Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 82
Title: A preliminary report on growing Irish potatoes
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Title: A preliminary report on growing Irish potatoes
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 82
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Conner, Chas M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1905
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027077
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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notis - AEN2253
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






BULLETIN NO 82.


Florida

Agricultural Experiment Station
Agricultural Department.




A Preliminary Report on Grow-

ing Irish Potatoes.







CHAS. M. CONNER.







The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Florida



S~. Augustine. Fla.
THE RECORD COMPANY
1911.


DECEMBER, 1905.



















BE- \kJ) ()F CONTROL.


N. P. B r.-ANT, Chairman. ................. .. ...Jacksunville. Fla.
1'. K YoNGc ................... ........... Pensacola, Fla.
N A D.AMS. .............................. W hite Springs, Fla.
A. L. BRO\\. ................................... Eustis. Fla.
T B. KInc ... ............. ...... ............ A rcadia. Fla.

STATION STAFF.


SNIDR;\\ SLEDI A I.. Ph. L........... ......... Director
C. MI. Co-N.xNj S ............ \ ice-Director and .Agriculturist
EDW\ RD R. FI NTf, B8.S.. l'h. 1)., A 1).............. Chemist
E. H. SELL-\ARLS, M. A., I'h. D .................. Entomologist
CHAS. F. DAWSO., M1. D.. 1). \. S...... Consultin veterinariann
A. V. BL\IR, A. ...................... ... Assistant Chemist
B. H. BRIDGES, R. S................... .... Assistant Chemist
H. S. FA\\vsrE'rr ............... Assistant Horticulturist
\ P. J'ERNI;.AN ........ ... ........ ..Auditor and Bookkeeper
L. C. ALGE. ............ ........ Stemnorapher and Librarian
loHN F. MITCHE:LL .................. .Foreman Station Farm
F. M. ST\ARNS. ............ Gardener. Horticultural Department
A. H. CHAPNI .\. K. S............ Assistant in Field Experiments













A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON GROWING
IRISH POTATOES.

CHAS. M. CONNER.


Irish potatoes are grown in Florida for the early market and
are all dug and shipped as new potatoes. Few if any growers
allow their crop to, mature. Earliness is quite important, hence
every precaution is taken to make the crop ready for the market
as soon as possible after the growing season opens. Some local-
ities are better suited for the growing of this crop than others,
owing to the protection from frost by the presence of water and
growing timber.
The soil, in the section where the bulk of the crop is grown,
is what is called "flat woods" but is underlaid with clay instead
of hard pan. The surface soil is made up largely of sand and
humus and is usually acid. Drainage is the most serious problem
on account of the level nature of the country and the nearness
of the water table to the surface.
The potatoes are planted on a very high bed-from 18 to 20
inches-to keep the seed out of the water and allow the soil to
warm rapidly. The ends of the rows are opened into a ditch
which carries the water off during heavy rains.
All stumps and roots are removed before planting in order
that machinery may be used. The ground is broken deeply with
a turn plow during the winter and harrowed with a cutaway just
before planting time. A disc cultivator is used for throwing up
the beds. These cultivators have the outside disc larger than the
inside one which is a great help in throwing up the beds. The
first trip with the cultivator throws up a broad flat bed about 12
inches high. The fertilizers are then applied and worked in
with a light harrow, then another trip with the cultivator increases
the height to 18 inches. The rows are three feet and one-half to
three feet nine inches apart.
Large quantities of fertilizers are used in order to force the
crop and gain as many days on the market as possible. Where








Buletin No. 82


these large quantities of fertilizers are used it is necessary that
the ground be nearly saturated with water to keep the plants from
burning up. Irrigation is practiced with good results where artes-
ian water can be had. Irrigation is not always necessary but it
frequently happens that the season is dry toward the end, thus
checking the growth of the crop.
That the crop is called upon to make rapid growth would
seem to call for the fertilizer to be all in soluble form; yet the
open nature of the soil, the heavy rainfall during the early part
of the growing season and the presence of an excess of water, in
the absence of the heavy rainfall, on account of the nearness of
the water table to the surface of the soil makes it rather difficult
to hold the fertilizer in the soil. This is shown by the two plats
in the rate test which received no fertilizer.
The average fertilizer contains 4 per cent of ammonia, 6 per
cent of phosphoric acid and 8 per cent of potash. The ammonia
is from an organic or inorganic source according to the judgment
of the grower. It is claimed by some that the organic forms give
best results during cold wet seasons and that the inorganic forms
give best results during rather dry seasons. Most of the phos-
phoric acid is derived from acid phosphate and potash almost ex-
clusively from sulphate of potash. Some buy the raw materials
and do their own mixing while others buy ready mixed goods or
have them mixed according to their own formula.
A special distributer is used in applying the fertilizer. The
fertilizer is distributed on the top of the broad bed as described
above at the rate of one ton per acre. The residual fertilizer is
taken up by a crop of corn, cow peas or other crops planted after
the potato crop is harvested. Sometimes a second crop of
potatoes is planted but this is not general.
The Irish potato has few insect enemies in this State. The
potato beetle is not known here. Diseases did not give much
trouble until within the last few years. This is probably due to
planting the crop on the same land year after year. Careful seed
selection and a short rotation would serve to keep the diseases in
check.
All the seed used in this section is northern grown or second
crop seed grown in the latitude of Virginia. Florida grown seed
does not give profitable returns. Great care is taken in selecting
and cutting the seed because good seed is essential to a perfect









A Preliminary Report on Growing Irish Potatoes


stand. Where such large quantities of fertilizers are used it is very
important that all the ground be occupied with the crop. Grass
grows rapidly where there are skips and interferes with harvest-
ing, besides the loss of the fertilizer put in the ground and not
used. The seed potatoes are spread out in a thin layer in a barn
or under a shed and exposed to subdued light for a time before
planting. This allows them to green slightly and the small
sprouts to start. If cut at the proper time and handled properly
these sprouts need not be knocked off in planting. This method
of handling enables the cutter to select sound seed. The pieces
are cut to a uniform size with one or two eyes to the piece. All
cutting is done by hand which makes it very expensive. Some
machine cutters have been used but the stand is not so good where
they are used. Some planters estimate that hand cut seed will
give ten per cent better returns.
Planting begins about the middle of January and continues
until about the middle of February. Most of the planting is done
with a two-horse planter such as the Robbins. The Robbins is so
constructed that a man sits at the feed and regulates the drop-
ping. With a careful man no skips should be found.
Cultivation is practically all done with a disc cultivator. Some
go over the field with a weeder first and follow with the cultivator
about the time the plants are coming through and cover up the
young plants as a protection against a probable frost. Just enough
cultivation is given to keep down the grass and weeds until the
tops begin to spread after which time the crop is laid by.
Digging is commenced as soon as the tubers are about two-
thirds grown. This work is all done by hand on account of the
tender skin being easily broken by rough handling. The potatoes
are sorted as picked: one set of men pick up the first quality called
No. 1 and other set pick up the next size called No. 2. This
method insures uniformity in grading. The culls are left on the
ground or are picked up later for feed or for seed for second crop.
EXPERIMENTS DURING THE SEASON OF 1905.
During the season of 1905 a series of experiments were con-
ducted in the potato growing district to find if possible:
1st. The best source of ammonia.
2d. The best source of phosphoric acid.









Bulletin No. 82


3d. The best quantity of ammonia.
4th. The best quantity of phosphoric acid.
5th. The best quantity of potash.
6th. The best quantity of a complete fertilizer per acre.
A uniform piece of tile-drained land was selected that had
been in potatoes for two years before. This ground was laid off
in plats 1-40 acre in size and containing three rows, three and
one-half feet wide. The hills were 12 inches apart. The plats
were arranged in three tiers with check plats running through the
three tiers. There were fifteen plats in each tier with a check
plat between the fifth and sixth and tenth and eleventh, making
seventeen in all. No space was left between the plats as the ridges
were so high that the influence of the fertilizer could not extend
from one row to the other. All check plats were fertilized alike.
All fertilizers were applied at the rate of one ton per acre, unless
otherwise noted.
The ground was prepared by first breaking with a turn plow,
then cutting with a cutaway harrow. The beds were then thrown
up with a disc cultivator. These beds are first made about 12
inches high and flat on top. The fertilizers were applied by hand
and worked in with a light harrow, then the beds thrown up about
6 inches higher; this puts the fertilizer about where the seed po-
tato will be put by the planter. The beds are allowed to stand for
ten days after putting in the fertilizers. This precaution is found
necessary where such large quantities are used.
The planting was done on February 5th with a planter. It
was found after trial that the planter was as accurate as hand
planting.
The cultivation was the same as that for the regular crop,
being just enough to keep down weeds and keep the dirt up on
the ridges.
The stand was almost perfect, there being only one or two
per cent missing hills in some of the rows. There was no ma-
terial difference in the appearance of the different plats of the
fertilizer test except where small quantities of fertilizers were
used in which case the vines did not appear so vigorous. No
marked difference was noted where large and small quantities of
ammonia were used.
On May the 5th and 6th the crop was dug. Each row was









A Preliminary Report on Growing Irish Potatoes 395

sorted and weighed as dug. The same man did the sorting for all
the plats in order to have the grading as uniform as possible.
While results for one season do not prove anything it is
thought best to put this partial report in the hands of the grow-
ers in the absence of anything better. The experiments with
Irish potatoes as reported from other States do not apply to Flor-
ida conditions. The reader is left to draw his own conclusion
from the figures presented herewith. A report will be published
in this form each year until the final report is made, when con-
clusions will be drawn and recommendations made.










Bulletin No. 82


TEST OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF AMMONIA.
Various substances have been used as sources of ammonia,
both organic and inorganic. It is claimed by some that ammonia
from organic source is best while others pin their faith to the
inorganic source. It will take a test extending over several years
to settle this matter, owing to the fact that the weather conditions
influence this test more than any other. All plats were fertilized
at the rate of one ton per acre.


TABLE I.

Test of D. =- .' Sources of Ammonia.


YIELD PER ACRE A2


Kind of Fertilizer


as

a7


a

a
4 '
a
C,= ^ u
ZC [ ...C


Ammonia from Blood and Bone (IT.G.)....... 4
Phosphoric Acid from Blood and Bone 2.8 }
SPhosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 3.2 J
Potahli from Sulphate of Potash..................8

Ammnonia from Nitrate of Soda..................
2 Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate........ 6
SPotash from Sulphate of Potash..................


144



128


Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia..........4
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate......... 135
Potash from Sulphate of Potash................8

Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal................4
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n Seed Meal 0.7 6 175
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 5.3
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal...........1.0 S
Potash from Sulphate of Potash .........7.0

Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia...2.0 .1-
XAnmonia from Cotton Seed Meal.......2.0 J
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n Seed Meal 0.3 1
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 5.7 153
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal ........... 0.5
Potash from Sulphate of Potash........ 7.5 (
Check ......... ............... .................. 147
"""" """~'"""""" """" """


37 181 19 200



39 167 25 192



45 180 19 199



31 206 20 226





29 182 26 208


47 194 30 224


NOTE-Plots No. 12 and No. 17 in following tables may be included in this test.










-4 Preliminary Report on Growing Irish Potatoes 397

TEST OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF PHOSPHORIC ACID.
On the sour soils it was thought that floats could be used to
an advantage as a source of phosphoric acid. A test of this was
made on plots number 6 and 7 as shown below. Slag phosphate
has been used to an advantage on some crops and it is thought
that this could be used on these soils to an advantage, but as it
contains considerable lime it may prove objectionable.
Fertilizers were applied at rate of one ton per acre, except
the floats. It was not known how much phosphoric acid would be
available to the plants in this case.


TABLE II.
T7'.s o/ Different Sourasi of P/losplioric A-rid.


YIELD PER ACRE -


Kinil cif Fertilizer


ISP~~~ ('n. i


[ Ammoinia fr'mn Cotttn S(etd lMeal......2 i
h Amr onlia fro li Cai.'t r Jllonite.........1.4 i l: 45
S'i liits (700 p undi, per ancr I ...........
Potn

138 35 173


Amnnillia frmn Co tton Seedl Meal ...... 2. i
Ammnirni from ( 'a-tr Pi'inMac..........1.4 72
Flonats (900 pound, per acie I ............
Potai-h from Sulliphate of P,'tah ...............

-Ammon nia frini (I',ttn Sed Meieal...... 2. i 4
Ammoni a frlo i at-or P iin .:14'"...........1.4 1 .
'Phlio-il, oric criid ft'roi Shi i PhIll1. t te..........
Pota:lh from Sulphate (if Pitlahi ..................

.iAmronia front (Cotton Sed Meal ...... 2.
j Ammionia from C':stor Ioinace ...........1.4 1" 10.
'Pholphloric .Aid from Slag Pho-plhae ....... 7.5
Potauh from Sulphate of Ptahli .................

tAmmoonia from L. -i. Bln>d and I>rione..........
10 m Plio. Acid frm L l Pholi ric Acid from Acii Pi'lh-ii lila t t 1 **I -
Potash fl-oilo Sulp late ,f Pota h .................. h

Check .................. ................... 147


42 114 44 1,5<,



51 186 37 223




40 182 35 217



-4 172 43 215


47 194 30 224









Bulletin No. 82


TEST OF DIFFERENT QUANTITIES OF AMMONIA, PHOSPHORIC
ACID AND POTASH.
Since the crop must make its growth in a short time it is de-
sirable to know what influence an increase or decrease over the
normal amount, of ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash, would
have on the rapidity of growth. It was supposed that this in-
crease would be measured by the increased yield, as the crop is
dug when two-thirds grown. The phosphoric acid and potash
in the cotton seed meal and castor pomace was taken into ac-
count in making up these fertilizers. Fertilizers were applied at
the rate of one ton per acre. The following table shows the source
of ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash, per cent in one ton and
yield per acre from same.
TABLE III.
Test of D ';- Quantities of A.mmonia Per Acre.


Kind of Fertilizer-


YIE]

'


a
a



Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.01 3 r
Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda ...... 2.5 J 1
PhosphoricAcid from Acid Phosphate ........6 0
Potash from Sulphate of Potash.......... ....8.0
Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.0 r
Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda.........3.0 ( 17-
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate........ 6.0
Potash from Sulphate of Potash ..............8.0
Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.5 4.
Ammonia from Nitrateof Soda......... 3 0
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate........ 6.154
Potash from Sulphate of Potash...............8.0
Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.5 1 t5
Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda......... 3.5
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate......... 140
Potash from Sulphate of Potash.............. 8 0
Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.0
Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda......... 2.5 4.5
Ammonia from Blood and Bone (HY.G) 1.0
Phosphoric Acid from Blood and Bone 0.7 6 0 154
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 5.3
Potash from Sulphate of Potash...............8.0
*Check.................... .......................... 150
I


LD PER ACRE


a a a
U.. A- -3 t |



50 195 20 215



62 199 18 217



41 195 11 206



31 171 10 181




44 198 12 210


49 199 18 217


*This Check Plot belongs above No. 11.but is placed here for convenience.


398








4 Preliminary Report on Growing Irish Potatoes




TABLE III.-Continued.
Test of D : Quantities of Ammonia Per Acre.


Kind of Fertilizer


[ Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal......2.0)
Ammonia from Blood and Bone........2.5
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Mial 0.3
164 Phosphoric Acid from Blood and Bone 1.7 6.0 133
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 4.0
Potash from Cotton Seed iMeal..........5 )
[ Potash from Sulphate of Potash..........7 .
Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal ......1.6 0
Ammonia from Castor Ponmace..........1.4
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.3
17 Phosphoric Acid from Castor Ponmace 0.2 6.0
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phophate 5.5 144
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal .......... 0.4)
Potash from Castor Pomace............. 0.2 8.0
Potash from Sulphate of Potash ........ 7.4

Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal...... 2. 4 0
Ammonia Irom Castor Pomarce..........1.4
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.4
18 Phosphoric Acid from Castor Pomace 0.2 6.0 174
1 Plosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 5.4
Potash from Cotton Seed Mea!...........0 6
Potash from Castor Pomace..............0 2 8.0
Potash from Sulphate of Potash .........;. 2

Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal ......3.0 .
Ammonia fromu Castor Pomace...........2.0
Pho.phoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.5)
19 Phosphoric Acid from Ca-tor Pomace 0.3 6.0 0
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Pho-phate 5.2 160
SPotash from Cotton Seed Meal ...........0 7
Posash from Castor Pomace...............0.3 .0
Potash from Sulphate of Potash.........7.0

Check ............ .......... ....................... 145


YIELD PER ACRE F





Z Z


39 1721 25


49 193 24 217


37 211 21 232







40 200 24 224




41 186 27 213








Bulletin No. 82


TABLE IV.
Test of Different Quantities of Phosphoric Acid Per Acre.


Kind of Fertilizer


, I'rr Cent.

SAmmonia from Cotton Seed Meal........2.6
Ammonia from Castor Pomace............1.4 J
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.4)
20 Phosphoric Acid from Castor Pomace.. 0.2 5
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 4.2
Potash from (otton Seed Meal...........0.6)
Pota.l from Castor Pomace............0.2 ,
Potash from Sulphate of Potash..........7.2

Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal ........ 2.6 1
\nmmonia from Castor Pomtace............1.4
SPhosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.4)
18 Phosphoric Acid from Castor Pomace.. 0.2 6
SPhosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 5.4 )


rotasll from Cotton Seed Mleal............ 0.
Potash from Castor Pomace................0.2 8
Potash from Sulphate of Potash .........7.2
Check ............ .. .. .... .. ................. .


Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal ........2.(i
Amm onia from Castor Pomace ........... 1.4
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.4
21 Phosphoric Acid fromi Castor Pomace.. 0.2 7
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 6.4
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal............0.6 )
Potash from Castor Pomace.................0.2 8
Potash from Sulphate of Potash.........7.2)

SAmnmoniafrom Sulphate of Ammonia.. 1.0)
,2 Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda ......... 3.0 I
SPhosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate........ 5
Potash from Sulpihate of Potash.................8


YIELD PER ACRE!

- 1 -1 4

i ^ H 0
_^ SJ l
;4 lri4 ~


148 67 215 40 255







174 37 211 21 232




162 48 210 23 233


182 51






156 51


I Amoniafrom Sulphateo(f Ammonia.. 1.0
23 Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda.......... 30
IPhosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate ........6 130 51
Potash from Sulphate of Potash.................8

I Ammonia from Sulphateof Almmonia .. 1.0 I
24- Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda ......... 3.0
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate........7 142 45
Potash from Sulphate of Potash.................8


238 45 283






207 1 44 251



181 16 197


187 24


Placed l here ior comparison. Fertilizer hae' he same e comp]osjition a.s Check Plat.








A Pre/iminary' Report on Growi g Irish Potatoes 41




TABLE V.
Test of DI Quantities of Polash.

YIELD PER ACRE


Kind of Fertilizer


Check .................. ....... .. ............. 14 41 186 27 213

Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal ...... 2.;
Ammonia froiii Castor Pomace ........ 1.4
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd M eal 0.4
Phosphoric Acid from Castor Poilace 0 2 -i 1 4, 37 186 .5 221
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate ,5.4
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal......... 0.6
Pota-h from Castor Pomace............. 0.2 7
Potash from Sulphate of Pota,-h...... ;.2

Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal ...... 2 6;
Ammonia from Castor Pomace......... 1.4
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.4
Phosphoric Acid from Castor Pomace 0.2 i
Phophoric Acid from Acid Phosihate 5.4 174 37 211 21 232
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal ......... 0.lj
Potash from Ca-tor Pomace............. 0.2 S
Potash from Sulphate of Potash....... 7.2

Ammi1onia from Cotton Seed Meal..... 2, i
Ammnonia from Castor Pomace......... 1.4
Phosp horic Acid from Cot'n S'd Menal 1.4
Phoplhoric Acid from C('ator Pomace 0.2 i i
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate 5.4) 1i7 43 200 30 230
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal ......... 0.6
Potash from Castor Pomace........... 0.2 9
Potash from Sulphate of Potash....... 8.2

Ammnonia from Cotton Sced Meal ......2.6
Ammonia from Castor Pomace ..........1.4
Phosphoric Acid from Cot'n S'd Meal 0.4
Pho,-phoric Acid from C(' tor Pomace 0.2 '
Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phon-plite 5.4) 1(7 29. 196 28 224
Potash from Cotton Seed Meal .......... 0.6
Pota l from C( astor Pomace............ ... 0.2 10
Potash from Sulphate of Potash ....... 0.2


Placed here for colmlari on.


P', ,. (;.,",. < <








Bulletin No. 82


TABLE V.-Continued.
Test of Different Quantities of Potash.

YIELD PER ACRE


Kind of Fertilizer


Im am
a a

Per Cent.la 0 0 i<


SIAmmonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.01
8 Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda........ 3.0
2 Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate...... 6
IPotash from Sulphate of Potash .............. 7
Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.0
Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda........ 3.0
*23 Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate...... 6
Potash from Sulphate of Potash............... 8

Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.01 4
Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda........ 3.0 j
29 Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate...... 6
Potash from Sulphate of Potash............... 9

Ammonia from Sulphate of Ammonia 1.0 )
Ammonia from Nitrate of Soda........ 3.0 J
30 Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate...... 6
,Potash from Sulphate of Potash..............10
C heck ....................... ......................

*Placed here for comparison.


12 226



16 197


8 210


23 233


167 47 214



130 51 181



192 29 221



166 36 202


162 48 210









A Preliminary Report on Growing Irish Potatoes


TEST OF PERUVIAN GUANO.
Two bags of Genuine Peruvian Guano was furnished by
Edmond Mortimer & Co. for this test. One bag high in phos-
phoric acid and one high in ammonia. They were mixed with
phosphoric acid and sulphate of potash and applied at the rate of
one ton per acre as shown in the following table:

TABLE VI.
Test of Peruvian Guano.


Kind of Fertilizer


r Ammonia from Peruvian Guano....... 2.0 4
Ammonia from ('otton Seed Meal..... 2.0 j
31 Phosphoric Acid from Peruvian Guano ......6
Potash from Peruvian Guano........... 2.2
Potash from Sulphate of Potash ........ 5.8

SAmmonia from mixture of equal parts
of two Guanos.......................... 4
32 Phosphoric Ac d from same............. 6
| Potash from the siame..................... 2.
SPotash from Sulphate of Potash....... 5.8


YIELD PER ACRE





Pr, CeI' t. f "
7~ 'z.


122 49 171


27 198


119 28 147 17 164


f tAmmonia from Peruvian Guano....... 4
SPhos'ph'c Acid from Peruvian Gunno 3:0 1
33- Phosph'c Acid from Acid Phosphate 3.0
Potash from Peruvian Guano........... 1.0
SPotash from Sulphate of Potash....... 7.0

Check.......................................

*Peruvian Guano hivh in Phosphoric Acid.
+Peruvian Guano high in Ammonia.


161 28 189


152 29 181


15 204


24 205









Bulletin No. 82


TEST OF DIFFERENT QUANTITIES OF NORMAL FERTILIZER.
This test was inaugurated to find the best quantity of fer-
tilizer to use per acre. No attempt is made here to give a money
value to the crop as the market fluctuates so.
The test was made in duplicate using two sources of am-
monia as shown in the following tables:
TABLE VII.
Tes/ of D Quantities of Ferilizer per Acre.
This fertilizer contained 4 per cent. of Ammonia. 6 per cent, of Phosphoric
Acid and 8 per cent. of Potash. The Ammonia derived from Cotton Seed Meal
and Castor Pomace, Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate and Potash from
Sulphate of Potash. (See Plat No. 18.)

YIELD PER A CRE

No. of Rate I '
Plat Per Acre a "




34 1400 161 30 191 16 207
35 1600 177 30 207 16 223
36 1800 150 27 177 19 196
37 2000 160 30 190 17 207
38 2200 170 44 214 20 234
39 33 45 78 33 111
40 20 23 43 33 76

*No Fertilizer.
TABLE VIII.
Test of D'. -. Quantities o FiertiliLers per Acre.
The fertilizer used in this test contained 4 per cent. Ammonia, 6 per cent.
Phosphoric Acid and 8 per cent. of Potash. Ammonia derived from Sulphate
of Ammonia and Nitrate of Soda, Phosphoric Acid from Acid Phosphate and
Potash from Sulphate of Potash. (See Plat No. 23.)

YIELD PER ACRE

No. of Rate Per g a
Plat Acre
Cl a2 a



41 1400 155 32 187 17 204
42 1600 155 32 187 29 216
43 1800 156 53 209 28 237
44 2000 180 46 225 32 258
45 2200 188 38 226 33 259









A-1 Preliminarl Report o Grow'inzg Iris/h Poataoes


TEST OF VARIETIES.
A variety test of Irish potatoes was also made during the
season of 1905 at the same place where the fertilizer test was
made. Only early varieties were used as late varieties are of
little use. An attempt was made to get Virginia second crop
seed of the northern varieties in order to make a test of the
relative merits of the two kinds of seed, but only a few varieties
of such seed were obtained. Only red or pink varieties are used
for growing for the early market, the white ones do not sell well
nor do they stand shipping as well as the red or pink varieties.
Rose No. 4 is about the only variety used among the com-
mercial growers. This variety is oblong, rather flat with pink
shallow eyes. It is known by several names and as a number of
seed houses have been making a specialty of growing seed for
the Florida planters there are some differences in the car lots
of seed as shipped in. These differences are due to the different
methods followed in growing and selecting seed. The place
where they are grown may have some influence also.
The list as given below is in the order that they were planted
in the field. Near the bottom of the list will be found a variety
called "Rose 4, Home-grown." This seed was grown during
the previous Fall from small potatoes left from the Spring crop.
Potatoes so grown are slow to sprout and make slow growth.
The test of stem and blossom ends as shown at the bottom of
the list did not show that one was any better than the other.
A normal fertilizer was used at the rate of one ton per acre.
The preparation of the land, plats and method of cultivation were
the same as described for the fertilizer test.










Bulletin No. 82


TABLE IX.
Test of Varieties of Irish Potatoes.


YIELD PER
ACRE


VARIETY


-a

i N


*Wood's Earliest............... 125 28
PEarly Rose..................... 107 24
*Early Rose (second crop).. 130 35
-Spaulding's Rose 4........ 87 38
*Early White Rose.......... 115 57
*Wood's Earliest (Maine
seed)...... .................. 125 31
*Thoroughbred ............... 33 11
*Early Ohio..................... 94 33
*Junior Pride................. 116 1 45
*Early Harvest................ 96 38
*Crown Jewel................ 131 34
*Puritan (second crop)........ 122 24
*Early Sunlight............ 90 34
*White Bliss (second crop).. 127 36
*Red Dakota................... 84 33
tBeauty of Hebron ............ 104 36
*Bliss' Triumph........... 113 25
*White Bliss (Maine seed).. 106 23
tRose 4 (Massachusetts seed) 118 42
tRose 4 (Virginia second
crop ............................ 161 18
tRose 4 (home grown)........ 69 20
Rose 4 (blossom ends)....... 166 49
Rose 4 (stem ends).......... 194 31

*Seed from T. Wood & Son.
t Seed from McLaurin. Jacksonville.
t Seed from Mr. Leonard, Hastings.


DESCRIPTION OF VARIETY


0
C.. '0a aS
;;QC 00


1 ,4

A; o
-z


.00


153; R
131 Ob
165 Ob
125 R
172 L

156 R
44 Ob
127 Ob
161 R
134 R
165 Ob
146 R
124 R
163 R
117 R
140 Ob
138 R
129 R
160 ..

179 ... ...
89 ......
215 ...
225 ...


Color





D Pink
S Brown, pink eyes
S Pink
D Red
S White


D Pink
S White, pink eyes
S White, pink at one end
D White
S White
S Slightly pink
S White
D White
D Pink
D Red
S White
D Red
S Pink









.

IL


PLANTING


o
j u,.







































SHOWING METHOD OF PLOWING LAND IN BEDS. WATER FURROW SHOWS
NEAR EACH LOWER CORNER OF CUT








































LOOKING ACROSS THE ROWSI


>, .\







































DIGGING AND SORTING IRISH POTATOES


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