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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 735.
Title: Production performance and blood and bone composition of cows grazing pangolagrass pastures receiving different phosphate fertilizers
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027086/00001
 Material Information
Title: Production performance and blood and bone composition of cows grazing pangolagrass pastures receiving different phosphate fertilizers
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 55 p. : ill., charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pangolagrass -- Fertilizers   ( lcsh )
Phosphatic fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 43-46.
Statement of Responsibility: W.G. Kirk ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027086
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929594
oclc - 18405793
notis - AEP0385

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Full Text
LLETIN 735 (TECHNICAL) FEBRUARY 1970



reduction Performance and Blood and Bone Composition
Of Cows Grazing Pangolagrass Pastures

Receiving Different Phosphate Fertilizers


W. G. KIRK, R. L. SHIRLEY, E. M. HODGES, G. K. DAVIS,
F. M. PEACOCK, J. F. EASLEY, AND F. G. MARTIN



I. -.


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
J. W. SITES, DEAN FOR RESEARCH


)



































COVER ILLUSTRATIONS


Top: Check cows December 3, 1965. The red brindle (second from left)
was born February 2, 1948. Her blood picture and calving record are shown
in Table 13.

Bottom: Cows on phosphated (concentrated superphosphate) December 3,
1965. The cow in foreground was born March 6, 1947 and in 16 years on the
experiment weaned 12 calves weighing 480 pounds. She was pregnant when the
experiment was discontinued.


This bulletin replaces Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Circular S-105








CONTENTS


Page
Introduction 5
Review of Literature 5
Experimental Procedure 6
Modifications in Research Plan 7
Period I. 1946 to 1950 7
Period II. 1951 to 1954 8
Period III. 1955 to 1958 8
Period IV. 1959 to 1965 9
Obtaining Blood and Bone Samples 9
Records and Statistical Analysis 10
Experimental Results 10
Weather and Forage Production 10
Control of Aphids and Grass Worms 12
Pasture Management 12
Removal of Cows and Calf Mortality 13
Age of Cow and Final Value 14
Mineral Consumption 14
Weight Change of Cows 16
Statistical Study of Cow Weights 17
Stocking Rate and Grazing Days Per Acre 18
Calf Crop 19
Weaning Age 20
Weight of Calves at Weaning 20
Calf Weight at 205 Days 21
Calf Gains from Birth to Weaning 23
Slaughter Grade of Calves 23
Individual Cow Production 23
Beef Production per Cow 25
Beef Production per Acre 25
Effect of Soil Phosphorus on Health of Cows 26
Blood Analyses of Young Cows 27
Blood Analyses of Individual Cows 28
Blood Analyses of Seven Grazing Herds 32
Phosphorus 32
Calcium 34
Hemoglobin 36
Hemotocrit 38
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Bones 39
Summary and Conclusions 42
Literature Cited 44
Acknowledgements 46
Appendix 47
Cow Weight, Means 48
Cows Exposed and Calves Weaned 49
Phosphorus, Means 50
Calcium, Means 51
Hemoglobin, Means 52
Hemotocrit, Means 53
Regression Equations, Time ... 54
Regression Equations, Age .55










Production Performance and Blood and Bone
Composition of Cows Grazing Pangolagrass
Pastures Receiving Different Phosphate
Fertilizers
W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley, E. M. Hodges, G. K. Davis,
F. M. Peacock, J. F. Easley, and F. G. Martin1

INTRODUCTION
A project using five different sources of phosphatic materials
for fertilizing pangolagrass (Digitari'~ decumbens Stent.) was
undertaken to determine their effect on: 1. beef production of
cow-calf herds; 2. blood and bone composition of cows. The
value of rock phosphate and superphosphate in pasture fertilizer
mixtures for soils in central and south Florida had been recog-
nized in the 1930's, but other available sources had not been
tested. The project was started in 1946 and continued through
December 1965.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Gammon et al. (14)2 found that the majority of virgin
Florida flatwoods soils contained less than 1% phosphorus,
with some soils having less than 0.01%. The soluble phosphorus
content of soil at Range Cattle Experiment Station (RCES) to a
depth of 4 inches was l.n.:' and total phosphorus 0.36% (17).
Unpublished data from RCES show that phosphorus content of
pangolagrass was increased from 0.08% to 0.27% on an air-dry
basis by the application of 250 pounds superphosphate per acre
annually. Hodges et al. (19) reported that pangolagrass from
areas receiving no phosphorus fertilizer contained from 0.07%
to 0.1% phosphorus, while phosphated pangolagrass had from
0.25% to 0.30% phosphorus.
Becker et al. (3) showed that phosphorus deficiency with
cattle on a Florida range was corrected by feeding bonemeal.
Black et al. (4) in 1943 remedied this condition on a Texas
range by drenching cows with either 5 gms of bonemeal or di-
sodium phosphate. In 1949 Black et 1Animal Scientist Emeritus, Animal Nutritionist, Agronomist, Animal
Nutritionist, Associate Animal Husbandman, Assistant Animal Nutrition-
ist, and Associate Statistician, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Ona and Gainesville.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.







giving cows access to bonemeal, adding phosphorus to the drink-
ing water, and fertilizing pasture with triple superphosphate
corrected this nutritional condition. Florida beef cows nursing
calves require 0.23% phosphorus on an air-dry feed basis,
according to Cunha et al. (8). The National Research Council
(30) states that 0.18% phosphorus in a ration containing 90%
dry matter is the minimum requirement for nursing beef cows
during the first three to four months after birth of calves.
Becker et al. (2) reported unburned wiregrass (Aristida
spp.) from phosphorus deficient ranges contained 0.04% phos-
phorus and grass from burned healthy ranges had 0.13% phos-
phorus. Thus wiregrass and nonphosphated pangolagrass were
below the minimum for a cow-calf herd.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The fertilizer and limestone treatments were as follows
(20):


Phosphorus treatment
Check


Superphosphate no lime


Superphosphate+ lime


Concentrated
superphosphate
Basic slag




Rock phosphate
Colloidal phosphate


Rate per acre
No fertilizer phosphorus
(P20.) at any time
50 Ib P205 annually, 1947-54
25 lb P205 annually, 1955-58
50 lb P205 annually, 1947-54
25 Ib P205 annually, 1955-58
50 lb Pz20 annually, 1947-54
25 lb P205 annually, 1955-58
500 lb material annually,
1949-54
300 lb material annually,
1955-58
1 ton in 1947, 1950, and 1953.
2400 lb material in 1949,
800 lb in 1952, 2400 lb in
1953, and 1000 lb in 1957


Rock phosphate applied in 1947 and 1950 contained 28%
P205, 85% passing a 200 mesh screen. That applied in 1953
had 31% P205 with 50% passing a 200 mesh screen. Colloidal
phosphate contained 20% P205.







All pastures received the same nitrogen (N) and potash
(K20) annually, in pounds per acre, as follows:

Year N KO
1947-50 25 25
1951-54 50 25
1955-65 100 50

Copper and manganese sulfates were applied at 15 pounds
per acre each. Zinc sulfate was applied at 10 pounds per acre
when pastures were established and copper sulfate at 6 pounds
per acre in 1953.
The Superphosphate+lime treatment received 0.5 tons calcic
limestone in 1947, 1950, and 1953; the total calcium approxi-
mated that applied in the Rock phosphate. All treatments except
Superphosphate-no lime received 1 ton per acre dolomitic
limestone in 1955 and 0.5 tons calcic in 1959-60.
Phosphatic materials and complete fertilizer mixtures were
applied with a drop-type spreader to prevent contamination of
adjacent fields. Copper sulfate, manganese sulfate, and zinc
sulfate were mixed with other fertilizer elements for application.


Modifications in Research Plan
The 20-year project, 1946 to 1965, was divided into four
periods.

Period I. 1946 to 1950

The seven treatments used in the cow-calf grazing trial
consisted of two 7.5-acre fields not adjacent to each other. Each
field was divided into two 3.75-acres in 1949 to provide four
pastures for each herd. A 52.5-acre of virgin land was cleared
in 1946-47 by the removal of all wood, stumps, heavy stands of
palmetto, and most of the pine trees. Current practices (21)
were used in land preparation. An additional 52.5 acres were
established in pangolagrass in 1948 and 1949. Data were ob-
tained from all seven treatments in 1950.
The cattle placed on experiment in 1947, 1948, and 1949
were well developed, bred, two-year-old, grade Brahman heifers.
These animals and most of the females used in the project were
sired by the same purebred Brahman bull and out of grade
Brahman, Devon, Shorthorn, and Hereford cows, all tracing







to Native stock. The put-and-take method was used to balance
pasture forage and cattle numbers with changes kept to a min-
imum.
Cows had individual brand numbers and calves were ear-
marked at birth, which permitted a record for each animal.
The cow-calf herds were given almost daily observation. The
breeding season was 110 days with bulls placed in the herds
at mid-March.
A two-compartment mineral box in each field was kept
supplied with common salt and red salt (2).
Pangolagrass completely sodded the phosphate treated pas-
tures within a year, while the Check pasture had only a scat-
tering of plants.
Period I of the grazing trial resulted in: 1. a workable
system of N, P20,, and KO application; 2. a pasture and herd
management system that provided year-round grazing; 3. the
realization that 25 pounds per acre N yearly did not put stress
on soil phosphorus.

Period II. 1951 to 1954
Nitrogen was increased to 50 pounds yearly per acre on
all pasture treatments. There were 65 cows on the seven treat-
ments in 1953, five on the Check, and 10 on each of the phos-
phated pastures. Cow number was reduced to nine on each of
the six phosphated pastures in 1954, because forage was below
average in amount and quality.

Period III. 1955 to 1958
Annual N and K20 applications were doubled and soluble
P205 was reduced by one-half to increase the stress on soil
phosphorus. In February 1956 fire burned part of four pasture
treatments, but there was sufficient reserve grass in the un-
burned sections to supply cattle needs.
A 3.75-acre pasture in each treatment, the one with the
heaviest invasion of carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase), was
renovated in the summer of 1956. Stocking rate on the six
phosphate treatments was reduced because of excessive summer
moisture, large numbers of calves, and forage trampled into
the soaked sod. In the winter of 1957-58 cold and wet weather
destroyed the reserve forage, and supplemental feeding of the
seven herds was necessary to continue the grazing trial.







Period IV. 1959 to 1965

In December 1958 it was decided to discontinue phosphorus
fertilization for the following reasons: 1. much data had been
obtained on effect of fertilizing pangolagrass with five sources
of phosphorus (18) ; 2. rock and colloidal phosphate applications
were due, and if these treatments had been continued the study
of residual phosphorus would cover too many years; 3. there was
low to moderate amount of available soil phosphorus from the
readily soluble sources.
The yearly applications of 100 pounds N and 50 pounds K20
per acre were continued. Total phosphatic material applied and
phosphorus levels in soil in January 1959 are given in Table
1 (18).
There was adequate pangolagrass on the ground to carry
the 46 cows through the winter when the trial was discontinued
in December 1965. Twenty-six of these were slaughtered, of
which 20 were pregnant and 6 open. The 20 cows that were
retained all weaned calves in 1966. Eighty-seven per cent had
conceived in the 1965 breeding season.

Table 1. Total application of phosphorus per acre and amount in soil.
Soil phosphorus in ppm'
Total application to 4-inch depth
Pasture 1947-58, lb January 1959
treatment Phosphate Elemental P Available Total
Check 0 0 4.4 48
Super no lime 2500 218 5.3 72
Super + lime 2500 218 8.8 70
Cone super 1000 197 6.7 47
Basic slag 5000 175 7.5 96
Rock 6000 760 9.9 513
Colloidal 6600 577 7.1 255
'Parts per million of soil.

Obtaining Blood and Bone Samples

Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of all cows
in the project every 28 days from November 10, 1947, until
December 1952. Sampling was then changed to three-month
intervals March, June, September, and December and con-
tinued until the project was completed in December 1965.
Samples were obtained on 104 different dates and totalled 5,202
aliquots of 25 cc each, with as many as 100 samples from indi-
vidual cows. Blood samples were taken in the morning, citrated,
and iced until analyzed.







Phosphorus in plasma was determined by the method of
Fiske and Subbarow (12). Calcium was analyzed either by the
titrimetric oxalatepermanganate method of Furman (13) or
the eriochrome black T indicator technique of Welcher (34)
with comparable results. Hemoglobin was determined by the
acid hematin method of Cohen and Smith (7), and hematocrit
values were determined by centrifuging 15 ml of citrated blood
at 1,860 times gravity for 30 minutes.
A 12th rib and vertebra and either a metacarpal or meta-
tarsal bone for chemical analysis were collected from several
cows 10 to 18 years of age in each treatment when they were
slaughtered. The breaking strength of leg bones was obtained
using a Riehle stress machine following the technique of Miller
et al. (28). Density was calculated by weighing the sample
of bone in air and in water. Ash was determined by heating
sample overnight at 600F; phosphorus by the phosphomolyb-
date colorimetric method of Fiske and Subbarow (12) ; calcium
and iron by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique;
and fluorine by a method outlined by Megregian and Dolet (27).

Records and Statistical Analysis
Records for each cow included date of birth, breeding,
weight when placed on experiment, weight at three-month in-
tervals, weight when removed, and reason for removal. Records
for each calf were date of birth, breeding, weaning weight,
and slaughter grade.
Animal production data were analyzed statistically for
period III, 1955-58, and for the first six years of period IV,
1959-64.
Blood data were analyzed by means of the analysis of
variance technique developed by Fisher (11). Regression equa-
tions of second degree between age and blood values were esti-
mated by using orthogonal polynomials described by Anderson
and Bancroft (1). The analysis of variance and Duncan's Multi-
ple Range Test (9) were used to study treatment differences
in fluoride content of cows' bones.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Weather and Forage Production
Excess rainfall, drouth, and low and freezing temperatures
(26) frequently reduced the amount and quality of pangolagrass







forage. Rainfall of 14.3 inches in August 1949 lowered quality
of forage. In contrast, rainfall from December 1949 to February
1950 totalled 0.4 inches, the least for any three-month period
during the trial. Low rainfall totals of 36.6 inches in 1956,
41.7 inches in 1950, and 44 inches in 1964 were well distributed
and provided enough moisture for grass growth. Excessive
moisture such as 53.1 inches in the summer of 1962 brought the
water table to the surface over extended periods of time and
cattle trampled much grass into the wet soil.
Freezing temperatures and excessive rainfall from December
1957 to March 1958 destroyed the feeding quality of the accu-
mulated forage, and 95%c of the pangolagrass crowns were
winterkilled (17). Lack of forage threatened the continuation
of the project. Each herd was confined on one 3.75-acre field
of their respective treatment and fed citrus molasses containing
3% urea, starting March 8, 1958. Nineteen days later it was
necessary to furnish roughage in the form of cottonseed hulls.
Little additional phosphorus was supplied, as citrus molasses
contained 0.07% and cottonseed hulls 0.06%. The average feed
eaten daily by cows and bull by each of the seven herds is given
in Table 2. Cows nursing calves were in thin flesh but thrifty
at the end of the supplemental feeding period. Each herd was
rotated on the three supplemental pastures during the 1958
summer, while the supplemental feed area was allowed to grow
ungrazed. Surviving plants on these pastures when cattle were
removed occurred at 3 to 5-foot intervals and produced a full
stand within 60 days. All pastures were fully productive for
fall and winter grazing.
Low temperatures in December 1962 and January 1963 re-
sulted in a shortage of forage and slow recovery of pastures
in the spring. Winterkilling was less extensive than in 1957-58
winter, but it was necessary to supplement all herds.
The fields used for supplemental feeding in 1963-64 were
renovated in late June and early July to control invasion of
grass species other than pangolagrass. This treatment stimu-
lated pangolagrass growth, and a dense sod was formed by
September 1. Rotational grazing and consistent fertilization
returned the damaged pastures to full productivity.
Frosts in dry periods from December to March killed the
leaves but did not destroy palatability of the accumulated forage,
and cows obtained enough nutrients to prevent excessive weight
loss even when nursing a calf. When dry weather continued







Table 2. Supplemental feed for the seven herds in 1958.
Pasture treatment
Super Super Cone Basic Colloi-
Check no lime + lime super slag Rock dal
Final feeding date 7-3 7-3 6-19 6-19 7-5 7-3 7-7
Days fed:
Molasses-urea 118 118 104 104 120 118 122
Cottonseed hulls 99 99 85 85 101 99 103
Av. feed ingredients fed daily, lb:
Citrus molasses 6.30 6.81 6.53 6.53 6.38 5.96 7.31
Urea 0.19 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.23
Cottonseed hulls 6.40 5.82 6.16 5.64 5.61 5.92 5.58
Total 12.89 12.84 12.69 12.37 12.19 12.06 13.12

into April and May, grass growth was reduced to the point
where cows lost weight and calves gained more slowly.

Control of Aphids and Grass Worms

The first invasion of the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava,
occurred in November 1948. Special treatment was not necessary
to eliminate this infestation.
Application of fertilizer in early September 1951 on fields
reserved for fall and winter grazing resulted in a rapid growth
of new grass followed by a heavy infestation of grass worms
(Mocis spp). Worms were controlled with an application of
2 pounds of either 40% toxaphene or 50% wettable DDT
powder in 100 gallons of water applied at 75 gallons per acre.
Control of these pests was first outlined by Kelsheimer et al.
(23) and with special reference to pangolagrass by Hodges
et al. (18). An aphid attack in November 1951 retarded growth,
but the aphids disappeared without treatment. Light infesta-
tions of aphids and grass worms in 1954 were controlled by
flocks of blackbirds.
Spittlebug attack reduced quantity and quality of forage
in the summer and early fall months from 1960 to 1965 when
there was large amount of pangolagrass runners and stems
(17). Spittle bug damage was reduced by management and
fertilization of pastures to prevent accumulation of growth dur-
ing the summer.

Pasture Management

The practice throughout the grazing trial was to maintain
enough cows on each treatment to consume most of the forage







and at the same time have a reserve for winter and spring
months. The seven cow-calf herds were to obtain all their
nutrients from their respective pasture. The original two 7.5-
acre areas for each treatment permitted rotational grazing but
resulted in rapid invasion of carpetgrass. This showed that
alternate use of two fields was not the answer for maintenance
of pangolagrass.
Division of each 7.5-acre field into two equal areas in 1949
provided four pastures per treatment, giving a longer rotational
cycle which checked carpetgrass invasion. All pastures were
fertilized twice-yearly, beginning in 1951, with N being divided
equally. Specific dates of application were determined by
weather and pasture conditions.
Forage requirement was reduced when calves were weaned
in September, making it possible to reserve two areas in each
treatment for winter grazing. This pattern of grazing was
effective until the extreme 1958 winter, as pangolagrass re-
tained much of its nutritional value and palatability until the
early spring months. The four fields in a treatment in the last
six years of the trial were grazed rotationally throughout the
year. This method of grazing reduced insect invasion and win-
terkilling.
The four fields in a treatment were grazed rotationally on
a weekly basis during the growing season, and biweekly the
rest of the year. Only under special circumstances was any
pasture in a treatment closely grazed. Renovation of one 3.75-
acre field in each treatment was done three different summers
to control the encroachment by other grasses. This practice
also revived the pangolagrass, made it more productive, and
lessened the degree of winterkill (17).

Removal of Cows and Calf Mortality

The critical forage period was usually from December to
March, but drouth in April and May in several seasons caused
serious shortage of feed. The greatest demand for forage was
from June until September when calves were still nursing (22).
Cows were removed permanently for the following reasons:
1. Eight died from lightening, poison, hepatitis, parturition,
old age, and phosphorus deficiency.
2. Seven were removed because of prolapse of uterus, screw-
worm infestation, or leg and hip injuries.







3. Eight were removed because of old age and worn or lost
incisor teeth.
4. Twenty-eight were either non-breeders or low producers.
These cows were distributed in the six phosphated
treatments with none from the Check. Three cows never
produced a calf, while others when dry became exces-
sively fat and did not conceive the next breeding season.
5. One was removed because of unruly disposition.
6. One had big teats which prevented calf from nursing.
Thirteen calves were dead at birth, some of which were
premature, but all cows were negative for "Bangs". Ten calves
died within a few days after birth and three when 2 to 3 months
of age. A total of 26 calves died and 549 were weaned, a 4.5%
loss. Five pairs of twins were produced, five of which were
weaned.
General health of the herds was good. Removal of cows
and mortality of calves cannot be attributed to the effect of
the seven phosphate treatments.

Age of Cows and Final Value
Many cows placed on test when two to three years of age
remained for 15 years. Age of the 46 cows at completion of the
trial in December 1965 ranged from 3 to 19 years. Twenty-six
of these cows were sold, averaging 1,221 pounds, with a carcass
grade of Utility or Commercial. Average live weight price was
$15.64, giving a return of $190.96 per animal. Twenty of the
cows were retained at the RCES and averaged 1,174 pounds
with an estimated value of $17.50 per 100 pounds. The final
value of the 46 cows was $9,074.80.

Mineral Consumption
Average daily consumption of common salt and red salt
mixture in three periods and for the 15 years from 1951 to 1965,
by each herd, is given in Table 3. Calves ate some mineral,
but the average includes only the mature animals.
Red salt mixture consisted of common salt 100 pounds, red
oxide of iron 10 pounds, copper sulfate 1 pound, and cobalt
chloride 1 ounce from 1951 to 1954. Copper sulfate then was
increased to 2 pounds and cobalt chloride to 2 ounces with no
change in the other ingredients (2). Pangolagrass forage was











Period and
minerals
1951 to 1954:



Common salt
Red salt
Total
1955 to 1958:
Common salt
Red salt
Total
1959 to 1965:
Common salt
Red salt
Total
1951 to 1965:
Common salt
Red salt
Total



1951 to 1965:
Common salt
Red salt
Total


Table 3. Mineral consumption.
Pasture treatment
Super Super Cone Basic
Check no lime + lime super slag


A I''crag
0.11
0.09
0.20


Colloi-
Rock dal


dailyi coisumnptint per C?(w.', Hi
0.08 0.03 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.09
0.08 0.05 0.0o 0.09 0.08 0.09
0.16 0.08 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.18


0.06 0.03 0.02 0.02 0 0.0 0.0 0.03
0.07 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.06
0.13 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.12 0.08 0.09


0.06 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03
0.10 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07
0.16 0.09 0.S0 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10


0.07 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05
0.09 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.07
0.16 0.11 0.07 0.12 0.13 0.11 0.12


A4cririg ycliIif cons?(mptiOn pcr cowi, lb


25 5 18.3 7.3 18.3 18.3 14.6 18.3
32.9 21.9 18.3 25.5 29.2 25.5 25.5


58.4 40.2 25.6 43.8 47.5


40.1 43.8


the only source of calcium and phosphorus for the grazing
animals except when it was necessary to give emergency feed.
The Check cows ate an average of 0.16 pound mineral daily
from 1951 through 1965 while those on Superphosphate + lime
ate only 0.07 pound. The lowest average mineral consumption for
one year, 0.06 pound daily, was by the herd on Colloidal phos-
phate in 1959 when there were no calves due to an infertile
bull. This same herd weaned a 100 calf crop in 1960 and ate
an average of 0.17 pound of mineral, nearly three times as much
as in 1959.
The Check cows ate an average of 58.4 pounds supplemental
mineral yearly, those on Superphosphate no lime consumed
40.2 pounds, and those on Superphosphate + lime ate 25.6








pounds. Mineral consumption was reduced by phosphate and
limestone applications. A herd of 60 cows on native pasture at
RCES from 1956 to 1962 ate an average of 37.4 pounds of
complete mineral a year which contained 4.9 pounds of phos-
phorus. Similar herds on a combination of native and improved
pasture and on improved pasture overplanted with whiteclover
ate 33.9 and 19.7 pounds mineral yearly, respectively (8).


Weight Change of Cows

Cows were placed on test when two to three years of age
at weights from 750 to 850 pounds during the first 10 years.
Replacements after 1957 included both heifers and older cows.
The average unadjusted weights at three-month intervals from
December 1947 to December 1965 and number of cows in each
period are shown in Figure 1. There were fewer cows in
Period I because all treatments were not established the same
year and pastures were not completely sodded until 1950; also
in Period IV because of reduced feed supply.
There was an increase in average weight of cows as they
matured; 1959 was the top of this trend. Cows reached their
maximum weight in December in most years. The primary cause
of variations from the normal weight change cycle was the

(47)



5) 47 1 (7 )
13004) 4)
S() 49)4
(50) 4 t48) 44)70 (471
(00 ) ( ) 046)
C 1()4 B)) (4
(59)4

(000 5Not We4 4 (46)
(59) (49)
SH(44)ca (0r \(9) (0I)
S 900 (52) (3)
(53) (65) (57)

800 53) 53) Jun
9 {{ (47 ) S.ptb.r
IB)
700 () M ,7-fi
47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 57 SB 59 O 61 62 63 64 65
YEARS

Figure 1. Weight change of all cows at 3-month intervals.







reduced calf crop encountered in 1949, 1951, and 1955. Extremely
unfavorable feed conditions from January to March 1958 re-
sulted in an average weight loss per cow of 335 pounds. The
reduced calf crop in 1959 with plentiful pangolagrass forage
throughout this year gave an average weight of 1,327 pounds for
the 47 cows in December, the heaviest for any year. The average
unadjusted weights of all cows at three-month intervals from
1951 to 1965 for the seven pasture treatments were: December,
1,165 pounds; March, 1,029 pounds; June 1,010 pounds; Septem-
ber, 1,055 pounds; December, 1,165 pounds a yearly weight
change cycle of 155 pounds per cow.
The relationship between cow age and weight is shown in
Appendix Table 1. Average weight was lowest for two-year-old
heifers, 848 pounds, and highest for 11-year-old cows, 1,175
pounds. These weights were obtained with cows dependent on
grazing pangolagrass forage for their nutrient intake.
Average yearly weight changes of the individual herds were
the result of birth of calves, nursing and weaning of calves,
pregnancy, and pasture forage conditions. Calves were born
from January 1 to April 10 with a large loss in weight of cows.
There was a further weight loss from March to June and a
weight gain from June to September as milk production de-
creased. Weaning of calves, combined with pregnancy of cows
and nutritious forage resulted in a large weight gain from
September to December.

Statistical Study of Cow Weights
The average increase in cow weights adjusted for differences
in age (Table 4) was significantly different between 1955-58
and 1959-64. Cows increased in weight at an estimated rate of
13.6 pounds per year of age for the four-year period, 1955-58,
and 0.7 pounds for the six-year period, 1959-64. This difference
in weight increase between the two periods was due to the
fact that the cows were younger and less mature in Period III
and therefore reflected the normal weight increase expected
with age.
The mean cow weights represent the expected response when
age is adjusted to an average of 7.1 years in 1955-58 period and
10.7 years for 1959-64. The greatest difference in average
weights between the seven herds was 83 pounds in 1955-58
and 101 pounds in 1959-64, with the Check averaging the least
in both periods. Seasonal weights of all cows are shown by years







Table 4. Cow weights adjusted for difference in age.
1955-58 1959-64
Average Average
Pasture No. Age, Weight, No. Age, Weight,
treatment weights years lb weights years lb
Check 81 8.2 1049 124 12.3 1100
Super -
no lime 154 6.0 1064 166 10.4 1146
Super +
lime 153 6.0 1073 191 8.4 1191
Cone super 155 7.2 1067 178 10.8 1144
Basic slag 154 7.4 1116 183 10.9 1201
Rock 150 7.6 1132 176 9.7 1156
Colloidal 144 7.2 1087 173 12.5 1146
Mean age, year 7.1 10.7 -


Total weighed


991


- 1191


in Figure 1 and for Periods III and IV in Table 5. Cows weighed
the least in either March or June because of birth of calves and
lactation.
There was a significant interaction between years and seasons
(P<0.01) for cow weights in the years 1955-58. There were
significant differences in cow weights due to treatments, years,
seasons, treatment x year, and treatment x season (P<0.01),
and year x season (P<0.05), for the 1956-64 period.

Stocking Rate and Grazing Days Per Acre
The average acres of pasture per cow for the different
periods for the Check and six phosphated treatments are shown
in Table 6. Cow stocking rate was from 43% to 88% lower
on the Check than on the phosphated pastures.
The average yearly grazing days per acre are summarized
in Table 7. The application of phosphatic fertilizers increased

Table 5. Average weight of all cows by seasons.
1955-58 1959-64
No. Weight, Gain or No. Weight, Gain or
Season weights lb loss, lb weights lb loss, lb
December 248 1189 300 1242 -
March 251 1012 -177 299 1108 -134
June 248 1063 + 51 291 1090 18
September 244 1074 + 11 301 1142 + 52
December 248 1189 +115 300 1242 +100







Table 6. Acres per cow unit on Check and phosphated pastures and per
cent response to phosphate fertilization by periods.

Increase in
Phosphated carrying
Check areas capacity
Period acres acres

Period II, 1951 to 1954 3 1.8 67
Period III, 1955 to 1958 3 1.6 88
Period IV, 1959 to 1965 3 2.1 43
Periods II, III, IV, 1951 to 1965 3 1.9 58


Table 7. Yearly grazing days per acre by cows and bull.

Average grazing days
Pasture treatment Period II Period III Period IV Average
1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65

Check 129 129 125 127
Super no lime 225 229 174 202
Super + lime 227 233 191 212
Cone super 227 232 176 204
Basic slag 226 233 186 209
Rock 228 232 178 206
Colloidal 222 222 178 202


grazing days from 129 for Check to 228 days on Rock phosphate
in Period II, to 233 days on Superphosphate lime and Basic
slag in Period III. In the seven-year residual period the average
yearly grazing days ranged from 125 on Check to 191 days on
Superphosphate + lime.

Calf Crop

Calf crop percentage is based upon the cows exposed to the
bull and the calves weaned from these same cows. The percent-
age calf crop for Periods II, III, and IV, and for 1951 to 1965
are given in Table 8. The Check had the highest percentage in
Period II, was below the average for the seven treatments in
Period III, and equalled the phosphate treatment average in
the residual period and during the 15 years.
The seven cow-calf herds obtained all their feed by grazing
pangolagrass except as noted previously. Percentage weaned
calf crop increased from Period II to Period III except with
Check and Superphosphate no lime. Yearly fertilization with







Table 8. Percentage weaned calf crop.

Pasture treatment Period II Period III Period IV 15 years
1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65
Check 70 65 69 68
Super no lime 66 62 75 70
Super + lime 52 76 73 69
Cone super 59 76 60 64
Basic slag 69 87 68 74
Rock 51 63 71 63
Colloidal 63 75 69 70
Average 61 74 69 68

100 pounds of N in Periods III and IV provided higher quality
forage over more months of the year than the 50 pounds of
N in Period II. It also increased carrying capacity of all phos-
phated pastures in Period III.
The average weaned calf crop for the seven herds was 13
percentage points higher in Period III than in Period II and
showed 5 points decrease from Period III to Period IV.
The percentages of nursing cows in the seven herds which
weaned calves the following year were 36% in Period II, 65%
in Period III, 55% in Period IV, and 53% for the 1951-65 period.
Statistical analysis failed to detect any difference in per
cent weaned calf crop due to phosphate treatment in periods
in III and IV. Thus it can be concluded that the phosphate fer-
tilizer had no detectable influence on per cent weaned calf crop.

Weaning Age

Average weaning age of calves by treatment and period is
given in Table 9. Calves on Superphosphate- no lime treated
pasture were the youngest when weaned (209 days), and those
on Colloidal phosphate the oldest (223 days). The 549 calves
averaged 215 days of age when weaned.

Weight of Calves at Weaning

Number of calves with average weaning weight from the
seven cow-calf herds for Periods II, III, and IV, and for the
15 years are given in Table 9. All weights were secured from
calves nursing cows obtaining all their feed from pangolagrass
pastures. It will be recalled that yearly N was increased from
50 to 100 pounds and KO0 from 25 to 50 pounds per acre with
the soluble P205 reduced to 25 pounds from 1955 to 1958. These







changes were accompanied by weaned calf weight increase
from 439 pounds in Period II to 474 pounds in Period III. There
was a further increase to 492 pounds in Period IV even though
no phosphorus had been applied in the seven-year period. Lower
calf crop, greater cow age, and slightly older weaning age in
Period IV are considered responsible for this larger calf weight.
The 549 calves had an average weaning weight of 472 pounds.
These are greater weaning weights at a similar age than those
reported by Koger ft nl. (25) in eight pasture treatments.
Statistical analysis of calf weaning weights for 1955-58 in-
dicates a significant linear relationship with cow age. It is esti-
mated that calf weight increased at 7.3 pounds for every year
increase in cow age. The difference in calf weights between
years was found to be significant (P<0.05) in 1955-58 and
highly significant (P<0.01) in 1959-64. The higher degree of
significance in 1959-64 appears to be associated with low calf
weights in 1959 and 1964 years.

Calf Weight at 205 Days
The formula used was:

weight of calves
205-day weight = x 245
age in days + 40 pounds per calf

The calculations for the three periods are given in Table
10. Calves were lighter in Period II than in Period III, in all
but Superphosphate lime treatment, with small differences
occurring between Period III and the residual period. Maximum
205-day weights were 484 pounds on Check in Period III and 486
pounds on Basic slag in Period IV. These 205-day weights are
greater than those obtained by Kirk (t al. (.24) for 170 calves
from cows on a pasture program designed to supply a high
nutritional level of feed. The average 205-day weight of all
calves was 431 pounds in Period II, 459 pounds in Period III,
and 466 pounds in Period IV.
Statistical analysis of 205-day calf weight data for 1955-58
indicates significant linear relationship with cow age. It is
estimated that 205-day calf weight increased 3.6 pounds for
every year of increase in cow age. The treatment means were
adjusted to a common cow age of eight years, the average age
of all cows. There was no significant difference in 205-day
weights among the seven pasture treatments after possible











Table 9. Number and average weaning age and weight of calves by pasture treatments.
Number of calves Weaning age, days Weaning weight, lb
Pasture treatment Per. II Per. III1 Per. IV Per. II Per. III Per. IV Per. II Per. III Per. IV
1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65 1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65 1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65


Check
Super no lime
Super + lime
Cone super
Basic slag
SRock
Colloidal


14 13 25 52 200 219
19 23 38 80 212 212
16 29 39 84 212 218
19 29 31 79 218 198
24 33 35 92 213 214
18 24 38 80 209 205
21 27 34 82 219 224


219 213 411 512 496 477
205 209 432 474 447 451
224 220 477 462 493 479
225 212 437 457 507 472
211 213 443 506 498 487
216 211 436 482 500 477
225 223 435 507 498 485


Total calves 131 178 240 549 -

Average weaning
age, days 212 212 218 215 -
Average weight, lb 439 474 492 472

'Bulletin 686 (20).







corrections due to cow age were made, but differences (P<0.01)
among years were found.
The analysis of covariance indicates that significant differ-
ences among treatments did exist, but because of the unequal
number of observations the results of Duncan's Multiple Range
Test (9) can only be considered approximate. This test shows
that the Check and Basic Slag 205-day calf weights were higher
(P<0.05) than Superphosphate -no lime and Superphosphate
+ lime. There was little difference between average 205-day
calf weights for the seven treatments between Period III and
Period IV.

Calf Gains from Birth to Weaning
Calves were weaned at an average age of 215 days. Accord-
ing to Reynolds (31) calves averaged 70 pounds at birth. The
formula used to determine average daily gain is as follows:
Weaning weight of calves 70 pounds per calf Average
Total age of calves in days when weaned daily gain
Average daily gain from birth until weaned (Table 10)
ranged from 1.67 pounds for Colloidal phosphate in Period II
to 2.04 pounds for Basic slag in Period IV. The average daily
gain for all calves was 1.74 pounds in Period II, 1.91 in Period
III, and 1.93 pounds in Period IV.

Slaughter Grade of Calves
Slaughter grades of all calves were determined at weaning
at an average age of 215 days. Grades ranged from U. S.
Utility to Choice. Slaughter grades of calves by treatment are
summarized in Table 10.
The mean grade for the 549 calves was 10.4 (U. S. Good).
The range in grade per treatment was from 10.0 for calves from
Superphosphate no lime and Superphosphate + lime to 10.8
for those from Colloidal phosphate pastures, less than one-third
of a grade. There was a slight improvement in grade during the
15 years, from 9.9 in Period II to 10.7 in Period IV.

Individual Cow Production
Calving records show that one cow in Check had her first
calf at three years and in 15 calving seasons weaned 13 calves
with a total weight of 6,220 pounds, an average of 478 pounds










Table 10. Calf weights at 205 days, daily gains and slaughter grades.

Daily gains from birth
205-day weight, lb to weaning, lb Slaughter grades1
Pasture treatment Per. II Per. III Per. IV Per. II Per. III Per. IV Per. II Per. III Per. IV
1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65 1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65 1951-54 1955-58 1959-65 1951-65


Check
Super no lime
Super + lime
Cone super
SBasic slag
Rock
Colloidal
Average


419 484 468 460 1.70 2.02 1.97 1.90 10.2 9.9 10.7 10.4
420 453 447 443 1.71 1.88 1.85 1.82 9.5 10.0 10.2 10.0
458 430 457 448 1.89 1.76 1.89 1.84 10.4 9.5 10.1 10.0
414 457 467 452 1.68 1.90 1.96 1.86 9.6 10.1 11.0 10.3
425 467 486 465 1.75 1.94 2.04 1.93 10.5 10.3 11.1 10.7
429 463 479 463 1.75 1.94 2.01 1.92 9.5 11.5 10.6 10.6
412 472 460 452 1.67 1.96 1.90 1.86 9.8 11.1 11.2 10.8
431 459 466 455 1.74 1.91 1.93 1.87 9.9 10.3 10.7 10.4


1U. S. slaughter grades: 9, Low Good; 10, Good; 11, High Good; 12, Low Choice.
2Literature cited (20).







per calf or 415 pounds per cow-year. A cow on Basic slag
weaned 10 calves in 10 consecutive years, 1952 to 1961, which
averaged 463 pounds when weaned. In addition she lost twin
calves in 1951. A cow on Colloidal phosphate weaned 12 calves
in 16 years, which included one year when this herd had no
calves due to an infertile bull. There was considerable variation
in average yearly production of cows in a herd, with loss of a
calf being the biggest factor.

Beef Production Per Cow

The total yearly beef production per treatment is the change
(gain or loss) in cow weights plus the weight of calves when
weaned. Yearly cattle gains per cow (Table 11) were the
lowest on Rock phosphate and highest on Basic slag in both
Periods II and III with Rock phosphate highest in Period IV.
Average yearly gain per cow in the 15 years was highest on
Basic slag, 405 pounds, and lowest on Check, 349 pounds, a
difference of 56 pounds per year in favor of cows on Basic slag
over the Check. There was a (P<0.01) difference in beef pro-
duction per cow between years but not between treatments for
the 1955-58 and 1959-64 periods.

Beef Production Per Acre

Cow-calf gains per acre (Table 11) show the effects of phos-
phatic treatment on pastures. Gain per acre was lowest on
Check, 103, 123, and 116 pounds, in Periods II, III, and IV,
respectively. Basic slag was the highest in Periods II, and III,

Table I 1. Average yearly beef production per cow and per acre.
Gain per cow1, lb Gain per acre of pasture, lb
Pasture Per. Per. Per. Per. Per. Per.
treatment II III IV 1951-65 IP IIPI IV 1951-65
Check 310 367 361 349 103 123 116 115
Super -
no lime 302 378 392 361 176 230 179 192
Super +
lime 363 388 394 384 201 240 198 210
Cone super 310 377 379 358 187 233 175 193
Basic slag 395 434 392 405 236 268 191 224
Rock 288 347 408 354 174 213 191 193
Colloidal 328 375 381 364 188 224 178 193
'Weight change of cows +- weaning weight of calves.
2Literature cited (20).
3Literature cited (1.).







with 236 and 268 pounds annually, respectively. Production
was highest in Period IV on Superphosphate + lime at 198
pounds. All phosphatic fertilizers increased cow-carrying ca-
pacity of pangolagrass pastures and produced from 67 to 95
per cent greater gains per acre than the Check. The average
gross returns per acre of pasture in Period III with gains
valued at 20( per pound were: Check, $24.40; Rock phosphate,
$42.60; Colloidal phosphate, $44.20; Superphosphate no lime,
$46.00; Concentrated superphosphate, $46.40; Superphosphate
+ lime, $47.80; and Basic slag, $53.60. Commercial availability
of product, cost per unit of phosphorus, and convenience of
application as well as productivity of pasture should be consid-
ered in selecting phosphatic fertilizer.
The relative beef gain per acre for the seven treatments in
Periods II, III, and IV and for the 15 years, using the highest
gain as 100, are shown in Table 12. The six phosphated treat-
ments had an average relative value of 90 while the Check had
51.
There was a (P<0.01) difference between the Check and the
six phosphated treatments in beef production per acre in both
the 1955-58 and 1959-64 periods. The difference in beef pro-
duction in the phosphate treated areas varied (P<0.01) from
year to year in both periods.
It is reasonable to expect that beef production could have
been increased by supplemental feeding, use of a complete
mineral mixture, and a vigorous culling program.

Table 12. Relative beef gain per acre.
Pasture Period Period Period
treatment II III IV 1951-65
Check 44 46 59 51
Super no lime 75 86 90 86
Super + lime 85 90 100 94
Cone super 79 87 88 86
Basic slag 100 100 96 100
Rock 74 79 96 86
Colloidal 80 84 90 86

Effect of Soil Phosphorus on Health of Cows

It has been indicated that 15 acres of pangolagrass, Check,
provided all the feed for five cows from 1951 to 1965. In May
1948, a three-year-old cow from this herd nursing her first
calf born on January 30 was observed chewing pine knots and






palmetto roots, a gross symptom of phosphorus deficiency. The
hair coat was rough, but otherwise she appeared healthy. Blood
phosphorus of this cow was 7.3 mg per 100 ml plasma in May
and 3.1 mg in June 1948, with values of 4.0 mg and above for
the next thirteen 28-day periods. The cow returned to normal
after the calf was weaned at 229 days of age, weighing 505
pounds and grading Low Choice. In later years some Check
cows nursing calves had a rough hair coat, but only in one
other year was wood chewing observed. It is seen from Table 13
that cow 72 had a blood phosphorus level frequently below 4 mg
per 100 ml plasma with a low of 0.70 in June 1965 and a high
of 8.16 in December 1962.
A 2-year old heifer placed on Check in 1955 weaned nine
calves in the next 10 years, and another calf was born dead.
Blood phosphorus was 4.4 mg in September 1964, 2.8 in Decem-
ber 1964, 2.2 mg in March, and 1.6 in June 1965. This cow
calved in December 1964 and lost 470 pounds in the following
six months. Death occurred in July 1965 as a result of extreme
phosphorus deficiency developing under the stress of a 100 %
calf production and a low level of forage phosphorus.
The Check cows had more forage per cow unit than the
other six treatments, which permitted them to be more selective
in their grazing habits. A heavier stocking rate would have
caused greater nutritional stress.

Blood Analyses of Young Cows
Average values for blood phosphorus and calcium by 28-day
periods from November 1947 to May 1949 are shown in Figure
2 and hemoglobin and hematocrit values in Table 13.
The average and range in phosphorus, calcium, hemoglobin,
and hematocrit values from the 342 blood samples were as fol-
lows:
Average Range
Phosphorus, mg per 100 ml plasma 5.8 3.1 to 7.6
Calcium, mg per 100 ml plasma 11.0 7.0 to 22.7
Hemoglobin, gm per 100 ml blood 12.2 7.0 to 16.4
Hematocrit, per cent packed cells 55.7 35.9 to 76.0

The eight heifers on test in December 1947 calved from
January to April 1948, but only 7 of the 19 four-year-old cows
had calves in 1949. This is a reason for the greater variation
in average blood phosphorus in 1948 than in 1949. Average









19.00


17,00 -



15.00 -


(II)
13.00 (19)
(12)
/(12) 19) 25)
a (8)

n 11.00 (8) (8)
S19) (19)
8) (19) (19) 09)
E (19) (19)
S9.00 (19)
o 1(19)
BLOOD CALCIUM

700



5.00

.BLOOD PHOSPHORUS


1~12 Days -- I
TIME IN 28- DAY PERIODS -._ FOUR 28 DAY PERIODS = 112 DAYS

Figure 2. Average blood phosphorus and calcium. (Number samples in
brackets.)

calcium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values were normal for
two- to four-year-old cows obtaining all their feed by grazing
pangolagrass pasture, except for extremes of a few blood sam-
ples.

Blood Analyses of Individual Cows

A question often asked by research workers and practical
cattlemen is, "What is the variation in blood constituents of







cows over an extended period?" Special interest is evidenced
in blood phosphorus as lack of this element affects health and
production of cows on Florida sandy land pastures. The blood
pictures of cow 72, Check (no phosphorus), and cow 64, Basic
slag, are considered here. These two cows were born in 1948
and sired by the same Brahman bull. The blood phosphorus,
calcium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values for these two cows
from October 1951 to September 1965 are shown in Table 14.
Cow 72 weaned 13 calves ranging in weight from 275 pounds
at 170 days of age in 1952 to 700 pounds in 1960 at 253 days.
Cow 64 lost twin calves at birth 1951, and weaned 11 calves
ranging in weight from 395 to 510 pounds in the next 12 years.


Table 13. Hemoglobin and hematocrit


Year Month

1947 Nov.
Dec.
1948 Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
Early June
Late June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1949 Jan.
Feb.
March
April
Early May
Late May
Cows


No.
co0ws


of young cows at 28-day intervals.


Hemoglobin
gm/100 ml Hematocrit
blood c' packed cells

13.1 52.9
13.3 51.0
13.1 58.6
12.1 55.5
12.2 62.2
13.1 53.0
11.5 53.2
12.6 47.8
12.0 48.2
12.2 52.8
11.6 46.9
10.6 49.8
11.0 56.2
13.1 63.5
12.4 60.4
12.0 61.8
12.1 61.1
12.9 58.6
12.3 61.4
12.9 61.7
12.5 51.8
12.2 55.7









Table 14. Constituents of blood from a cow grazing on Check and Basic slag treated pastures.

Cow 72 Check Cow 64 Basic slag
Blood constituents Blood constituents
Hemo- Hema- Birth Hemo- Hema- Birth
Year Month P Ca globin tocrit calves P Ca globin tocrit calves


2-24-51
4.73 11.5 14.0 51.3 4.18
3.90 13.8 13.1 52.4 3.75
5.60 15.1 13.5 45.5 5-15-52 6.25
4.95 15.1 12.6 45.5 4.70
3.68 13.9 12.2 40.0 5.10
5.20 10.5 13.5 47.0 4.85
3.62 9.8 11.2 49.1 5- 9-53 4.81
3.82 10.4 11.7 54.4 4.76
4.17 11.3 11.0 48.6 5.10

3-16-54
5.00 10.4 11.8 48.0 4.54
5.56 11.3 12.5 38.6 3.50
4.95
4.63 10.3 14.0 52.6 4.03
5.55 9.0 14.5 47.1 5.80
5.32 10.1 14.5 45.4 5.15
5.62 11.5 13.0 51.6 5.05
4.05 11.1 11.3 48.4 1- 9-56 4.42
1.39 11.2 14.4 49.2 4.00
3.73
3.91 11.8 13.0 50.7 4.90
2.81 9.9 12.2 48.6 1-17-57 3.94
4.76 13.3 11.6 51.7 2.53
5.56 10.4 11.6 45.9 4.67
5.88 11.6 52.1 4.32


2-2-51 (twins
perished in storm)

1-26-52



2-10-53



2-10-54


1-21-55




1- 2-56



1-17-57


Oct.
Dec.
1952 May
June
Oct.
Dec.
1953 Apr.
July
Zo Oct.
0 Dec.
1954 Mar.
May
Sept.
1955 Jan.
Mar.
July
Oct.
Dec.
1956 Mar.
Jun.
Sept.
Dec.
1957 Mar.
May
Sept.
Dec.







Table 14. Constituents of blood from a cow grazing on Check and Basic slag treated postures. IContinued)


Hemo- Hema- Birth
P Ca globin tocrit calves P


Year Month
1958 Mar.
June
Sept.
Dec.
1959 Apr.
June
Sept.
Dec.
1960 Mar.
June
Oct.
Dec.
1961 Mar.
S June
Sept.
Dec.
1962 Mar.
June
Sept.
Dec.
1963 Mar.
June
Sept.
Dec.
1964 Mar.
June
Sept.
Dec.
1965 Mar.
June
Sept.


4.00
3.86
3.10
1.40
4.00
3.30
4.42
1.72
1.82
:.13
1.65

1.80
1.60
1.70
1.68
2.17
1.00
1.15
8.16
1.45
1.70
5.10
1.50
1.80
1.00
7.413
;.20
1.70
).70
1.10


49.6 1-9-58 3.50
42.7 5.81
40.4 3.70
56.8 5.60
48.2 2-24-59 3.73
49.2 1.07
45.4 ,1.21
52.5 :1.;8
50.6 1-19-60 3.29
49.8 .1.7(
44.5 1.80
50.0
48.6 1-21-6(1 ,1.80
-16.1 1.65
42.8 >..10
55.9 3.95
46.6 1-16-62 5.35
40.2 4.24
50.2 5.25
48.3 5.04
46.4 1-16-63 6.10
37.7 1.65
42.7 5.20
54.0 .410
46.9 7.10
44.0 -1.50
41.5 6.410
54.7 4.40
46.7 3-8-65 4.30
45.8
35.8


Hemo- Iemna- Birth
Ca glohin tocrit calves
4.3 12.6 47.1 1-12-58
9.2 11.0 37.9
1.3 11.9 44.9
2.1 13.3 51.0
0.4 10.4 42.3 1-17-59
9.4 11.0 48.5
1.2 12.6 49.0
9.7 13.7 56.1
9.5 11.6 45.0 2- 1-60
9.1 12.6 49.1
9.9 13.0 15.8
3.2 12.6 19.2
8.0 10.7 40.2 3-20-61
8.2 12.6 47.6
9.8 11.9 39.3
9.1 11.6 60.7
2.6 13.0 55.5
3.9 13.3 53.0
2.3 15.0 52.8
1.8 11.6 52.1
9.2 11.6 45.6 1-21-63
1.1 9.3 39.9
1.3 11.3 46.3
0.6 11.3 51.1
9.8 10.4 47.4 Calf born dead
8.3 10.7 44.0
1.2 9.8 50.9
8.8 10.4 52.4
7.9 11.3 47.4







The low and high blood constituent values for these two
cows were as follows:
Cow 72 Cow 64
Check Basic slag
Phosphorus,
mg per ml plasma 0.70 to 8.16 2.53 to 7.10

Calcium,
mg per ml plasma 7.5 to 16.2 8.0 to 15.5

Hemoglobin,
gm per 100 ml 6.1 to 14.5 9.3 to 15.0

Hematocrit,
per cent packed cells 35.8 to 56.8 37.9 to 60.7

The lower blood phosphorus values with cow 72 appeared to
be closely associated with lactation and a gradual decrease in
blood phosphorus as the cow nursed calves when 11 to 17 years of
age. Blood phosphorus values returned to 4 mg or above after
the calves were weaned, with high values in December 1962 and
September and December 1964. Phosphorus in the air-dry forage
averaged 0.10% from 1955-58 and 0.07% in the following seven
years (18). Phosphorus content in forage from the Basic slag
treated pasture varied from 0.25% to 0.30% in 1955-58 and
declined to an average 0.16% in the seven-year residual period.
However, this amount appeared to meet the minimum nutri-
tional needs, although below the recommended level (8, 30).
There was a wide variation in the blood calcium but no
evidence of a deficiency of this element. Hemoglobin values
were considered normal. Range in blood cell volume was essen-
tially the same for the two cows.

Blood Analyses of Seven Grazing Herds
Blood phosphorus, calcium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit aver-
age values are presented in Figures 3 to 10. Each season and
cow age value is the average for all pregnant as well as non-
pregnant cows.

Phosphorus
The overall phosphorus value for the Check cows, 4.3 mg
per 100 ml plasma (Figure 3), was significantly less than the












o J o o *< *

( I 4 = MARCH
0-
I-- C 0 JUNE
n 3 A = SEPTEMBER

j 0 = DECEMBER
Q0 = AVERAGE
2
CHECK SUPER SUPER+ CONC. BASIC ROCK COLLOIDAL
LIME SUPER SLAG
Figure 3. Effect of phosphatic fertilizer and season on blood phosphorus.
Reprinted from Shirley, et al. (33).
5.0 to 5.4 mg obtained from cows on the phosphate treatments.
Season or pregnancy and lactation had (P<0.01) effects on
the phosphorus content in the blood. The greatest season to
season variation occurred in the Check. The combined Septem-
ber and December values averaged approximately 0.5 mg higher
than those of March and June. Statistically there was an in-
teraction (P<0.05) between phosphatic treatments and seasons
on the blood phosphorus. The high demand of lactation for
blood phosphorus ceases after weaning of calves in September
and is renewed with birth of calves from January to March.
It is possible that the seasonal effects observed in the present
study were due largely to gestation and lactation demands,
as Rusoff et al. (32) working with bulls found that environ-
mental factors did not effect plasma phosphorus, calcium, or red
cell concentration.
Higher quality pasture, however, during summer and early
fall would result in greater phosphorus intake and contribute
to the higher blood values observed at September and December
dates. The concentration of phosphorus in the forage for all
seven treatments averaged 0.141 during the winter compared
to 0.24% in the spring, summer, and fall.
The overall effect of cow age on concentration of phosphorus
in the plasma is shown in Figure 4. The high phosphorus








l7-
c)

D _a (23) (8)
S6 (25) (20)
O*
2 (55) (60)/
- 0 (56) 56(60) (54)(49) (31) 3




AGE I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 12 44 (4 5 16
parentheses. Reprinted from Shirley, et al. (33).44)(3



3----------------------------- ----- ^
4-




AGE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
YEARS

Figure 4. Effect of age of cows on blood phosphorus, number of samples in
parentheses. Reprinted from Shirley, et al. (33).

values at 15 to 17 years of age were not due to cessation of
gestation because only good breeders were kept in the herds.
These aged cows and the yearling heifers had approximately
1 mg per 100 ml more blood phosphorus than cows at inter-
mediate ages. Statistically there was no way to separate year
effects from age effects in these data but age seemed a more
likely explanation than did year effects. It is assumed that the
increase observed was due to age of the cow, as it is believed
that year effects would not act like this for three consecutive
years.

Calcium

The effects of various phosphatic pasture treatments and
season of the year on calcium concentration in plasma are shown
in Figure 5. These data show that neither phosphorus nor lime
applications had any significant effect on calcium level in the
blood. Mean calcium values ranged from 10.3 mg per 100 ml
plasma for cows on Colloidal phosphate and Concentrated super-
phosphate to 10.7 for the Check. Season of the year or stage
of pregnancy and lactation had a definite and consistent effect
(P<0.01) on calcium values, with samples obtained in March








C1 12









S 0 JUNE

2 DECEMBER


CHECK SUPER SUPER+ CONC. BASIC ROCK COLLOIDAL

LIME SUPER SLAG

Figure 5. Effect of phosphatic fertilizer and season on blood calcium.
Reprinted from Shirley, et al. (33).


averaging 9.8, and those in September, 11.3 mg per 100 ml
plasma. The higher values in September may have resulted from
the accumulative effect of sunshine, which increased the vitamin
D and improved calcium absorption. December blood values,
representing the sixth to ninth month of gestation, approached
the level of those found in March. The normal decline in forage
LI ME SUPER SLAG












quality may explain the reduced blood calcium values observed
in December.






Blood calcium decreased (P<0.05) as the cows became older
(Figure 6). Values declined fierom a range of 11.0 to 11.5 mg

per 100 ml plasma duresenting the sixth to ninth monthyears of gestation, a range of 8.9
the level of those found in March. The normal decline in forage
servedquality may explain the reduced blood calcium vauin plasma of Hereford cattle




of 11.6, 12.2, 8.9, 11.9, 13.2, 11.3, and 12.1 mg per 100 ml at
0.3, 1, 6, 18, 26, 36, and 160 months of age, respectively. The
calcium content of the blood was considered satisfactory for
all cws in the present study, as no clinical symptoms relatedember.
to abnormal calcium decrmetabolism were observed. As far as the cows became older
(Figure 6). Values declined from a range of 11.0 to 11.5 mg
per 100 ml plasma during 2 to 6 years of age to a range of 8.9
to 9.9 mg during 11 to 17 years of age. Hansard et al. (15) ob-




authoserved concentrations theof calcium in plasma of Hereford calcum values
of 11.6, 12.2, 8.9, 11.9, 13.2, 11.3, and 12.1 mg per 100 ml at
0.3, 1, 6, 18, 26, 36, and 160 months of age, respectively. The
calcium content of the blood was considered satisfactory for
all cows in the present study, as no clinical symptoms related
to abnormal calcium metabolism were observed. As far as the
authors know, this is the first report of blood calcium values
for cows over their productive life span. As with the phosphorus
blood data, age and year effects are not separable statistically.











SnII \/ *-e
O (61) (49)(54) (47)
0 -\ -*, (44)
m \ (39) (20)(8)
Sj10 \ (34)(31) (24) 0

00 -0

0O
< -


O


AGE I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17
YEARS

Figure 6. Effect of age of cows on blood calcium, number of samples in
parentheses. Reprinted from Shirley, et al. (33).

It is likely that the irregularities of the curve shown in Figure
6 are due to year effects but that the overall decrease is due to
age.

Hemoglobin
The influence of phosphatic treatments of pastures and four
seasons of the year on hemoglobin levels are presented in Figure
7. Average hemoglobin value expressed as grams per 100 ml
of blood for the Check was 12.3 compared to 12.5 for cows in
the six phosphate treatments. Lowest hemoglobin values were
obtained in March, 12.3 gm per 100 ml plasma. Values increased
(P<0.01) during June and September and reached the highest
level in December, 13.2 gms per 100 ml. The lowest values were
obtained immediately following parturition. This stress and
lower quality pasture forage during the winter and early spring
months influences blood hemoglobin.
There was a decrease (P<0.05) of hemoglobin with increase
in age of cows as shown in Figure 8. Values of 12.3 to 13.3 ml
per 100 ml blood were observed during the first nine years of
age, but from 10 to 17 years values decreased to the range of







11.3 to 12.1 gm per 100 ml blood. Braun (6) reported slightly
less hemoglobin present in older cows, i.e., 11.8- 0.1 gm per
100 ml of blood for cows 2.5 to 13 years of age and 12.20.1 gm
per ml for those 1.5 to 2.5 years.


/00
17/ el
/ /0 IZ-


0

10


0 14'
04
O
C0
-j




LJ



0
-12
cL
0_

(_


CHECK SUPER SUPER+ CONC.
LIME SUPER
Figure 7. Effect of phosphatic fertilizers and
printed from Shirley, et al. (33).


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

YEARS


Figure 8. Effect of age of cows on hemoglobin, number of samples in
parentheses. Reprinted from Shirley, et al. (33).


* = MARCH
O = JUNE
A = SEPTEMBER
M = DECEMBER
0 = AVERAGE


iin



O N
.00
S
/ (^ /


BASIC ROCK COLLOIDAL
SLAG
season on hemoglobin. Re-


IA
AGE







Hematocrit


The effect of phosphatic fertilizer treatments and season on
hematocrit levels (per cent of packed cells) is shown in Figure
9. Values obtained in June and September were similar and less
(P<0.01) than those of December and March. The values found
in December were higher (P<0.01), by approximately five per-
centage points, than for the other three seasons.
Influence of age on hematocrit values is shown in Figure
10. In general the blood hematocrit decreased (P<0.05) with
increasing age. Cows from 2 to 8 years of age had blood hema-
tocrit values from 50.4% to 53.4% and those from 9 to 17 years
of age ranged from 45.7% to 50.1%. These values suggest that
as cows grow older their capacity to produce cells is decreased.
The literature is sparse in regard to the effect of age on hemo-
globin, red cell numbers, and hematocrit observations. Braun (6)
reported comparisons of red cell and hematocrit values in cows
1.5 to 2.5 years old and cows 2.5 to 13 years of age. The red
cell values were 7.45- 0.09 and 6.66- 0.10 millions per cu mm
for the young and old cows, respectively; and corresponding
hematocrit values were 35.2- 0.5 and 34.4- 0.6. Hawkins (16)
in a survey reported that men between ages of 51 to 60 years
averaged hematocrit values of 48 compared to 43 at 71 to 80
years of age. This decline may be related to decreased activity

nU
-j

JI
F- 054 I a

0 44
S0 0 DECEMBER

0 AVERAGE

W L46 R MARCH
ILL 0 JUNE 0
L 44
Ti A = SEPTEMBER
LL' 4 2L E = DECEMBER
40 = AVERAGE

CHECK SUPER SUPER+ CONC. BASIC ROCK COLLOIDAL
LIME SUPER SLAG
Figure 9. Effect of phosphatic fertilizers and season on hematocrit. Re-
printed from Shirley, et al. (33).











(25) (60)
(60) (58) (62
/(55 \(56) 0
S/ (57)
S o/


C()
J 56
LIJ
0 54
0
w 52
U 50

0- 48


:48) (39) (31) (20)
S (34) S


I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17

YEARS


Figure 10. Effect of age of cows on hematocrit,
parentheses. Reprinted from Shirley, et al. (33).


due to aging in man. Cattle may also be
age and require lower red cell capacity.


number of samples in



less active in old


Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Bones

It is believed that quality of pasture is a principal factor
in the satisfactory development of bone in range cattle, but
there are apparently no published data to verify this. Neal
et al. (29) reported that the tricalcium phosphate:calcium car-
bonate ratio in the bones of dairy cattle was decreased on a
phosphorus deficient diet, and returned to a normal ratio when
a phosphorus supplement was fed. Breaking strength of bones
was reported by Becker et a.l. (3) in dairy cattle under different
conditions and rations. Duncan (10) in a literature review dis-
cussed calcium and phosphorus balance in ruminants and skele-
tal mineral stores.
Photographs of cross-sections of the diaphysis of representa-
tive metatarsal or metacarpal bones of 28 cows (Figure 11) dem-
onstrate much visual similarity between the treatment groups.
Strength, density, and chemical composition data are shown in
Table 15. Breaking strength of bones ranged from 127 pounds
per square inch for cows on colloidal phosphate treated pasture
to 94 pounds for those on the Check.


(49)
, (54) (44)


uJI-
- Z 46
0 44

LJ 42

40
AGE


" O







e82-90 3-86 I-E5


o O3 6 0 C^ 0

000 aad
00000 i



0 0 000 0
CfoO Co

a%; I 1 7 1n 11115 IIIiI 7 51 202lS122ssa 1330a7*5

CHECK SUPER SUPER+ CONC. BASIC ROCK COLLOIDAL
LIME SUPER SLAG
Figure 11. Representative cross sections of diaphyses metatarsal and meta-
carpal bones from cows grazing phosphate pangolagrass pastures.
All cows on the phosphate fertilized pastures had bones of
greater density than the Check animals. Bones from the Check
cows had a density value of 1.9567 gm per cubic cm compared
to values ranging from 2.0005 to 2.0491 on the phosphorus
treatments. Breaking strength of bones was related directly to
density. The seven phosphate treatments had no significant
effect on the concentrations of ash, phosphorus, calcium, magne-
sium, and iron in the bones.
Corresponding average values for fluorine in ash of bones
from the seven groups are given in Table 15. The Colloidal
phosphate and Rock phosphate groups had approximately twice
as much bone fluorine as the other five groups and ranked 1
and 3 in breaking strength. These two fertilizer materials
generally contain a high level of fluorine, while the others have
little or none. Bones from the Basic slag group ranked second
in breaking strength, but had essentially the same low level as
the Check, Superphosphate + lime, and Superphosphate no
lime group. This indicates that fluorine was not a factor in
the high breaking strength of bones from the Colloidal and Rock


84-87 P8








Table 15. Slaughter age and calf weaning record of cows with breaking
strength, density, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, and fluorine of leg
bones.

Pasture Treatment
Item Super Super Cone Basic Colloi-
Check no lime + lime super slag Rock dal

Cow data1
Slaughter
age 16 13 13 15 13 13 17
Calves
weaned 10 9 10 10 10 9 11

Bones -metacarpal and metatorsal'
Breaking strength:
lb/sq.
in.' 94 96 105 99 118 109 127
Density 1.9567 2.0124 2.0491 2.0005 2.0240 2.0052 2.0379


Phospho-
rus % 17.8
Cal-
cium % 38.7
Magne-
sium % 0.57


Iron
ppm


17.5 19.3 17.9 17.3 17.0 17.6

40.8 39.6 39.2 41.3 38.1 39.0

0.55 0.62 0.57 0.54 0.60 0.55


25 26 24 23 26 29 20


Fluorine
ppm 1321


1362 1396 1686 1363 2913 2256


'From 3 to 7 cows per treatment.
From 5 to 7 cows per treatment.




phosphate groups, or suggests that some element in Basic slag
besides fluorine contributed to the high breaking strength of
bones of that group. Analysis of variance demonstrated that
the differences in fluorine content in the seven groups were sig-
nificant. Duncan's Multiple Range test (9) showed flourine
values for bones from the Rock phosphate group were different
from Basic slag, Superphosphate no lime, Superphosphate +
lime, Concentrated superphosphate, and Check groups, but not
from the Colloidal phosphate group: and bone flourine values for
Colloidal phosphate differed from Basic slag, Superphosphate -
no lime, Superphosphate + lime, and Check, but not from Con-
centrated superphosphate and Rock phosphate.







SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Seven cow-calf herds obtained all their feed by grazing
pangolagrass from December 1950 to December 1965 except in
three emergency periods in late winter and early spring in
1958, 1960, and 1963. The treatments were as follows: Check
(no phosphorus); Superphosphate no lime; Superphosphate
+ lime; Concentrated Superphosphate; Basic slag; Rock phos-
phate; and Colloidal phosphate.

1. All phosphatic fertilizers increased establishment rate
and persistence of pangolagrass stands.
2. Stocking rate of phosphated pastures was 58% above
non-phosphated areas.
3. Phosphorus fertilization of pasture decreased consump-
tion of non-phosphatic mineral supplement.
4. Cow weights increased as animals matured, 13.6 pounds
per head per year, 1955 to 1958. Average weight ranged
from 1,010 pounds in June to 1,165 in December.
5. Percentage weaned calf crop, 1951 to 1965, ranged from
74 for Basic slag to 63 for Rock phosphate. There were
no significant differences among treatments.
6. The 549 weaned calves averaged 472 pounds at 215 days.
Phosphatic treatment had no significant effect on aver-
age weaning weight.
7. Yearly beef gains per cow in the 15-year period averaged
365 pounds, ranging from 405 pounds for Basic slag to
349 pounds for the Check, with no significant difference
between the seven treatments.
8. Yearly gains per acre of pasture, 1951 to 1965, were
115 pounds for the Check and from 192 pounds to 224
pounds for the phosphated pastures, (P<0.01). In the
most productive period, 1955 to 1958, yearly gains per
acre were 123 pounds for the Check to 268 pounds for
Basic slag and in the 7-year residual period, 1959 to
1965, gains were 116 pounds for the Check to 198 pounds
for Superphosphate + lime. There was no significant
difference between the six phosphatic treatments. Cost
and productivity determine the choice of Phosphorus
source in a pasture program.







9. Blood phosphorus concentrations averaged 4.3 mg per
100 ml plasma for cows on Check compared to 5.0 to 5.4
mg for cows on phosphatic fertilized pastures, (P<0.01)
difference. Blood phosphorus values for all cows were
significantly higher in September and December than
in March and June.

10. Gross deficiency symptoms were observed in the Check
herd. A high producing 12-year-old cow (10 calves.
weaning 9 at an average weight of 421 pounds) exhibit-
ed phosphorus deficiency symptoms the last three years
of her life. Excessive weight loss while nursing the
tenth calf coupled with blood phosphorus levels from
2.8 mg to 1.6 mg per 100 ml plasma resulted in the
death of this cow. Blood calcium and hemoglobin and
hematocrit were normal.

11. Blood calcium was not influenced by phosphate pasture
treatment. There was (P<0.01) seasonal increase from
9.8 mg per 100 ml plasma in March to 11.3 mg in Sep-
tember. There was a decrease from 11.0 to 11.5 mg with
cows 2 to 6 years old to 8.9 to 9.9 mg for cows 11 to
17 years old (P<0.05).

12. Hemoglobin values were not affected by phosphorus
treatment. Influence of season and age of cow were
significant, with values highest in December (P<0.01)
and decreasing with age (P<0.05).

13. Hematocrit values were not influenced by fertilizer
treatments.

14. Breaking strength of cow bones was lowest on Check and
highest on Colloidal-treated pasture.

15. Bone density was higher on phosphated than on non-
phosphated pastures and was directly correlated with
breaking strength.

16. Phosphatic fertilizers had no significant effect on con-
centrations of ash, P, Ca, Mg, and Fe in leg bones.

17. Bone fluorine was highest in Rock and Colloidal phos-
phate treatments but was not related consistently to
breaking strength.








LITERATURE CITED


1. Anderson, R. L., and T. A. Bancroft. 1952. Statistical theory in re-
search. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York.

2. Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold, W. G. Kirk, George K. Davis, and
R. W. Kidder. 1957. Minerals for beef and dairy cattle. Fla. Agr.
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3. Becker, R. B., W. M. Neal, and A. S. Shealy. 1933. Stiffs or Sweeny.
(Phosphorus deficiencies in cattle). Fla. Agr. Exp. Stas. Bull. 264.

4. Black, W. H., L. H. Tash, J. M. Jones, and R. J. Kleberg, Jr. 1943.
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5. Black, W. H., L. H. Tash, J. M. Jones, and R. J. Kleberg, Jr. 1949.
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6. Braun, Werner. 1946. Average levels of various constituents, phy-
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8. Cunha, T. J., R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. B. Ammerman,
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10. Duncan, Dorothy L. 1958. The interpretation of studies of calcium
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11. Fisher, R. A. 1947. The design of experiments. (Fourth Ed.)
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12. Fiske, C. A., and I. Subbarow. 1925. The colormetric determination
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13. Furman, N. H. 1925. Scott's Standard Methods of Clinical Analyses.
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14. Gammon, Nathan, Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E. Caldwell,
R. G. Leighty, and F. B. Smith. 1953. Physical, spectographic, and
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15. Hansard, Sam L., C. L. Comar, and G. K. Davis. 1954. Effects of
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16. Hawkins, W. W. 1956. Hemoglobin levels in old age. J. Amer. Geriat.
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20. Hodges, E. M., W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock, D. W. Jones, G. K. Davis,
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24. Kirk, W. G., E. M. Hodges, F. MI. Peacock, and M. Koger. 1963.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical assistance
in planning and operation of the project from 1946 to 1965 of:
David W. Jones, Associate Agronomist, Agricultural Extension
Service, Gainesville; E. R. Felton, H. J. Fulford, Earl Kelly,
H. E. Henderson, Al Dawson, Harold McLeod, Eugene Mansola3,
William Walker, and Don Lee, Assistant Animal Husbandmen;
Coleman Ward, Assistant Agronomist; J. E. McCaleb, Associate
Agronomist; and R. J. Bullock, Assistant Soils Chemist; Range
Cattle Experiment Station staff; J. R. Neller, Soils Chemist,
Mrs. Katherine Boney Herring and Leon Singer, Laboratory
Technicians, and J. T. McCall, Assistant Chemist, Main Station,
Gainesville; Frank L. Holland", Executive Secretary, Florida
Agricultural Research Institute (F.A.R.I.), Winter Haven; and
Willard M. Fifield, Executive Secretary, F.A.R.I., Gainesville.
Pasture Committee and members of F.A.R.I. gave timely
financial support to initiate the project and to assist in the
statistical analysis of data. Personnel of the Range Cattle
Station, Ona, and the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Gainesville,
did much of the detailed work in the extended project.

SDeceased.






















APPENDIX







Appendix Table 1. Table of means--cow weight.

Treatment
Super + Super Colloid- Cone Basic Aver-
lime Check no lime Rock al super slag age

Year
1947 852 840 835 785
48 715 739 717 774
49 926 1004 867 994 882 786 862
50 815 974 777 782 809 729 779
51 975 927 897 1009 884 873 937
52 985 1001 932 1120 985 865 1010
53 1064 1026 960 1018 896 863 957
54 997 942 831 944 991 850 1045
55 968 1118 1029 1110 1136 1106 1128
56 1075 1091 1106 1173 1097 1125 1172
57 1137 1076 1092 1155 1142 1099 1187
58 1056 966 968 1108 973 946 997
59 1190 1212 1232 1258 1273 1187 1259
60 1188 1088 1154 1114 1130 1116 1223
61 1197 1025 1200 1149 1182 1096 1234
62 1187 1097 1195 1210 1164 1246 1181
63 1202 1059 1099 1091 1065 1158 1195
64 1173 1101 1044 1115 1071 1056 1108

Age,
1 831 930 849 895 856 906 972 864
2 853 884 847 842 833 812 893 848
3 979 933 911 974 932 946 992 954
4 1060 1030 965 999 992 950 1062 1009
5 1048 986 997 1076 990 926 1063 1019
6 1114 1006 1065 1135 1057 980 1075 1071
7 1129 1073 1043 1138 1131 1119 1119 1110
8 1118 1065 1036 1135 1126 1169 1180 1119
9 1096 1071 1061 1133 1129 1097 1183 1111
10 1175 1117 1117 1146 1084 1025 1108 1109
11 1198 1142 1131 1173 1218 1188 1155 1175
12 1120 1082 1064 1108 1179 1163 1250 1148
13 1145 1118 1149 1201 1157 1109 1213 1159
14 1100 1076 1097 1190 1153 1188 1187 1148
15 1080 1084 1126 1131 1098 1164 1135 1120
16 1104 1117 1266 1169 1088 1027 1108 1119
17 1120 1120 1233 1091 1215 1091 1125 1132

Season
1 1012 1018 967 1031 1001 966 1053 1006
2 1010 1011 982 1035 1009 957 1045 1007
3 1031 1021 992 1040 1048 991 1068 1027
4 1143 1102 1085 1134 1131 1094 1187 1127

Grand mean
1050 1039 1008 1061 1048 1003 1090 1043







Appendix Table 2. Number of cows exposed previous year and calves weaned.

Super + Super Cone
lime Check no lime Rock Colloidal super Basic slag

Year cows calves cows calves cows calves cows calves cows calves cows calves cows calves

1947 3 0 1 0 2 0 2 0
1948 7 7 2 2 4 4 6 6
1949 8 1 3 0 6 2 9 3 4 0 6 0 4 0
1950 8 7 5 2 8 5 10 8 9 5 8 6 8 5
1951 8 3 5 4 8 3 8 2 9 5 8 3 8 3
1952 9 6 5 3 9 5 9 3 9 4 9 6 9 5
1953 9 2 5 3 10 4 10 6 10 8 10 5 10 9
r 1954 10 5 5 4 10 6 10 7 10 4 9 5 10 7
1955 11 8 5 1 11 4 10 4 10 4 10 3 10 6
1956 10 9 5 4 10 4 10 7 10 9 10 8 11 9
1957 10 5 5 4 9 7 10 9 8 7 10 9 9 9
1958 8 5 5 4 8 7 8 3 7 7 9 8 9 9
1959 9 7 5 3 7 6 7 4 7 0 7 3 7 3
1960 10 4 5 4 7 6 7. 6 7 7 7 5 7 6
1961 8 7 5 5 7 5 7 6 7 5 7 6 8 5
1962 8 7 5 3 6 4 7 5 7 7 7 1 8 6
1963 7 6 5 3 8 5 8 3 8 7 7 5 8 8
1964 7 6 5 2 7 6 7 6 7 4 9 6 9 6
1965 5 2 4 3 7 5 7 6 5 4 5 4 5 2








Appendix Table 3. Table of means phosphorus.

Treatment
Super Super- Colloi- Cone Basic
+ lime Check no lime Rock dal super slag Average


Year
1947 4.70
48 5.38
49 5.70
51 4.42
52 5.20
53 4.07
54 4.96
55 4.97
56 4.35
57 4.69
58 4.43
59 4.26
60 4.17
61 5.34
62 5.73
63 6.50
64 5.74

Age
1 5.18
2 4.95
3 5.04
4 4.83
5 4.68
6 5.22
7 4.63
8 5.34
9 4.93
10 5.37
11 5.45
12 4.97
13 '5.04
14 3.73
15 4.77
16 4.98
17 6.29

Season
1 4.83
2 4.67
3 5.22
4 5.22

Grand mean
4.98


4.60
5.67
6.35
4.25
5.44
4.32
4.95
5.15
4.54
4.91
5.10
4.41
4.43
5.15
5.29
5.66
5.53


5.42
4.95
5.29
4.78
4.83
5.09
4.61
4.77
5.40
5.28
4.90
4.80
5.00
4.12
5.47
4.70
7.30


4.50
5.72
6.42
4.14
5.43
4.60
5.34
5.38
4.70
4.80
5.33
4.44
4.99
5.97
6.01
7.49
6.74


6.71
5.67
5.71
5.04
5.15
5.02
5.17
5.21
5.21
5.09
5.01
5.21
5.19
5.08
6.47
5.89
7.69


4.28
5.46
4.15
5.15
5.51
4.47
4.88
4.78
4.57
4.21
5.76
5.71
7.04
6.15


4.83
5.20
4.97
4.74
4.83
5.22
5.03
5.11
4.98
4.85
4.59
4.93
5.74
5.99
6.79
6.21
4.53


4.33
5.42
4.16
5.00
5.03
4.47
4.62
4.72
4.50
4.56
5.29
5.74
6.33
5.53


5.53
4.99
5.02
5.01
4.75
5.15
4.89
4.56
4.73
4.76
4.58
4.67
4.93
5.87
6.13
5.88
6.00


4.02 4.73 5.14 5.10 4.87 4.72 4.81
3.81 4.77 5.49 5.18 4.74 4.91 4.85
4.60 5.26 5.54 5.09 5.15 5.18 5.18
4.70 5.25 5.39 5.37 5.22 5.16 5.23


4.28 5.01 5.43 5.18 5.00 5.00 5.02








Appendix Table 4. Table of means calcium.

Treatment
Super Super- Colloi- Cone Basic Average
+ lime Check no lime Rock dal super slag

Year
1947 11.30 11.40 11.65 11.15
48 11.14 10.76 11.23 10.75
49 10.83 10.50 11.41 10.61
51 12.81 13.28 13.60 12.54 13.65 13.24 13.18
52 13.62 13.53 13.26 13.10 13.54 13.72 13.74
53 10.77 11.12 11.27 10.69 10.87 10.93 11.36
54 10.24 10.21 10.43 10.12 10.14 9.78 10.39
55 10.19 10.41 10.18 9.90 10.28 10.24 10.23
56 10.83 11.45 11.14 10.51 10.66 10.55 10.67
57 11.62 11.76 11.43 10.95 11.29 11.24 11.01
58 11.63 11.66 10.33 11.17 10.60 11.37 11.28
59 9.66 9.74 9.81 9.15 8.96 9.69 9.59
60 9.72 9.60 9.50 9.45 9.28 9.57 9.73
61 8.56 8.84 8.70 7.84 8.24 8.09 8.38
62 9.05 10.28 10.23 9.18 8.91 9.47 9.51
63 9.63 9.89 9.87 9.84 10.16 10.35 10.40
64 9.94 10.89 10.17 11.50 10.03 10.78 10.06

Age
1 10.94 10.23 11.50 11.67 12.21 12.18 10.15 11.26
2 10.90 11.75 11.06 10.60 11.18 9.91 10.79 10.84
3 10.62 11.94 11.84 10.17 12.56 11.65 11.78 11.33
4 10.42 12.02 11.37 11.15 12.15 12.05 12.48 11.68
5 11.52 11.06 10.76 10.90 10.82 11.12 10.98 11.04
6 11.44 11.34 11.50 11.75 9.99 9.72 10.31 10.99
7 10.17 10.92 9.79 10.40 10.36 9.90 10.54 10.26
8 9.28 10.59 10.32 10.02 10.79 10.31 10.59 10.24
9 10.25 10.80 9.81 10.11 10.47 10.87 10.98 10.45
10 9.89 10.47 10.22 10.76 9.86 12.07 10.16 10.50
11 10.89 10.77 10.50 10.02 9.17 9.56 9.75 10.10
12 10.63 10.32 10.06 10.45 8.94 9.22 9.29 9.73
13 9.81 9.85 11.02 8.38 9.09 9.09 9.38 9.45
14 9.67 10.87 9.66 8.28 8.87 9.15 9.70 9.38
15 9.50 9.71 8.61 8.60 9.77 10.07 10.64 9.59
16 8.58 9.32 8.97 9.55 10.68 10.59 9.40 9.84
17 7.50 9.71 9.07 8.69 8.40 8.85 7.95 8.82

Season
1 9.83 10.11 10.15 9.49 9.43 9.58 9.80 9.75
2 10.77 10.74 10.56 10.26 10.35 10.27 10.29 10.45
3 11.21 11.32 11.15 11.24 11.20 11.52 11.44 11.29
4 10.21 10.68 10.65 10.32 10.25 10.58 10.52 10.44

Grand mean
10.53 10.74 10.65 10.37 10.35 10.54 10.55 10.52








Appendix Table 5. Table of means -hemoglobin.

Treatment
Super Super- Colloi- Cone Basic Average
+ lime Check no lime Rock dal super slag


Year
1947
48
49
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64


13.13 14.00 13.15 13.60
11.69 11.31 12.25 12.02
12.29 12.50 12.85 12.70
12.42 12.87 13.37 13.22 12.46 12.62 13.41
12.69 12.83 13.48 13.67 13.24 12.33 13.49
12.21 12.17 12.78 11.76 10.99 11.74 11.98
13.02 12.18 12.71 11.78 12.73 12.09 12.81
13.63 13.92 14.95 13.19 14.16 14.61 14.33
12.57 12.87 13.89 12.52 12.72 12.81 12.96
12.19 11.82 12.43 11.72 12.21 12.11 12.16
12.69 12.17 12.61 12.19 11.07 11.48 11.91
12.41 12.31 12.79 12.38 12.40 12.22 12.38
12.99 12.54 13.00 12.06 11.82 11.99 12.65
12.94 11.46 12.92 11.66 12.17 12.29 12.74
12.57 11.74 12.38 11.84 11.71 12.44 12.56
12.44 11.20 12.02 12.48 10.47 11.88 11.46
11.84 11.95 11.52 12.06 10.84 11.45 10.98


Age
1 12.74 13.34 13.90 13.26 14.04 12.91 13.43 13.35
2 12.13 12.32 12.34 12.17 12.43 12.02 12.63 12.25
3 12.56 12.26 13.75 12.98 13.36 12.88 13.21 13.04
4 12.74 13.07 12.98 12.62 12.47 12.07 13.06 12.68
5 12.61 12.29 13.37 12.50 12.19 12.10 12.32 12.45
6 12.52 12.24 12.84 12.78 12.71 12.60 12.89 12.67
7 12.69 12.74 13.25 12.20 13.31 13.80 13.65 13.05
8 13.25 12.81 12.96 12.59 11.96 12.75 12.84 12.75
9 12.68 12.50 13.10 11.94 12.31 11.96 12.07 12.38
10 12.87 12.37 12.78 12.08 11.09 11.58 11.91 12.09
11 12.10 12.42 12.57 11.77 12.33 12.17 12.83 12.33
12 12.05 11.82 12.12 11.67 11.84 12.55 12.47 12.11
13 12.73 12.19 12.15 11.78 11.56 11.96 12.50 12.09
14 12.38 11.72 12.46 12.29 11.57 12.83 11.69 12.06
15 12.60 11.35 12.91 11.10 10.33 11.98 11.31 11.45
16 13.30 11.70 12.10 11.27 11.24 10.64 10.72 11.31
17 14.90 10.90 11.83 11.69 11.48 13.15 14.25 12.07

Season
1 12.16 11.96 12.27 11.79 11.62 11.90 11.98 11.95
2 12.57 12.16 12.81 12.23 11.88 12.03 12.36 12.30
3 12.34 12.13 12.96 12.16 11.98 12.30 12.68 12.38
4 13.26 12.76 13.63 13.07 13.00 13.09 13.24 13.17

Grand mean
12.59 12.25 12.92 12.31 12.13 12.34 12.59 12.46








Appendix Table 6. Table of means hematocrit.

Treatment


Super-
Check no lime


Colloi- Conc Basic Average
Rock dal super slag


Year
1947
48
49
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64


54.57
52.99
58.14
51.69
48.64
59.00
52.71
47.70
49.36
49.99
49.22
50.84
52.52
50.98
51.10
50.86
49.27


57.60
53.40
59.77
50.90
47.75
55.11
50.07
49.86
49.68
50.19
46.88
50.58
50.02
46.21
47.75
46.98
51.21


54.36
51.76
52.86
53.63
49.41
48.04
52.01
50.28
48.94
49.20
50.46
47.37
49.80
47.12
46.49
48.52
43.35


50.97
47.97
46.30
53.79


54.85
55.97
59.02
52.84
50.12
60.83
50.11
51.56
54.09
52.15
46.55
53.35
51.04
51.65
50.69
48.77
49.54


55.81
50.80
54.99
53.42
52.78
51.62
54.58
51.87
49.94
50.88
52.09
47.32
50.51
49.92
50.45
53.75
51.80


52.22
50.50
50.33
55.54


56.00
55.11
57.92
52.56
51.09
52.46
48.16
48.12
48.59
49.55
46.99
49.21
46.96
46.52
47.52
51.10
53.15


55.38
51.67
55.41
49.17
49.89
52.17
49.65
49.07
48.14
48.01
48.21
45.88
45.46
47.64
43.22
46.81
46.72


50.27
47.71
47.75
54.39


50.48
48.44
51.29
52.08
50.66
48.61
49.60
42.13
51.16
45.71
46.07
47.21
43.54
46.31


53.26
48.33
49.78
49.21
51.54
49.95
50.89
47.76
48.56
43.91
49.40
45.98
45.35
47.53
42.46
48.25
48.97


48.23
45.00
46.51
53.30


49.46
46.94
54.70
51.69
51.66
50.04
49.65
44.50
50.44
48.06
48.75
49.72
49.21
48.71


50.61
48.05
51.11
49.85
52.20
50.33
52.79
49.85
48.39
46.28
49.76
49.29
46.26
51.61
46.92
46.62
52.67


50.53
46.88
46.87
54.64


49.74 52.08 49.93 48.19 49.65 50.48 50.24


Super
+ lime


52.77
51.97
54.89
51.69
51.36
50.17
50.54
45.56
51.51
48.72
49.54
51.31
47.56
49.25


54.75
52.64
52.41
52.47
53.39
49.11
51.39
50.11
48.96
46.42
51.47
48.51
49.95
49.16
45.80
47.40
58.15


50.75
47.81
48.35
55.24


53.87
50.41
53.40
51.01
51.74
50.41
52.65
50.35
48.64
47.92
50.11
47.65
47.85
48.90
45.69
48.38
49.15


50.70
47.87
47.94
54.79


Age
1 50.65
2 49.82
3 54.08
4 50.64
5 51.82
6 49.96
7 55.50
8 52.98
9 47.37
10 50.81
11 49.05
12 48.93
13 48.71
14 50.17
15 49.07
16 55.35
17 62.40

Season
1 51.83
2 48.94
3 48.55
4 56.06

Grand mean
51.27








Appendix Table 7. Regression equations -independent variable: time.


Treatment


Hemoglobin



Hematocrit


Calcium






Phosphorus




Cow Weight


Response


x = 2(year 1957.5)


Check
Super-no lime
Cone super
Basic slag
Rock
Colloidal
Basic slag
Super + lime
Check
Super-no lime
Rock
Colloidal
Cone super
Basic slag
Super + lime
Rock
Colloidal
Cone super
Basic slag
Super + lime
Super-no lime
Colloidal
Cone super
Basic slag


Equation R

12.28 .1032x 38.9
12.92 .1210x 36.8
12.07 .1378x 32.5
12.56 .1308x 40.5
47.56 .1200x + .1152x' 63.0
48.09 .4646x 40.8
50.49 .3420x 38.5
10.59 .2510x 55.0
10.90 .2142x 44.2
10.08 .2458x + .0388x' 75.8
9.69 .1868x + .0450x 55.0
9.73 .2768x + .0455x' 73.4
10.07 .2192x + .0352x2 59.0
10.06 .2494x .0380x2 70.6
4.535 + .0978x + .0234x2 56.6
5.381 + .1566x 50.7
5.152 + .1184x 34.8
4.984 + .0860x 33.9
4.991 + .0846x 35.5
1100 + 19.40x 77.4
1053 + 20.48x 48.9
1130 + 16.22x 3.64x9 60.0
1042 + 23.74x 54.6
1167 + 17.88x 3.09x2 66.1







Appendix Table 8. Regression equations--independent variable: age.


Treatment


Response

Hemoglobin




Hematocrit




Calcium






Phosphorus



Cow weight


Equation


Check
Super-no lime
Rock
Collodial
Basic slag
Check
Super-no lime
Rock
Colloidal
Basic slag

Super + lime
Check
Super-no lime
Rock
Colloidal
Cone super
Basic slag
Rock
Colloidal
Cone super
Basic slag
Super + lime
Check
Super-no lime
Rock
Colloidal
Cone super
Basic slag


x = 2(Age 8.5)


12.32 .0806x
12.84 .0774x
12.18 .1040x
12.17 .1584x
12.47 .1246x
50.01- .3906x
51.92 .2444x
49.11 .6042x
48.26 .4010x
50.24 .4352x

10.28 .1152x
10.74- .1184x
10.45 .1536x
10.17-- .1678x
10.00 -.1888x + .0204x'
10.46- .1218x
10.43 .1166x
4.960 .0110x + .0219x'
4.909 + .0858x + .0160x'
4.672 +.0368x + .0196x'
4.700 + .0172x + .0185x'
1144 + 14.96x 3.43x2
1013 + 13.60x + 1.46x'
1045 + 21.50x
1143 + 18.36x 2.51x"
1130 + 18.86x 3.13x2
1098 + 18.86x 2.33x2
1155 + 15.24x 2.36x"




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