatee, Parkwood, and
Delray series, and to some extent with the Sunniland and Cope-
land series. They have lighter colored surface horizons, are better
drained, and occupy slightly higher positions than the Delray
and Manatee soils. The Felda soils are more poorly drained
than the Sunniland and Parkwood soils and have thicker and
lighter colored surface soils than the Copeland soils. The princi-
pal types are fine sand and loamy fine sand. The surface horizon
ranges in color from gray to dark gray with subsurface layers
grading to lighter grays. A fine-textured subsoil horizon con-







sisting of a mottled gray, light gray, and in places reddish-yellow
fine sandy loam occurs within 30 inches of the surface. Calcare-
ous materials usually are encountered between 30 and 42 inches.
Shells may or may not occur in the deeper subsoil or marl layer,
which range in texture from sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
Permeability is rapid in the surface soil but moderate in the
subsoil. Large areas have been placed under water management
and are being used for vegetable crops, improved pasture, and
some citrus.

Soils Dominantly Moderately Thick to Thin
Marly Materials Overlying Limestone

The soils in this group occur in the Coastal Lowlands and
were covered by shallow seas during the late Pleistocene epoch
which deposited thin layers of sand, marl, and other calcareous
sediments (10, 32). The soils developed on these sediments re-
flect the character of the parent materials and are classified as
hydromorphic Humic Gley and Low-Humic Gley soils. They
occur principally south and east of the rockland in southern
Dade County. Some narrow bands occupy channels in the rock-
land between Miami and Homestead, and there are other small
scattered areas. There is a small area in Broward County south
of Fort Lauderdale. Large areas also occur in Monroe and Collier
Counties, some of which are affected by salt water and are not
well suited for growing cultivated crops. The Perrine and
Ochopee marls are the dominant soils in the one association of
this group. Other less extensive soils in the area are Hialeah
and Flamingo marls. Some coarser textured soils which contain
much lime, such as Copeland and Matmon, are sometimes as-
sociated with the marls. All of these soils are poorly drained
to very poorly drained, with slow or very slow surface runoff
and very slow internal drainage. The natural vegetation con-
sists of dwarf cypress, a scattering of pines, reeds, grasses, saw-
grass, cabbage palmettos, salt grass, black mangrove, myrtle,
and weeds.

25. Perrine Ochopee Association

The Perrine (28) soils are poorly drained Low-Humic Gley.
These soils were derived from recent unconsolidated, finely di-
vided, calcareous sediments (marl) that were deposited mainly
in fresh waters or by solution and redeposition of calcareous
materials. Perrine soils occur on nearly flat areas that are only







a few feet above sea level. They are generally associated with
the Rockdale soils and with tidal swamp and tidal marsh and
less commonly with Ochopee and Flamingo soils. They are more
poorly drained than the Rockdale soils. The Perrine soils com-
monly are of a silt loam texture throughout, whereas the Ochopee
soils contain much more sands and the Flamingo soils more clay.
The Perrine soils are of limited distribution and extent but are
locally important to agriculture. The principal types are silt
and silt loam. A very thin mantle, usually less than 2 inches,
of organic matter may cover the surface in the low or depressed
areas. The surface soils may be grayish-brown to gray or dark
gray. The subsurface layers grade through gray and browns to
a light gray. Texture of all horizons throughout the profile
is generally silt or silt loam. Depth to limestone commonly ranges
from 8 to 36 inches. Peat may be present between the marl lay-
ers and the limestone. Some areas are affected by brackish or
salt water. The Perrine soils are poorly drained with slow or
very slow runoff and very slow internal drainage. Permeability
is moderate to rapid. Drained areas are used for the production
of vegetable crops during the winter and early spring months.
The Ochopee series is very poorly drained Humic-Gley de-
veloped from calcareous sands and loamy sands (marl) over
limestone. These soils are associated chiefly with the Perrine,
Broward, and Keri series, and with tidal swamp and tidal marsh.
The Ochopee soils contain more sand and less silt than the Per-
rine and are more poorly drained than the Broward and Keri.
In addition, the Broward soils are sandier and are not as cal-
careous, especially at the surface; while the Keri soils have
distinct layers of marl between sandy horizons. The principal
types of Ochopee soils are fine sand and loamy fine sand. The
surface is a very dark gray to black fine sand or loamy fine sand,
8 or more inches in thickness. The surface layers grade lighter
with depth, and the silt content increases down to hard lime-
stone, which usually occurs at about 30 inches. The total acre-
age of the Ochopee soils is small and largely unused, but some
of the drained areas are used for the production of winter truck
crops.

Soils Dominantly Peats and Mucks

The peat and muck soils were formed in recent times from
partly decomposed plant materials in marshes or swamps with
some admixture of mineral matter (14, 12). Peats and mucks
are differentiated from one another according to the stage of






decomposition of their organic constituents; mucks are so well
decomposed that the nature of their original tissues cannot be
determined. The organic soils of Florida occur principally in
the Everglades region and in the upper St. Johns and Kissimmee
river valleys. In the Everglades region, these soils commonly
lie directly upon limestone or marl, but in some locations a
layer of sand may occur between the organic materials and the
limestone or marl (12, 20). Small areas of peat and muck soils
occur also in Alachua, Marion, Lake, Polk, Orange, Osceola,
Highlands, and Hillsborough counties (Table 2). A few small
areas of acid peats resting on acid sands occur around Lake
Istokpoga in Highlands County. The original vegetation of the
organic soils consisted of sawgrass, pickerel weed, cypress, and
numerous water grasses (12). Excess water, the initial limita-
tion to the use of these soils, must be removed before they can
be used. Subsidence and oxidation are continuing hazards, and
water tables should be held as near the surface as possible to
reduce these losses. With proper water management, these soils
are excellent for cultivated crops or improved pasture. The
nitrogen content of these soils is high, but most other plant nu-
trients are quite low (1). The management of these soils re-
quires special attention to water control, fertilizers, and plant
diseases and pests. Deficiencies of copper, manganese, zinc,
boron, and other elements may require correction in addition to
the usual fertilizer needs.

26. Everglades Brighton Pamlico Association

The soils of the Everglades series (15, 17) were formed from
the decomposition of sawgrass and other sedges, lilies, myrtle
bushes, and grasses that overlie nearly neutral or alkaline sands
and sandy clays. They occur on broad flats and depressions. The
soils are naturally very poorly drained and may be covered with
water for many months of the year. These soils have a very
dark brown to black surface layer of fibrous and nonfibrous peat
or muck that overlies brown to dark reddish-brown fibrous
plant remains. The thickness of the organic materials ranges
from 12 to 100 inches or more. The Everglades soils are asso-
ciated with the Brighton, Pamlico, Loxahatchee, and Gandy
peats, and the Okeechobee and Terra Ceia mucks. The Ever-
glades soils are slightly acid to alkaline, whereas the Brighton
and Pamlico are more strongly acid. They are not as well-decom-
posed as the Pamlico soils. The Loxahatchee has fibrous peat
horizons, and the Gandy peat contains woody materials in its





Table 2.-Acreage of mucks and peats in Florida
Acres
Alachua 29,704* Lake
Baker 0 Lee
Bay 0 Leon
Bradford 8,573 Levy
Brevard 3,528 Liberty
Broward 530,909 Madison
Calhoun 0 Manatee
Charlotte 275 Marion
Citrus 1,939 Martin
Clay 2,428 Monroe
Collier 0* Nassau
Columbia 44,641 Okaloosa
Dade 447,351 Okeechobee
DeSoto 1,184 Orange
Dixie 0 Osceola
Duval 0 Palm Beach
Escambia 100* Pasco
Flagler 326 Pinellas
Franklin 200 Polk
Gadsden 0* Putnam
Gilchrist 853 St. Johns
Glades 32,271 Saint Lucie
Gulf 0 Santa Rosa
Hamilton 10,183 Sarasota
Hardee 3,175 Seminole
Hendry 55,936 Sumter
Hernando 0 Suwannee
Highlands 61,221 Taylor
Hilsborough 5,791* Union
Holmes 0 Volusia
Indian River 55,575 Wakulla
Jackson 0 Walton
Jefferson 0 Washington
Lafayette 14,545
TOTAL
Acreage obtained from published soil survey report. Other figures
from plots mapped for inventory of conservation needs.


peat horizons. The Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Terra Ceia
mucks have thicker surface layers of muck.
The soils of the Brighton series have formed from the re-
mains of sedges, lilies, bonnetts, shrubs, grasses, and other
aquatic plants, the partially decomposed products of which over-
lie acid sands and clays. The thickness of the organic material
ranges from 12 inches to more than 100 inches. The surface
horizon is generally a very dark brown to almost black fibrous
peat or muck depending on the degree of decomposition that
has taken place. The lower organic horizons are generally
fibrous and felty, and all layers are strong to very strongly acid.
The Brighton soils occur with the Pamlico, Leon, St. Johns, Rut-
lege, and Plummer soils. They contain less mineral matter than
the Pamlico soils, and the organic material is not so well decom-


counties.
Acres
66,240*
0
0
0
0
8,514
123*
14,748
8,209
3,819
0
0
16,342
18,110*
5,512
779,947
0
1,652
113,664*
8,784
88
5,356
0
2,968*
2,002
0
91*
19,740
2,201
905
0
0
0

2,389,723
estimated for county






posed. The Brighton soils are more poorly drained and contain
much more organic matter than the Leon, St. Johns, Rutlege,
and Plummer soils. They differ from the Everglades soils in
being strongly or very strongly acid instead of slightly acid to
alkaline.
The soils of the Pamlico series have formed from well-
decomposed remains of aquatic and other plants mixed with a
small amount of mineral matter. These soils occur in depres-
sions or in shallow wet areas. They are very poorly drained and
are often covered by a few inches of water during prolonged
periods of the year. These soils are strongly acid to very strong-
ly acid. Many of the areas have a cover of sedges, pickerel weed,
lilies, arrowhead, and grasses. Other areas have a cover of
bay, gur, cypress, and other trees and shrubs. The Pamlico
soils occur with thhe Brighton, Rutlege, Plummer, Leon, Immok-
alee, and St. Johns soils. Compared with the Pamlico soils, the
Brighton soils are less decomposed and have very little mineral
matter mixed with their organic materials; the Rutlege and
Plummer soils consist almost entirely of mineral materials and
have much less organic matter; and the Leon, Immokalee, and
St. Johns soils are not as poorly drained and also contain much
less organic materials.

Miscellaneous Land Types

27. Fresh Water Swamp-Marsh

This miscellaneous land type (17) consists of low-lying, for-
ested areas that are covered with water during most of the
year. Many areas serve as natural drainage ways in the flat-
woods. The areas support a mixed stand qf red and white bays,
cypress, gum, oak, myrtle, and other trees, shrubs, vines, and
ferns. Because of the intermingling of different soil materials,
the dense stand of vegetation, and the wetness of the land, it is
not practical to map the different soil types separately. The soil
materials in different places resemble the soils of the Rutlege,
Plummer, Delray, Manatee, Pompano, Felda, Charlotte, Pam-
lico, and Brighton series. The surface horizon ranges from gray
to black in color and from fine sand to mucky peat in texture.
The lower horizons generally are gray to light gray and range
from fine sand to sandy clay in texture. The areas also serve
as water reservoirs and provide food and shelter for wildlife.







28. Tidal Marsh Coastal Beach Coastal Dunes


This soil association consists of nearly level salt water
marsh, coastal beach, and undulating to sloping coastal dunes.
The swamp and marsh soils (16) are unclassified because of in-
accessibility and variability, and it is impractical to make sep-
arations of the coastal dunes and beach soils. These soils are
of little importance to agriculture but highly important for rec-
reational use of beaches.

31. Rockland

The rockland areas (17) consist of porous limestone known
as Miami oolite and Tamiami limestone. The limerock is full
of holes and cavities, so that water runs through it freely. The
water table is only a few feet beneath the surface, which per-
mits irrigation by pumping from shallow wells. On the higher-
lying rockland near Homestead there are thin patchy deposits
of fine sand mixed in some places with reddish clay. These de-
posits may be on the surface or in the cavities. They hold enough
moisture and plant nutrients to permit the growth of forest
cover or of planted orchards of avocado, citrus, and other fruits.
Tomatoes are grown successfully on a few areas that have been
scarified and suitably prepared.








LITERATURE CITED

1. Caldwell, R. E. A spectographic study of certain Everglades soils with
special reference to the growth of sugarcane. Unpublished Master's
Thesis. University of Fla. Library, 1941.
2. Caldwell, R. E., O. C. Olsen, J. B. Cromartie, and R. G. Leighty. Soil
survey of Manatee County, Florida. USDA and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Pub. Series 1947, No. 8, 70 pp., 1958.
3. Caldwell, R. E. and R. G. Leighty. Soil morphology and classification.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla., Proc. 19: 30-39, 1959.
4. Caldwell, R. E. Benchmark soils: Red Bay soils of Florida. Depart-
ment of Soils Mimeograph Report 61-4, 1961.
5. Carlisle, V. W. Benchmark soils: Lakeland soils of Florida. Depart-
ment of Soils Mimeograph Report 61-5, 1961.
6. Carlisle, V. W. The genetic relation of finer textured horizons in some
northeast Florida soils. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Florida Library, 127 pp., 1962.
7. Carlisle, V. W., and J. G. A. Fiskell. Relationship of acidity to other
soil properties in certain Weston, Leon, and Blanton profiles on three
marine terraces. Soil and Cop Sci. Soc, Fla., Proc. 22: 92-106, 1962.
8 Carlisle, V. W., L. G. Thompson, Jr., R. E. Caldwell, and R. G. Leighty.
Benchmark soils: Scranton soils of Florida. Department of Soils Mim-
eograph Report 65-2, 1965.
9. Cooke, C. W. Scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist. Fla. Geol.
Survey Bul. 17, 1939.
10. Cooke, C. W. Geology of Florida. Fla. Geol. Survey Bul. 29, 1945.
11. Davis, J. H. The natural features of southern, Florida especially the
vegetation and the Everglades. Fla. Geol. Survey Bul. 25, 1943.
12. Davis, J. H. The peat deposits of Florida, their ocurrence, develop-
ment, and uses. Fla. Geol. Survey Bul. 30, 1946.
13. Gammon, N., Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. -Carrigan, R. E. Caldwell,
R. G. Leighty, and F. B. Smith. Physical, spectrographic and chemical
analyses of some virgin Florida soils. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Technical
Bul. 524, 1953.
14. Henderson, J. R. Soils of Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 334, 1939.
15. Jones, L. A. and R. V. Allison. Soils, geology, and water control in
the Everglades region. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 442, 1948.
16. Leighty, R. G., L. C. Murphree, E. D. Matthews, S. H. McCollum,
F. Matanzo, and G. M. Thompson. Reconnaissance soil survey of Kis-
simmee and upper St. Johns Valleys in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 580, 1957.
17. Leighty, R. G., D. T. Brewer, W. R. Smith, O. E. Cruz, E. H. Evenson,
F. Matanzo, D. S. Taylor, R. M. Craig, W. G. Diamond, E. D. Mat-
thews, M. S. Morgan, and H. O. White. Soil survey of Orange County,
Florida. USDA and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Pub. Series 1957, No. 8, 84
pp., 1960.
18. Leighty, R. G. Benchmark soils: Leon soils of Florida. Department of
Soils Mimeograph Report 61-3, 1961.
19. Moore, W. E. Geology of Jackson County, Florida. Fla. Geol. Survey
Bul. 37, 1955.
20. Parker, G. G., and C. W. Cooke. Late cenoz,oic geology of southern
Florida with a discussion of the Ground Water. Fla. Geol. Survey Bul.
27, 1944.








21. Rowland, L. 0., and J. G. A. Fiskell. Exposed geologic formations of
west central Florida An aid to soil surveys. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla., Proc. 20: 110-123, 1960.
22. Rowland, L. O. Geology. Soil Survey Report Gadsden County, Florida.
USDA and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Pub. Series 1959, No. 5, pp. 117-118,
1961.
23. Rowland, L. 0., and D. P. Powell. Geology, physiography, and drain-
age. Soil Survey Report, Suwannee County, Florida, pp. 95-99. USDA
and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Pub. Series 1961, No. 21, 1965.
24. Rowland, L. 0., and D. P. Powell. Geology. Soil Survey Report, Wash-
ington County, Florida, pp. 111-115. USDA and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Pub. Series 1962, No. 2, 1965.
25. Thompson, L. G., Jr., R. G. Leighty, R. E. Caldwell, and V. W. Carlisle.
Benchmark soils: Norfolk soils of Florida. Department of Soils Mimeo-
graph Report 63-1, 1962.
26. Thompson, L. G., Jr., R. E. Caldwell, R. G. Leighty, and V. W. Car-
lisle. Benchmark soils: Arredondo soils of Florida. Department of Soils
Mimeograph Report 63-5, 1963.
27. Thompson, L. G., Jr., V. W. Carlisle, R. G. Leighty, and R. E. Caldwell.
Benchmark soils: Pompano soils of Florida. Department of Soils Mim-
eograph Report, 64-2, 1964.
28. Thompson L. G., Jr., V. W. Carlisle, R. E. Caldwell, and R. G. Leighty.
Benchmark soils: Perrine soils of Florida. Department of Soils Mimeo-
graph Report 64-2, 1964.
29. Thompson, L. G., Jr., V. W. Carlisle, R. E. Caldwell, and R. G. Leighty.
Benchmark soils: Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils of Florida.
Department of Soils Mimeograph Report 65-1, 1964.
30. Thompson, L. G., Jr., V. W. Carlisle, R. G. Leighty, and R. E. Caldwell.
Benchmark soils: Klej soils of Florida. Department of Soils Mimeo-
graph Report 65-3, 1965.
31. Vernon, R. O. Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida.
Fla. Geol. Survey Bul. 21, 1942.
32. Vernon, R. O. Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida. Fla. Geol.
Survey Bul. 33, 1951.







APPENDIX


A new system of soil classification6 was adopted for use in
the United States on January 1, 1965. The development of this
new system started in 1951 and has undergone a series of seven
major revisions or approximations. Gradually, a workable sys-
tem evolved in which soil properties were conceived broadly to
include the morphological, chemical, and physical attributes of
the individual three-dimensional soil body. Categories of the
new system of classification and differentiae of each are dis-
cussed in the following paragraphs. The various differentiae
and criteria in each category are being tested continuously, and
slight changes in the system may be anticipated.

I. Orders
These divisions are based on differences in measurable and
visible characteristics of soil horizons. Their presence or ab-
sence indicates either the lack of development or the dominant
active soil-forming processes. Many of the orders fall into defi-
nite geographic ranges which indicate the importance of climate.
The ten soil orders are listed in the tabular material below. Nine
of these orders cover the mineral soils, and one order consists
of organic soils.

II. Suborders
The different suborders are based on genetic forms such as
prominent accumulation of soluble materials, degree of gleying
and moisture conditions, presence or absence of B horizons, and
broad difference in mineralogy and chemistry. The same cri-
teria are not used to place the soils into suborders within each
order.

III. Great Groups
The subdivisions of the great groups are based largely on the
thickness and the presence or absence and arrangement of diag-
nostic horizons which have not been used as differentiae in the
orders or suborders. Other differentiae used for separating the
subdivisions are self mulching, color, base saturation, tonguing,
irreversible hardening, and temperature.

6 Kellogg, C. E. The new soil classification system. Advisory Soils 28, USDA
Soil Conservation Service, Nov. 25, 1964.







IV. Subgroups
These divisions are defined only in terms relating to the
great groups. A subgroup may be defined in terms of the cen-
tral or typical concept of the great group or in terms of inter-
grades in the categories above the subgroups. These divisions
may also be in terms of extra-grades, which are divisions hav-
ing properties not characteristic of other great groups, sub-
orders, or orders. Examples of the extragrades may be the
Andic (high content of ash, pumice, or amorphous clay),
Ar6nic (20 to 40 inches of sandy texture surfaces over a B hori-
zon), Cumilic (extra thick surface horizon or more organic
matter with erratic depth distribution), and Lithic (bedrock
near the surface).

V. Families
Within a subgroup, the families are subdivided largely on
the basis of properties or characteristics important to soil use
and management. These include engineering and other uses as
well as agricultural uses. The properties of the soils used in some
of the family separations are: texture, mineralogy class and sub-
class, reaction, temperature, permeability, thickness of horizons
and sola, slope, consistence, and coatings. The contents of a
phase of a family are usually similar to the components of a
capability unit.

VI. Series
Soil series within a family grouping have similar kind,
thickness, sequence, and arrangement of horizons. Generally,
the differentiae used to separate one series from another are
expected to meet two requirements: (A) the differentiating
properties used are observable in the field or can be inferred
with reasonable assurance and (B) the properties used have at
least limited significance to soil genesis.
Since plowing or cultivation alters the surface horizon, soil
properties found in horizons below the plow depth are given
greatest weight as series differentiae.
If soils are set apart by differentiae at any level of classifi-
cation, they remain apart in every category from that level
down to the least level in the system.
Soil types and phases are not recognized as being categories
in the system, but are still retained as names of the individual
kinds of soils used as mapping units on large scale soil maps or
specialized soil research.






Using the Norfolk soil series as an example, placement in
the new system of classification is as follows:
Order .. ... ......... Ultisols
Suborder .. ....Udults
Great Group .... Paleudults
Subgroup ................. ..... Typic Paleudults
Family Fine loamy, siliceous, thermic
Series .. ....... Norfolk
The highest category of soil classification, known as soil
order, has ten divisions. Representative soil series occurring in
Florida are classified by order as shown in the list below. The
new system of classification is based primarily on measurable
soil characteristics, and modifications may become necessary as
new knowledge is accumulated about the nature and properties
of Florida soils.
Orders Representative Florida Soils
1. Entisols Arredondo, Blanton, Eustis, Jonesville, Lake-
land, Lakewopd, Palm Beach, Pompano, Sty
Lucie
2. Vertisols None recognized in Florida
3. Inceptisols Ft. Meade, Orlando, Perrine, Rutlege, Scranton
4. Aridisols None recognized in Florida
5. Mollisols Copeland, Delray, Manatee, Ochopee, Parkwood
6. Spodosols Immokalee, Leon, Ona, Pomello, St. Johns
7. Alfisols Bradenton, Felda, Sunniland
8. Ultisols Bayboro, Bladen, Coxville, Faceville, Fellow-
ship, Goldsboro, Hague, Hernando, Kalmia,
Leaf, Orangeburg, Magnolia, Norfolk, Plum-
mer, Rains, Red Bay, Rex, Ruston, Shubuta,
Tifton, Zuber
9. Oxisols None recognized in Florida
10. Histosols Brighton, Everglades, Okeechobee, Okeelanta,
Pamlico




























~jIt
nt


"it~
J'. o~'


<7'I

A~r


(ftc


1/


























cx-fy OF P',










ALE




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs