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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations ; 679
Title: Production and utilization of corn silage amd organic soil
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027088/00001
 Material Information
Title: Production and utilization of corn silage amd organic soil
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chapman, H. L ( Herbert L. ), 1923-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Silage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 19.
Statement of Responsibility: H.L. Chapman, Jr. ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027088
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929078
oclc - 18354339
notis - AEN9846

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Full Text
Bulletin 679
r,


PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION

CORN SILAGE ON ORGANIC






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
University of Florida, Gainesville
J. R. Beckenbach, Director


June 1964













CONTENTS
Page

PRODUCTION OF CORN FOR SILAGE ................. ............................... 4


FEEDING V ALUE OF CORN SILAGE .............................................. ................ 8

Experimental Procedure ...................................................... ... 8

Results ............ ............ ............... .............................................. ....... 13

Discussion .................................................. 17


S U M M A RY ................................ .............. .......... ............................ ............. 18


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................. ........ ............. 18


LITERATURE CITED ............................. ........... .. .... .......... 19


Cover: Chlp.ping field corn for ensiling.









Production and Utilization of Corn

Silage on Organic Soil


H. L. CHAPMAN, JR., V. E. GREEN, JR., C. E. HAINES,
and R. W. KIDDER 1

Corn silage has been used extensively in cattle feeding pro-
grams for over 50 years. The nutritional and chemical composi-
tion of corn silage varies with plant maturity, ratio of grain to
stover, and method of ensiling. However, good quality corn
silage, harvested when the kernel is in the dent or soft dough
stage, is usually high in energy, carotene, and vitamin D, and
low in mineral and protein content. Corn silage is a roughage
material, and high-roughage rations must be properly supple-
mented in order to produce a high rate of gain or degree of
finish. There has been considerable work with corn silage at
Midwest and Southwest experiment stations, and more complete
discussions of the use of corn silage in cattle feeding programs
are available (2, 7)2. Published information is not available con-
cerning the use of corn silage produced on the organic soils of
the Everglades. However, it has been reported (4) that field
corn produced under the latter conditions has a potentially larger
yield per acre than sorghums when cut for silage.
The effect of zinc-bacitracin and bacitracin as preservatives
for grass silage has been variable (1, 5, 6, 8, 9). A more com-
plete discussion of the value of various preservatives for Florida-
produced forages is available (10). Similar information is not
available for Florida-produced field corn. The purpose of this
bulletin is to present information regarding the production of
corn silage on organic soils in south Florida, and the results of
studies concerning the effect bacitracin, zinc-bacitracin, and
Zymo-Pabst have on the feeding value of corn silage when used
as preservatives.

1 Animal Nutritionist, Associate Agronomist, Assistant Animal Hus-
bandman, and Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, Belle Glade.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


PRODUCTION OF CORN FOR SILAGE
Field corn is an easy crop to grow for silage production if it
is grown with the care normally exercised in growing other
cash crops. The results of 30 years' research on corn on the
organic soils show that large tonnages of stalks and leaves can
be grown successfully almost every year, while a satisfactory
harvest of grain is not always assured. It is easier to success-
fully grow the corn for silage than for grain. There is no differ-
ence in procedures in corn culture for various uses, but there
are several advantages when the crop is cut for ensilage. For
example, a month to five weeks is saved in which weather, in-
sects, diseases, weeds, and birds cannot further affect the crop.
Drying of the grain and insect control in storage are not nec-
essary. The feed value of the green leaves, green husks, and
stalks can be utilized. Also, the crop can usually be harvested
before heavy summer rains begin.
Subtropical or tropical varieties can be grown on the Ever-
glades organic soils with more facility than corns produced for
the temperate zone. Moving corns north in their adaptation
area causes the plants to grow taller and flower later. The
foliage on most of the tropic varieties remains green almost to
grain harvest when used in south Florida. There are many
varieties of field corn that can be used for silage production on
south Florida organic soils. The characteristics of a number of
hybrids with both yellow and white endosperms are shown in
Table 1. All of the varieties listed in the table are recommended
for this area. Seed of many of these varieties must be ordered
a few months before needed, since the majority must be deliv-
ered from Mexico.
Field corn will usually produce more material per acre for
ensilage than sorghums. In a 1959 test of forage yields, three
varieties of field corn, Corneli 54, Funk G-740, and Big Joe,
were compared to 10 hybrid sorghums, 8 open-pollinated sor-
ghums, 10 combine grain sorghums, 2 pearl millets, and 5 sor-
grass varieties. Yields of corn were superior to all other
varieties whether the material was cut for silage at 12, 14, or
16 weeks after seeding (Table 2).
The nutritional quality of corn silage is related directly to
the content of grain in the ensilage, the higher quality silage
containing the most grain. Therefore, plant populations and






Production and Utilization of Corn Silage


TABLE 1.-THE AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN HYBRIDS
RECOMMENDED FOR SILAGE PRODUCTION ON SOUTH
FLORIDA ORGANIC SOILS.

Height
Hybrid Grain Yield (inches) Days to Type of
Variety (lbs./A @ Flower Grain Resistance to*
15.5% H20) Stalk Ear Leaf Diseases

Yellow endosperm corns
Corneli 54 5150 110 68 84 Flint Excellent
Poey T-62 6330 106 64 83 Flint Excellent
Poey T-66 6550 110 73 85 Flint Superior
Funk G-740 5320 113 71 83 Semi-flint Good
Funk G-745 5940 105 67 85 Semi-flint Good
Embro Flint 1 5770 102 62 83 Flint Fair
Embro Flint 2 6380 113 66 83 Flint Fair
Poey T-62A 5940 92 54 83 Flint Excellent
White endosperm corns
Poey T-23 7000 97 51 84 Flint Superior
Poey T-46 6380 101 58 85 Flint Superior
Poey T-23A 5600 110 67 85 Flint Superior
Poey T-46A 5370 98 59 85 Flint Superior
Rocamex H-501 6270 110 75 86 Semi-flint Good
Rocamex H-503 5820 117 73 86 Semi-flint Good
Rocamex H-507 6270 109 71 88 Semi-flint Good

Ranking in decreasing order of acceptability: Superior, Excellent, Good, Fair.




TABLE 2.-RELATIVE YIELDS OF ENSILABLE MATERIAL DERIVED FROM
VARIOUS FORAGE CROPS ON EVERGLADES PEATY MUCK.*

Relative Yield of Forage**
Age (weeks after planting) 12 14 16 Average

Field corn 100 100 100 100
Pearlmillet 91 77 60 74
Sorgrass 71 77 56 67
Hybrid sorghum 65 65 48 56
0. P. sorghum 63 74 37 55
Combine sorghum 63 60 31 48

Date of planting: February 28.
** Percent of field corn yields taken as 100 percent.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


spacings of rows and plants in the drill that will give maximum
grain production should be used. Many tests over the past 25
years with open-pollinated, synthetic, and hybrid varieties have
shown that rows 3 feet apart and final stands averaging one
plant every 9 inches in the drill surviving at harvest is optimum.
This planting schedule results in 19,360 plants per acre. The
seeding rate must exceed the desired final stand to compensate
for losses due to imperfect germination, to wireworms, cutworms,
birds, rats, budworms, cultivation, and barren stalks. With
experience, corn growers can decide whether to seed at 6, 7, or
8 inches (29,040; 24,890; or 21,780 population) to attain the
survival stand of 19,360.
The highest yields of corn in south Florida have been obtained
in most years from early plantings, made by the end of February.
On warmer soil, January plantings will give higher yields if plants
are not injured by frost. March or April plantings are subjected
to budworm damage, and also must be harvested during the
rainy season in July and August.
The fertilizer requirements must be met for maximum yields
of corn silage. This is best determined by chemical analysis
of representative soil samples. Losses of stand due to birds and
insects must be controlled by methods currently recommended
in the year the crop is planted. For example, wireworms must
be killed prior to planting, cutworms and budworms controlled
as their damage appears, and the planted area patrolled for
about a week or two after planting to minimize bird damage.
Weeds may be a problem to the crop until the corn plants cause
a dense shade over the soil. Herbicides that control weeds in
corn fields are available. At lay-by time, soil must be thrown
to the rows of corn plants to help brace them against leaning
or lodging.
Corneli 54 has been widely used in south Florida for field
corn production. When this variety of corn is used for ensilage,
it was found that harvesting the entire plants (Table 3) gave
about 300 percent more crude protein and about 350 percent
more weight of feed than harvesting a 90 bushel grain crop at
9.0 percent crude protein (454 pounds). Even snapping the
roasting ears in the soft-dough stage along with the inner husks
gave 25 percent more crude protein per acre on a dry basis
when compared to the dry grain from such plants.







Production and Utilization of Corn Silage


TABLE 3.-THE YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF
ADVANCED STAGE CORN STALKS (CORNELI 54).*

Percent- Yield per Crude
Cor- Dry age of Acre (Ibs) Crude Protein/
ponent Matter Total Protein** Acre
(%) Weight Fresh Dry (%) (Ibs)
Tassels 59 1 290 170 6.56 11
Stalks 22 34 26,660 5,865 5.51 324
Leaves 30 24 13,940 4,180 10.50 .. a-
Ears,
slip-shucked 44 41 16,435 7,230 7.79 570
Total 100 57,325 17,445

Planted February 8; harvested June 8 in soft dough stage.
** Protein content presented on an oven-dried basis. The average crude protein content
of entire plants was 8.5 percent.

The green leaf and stalk of Corneli 54 in the soft-dough
stage (without the ear) yielded about 11/2 times as much crude
protein per acre on the dry basis as the 90 bushels of dry grain
expected from the crop (Table 4). Seventy-nine percent of this
dry matter and 76 percent of the crude protein were found in
the portion of the plant below the ear. However, the amount of
dry matter and crude protein produced per acre varied with the
age of the plant. Corneli 54 when harvested at 19 weeks of
age (Table 5) produced more crude protein per acre than at 13
weeks of age. However, the percent crude protein in the plant

TABLE 4.-THE YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF CORN LEAVES AND STALKS
AS RELATED TO POSITION ABOVE AND BELOW THE EAR (CORNELI 54).*

Percentage Yield
Dry of Total per Acre Crude Protein/
Matter Weight (Ibs) Protein** Acre
(%) (%) (lbs)
Fresh Dry Fresh Dry

Leaves
Above ear 34 10 12 2,900 940 14.70 138
Below ear 28 13 20 3,640 1,640 12.25 201
Stalks
Above ear 18 14 9 3,820 635 4.55 29
Below ear 27 63 59 17,600 4,840 6.91 334
Total 100 100 28,000 8,055 702

These figures do not include the yields of the ears (12,570 lbs. fresh weight or 5530
lbs. dry weight) with an average protein content of 7.8% or 432 pounds of protein per acre.
The total acre yields including the ears were 40,570 lbs. (20.3 tons) green or 13,585 lbs.
(6.8 tons) dry. The total protein content of an acre of corn was 702 + 432 = 1134 pounds.
All leaves were still green, and the ears were in the soft dough stage.
** Protein content presented on an oven-dried basis.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


had decreased from 10.14 to 6.88 percent. The corn harvested
at 13 weeks of age contained a more desirable crude protein
level for feeding cattle. Cattle fed the older ensilage would also
require protein supplementation to increase the overall total
crude protein level of the diet to a minimum of 10 percent.
This information indicates the corn should be harvested for
ensilage about 13 weeks after planting.

FEEDING VALUE OF CORN SILAGE

Experimental Procedure
A series of three experiments was conducted. The silage in
each experiment was made from Corneli 54 field corn grown
at the Everglades Experiment Station. The production labor,
materials, and contract machinery costs per acre of field corn
were the same for all three trials. These costs are summarized
in Table 6. A routine application of 500 pounds of 0-8-24 with
64 pounds of 25 percent Aldrin per ton and 1 percent of copper
oxide was broadcast prior to planting seed. The seed was planted
in 3-foot rows with 10 to 12 inch spacings in the row. Each
year it was necessary to spray with insecticides for budworm
control.
During two experiments the corn was ensiled in above-ground
horizontal silos constructed of piling and marine plywood. These
had approximately a 100 ton capacity and are shown in Figure 1.









F.. '-o h. i iit

'" -* .. .*" .^-^ %,





Figure 1.-Above-ground, horizontal silos used in first two experiments.




Production and Utilization of Corn Silage


in the corn silages attributable to the preservatives, the steers
were provided with only a limited amount of concentrate feed.
In each experiment the corn silages were full fed, along with 10
pounds of a concentrate mixture per steer daily for 105 days.
Slight differences between the groups of experimental animals,
silages, and concentrate mixture existed for each experiment.
During the first experiment 40 grade Angus and Hereford steers








"Or'"
__ __N


.Jlt


J


Figure 2.-Upright silo used in third experiment.

















TABLE 5.-RELATION OF AGE OF CORNELI 54 FIELD CORN TO YIELD AND
MOISTURE AND CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT.*


Height
(feet)


Yield/Acre
Fresh Crop
(tons)


17.13 2.56
22.18 2.75
19.40 1.55


Yield Dry
Forage/Acre
(tons)


2.40 0.49
4.23 0.81
6.67 -- 0.50


Dry
Matter
(%)


* Planted February 28.


Age in
Weeks

8
13
19


Crude
Protein
(%)


Pounds
Protein
per Acre


15.58
10.14
6.88






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 6.-LABOR, MATERIALS, AND CONTRACT MACHINERY COSTS FOR
GROWING FIELD CORN FOR SILAGE.*

Corn production costs, per acre
Plowing $5.00
Discing (3 times @ 1.50) 4.50
Planting of seed** 1.50
Seed (15 lbs @ 0.272) 4.08
Fertilizer 12.05
Scratch cultivation (2 times @ 1.00) 2.00
Lay-by and deepen middles 1.00
Bird patrol (60 man-hrs. for 80 acres) 0.64
Wireworm and budworm control* 6.66
Total costs per acre $37.43
Corn ensiling cost
Machinery and labor charges/hour
Wheel tractor and driver at chopper $2.50
Wheel tractor and driver hauling 2.50
Crawler tractor in stack 2.00
Two men in stack 2.00

Total/hour $9.00
Total of 20 hours per 100 ton silo @ $9.00/hour $180.00
Cost of plastic per 100 ton silo 15.00

Machinery and labor costs are based on local contract rates.
** Corneli 54 double cross hybrid.
t 500 lbs. per acre of 0-8-24 with 1.0 percent CuO, applied broadcast.
$ Budworm control-1 pt. of 2 lb./gal. heptachlor/acre.
Wireworm control-4 pounds Aldrin/acre in fertilizer.

The silos were lined with plastic when the corn was ensiled. The
plastic was folded over the top of the stack, covered with approxi-
mately 12 inches of chopped grass, and weighted down with
discarded auto tires, to provide as air-tight a seal as possible.
Approximately 20 hours were required to fill each silo. The
total labor, material, and contract machinery costs expended in
the production and ensiling of the corn for the first two experi-
ments are presented in Table 7. It was not possible to obtain
fresh material weights during the third experiment. Corn was
ensiled in the upright silos shown in Figure 2 for the third
feeding experiment. Ensiling costs were approximately equal to
those of the first two experiments less the cost of plastic mate-
rial. The preservatives were added, in each case, as the chopped
material was placed in the silo.
The majority of experimental procedures for the three feed-
ing experiments were similar. In order to observe differences






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 7.-SUMMARY OF LABOR MATERIAL AND CONTRACT COST PER TON
OF FRESH MATERIAL ENSILED.*

Labor, Material, and Contract Machinery
Tons Costs/Ton
Experiment Tons per
Number Ensiled Acre Production Ensiling Plastic Total

1 155.73 12.46 l.00 1.80 0.15 4.95
2 160.00 10.67 3.51 1.80 0.15 5.46

See Table 6.

with an average initial low Standard slaughter grade were di-
vided into two equal groups on the basis of weight, grade, breed,
and previous treatment. The groups were then allotted at ran-
dom to the experimental treatment as follows:

Lot Number Silage preservative
1 None
2 Zinc-bacitracin (5 grams per ton fresh material)

The silage had an estimated yield of 83 bushels per acre of ear
corn containing 15.5 percent moisture. The concentrate feed
contained 65.75 percent of ground snapped corn, 33.00 percent
of 41 percent cottonseed meal, and 1.25 percent of a complete
mineral mixture.
In the second experiment 40 grade Angus steers with an
initial average Standard slaughter grade were divided into four
equal groups on the basis of weight, grade, and previous man-
agement treatment. The groups were then allotted at random
to the following experimental treatments:

Lot Number Silage preservative
1 None
2 Zinc-bacitracin (5 grams per ton fresh material)
3 Bacitracin (5 grams per ton fresh material)
4 Zymo-Pabst (75 grams per ton fresh material)

The silage contained an average estimated yield of 68 bushels
per acre of ear corn containing 15.5 percent moisture before
ensiling. The concentrate feed mixture was composed of 66.0
percent of ground snapped corn, 33.0 percent of 41 percent cot-
tonseed meal, and 1 percent of a complete mineral mixture.






Production and Utilization of Corn Silage


The third experiment had 40 Brahman x Hereford crossbred
steers with an average initial middle Standard slaughter grade
divided into two equal groups on the basis of weight, grade,
breed, and previous treatment. The groups were then randomly
allotted to the following treatments:

Lot Number Silage Preservative
1 None
2 Zymo-Pabst (75 grams per ton of fresh material)

The concentrate mixture was the same as Experiment 1.
Carcass data collected for all experiments included initial
slaughter grade, final carcass grade, intransit shrink, dressing
percent, and 48-hour cooler shrink. A committee of three or
more graders placed an initial slaughter grade on each animal.
The final carcass grade was determined by a federal beef grader.3
The increase in slaughter grade is presented in the summary
tables in units of one-third of a grade. For example, an increase
of 3 indicates the animal increased one complete market grade
while on experiment.
Intransit shrink was determined as the difference in weight
when loaded on the truck at the Experiment Station and when
unloaded at the packinghouse. All of the cattle in these experi-
ments were sold on the basis of carcass weight and grade. The
carcass weight was determined by the warm carcass weight
minus 21/2 percent shrink. On this basis dressing percent was
determined by dividing the live weight at the packinghouse into
the warm carcass weight, shrunk 21/2 percent. Cooler shrink was
the difference in warm carcass weight and the carcass weight
after being in the cooler for 48 hours.

Results
Experiment 1. Effect of zinc-bacitracin.-Average weight
changes, carcass data, and feed consumption for steers fed corn
silage with and without zinc-bacitracin are presented in Table 8.

SInitial and final slaughter grades were coded as follows:
Low Medium High
Choice 12 13 14
Good 9 10 11
Standard 6 7 8
Utility 3 4 5






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The average rate of gain of the 40 steers was 2.00 pounds per
day. The steers consumed an average of 10 pounds of concen-
trate feed and 41.2 pounds of corn silage daily. The average
total dry matter intake was almost equal for each group. The
amount of dry matter required per pound of gain for each group
was directly related to the rate of gain. The average daily gain
was 1.87 pounds for the steers receiving silage with no preserva-
tive as compared with 2.12 for those receiving the zinc-bacitracin
treated silage. This difference in rate of gain due to treatment

TABLE 8.-AVERAGE WEIGHT, CARCASS, AND FEED DATA FOR STEERS FED
CORN SILAGE WITH AND WITHOUT ZINC-BACITRACIN.

Corn Silage plus
Plain 5 gms. Zinc-
Corn Bacitracin
Silage per Ton

Number of animals 20 20
Final weight (lbs.) 848 859
Initial weight (lbs.) 652 636
Total gain (lbs.)* 196 228
Daily gain (lbs.) 1.87 2.12
Final slaughter grade 9 9
Initial slaughter grade 6 6
Increase in slaughter grade (1/3) 3 3
Intransit shrink (%) 4.13 3.96
Dressing percent 56.73 56.49
48-hr. cooler shrink (%) 0.42 0.42
Daily feed consumption
Concentrate feed (lbs.) 10.0 10.0
Corn silage (lbs.) 42.1 40.4
Dry matter consumption
Concentrate feed (lbs.) 9.00 9.00
Corn silage (lbs.) 12.46 12.56
Total (lbs.) 21.46 21.56
Dry matter consumed/pound of gain (lb.) 11.48 10.17
Proximate analysis of silage (%)**
Dry matter 29.60 31.10
Crude protein 10.32 8.84
Crude fiber 25.23 28.90
Ether extract 1.65 1.12
Ash 4.12 5.47
Nitrogen-free extract 58.68 55.67
Silage pH 4.24 4.28

Differences in gain are significant at P < .01.
** Crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash, and nitrogen-free extract are given as
percent of the dry matter.







Production and Utilization of Corn Silage


was highly significant. There was no statistically significant
effect of treatment upon intransit shrink, increase in slaughter
grade, dressing percent, or cooler shrink.
Experiment 2. Effect of zinc-bacitracin, bacitracin, and
Zymo-Pabst.-The average weight changes, carcass, and feed
consumption data per steer are presented in Table 9. There were
no statistically significant differences in any measurement, al-
though steers receiving the Zymo-Pabst preserved silage gained
an average of 0.20 pounds more daily than those receiving the
plain silage. Zinc-bacitracin and bacitracin did not increase rate

TABLE 9.-AVERAGE WEIGHT, CARCASS, AND FEED DATA FOR STEERS FED
CORN SILAGE CONTAINING VARIOUS PRESERVATIVES.
Silage Preservative
Zinc- Zymo-
None bacitracin Bacitracin Pabst


Number of animals
Final weight (lbs.)
Initial weight (lbs.)
Total gain (lbs.)
Daily gain (lbs.)
Final slaughter grade
Initial slaughter grade
Increase in slaughter grade (1/3)
Intransit shrink (%)
Dressing percent
48-hour cooler shrink (%)
Daily feed consumption
Concentrate feed (lbs.)
Corn silage (lbs.)
Dry matter consumption
Concentrate feed (lbs.)
Corn silage (lbs.)
Total (lbs.)
Dry matter consumed per pound
of gain (lbs.)
Proximate analysis of silage (%)*
Dry matter
Crude protein
Crude fiber
Ether extract
Ash
Nitrogen-free-extract
Silage pH


10
820
612
208
1.98
10
7
3
5.73
58.52
2.59

10.0
40.5


10
814
612
202
1.92
10
7
3
4.62
57.92
2.58

10.0
41.0


9.00 9.00
10.00 9.72
19.00 18.72


9.60

24.7
7.19
29.37
1.20
5.97
56.27
4.20


9.75

23.7
7.19
32.37
1.83
4.38
54.23
4.06


Crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash,
as percent of the dry matter.


and nitrogen-free extract are presented


10
822
612
210
2.00
10
7
3
5.39
58.10
2.61

10.0
41.0

9.00
9.51
18.51


9.26

23.2
7.88
32.79
1.61
5.17
52.55
4.15


10
842
613
229
2.18
10
7
3
5.13
58.55
2.72

10.0
41.0

9.00
9.84
18.84

8.64

24.0
7.75
29.50
2.75
5.32
54.68
4.38







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of gain. The steers had an overall average daily intake of
approximately 41 pounds of silage. There were variations in
total dry matter intake, however. The cattle receiving the
Zymo-Pabst and bacitracin-treated silage had lower daily dry
matter intake and required less dry matter per pound of gain
than the cattle receiving the untreated silage.
Experiment 3. Effect of Zymo-Pabst.-Average weight
changes, feed consumption, and carcass data are shown in Table
10. Steers receiving plain corn silage gained an average of 2.08

TABLE 10.-AVERAGE WEIGHT, CARCASS, AND FEED DATA FOR STEERS FED
CORN SILAGE WITH AND WITHOUT ZYMO-PABST AS A PRESERVATIVE.

Silage Preservative
Zymo-
None Pabst

Number of animals 20 20
Final weight (Ibs.) 1014 1023
Initial weight (lbs.) 796 792
Total gain (lbs.) 218 231
Daily gain (lbs.) 2.08 2.20
Final slaughter grade 8.4 8.3
Initial slaughter grade 7.0 6.9
Increase (1/3 of a grade) 1.4 1.4
Intransit shrink (%)* 3.53 4.51
Dressing percent 57.72 56.94
48-hour cooler shrink (%) 1.39 1.43
Daily feed consumption
Concentrate feed (lbs.) 10.0 10.0
Corn silage (lbs.) 49.9 50.7
Dry matter consumed
Concentrate feed (lbs.) 9.0 9.0
Corn silage (lbs.) 12.72 13.03
Total (lbs.) 21.72 22.03
Dry matter consumed 'per pound of gain (lbs.) 10.44 10.01
Proximate analysis of silage (%)**
Dry matter 25.5 25.7
Crude protein 11.55 10.51
Crude fiber 36.10 32.64
Ether extract 2.52 2.42
Ash 5.74 4.96
Nitrogen-free-extract 44.09 49.47
Silage pH 4.65 4.30

Effect of silage preservative significant at P < .05.
** Crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash, and nitrogen-free-extract are given as
percent of the dry matter.






Production and Utilization of Corn Silage


pounds a day as compared with 2.20 pounds for the steers eating
the Zymo-Pabst-treated corn silage. There was no statistically
significant effect of silage preservative on any of the measure-
ments, except for intransit shrink, which was highest for the
steers fed the treated silage. It is difficult to explain the effect
of silage treatment on intransit shrink. The steers consumed
0.31 pounds a day more of dry matter from the treated silage
than of the untreated, but the amount of dry matter required
per pound of gain was less for the cattle fed the treated silage.

Discussion
The results of the feeding experiments indicate that field
corn grown on the organic soils of the Everglades can be used
satisfactorily in steer feeding programs. However, the rate of
gain of steers fattened on silage is related almost directly to
the amount of grain available with the roughage material (2).
During these experiments only 10 pounds of concentrate were
fed per steer to allow the effect of the preservatives on the
feeding value of the corn silage to express itself in terms of
animal performance. No feed additives, supplemental vitamins,
or other growth stimulators in the concentrate rations were
used in these studies. This type of program assured adequate
growth of the steers, but variations in rate of gain should have
been due primarily to differences in silage treatment. The 120
steers used in the three experiments had an overall daily gain
of 2.05 pounds. It required an average of 44.5 pounds of corn
silage and 10 pounds of mixed feed per steer daily to produce
this gain. These gains were comparable to those obtained in
the Midwest by cattle fed high-silage diets. In order to obtain
larger gains from cattle being fattened on corn silage it is nec-
essary to furnish more protein, energy, and vitamin A (2, 3, 7).
The increase in slaughter grade for the steers was satisfac-
tory when related to the level of available energy. In the first
two experiments the steers increased one whole slaughter grade
during the feeding period, from low or middle USDA Standard
to low or middle USDA Good slaughter grade. The average
rate of gain was better during the third study as compared to
the first two, but the increase in carcass grade was less, being
only one-half of a grade. As mentioned earlier, an additional
energy intake would increase rate of gain, and this would be
accompanied by a higher degree of finish.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Diverse results were obtained from the use of the preserva-
tives. Bacitracin did not affect the rate of gain of steers, and
the completed zinc-bacitracin increased rate of gain in one ex-
periment and not in another. Zymo-Pabst increased gain approx-
imately 10 percent in one experiment and about 6 percent in the
other. These increases were not statistically significant. In
every instance but one the amount of dry matter needed per
pound of gain was less for the steers fed treated corn silage,
indicating a more efficient utilization of the nutrients in the dry
matter of the treated corn silage. The increase in gain and
utilization of dry matter in each experiment indicates Zymo-
Pabst to have merit as a preservative for corn silage. The
variable results obtained when bacitracin or zinc-bacitracin was
used indicate these compounds did not affect the quality of the
corn silage in these experiments.

SUMMARY

Thirty years of research have proved that with proper pro-
duction practices large tonnages of field corn can be produced
annually. Field corn, when grown for silage on the organic
soils, produces a higher yield of ensilage per acre than pearl
millet, sorgrass, or sorghums. Highest yields in south Florida
are obtained by plantings made by the end of February. Rec-
ommended varieties for corn silage production are presented.
Three experiments, involving 120 steers, were conducted to
determine the value of bacitracin, zinc-bacitracin, or Zymo-
Pabst as preservatives for corn silage produced on the organic
soils of the Everglades. Bacitracin did not stimulate rate of
gain. Zinc-bacitracin increased the rate of gain in one experi-
ment and not in another. The enzyme preparation Zymo-Pabst
increased gain 10 percent in one experiment and about 6 percent
in another. The silage preservatives had no significant effect on
carcass grades or dressing percent. Except for the zinc-bacitra-
cin group during the second experiment, steers receiving the
treated silages required less dry matter intake per pound of gain
than those receiving the untreated silage.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
These studies were supported in part by a grant-in-aid from
Commercial Solvents, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana, and two grants-
in-aid from Pabst Brewing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.






Production and Utilization of Corn Silage


Zinc-bacitracin was furnished by Commercial Solvents, Inc.:
bacitracin and Zymo-Pabst were furnished by Pabst Brewing
Company.
Acknowledgment is made to the many people who assisted in
these studies. Assistance with the statistical analyses was pro-
vided by E. D. Harris, Jr. Crude protein analyses were con-
ducted by F. H. Thomas.
Some of the data have been previously reported in Everglades
Station Mimeo Reports 62-12 and 62-20.


LITERATURE CITED
1. Alexander, R. A., J. T. McCall, J. F. Hentges, P. E. Loggins, and G. K.
Davis. 1961. Digestibility of chopped oat silage preserved with zinr-
bacitracin fed to cattle and sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1928-32.
2. Chapman, H. L., Jr. 1956. Silage as a feed for fattening cattle.
Everglades Station Mimeo 56-9.
3. Chapman, H. L., Jr., R. L. Shirley, and A. E. Kretschmer, Jr. 1963.
Relation of forage nitrate level and livestock production. Proc. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Vol. 23 (in press).
4. Green, V. E., Jr., W. T. Forsee, Jr., W. H. Thames, Jr., and F. T. Boyd.
1957. Field corn production in south Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul.
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5. Langston, C. W., R. M. Conner, C. H. Gordon, and L. A. Moore. 1961.
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44:1204-05. (Abstract).
6. Langston, C. W., R. M. Conner, and L. A. Moore. 1962. Effect of zinc-
bacitracin on silage microorganisms. J. Dairy Sci. 45:544-47.
7. Morrison, F. B. 1956. Feeds and Feeding, 22nd edition. The Morrison
Publishing Company, Ithaca, New York.
8. Owens, F. G. 1962. Effect of enzymes and bacitracin on silage quality.
J. Dairy Sci. 45:934-36.
9. Pratt, A. D., and H. R. Conrad. 1961. Zinc-bacitracin as a silage pre-
servative. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1205.
10. Wing, J. M., and R. B. Becker. 1963. Nutrient intake of cows from
silages made from typical Florida forages. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Tech.)
Bul. 655.





























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