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THE W ORL D
SCENE IN T H POLAR REGIONS.
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THE W ORL D
PICTURES AND SCENES FROM FAR-OFF LANDS.
,tlarp at b (Elizabeth Aiirbp,
AUTIIORS OF 'IIIINGS IN THE FOREST."
T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW;
EDINBURGH AND NEW YORK.
f .1/.. Righi s Kcsen'e3.'_ Yi73.
HIS volume is called "THE WORLD AT HOME," because
f it brings the world, that is so full of wonders,
"C l"' to our own fireside.
Young people can sit and read about the different
races of men, the animals, the birds, the plants, and the
insects, which they have never seen, and perhaps never
heard of. As they read, they must admire the wisdom of
the Creator in fitting every animal for the clime it has to live
in, as well as in providing for its wants.
The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof." Hill
and dale, flower and tree, sunrise and sunset, proclaim His power and His
The book is embellished with pictures of the various scenes and objects
described, in order to make it more attractive.
It is intended to be followed by other volumes, which will carry the
reader still further, and give him a taste for deeper research.
M. ANDI E. K.
Qjo ife n llt .
TIHE TOWER THAT WAS TO REACH THE SKY. ... ... ... .. 13
SOMETHING ABOUT TIIE WEATHER, ... ... .... 14
TIIE RED LIGHT IN TIE SKY, ... ... ... ... 16
THE MAN DRAWN BY DOGS, ... ... ... ... ... ..
TIE SEAL, ... .. ... .. ... ... 20
HOUSES MADE OF SNOW, ... ... ... ... ... ... 22
TIE FIERCE WHITE BEAR, ...... ... ... ... 2
TIE WHALE, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5
TIE GREENLANDER, ... .. ... .. .. ... 27
A FIGHT WITH TIE WALRUS, ... ..... ... ... ... 29
THE BUSY LITTLE LAPP, ... ... ... ...... 3
SHIPS SET FAST IN THE ICE. ... ... ... ... ... ... 34
FLOCO AND HIS RAVENS, ... ... ... ... ... ... 3
TIE WATER THAT SPOUTS AND BOILS, ... ... ... ... ... 41
MOUNT IIECLA, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45
A LITTLE ABOUT ICELAND, ... .. ... ... ... .. 4
THE GULF STREAM, ... ... .... ... 43
TIE POLAR SEA, ... .... ...... 50
THE RED AN, ... ... ..... .. ... 51
TIE BABY'S CRADLE, ... ... .. ..... ... 54
THE MEDICINE-BAG, ... ... .. ... .. ....
THE FEAST OF GREEN CORN, ... ... ... ... ... ... 59
THE BUFFALO, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 61
THE INDIAN WHEN HE IS OLD. ... ... ... ..... (;5
THE PRAIRIE ON FIRE; ... ... ... ... ... ... 66
THE HERONS IN THE CEDAR SWAMP, ... ... ... ... ... 70
SIR WALTER RALEIGH AND HIS TWO PLANTS. ... ... ... ... 73
TIE WIID PIGEONS OF AMERICA. ... ... ... ... .. 75
TIE BEAVER, ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 7
TIE MAHOGANY TREE, ... ... ... ... ... ... 79
WHERE DOES THE COTTON COME FROM ? ... ... .. ... ... 80
TIE SUGAR-CANE, ... ...... ... ... 84
WHERE DOES COCOA COME FROM ... ... .. ... ... 88
THE FOREST IN BRAZIL, ... ... ... ... ..... 92
TIE INDIAN'S DRINKING FEAST, ... .. .. ... ... 95
TIE TAPIR, ... ... ... ....... ... 96
A LITTLE ABOUT BRAZIL, ... ... ... ... ... ... 100
TIE INDIAN'S BOW AND ARROW, ... ... ... ... ... 103
THE MONKEY BRIDGE, ... ... ... ... .. ... 105
TIE WARRIOR ANT, ... ... .. ... .. ... 106
TIIE ENEMY OF TIE ANTS, ... ... ... ... ... 108
LEAVES WALKING, ... .. .. .. .. ... ... 110
THE IANGING NESTS, ... .. .. ... ... 111
INDIA-RUBBER, ... ... .. ... .. .. 113
TIE EEL THAT GIVES A SHOCK, ... ... ... ... ... 114
A NARROW ESCAPE, ... ... ... ... ... ... 116
DIAMOND WASHING, ... ... ... .. ... ... 120
TIE INDIAN'S MEDICINE, ... ... ... ... ... ... 121
THE GIANT TRUNKS, ... ... ... ... ... ... 125
TIE INDIAN'S BLOW-PIPE, ... ... ... ... ... 120
THE GIANT WATER-LILY, ... ... ... ... ... ... 129
TIE BABY'S BATII, ... ... ... .. ... ... 131
TIHE LAND OF TIE GIANTS, ... ... ... ... ... ... 132
THE SAND STORM, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 135
TIHE LIGHTS IN TIE TREES, ... ... ... ... ... ... 137
THE CROCODILE IN TIE MUD,... ... ... ... ... ... 18
PAMPAS, ... ... ... ... ... 140
CROSSING THE ANDES, ... .. ... ... ... ... 142
THE HIGHEST VOLCANO IN TIE WORLD, ... ... ... ... ... 144
TIE COW TREE, .. ... ..... ... .. ... 145
THE INDIAN S BEAST OF BURDEN, ... ... ... ... ... 146
THE SHARK, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 150
TIE TYPHOON, OR GREAT WIND, ... ... ... ... .. 15
THE TEA-FARMER, ... ... ... ... ... .... 156
EATING BIRDS' NESTS, ... ... ... ... ..... 160
THE CHIINAMAN S KNIFE AND FORKE ... .. ... ... ... 162
THE CHINAMAN'S DINNER, ... .. ... .. .. ... ... 16
FISHING WITH A BIRD, ... ... ... .. ... 164
TREPANG, ... ... .. .. ... ..... 1IC
LITTLE FEET, ... ... ... ... ... ... 167
A CHINESE WEDDING, ... ... ... ... ... .. 168
RICE INSTEAD OF CORN, ... .. ... ... ... 19
BASKETS OF FIRE, .. ... ... ... ... ..... 170
TIE TALLOW TREE, .. ... .. ... ..... 171
CIINAMAN BUSY IN A THICKET OF BAMBOO, ... .. .. 172
THE CITY ON TIE WATERS, ... ... ... ... .. .. 175
A LITTLE ABOUT TIE CHINAMAN S RELIGION, ... ... ... .. 176
TIE TWO EMPERORS, ... ... .. .. .. ... 177
TIE BUTTERFLY TRICK, ... ... ... ... .. ... 179
SHOPPING IN JAPAN, ... ... ... ... ... ...
THE STEPPES, ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 134
BRICK TEA, ... ... .. ... ... ... ... 186
THE CAMEL OF THE TARTARS, ... ... ... ... .. 188
TIE WILD IORSE OF TIE STEPPES, ... .... *... ..
"T TIE SON OF IIEAVEN," .. ... ... ... .. .. 194
TIHE PRAYING-MILL, ... ... ... ... ... .. 195
TIE TEMPLE OF GOLD, ... ... ... ... ... ... 19
A LITTLE MORE ABOUT TIIBET, ... ... ... .. .. 198
THE YAK, ... ..... ... ... .. ... 199
TIHE BUTTER FEAST, ... ... ... ... ... 290
THE PEARL DIVERS, ... .. *.. 202
THE SPONGE AND TIE CORAL, ... ... ... .. ... 204
TIE MARK OF BUDDIIA'S FOOT, ... ... ... .. ... 206
TIE ELEPHANT, ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 208
THE TIGER HUNT, ... .. ... .. .... 210
THE TALIPOT, ... ... ... ... ..... ... 212
THE HUMMING-BIRD, ... ... ... ... .. 21
THE SNAKE-CIIARMER, ... ... ... ... .. ... 215
THE TURTLE, ... ..... ... 217
THE BANIAN TREE,... ... ... 2 20
THE GREAT SPIDER, ... ... ... ... ... 222
THE FLY-CATCHERS, ... ... ... ... .. .. 223
THE NUTMEG AND THE CLOVE, ... ... ... .. ... 226
THE BIRD OF PARADISE, ... .. .. ... .. ... 227
INSECTS THAT GIVE LIGHT, ... ... ... ...... 229
THE HINDOO GOLDSMITH, ... ... ... ... .. .. 231
A LITTLE ABOUT CASTE, .. ... ... ... ... ... 233
30ING TO SCHOOL IN INDIA, .. .. ... ... .. ... 235
HOUSES IN INDIA. ... ...... ... 238
THE SACRED RIVER. ... ... ... ... 239
BENARES, ... ... ... .. *.. 242
TIE MAN DROWNING HIMSELF IN TIE RIVER GANGS ... ... ... 241
THE BRAIMINS' KINDNESS TO DUMB ANIMALS ... .. ... -.. 246
THE TIGER OF THE JUNGLE, ... ... ... .. 247
TIE BUNGALOW IN THE JUNGLE, ... ... ... ... .. 249
THINGS TO BE SEEN IN THE JUNGLE, ... ... ... .. 250
THE WET SEASON AND TITE DRY, ... ... ... ... 254
BRIDGES IN INDIA, ... .. .. .. *. 256
THE STORY OF JUGGERNAUT, .... .. .. ... 257
THE GREAT BAT OF JAVA ... .. .. ... ... ... 260
THE WILD MAN OF TIE WOODS, ... ... .. 263
TIE RAINLESS DESERT, ... .. ... ... .. ... 24
TIE LION OF TIE DESERT, ... .. ... ... 207
TIE WIND OF THE DESERT, ... .. ... *.. 268
THE SAND THAT LOOKS LIKE WATEI ... .. ... ... 272
MEN OF TIE DESERT, ... .. ... .. ... 274
TIE GREEN SPOT IN TIE DESERT, ... ... ... ... ... 276
THE ARAB'S TENT. ... .. ... ... 278
FOOD OF TIE ARABS, ... ... .. ... ... 280
ARABS AT DINNER, ... ... ... ... 283
COFFEE, ... .... ... .. 285
HOW DO THE ARABS DRESS ? .... .... .. .. ... 289
THE ARAB'S LANCE. ... ... .. ... ... ... 291
WORKMEN IN TIE DESERT, ... ... ... .. ... 293
THE GREAT BIRD OF TTIE DESERT, ... ..... 291
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THE WORLD AT HOME.
THE TOWER THAT WAS TO REACH THE SKY.
ONCE upon a time, the people who lived on the earth spoke the same
language. But they became lifted up with pride. The earth had once
been drowned by a flood. They thought, if they could build a tower high
enough to reach to heaven, they never need fear a flood any more.
It was very wicked of them to think so. God had told them that He
would never drown the world again ; and they ought to have trusted
And they might have known that no tower could be built by the hands
of man which would be high enough to reach to heaven.
Did they build the tower ?
They began to build it, but God stopped them.
He confounded their speech. That is, He made one man speak one
language, and another man another language. So the men could not
understand each other.
What a confusion there must have been! Of course, they could not go
on building the tower. Each man went his own way, and the tower was
14 SOMETHING ABOUT THE WEATHER.
Ever since that time different languages, or tongues, have been spoken
all over the world. Each nation has its own language. In England, we
speak English; and in France, people speak French ; and so on.
But are the people who live in different parts of the world all alike?
Oh no; far from it.
They have not the same colour, or the same features, or the same
habits, or the same religion.
The happiest part of the world is where the Bible is read, and where
the people are Christians. I think you will like to know something about
other countries. You will find that people have a great many curious
customs, and wear very curious dresses, and eat very curious things.
In some parts of the world it is very hot, in other parts very cold. In
other places people are so happy as to live where it is neither hot nor cold.
But wherever men are placed, the good God provides them with
enough to satisfy their wants. There is no part of the world where man
can get out of the reach of God :
Are there any ruins of the tower ?
There is a heap of bricks and rubbish, the remains of some great tower.
The Arabs call it Babel.
The name they give it means confusion, or topsy-turvy.
SOMETHING ABOUT THE WEATHER.
THERE is a part of the world which is very hot indeed.
If you open the map of the world and spread it before you, I will tell
you where it is.
Do you see a black line that runs through the middle of the map ? That
is called the Equator. There is no line in reality, but when ships pass
through the place where the Equator is, they call it passing under the line.
The sailors have a great deal of fun when they pass under the line. Some
of them dress up, and get into a boat, and then pretend to hail the ship.
One of the sailors is dressed up like Neptune, who was said, by the
SOMETHING ABOUT THE WEATHER. 14
heathen, to be god of the sea. They give a little present to the captain,
and dance on the deck and have very rough sports.
On each side of the Equator is the Torrid Zone. You can guess the
meaning of the word torrid. It means very hot indeed. The sun is
hotter than ever it is in England. Great palm-trees grow in the Torrid
Zone, and large bright flowers, more beautiful than I can tell you. And
there are wild beasts, and monkeys, and parrots, and humming-birds.
There is no winter at all. The leaves drop off the trees; but the new
leaves have come before the old ones go. The trees are always green. It
is summer all the year round.
How far does the Torrid Zone reach ?
It reaches to two dotted lines that you can find, one on each side of the
Read their names.
The Tropic of Cancer to the north, and the Tropic of Capricorn to
What kind of a climate do we come to, when we are out of the Torrid
To a climate where it is neither very hot nor very cold. Such a
climate as England.
We are in the Temperate Zone. Here people can work hard, and not
feel the worse for it. They can build great cities, and work with machines,
and lead very active lives. The great nations of Europe are in the North
The South Temperate Zone has not many people in it. It is nearly
Are there any more Zones ?
Yes; there are the Frozen Zones. The countries round the North
Pole are in the Frozen Zone. The South Frozen Zone has no countries in
it that we know about. It is all sea and ice. The weather is very cold
indeed in the Frozen Zone. The winter lasts nearly all the year round.
The sea is blocked up with ice, and at last the ice and the cold will not let
the sailors get any further.
1 TIHE RED LIGHT IN THE SKY.
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TIHE FRIIZLN ZON.
Do any people live in the Frozen Zone ?
Yes; but they are scattered about over the country. They do not
build houses. They keep shut up in huts a great part of the year. They
have no fields of corn, and no machines to work with, and no books to
read. No great nations are found in the Frozen Zone. It is too cold
almost to live.
THE RED LIGHT IN THE SKY.
You never saw such a gand sight as this in your life The sky is full
of lights that keep dancing about, or else form a beautiful arch overhead.
THE RED LIGHT IN THE SKY. 17
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,__ i I I
THE RED LIGnT IN THE SKY, OIl THE AURORA BOEEALTS.
Your eyes would be almost dazzled by looking at them. Some of the
lights are red, some are yellow, and some are purple. In fact, they are all
the colours of the rainbow. It is the Frozen Zone where these lights shine
In the winter, these poor people cannot see the sun for many weeks.
I do not mean tliat the sky is clouded; but that the sun never shines
above the horizon. Do you know what the horizon means?
You must go up a hill, and then look round. You will see, in the
S -- i iI i I i
18 THE MAN DRAWN BY DOGS.
distance, that there is a line where the sky seems to touch the ground.
That line is the horizon. If it is very early in the morning, you may
perhaps see a rosy light in the east. And then up will come the golden
ball of the sun. But in the Frozen Zone, if it was winter, you might
watch all day and not see the sun. The stars would keep on shining as if
it was night.
About noon there would be a faint kind of glimmer like what twilight
is in England. But the sun would never show his face at all.
While the sun is away, the stars shine brighter than ever they do
anywhere else. And the beautiful lights will come and dance in the sky.
The people can see to go about, or even to work, by the shining of these
lights. They would be very badly off without them.
What is the name of the lights ?
Aurora Borealis; or, what is a prettier name still, "the merry dancers."
THE MAN DRAWN BY DOGS.
HERE are some of the people who live in the Frozen Zone. They are called
Esquimaux. They do not grow very tall, because of the cold. But they
know how to wrap themselves up in furs and skins. They would be frozen
to death if they did not. Where do the furs and skins come from ? God
has made some animals to live in the Frozen Zone which are of use to the
The bear gives him his nice warm fur, or rather the Esquimaux takes
it from him.
And there is a funny creature that lives in the sea, and has a round
head and a tail like a fish. This is the seal; and its skin is as warm as
anything he can find. So he makes his coat, and his cap, and his shoes of it.
But no animal is more useful to the Esquimaux than his dog. His
dog stands to him in the place of a horse. There are no horses in this
country. They could not live. There is nothing for them to eat, and
there are no roads for them to gallop on.
THE MAN DRAWN BY DOGS. 19
So when he wants to go a journey he has to be drawn by dogs. The
carriage he rides in is a sledge. He made it himself out of the bones of
the great whale. Then
he covered it with seal- -
skin. You can see the -'
shape of the sledge as .:...
well as if it was standing. ..
before you. The poor- -- ----
dogs have very long jour- -.--- ----
neys to go. .You see how
they are fastened together
with straps of seal-skin.
The dog that runs first is
called a leader, and the -
driver tells him which
way to go.
If the man says Nan-
n bok," the dogs will run
as fast again as they did
Nannook is the name,
in that country, of the
fierce white bear. The
dogs go hunting with their
master, and help to get
him his food. They hate
the white bear, and like .
nothing so much as run-
ning him down.
Their master knows THE MAN DAWN BY DOGS.
this, and he often plays them a trick. He will cry out "Nannook when
no bear is in sight. He only wants the dogs to go a little quicker.
The leader is a very clever dog and does not often make a mistake.
20 THE SEAL.
If there is a snow-drift, or if the night is dark, he will put his nose to the
ground, and run along straight to the place where he is going.
The driver is not very kind to his dogs. In the winter he gives them
very little to eat. One reason is that he gets very little for himself. But
his wife feeds them whenever she can; and when they are ill, she lets them
lie down in the hut, and takes care of them. The dogs are very fond of
their mistress, and will follow her anywhere. If they are ever so hungry,
they will come out when she calls them, and be harnessed to the sledge.
But one thing the poor dogs cannot help doing. If they see a morsel
of anything to eat lying by the side of the road, they will run to it. In
vain the driver scolds and beats them. They will not stir until they have
eaten it up.
Of course the dogs steal as much as they can of their master's food.
Then the Esquimaux is very angry indeed. Half his time is spent in
driving the dogs out of the hut, and watching lest they should steal his
How much better it would be, if he let the poor dogs have some dinner
THE poor Esquimaux takes a great deal of trouble to catch the seal.
The seal is very cunning, and does not mean to be caught if he can
He loves to swim about all day in the water. But he will sometimes
take a nap on the ice.
He is so cautious that he will seem to sleep with his eyes open.
He will dive into the sea at the least noise. Not that he is quick.
He is very fat and very slow. But he takes care to be near a hole in
the ice, so that he can pop down in a minute.
Many of the holes in the ice have been made by the seal himself.
He makes them, that he may put up his round head and breathe.
The Esquimaux goes about and listens. He is trying to hear a seal
THE SEAL. 21
making a hole. If lie hears the seal breathe, he will not leave the spot-
no, let the cold be ever so great !
He wants to get that seal, and take it home to his wife and children.
He makes a little wall of snow to keep the wind off him. And then he
squats down and waits.
Meanwhile, the seal goes on working. It does not know that its
enemy is lying in wait.
It goes on till the ice gets very thin indeed, and the hole nearly broken
But it takes a long time to make the hole. And the poor Esquimaux
is sitting all the time in the cold. His spear lies at his side, ready to be
used when it is wanted.
22 HOUSES MADE OF SNOW.
If he stirred or made the slightest noise, the seal would hear him and
The funniest thing is, that" he will tie his own knees together for fear
his clothes should make a rustling.
All at once the right moment is come. He lifts up his spear without
making any sound, and drives it with all his might into the seal's body.
He has a rope round his arm, and he ties it to the seal and drags it
When the seal is fairly caught and killed, there is a great rejoicing.
The women and children come out of the huts to meet the hunter, and to
tell him how glad they are.
They have perhaps been without meat for some time. And they have
had no oil in their lamps. They could not even melt the snow into water
when they wanted something to drink.
But now a time of plenty begins. The lamps swim with oil. The
women bring out their cooking-pots, and get the feast ready.
Children snatch up bits of raw seal, and put them into their mouths,
and suck them as if they were pieces of sugar-candy.
HOUSES MADE OF SNOW.
THERE are no nice houses or towns in the Frozen Zone. The Esqui-
maux do not know how to build them. All the winter they live in huts
made of snow.
The snow hut is very clean and white when it is new. But it soon
gets dirty. And when the summer comes it begins to melt.
The Esquimaux does not always make his hut of snow. Sometimes
he finds logs of wood on the shore. They have not grown in his own
country. No trees grow there. But they have been drifted by the waves
from some other place; and then he picks them up and builds his hut with
When he cannot get wood, he uses the pure white snow.
HOUSES MADE OF SNOW. 23
-- ^s T .,-. ~ ,-
MINGO SNOW HOUSES.
It is so hard frozen that it will not melt. It keeps hard all through
the winter. Sometimes, when the hut gets very warm with the lamps and
the people and the dogs, the walls begin to drip a little. But'he takes a
piece of fresh snow, and soon mends the place.
Yes; but they are not made of glass. No one can make glass in this
country. The window is a piece of ice.
Is not the snow very cold?
Ohi no the hut is as warm as the Esquimaux can bear it. He has no
How does he warm it, then ?
By his lamp. His lamp is nothing but a vessel like a saucer, which is
full of oil. A great many little wicks float on the oil, and he lights them
all The burning wicks make the room warm.
all. The burning wicks make the room wsnn.
24 THE FIERCE WHITE BEAR.
A cooking pot hangs over the lamp; but he often likes to eat his meat raw.
"Has he any chairs or tables?
Oh no! People do not know how to make them. There is a seat all
round the hut. It is covered with warm skins, and does to sit or to lie
upon. But if you took a peep under the skins, you would see that the
seat was of snow.
When the warm weather comes the Esquimaux is glad to get away
from the snow hut. Its walls begin to drip, and he gets wet as he lies in
bed. He often takes cold if he cannot go at once and live in a tent.
He lives in a tent all the summer.
THE FIERCE WHITE BEAR.
THE fierce white bear lives in the sea as much as on the land. He lives
in the cold country where the man was drawn about by dogs. He is called
S the "ice bear," because he
: 1 keeps so much on the ice.
S- His fur is white and sleek,
and his toes are joined to-
S. gether, very much like the
toes of a duck or a goose.
He can swim as well as a
fish can, and is as much at
home in the water.
When he gets on land,
he can run a great deal
Faster than a man can.
Indeed, a man would never
"i '".l' t get away from him by
THI FIERCE WHITE BEAR. The white bear eats
fish, and birds, and foxes, and even the reindeer when he can get it.
THE WHALE. 25
He is very savage when he is hungry. In the picture he has caught a
seal. The seal was lying on the ice taking a nap, when the fierce bear
came stealing along. His feet made no noise, and the poor seal did not
awake in time. When he did awake it was too late. The fierce bear will
eat him up every bit.
I am glad there are no fierce white bears in England !
PEOPLE meet with a great many hardships when they go to hunt the great
The whale is the !. ;.- t creature that man knows anything about.
No animal, on sea or land, is so large as the whale.
Is not the whale a fish ?
No ; it is an animal, though it looks like a fish, and many people call
It has warm red blood, and the fish has cold blood. It gives suck to
its young, and it cannot live except it breathes air.
It has two holes in the top part of the head, called blow-holes.
It will blow out a great stream orjet of something that looks like water.
But the jet is not really water. It is a steam or vapour. The breath,
in fact, of the whale. When the warm vapour comes into the cold air, it
turns to a cloud of mist, and falls like water. The whales are very fond of
They make such a great noise when they are angry that it may be heard
for miles off.
The mother whale is very fond of her little one. She will come swim-
rming up in a moment if she thinks it is in danger.
The men who are in the ship looking out for the whale know this. If
they see a little whale, they will fling a harpoon and try to wound it.
They know this will bring out the mother, as fast as she can get.
26 'TE WHALE.
.. $ :.x_=_ ---
-- -- "--- z ,- =- "=:-'
KILLING THE GREAT WHALE.
They want to kill the mother whale, for the sake of the oil in her body.
They get into a boat, as you see in the picture, and begin to throw
their harpoons. A very long rope is fastened to the harpoon, and the
other end of the rope is in the boat.
The sailors have a machine like a wheel, on which the rope is wound.
It is called a windlass. The windlass turns round very quickly indeed,
when the harpoon is lodged in the body of the whale. For the whale dives
down to the bottom of the sea, carrying the harpoon with it.
If a sailor gets his feet entangled in the rope, he would not be able to
get them free, while it was being pulled by the whale. And he would very
likely be dragged overboard and drowned.
Indeed, from first to last, there is great danger in hunting the whale.
Sometimes the whale will give the boat such a blow with its tail that
it is thrown up into the air, and all the sailors with it.
THE GREENLANDER. 27
The sailors are very much afraid of the huge tail of the whale, and get
as far from it as they can.
The whale cannot keep at the bottom of the sea long, because it must
come up to breathe. It takes care to come up a long way from the boat. But
the sailors can always tell where it has gone to. The harpoon is still in its
body, and the rope fast to it. So they pull at the oars, and soon come up
with the poor whale.
The whale dives again, when it feels another harpoon. But it cannot
help coming up, as it did before. And so the hunt goes on till the whale is
tired out and weak from loss of blood. Then the sailors can come quite
close up and kill it.
What people live in that country ?
The Greenlanders. They are like the Esquimaux, and think the whale
a great treat.
There are many kinds of whales, and they are found in different places
in the world.
The whale in the picture is the great Greenland whale.
What does the whale eat ?
It eats tiny shell-fish and little soft-bodied creatures called jelly-fish.
It swims with its great mouth wide open. A fringe of hairs hangs
down from the roof of its flouth.
Its mouth is like a cavern, for it is nearly half as large as its body.
All the little creatures it wants to swallow abound everywhere in the
sea, and they swim into its mouth by thousands. But they cannot get out
again. The fringe prevents that. They are gulped down by the whale.
It takes many such mouthfuls to make the huge creature a dinner.
THE man in the picture is a Greenlander, and he is going out in his boat.
Summer is come, and he wants to hunt for the walrus or the narwhal
What is the narwhal?
28 THE GREENLANDER.
y -- -- --
T--- GBEELANDE IS HIS B OAT.
i --_ ,
S'L -. T,
THE GREENLANDER IN HIS BOAT
A kind of whale, with a long spike to its upper lip.
He has made the boat himself. He made it of whalebone, and then
covered it with the skin of the seal. The seal-skin fits tight round his
waist, and will not let in a drop of water. He can never get wet in his
water-tight boat. If the weather is ever so stormy, he does not mind. If
a great wave knocks him over, he can soon right himself with his paddle.
He has the paddle in his hand. It is like an oar, only wide at both ends.
The Greenlander has a house made of great stones. He contrives to roof
it with pieces of wood that are thrown on shore by the sea. He is very
A FIGHT WITH THE WALRUS. 29
careful of his wood, and never makes a fire of it. He warms his house
with a lamp as the Esquimaux does.
Several families live in one house. There are partitions made to keep
tnem separate. The houses have windows, but very little air is let in.
You creep into the house through a dark narrow passage.
The Greenlander catches the seal as the Esquimaux does. The flesh of
the seal is being cooked all day long. If a visitor comes in, he is asked to
No corn grows in Greenland, and the reindeer runs wild. So there is no
reindeer's milk to be had.
The Greenlander hunts the reindeer, and kills it when he can for the
sake of its flesh.
You would think a Greenlander would like to live in England. He
would have the sun shining all the year round, and he would live in a good
house, and have plenty of food without hunting for it.
But he does not like to live in England. Some Greenlanders came
here once, and people wanted them to stay. But they began to fret and
pine. They liked their own country the best.
A FIGHT WITH THE WALRUS.
A GREAT many huge creatures live in the Frozen Zone. There is the whale.
His body looks almost like an island. And there is the walrus.
In the picture the walruses look very fierce indeed; but they are angry.
They were lying on shore asleep, and the men came and tried to kill them.
Then they got up, and tumbled one over the other into the sea. They
made such haste, and were so big, that the men could not stop them. But
when they had all tumbled into the sea, the men put off in a boat, and
rowed after them. Then you see what took place. The walruses were
still very angry; and they felt braver in the sea than they did on the land.
So they got round the boat and tried to upset it. The men will have hard
work to drive them away, or to kill them.
80 A FIGHT WITH THE WALRUS.
A FIGHT WITH THTE WALRUS.
"Why do the men want to kill the walrus ?
Because his great body is so useful to them.
Do -you see his long tusks? They are white and shining, and are
made of ivory. He has a thick, tough skin, and it can be made into good
leather. His flesh is a great feast to the people on shore, though you and
I might not like it.
Though the walrus is so big, and has such fierce-looking tusks, he does
no harm. He has no front teeth, and could not eat flesh if he tried. He
eats sea-weed and little shell-fishes that he finds in the sea.
His tusks are very useful to him when he is on the ice. He can stick
them into a great rock of ice and drag himself up.
When the fierce white bear attacks him, he fights with his tusks. It
will be well for the sailors in the boat if he does not make them feel his
tusks as well.
,___-- __ _. ,-_-. < .==-=-_- ,- ,---__ ---_.__
___ ,- -
..... ,_ .. +_. _-o, =_ ...
--- C1.T .- --
-. o, ,~ .;- ,+ ,. -__ ... __-..-_- ,~___._._ -_-~'T-E-- .,EINDEE_. -BEIN MILKED
THE REINDEER BEING MILKED
THE BUSY LITTLE LAPP. 33
THE BUSY LITTLE LAPP.
THERE is a tribe of busy little people who live in the Frozen Zone, and
are very seldom seen anywhere else. They do not live in huts, because it
would not suit them to do so. They are obliged to wander up and down the
country. Sometimes they are in the mountains, and sometimes in the
plains. So they pitch tents, and then they can move about as they like.
They are called Lapps, which is short for Laplander. Lapland is the
name of the country where they live. You can find it by looking on the
map of Europe. The reason why the Lapp moves about so much, is because
of a very useful animal that God has given him.
I mean the reindeer. The reindeer likes to move about: In the summer
some very fierce flies bite him. The flies are called mosquitoes. I am happy
to say we have not any in England. When the mosquitoes bite him, the
poor deer is glad to run anywhere. He runs up the cold mountains, and
likes to stay there. Then the Lapp follows him, and sets up his tent.
In the winter, the flies go away, and then the Lapp drives his reindeer
down to the plain. So you see he has to set up his tent again. You
would not think the tent very nice to live in. The door is so small you
can hardly get in. There is no chimney, but the smoke goes out at a
hole in the top,-that is, it goes out after it has made everybody's face
look very black.
There are no lamps or candles. People think the fire-light is enough.
They sit and they sleep on skins spread on the floor. They find out the time
by looking at the sun. How many things the little Lapp has to do without!
But he is very happy and contented. If he has a herd of reindeer,
he thinks he is a rich man. He has very little to eat besides the flesh
and the milk of the reindeer. When winter comes, and the wild-fowl have
flown away, and the sea is too frozen to let him catch fish, he goes to his
herd of reindeer and kills one of them.
This is as good to him as beef or mutton is to us.
Every morning and night the reindeer are fetched up to be milked.
34 SHIPS SET FAST IN THE ICE.
The milk they give is thicker and nicer than that of the cow. The
Lapp wife makes cheese of it. She does not use butter.
There is a man in the picture who is riding on a sledge. He has no
horse to draw him. But see how his reindeer gallops away! The rein-
deer is fastened to the sledge by a strap, and his master ties a cord round
his horns by way of a bridle. His master can go a great many miles
drawn by his faithful reindeer.
When the reindeer dies, or is killed, his warm skin makes a coat or
rug, or whatever garment the Lapp chooses to have.
So that the reindeer may be said to feed and to clothe his master.
What does the reindeer live upon ? Nothing except moss. This moss
grows under the snow, and seems to have been put there on purpose for
the reindeer. In winter, when it freezes so hard that you could not stand
out in it a minute, the reindeer wanders about looking for moss. He has
no stable or shelter of any kind. But he turns up the frozen snow, and
gets at the moss, and is quite content. A horse or a cow would die if
turned out in such a frost. But this is the home of the reindeer. He will
not die, for God has placed him there to be a comfort to the little Lapp.
SHIPS SET FAST IN THE ICE.
PEOPLE in England are very fond of finding things out. They have found
out how to make steam work like a horse. And they have found out how
to send messages by the wires that run along the side of the railway.
But there was another thing people wanted to find out. They wanted
to find out what they call "The North-West Passage." I will try to
explain to you what the North-West Passage is.
If you look at the map of the world you will see two great pieces of
water. One is called the Atlantic and the other the Pacific Ocean. Now,
to get from the Atlantic to the Pacific, ships have to go round South
America by Cape Horn, or else round Africa by the Cape of Good Hope.
i r-,;,~ _I-_,- F, ,,, ,,' p ,.,.. "'T ~
.P : .- .- .. .-.
S- -- I i d/' ~ --f,
F S N THE5Ik
FAST IN THF- ICE.
SHIPS SET FAST IN THE ICE. 37
It was thought that a way might be made for ships to sail along the
extreme north coast of America and come out into the Pacific Ocean.
This was called "The North-West Passage." It would be a short
route, and would save a great many miles.
First one brave man and then another has been to try. They found
out a great many straits and bays. And they named them after themselves.
There is "Baffin's Bay," and "Hudson's Bay," and "Davis' Straits."
But the brave men always met with an enemy that made them turn
back. I mean the cold.
It is the Frozen Zone, and the sea is frozen over. If the ice melts a
little in the summer, there are still great dangers. Huge blocks of ice are
floating about; and if they were to come against the ship, they would
knock it all to pieces. These blocks of ice are as large as mountains, and
very grand to look at. They are green and blue, and a great many colours,
and they shine as clear and bright as crystal. But the sailors try to keep
out of their way.
Perhaps you have heard the name of Captain Franklin. He was a
very brave man indeed, and had set his mind on finding out the North-
West Passage. He tried again and again; and the last time he went to
try he never came back any more.
If you look at the picture you will see what happened to him. His
ships were set fast in the ice. He knew this was likely to happen, and
had brought plenty of food.
He did all he could to take care of his men. He made them run about
to keep themselves warm. If the weather was very bad they would run
about the deck. And sometimes the men would sing by way of cheering
each other's spirits. There they are upon the ice. I daresay those three
are talking about dear Old England.
It is very cold; so cold that you could hardly bear it. The men had
often to cover their faces with a veil or mask to keep them from being
Poor Captain Franklin had to leave his ships at last. The ice did not
melt, and there was no hope of getting through it. Besides, the food was
38 FLOCO AND HIS RAVENS.
being used up. All the animals, except the wolves and the foxes, were
gone to a warmer place; and there was no fishing in the ice. When the
ship is left, the only way is, for the sailors to draw the boats along upon the
ice until they get to a place where the sea is not frozen. And this is what
they tried to do.
Captain Franklin did not come back to England; and then a ship was
sent out to look for him. This ship was called the Fox, and I am sorry to
tell you the news it brought.
Poor Captain Franklin had died in that dreadful country, and most of
his men had died too.
The captain of the Fox did not meet with a single man belonging to
the crew. But he saw many things that made him sad. In one place
there was a boat that the poor sailors had been trying to drag along. Near
the boat, there lay scattered about on the ice a pair of worked slippers, and
a watch, and a Bible. I am glad to tell you that the Bible seemed to have
been a comfort to its owner. There were marks and bits of writing in it
in pencil, as if it had been read and thought about a great deal.
Thanks to all the searching, and the brave captains who have gone in
ships to look for it, the North-West Passage has been found out. But
while the ice and snow remain as they are, no ships will be able to make
use of it.
Another way has been thought of-a canal to go through that narrow
strip of land that joins North and South America together. Should that
canal ever be made, a ship will then be able to sail through it from the
Atlantic and come out into the Pacific Ocean.
FLOCO AND HIS RAVENS.
Do you know what is meant by a pirate ?
A pirate is a man who goes out to sea in a vessel and tries to rob all
the other vessels that he meets with.
FLOCO AND HIS RAVENS. 39
Once there used to be a great many pirates sailing about in the seas of
Europe. It is a good thing that there are very few in these days.
The ships in which these
pirates sailed were not like
the ships of our day. Here
is a picture of one of them. I.
The bow was formed like -
a huge dragon, which seemed
to cut the waves with its ) ''
gaudily-painted breast. "
Its tail curled behind, over
the head of the steersman.
Twenty or thirty long oars
were used on each side. A
single mast bore a large square
sail, made in broad stripes of ANCIEvT srHP.
red, white, and blue. Well were these pirate ships known on the shores
A great many years ago, one of these pirates was caught in a dreadful
storm. His ship had to run before the wind-that is, he had no power
to guide it. The ship went wherever the wind chose to drive it.
Where did the ship drive to?
To an island nearly covered with snow. There were no people on this
island; but he saw mountains with peaks white with snow. There was
so much snow that he called it Snowland.
When he got home to Norway, he told his friends he had found a new
island; and he talked so much about it, that another man went out in a
ship to look what kind of a place Snowland really was.
The mariner's compass was not invented in those days. Do you know
what the mariner's compass is like ?
It is a box with a needle fastened in it. The needle can turn
round any way; but it always points to the north. When the sailor is
wandering in his vessel over the wide ocean, and there are no stars
40 FLOCO AND HIS RAVENS.
to guide him, he looks at his compass. Then he can always tell which
is the north, and which way to go.
The man who went to look for Snowland was called Floco. He took
three ravens with him. He thought that when he had sailed a good way
on he would let one of them fly. He hoped it would fly to land, and then
he would sail after it.
But the first raven he let go did not fly forward. It went back to the
place from which it had been brought. Then Floco knew that he had not
sailed far enough. He was nearer to his own country than he was to
A few days after he let the second raven loose. But the raven, after
flying about a long time as if it did not know where to go, came back to
No land was to be seen.
At last Floco let loose the third raven. This time he was right. The
bird flew straight to land.
Floco was very glad indeed to think that he was so near the end of his
Soon he came in sight of the island of Snowland; but there was so
much ice all about it that he changed its name, and called it Iceland.
He stayed about a year in Iceland, and then went home.
A very cruel king reigned in Norway in those days, and many of the
rich nobles wanted to get out of his way.
They had heard a great deal about Iceland, and they thought they
could not do better than go there. After talking about it a long time,
two of them set sail with their wives and children.
They found the whole island covered with trees; and that nobody
They had to chop the trees down as they pushed their way along.
A great many more people came from Norway to escape the cruel king.
So that Iceland was inhabited.
What religion had the people of Iceland in those days?
They were heathens. They made sacrifices to their gods. Often
THE WATER THAT SPOUTS AND BOILS. 41
human beings were offered upon the altars. But missionaries soon began
to come to Iceland to teach the people better.
At first the poor ignorant heathen pelted these good men with stones,
and would not listen to them. But the missionaries kept on coming, and
by degrees the Icelanders began to listen to them.
At length the people met together to talk the matter over. They
made up their minds to throw their idols away, and not worship them any
Who did they worship ?
The true God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ.
Does Iceland now belong to Norway ?
No; it belongs to Denmark.
Should you like to know the name of the cruel king who drove the
nobles away ?
It was Harold Harfager. And the first two nobles went out in the
year A.D. 874.
THE WATER THAT SPOUTS AND BOILS.
Is Iceland in the Frozen Zone ?
No; but it lies very close to it.
It is in the North Temperate Zone. But it is much colder than
in England. England lies further from the Frozen Zone than Iceland
Iceland is all over hills and rocks; and sometimes the ground is
strewed with stones and pieces of a black burnt substance called lava.
Where does the lava come from ?
From some mountains called volcanoes. Once the lava was thrown out
burning hot from a hole at the top. It ran down the sides of the moun-
tains; and looked like melted stones.
That was a very long time ago. All the volcanoes have given over
sending up stones except one.
42 THE WATER THAT SPOUTS AND BOILS.
That one is Mount
S .: Hecia, and it has not
S. thrown up any stones
i.- ''" lately.
I. i But though the
-! volcanoes seem to be
S:; quiet, they are work-
ing away underground.
S, Though there is ice at
the top of the ground,
-there is fire beneath.
1 The firegoes work-
"ing on a long way.
S.' When it meets with
., '. -'- water it makes it boil.
----;-,. If vou listen in some
-. --- places, and put your
-.-- ear closet the ground,
--- you can hear the hiss-
ing of steam and a
"- rumbling noise a little
THE GREAT GEYSER. Fire and water
are meeting each other. When the water finds a place where it can get
out it spouts up like a fountain. It is so hot that you could boil your
kettle over it. It keeps on spouting in the same place till it has worn
itself a smooth basin. All round the basin are the stones it has thrown up.
When it has spouted a few minutes it goes down into the basin. But
it soon comes up again, and spouts as fiercely as ever.
Travellers always go to see the hot springs. Indeed, some people travel
to Iceland on purpose. There are a number of them to see. There is the
big Geyser and the little Geyser, and others besides.
Geyser is a good name for them. It means to spout or rage.
._ _. .:- --: --# _.
MO UNT HEC
S --. _---.- .. ..''.-..
-I : _- : -- ~-~~--'
_._, ___---. _._- = _. ....- _. -._ = ~ _- ,_'__ .. -~- .. ~ ~
MOUNT HECLA. 45
ONE day a shower of ashes fell on some islands near the coast of Scotland,
called the Orkney Islands.
This happened rather more than twenty years ago.
People knew that the ashes came from a volcano; and they guessed
that Mount Hecla was throwing them out.
This was indeed the truth. News very soon came of what was going
on in Iceland. An earthquake had happened in the night, and loud noises
had been heard, like something roaring under-ground.
The people were very much frightened, as you may think. But the
next day they were more frightened still. There came a loud crash, and
Mount Hecla began to throw out fire and smoke.
The fire ran down the sides of. the mountain, and burnt up everything
Some poor sheep were feeding on a common. Those which could not
get away quick enough were killed.
The mountain was dreadful to look at. It was wrapped in clouds of
steam and ashes. The rivers, near where the lava flowed, grew so hot that
all the fishes died.
A fortnight after, there came another crash. Everybody in the island could
hear it; and the lava burst out afresh, and ran for more than twenty miles !
It was like a stream of fire, and was a mile broad. All the ice and
snow on the mountain melted, and made a great flood.
You may think what harm was done to the country.
Even where a bit of grass was left, it was quite spoiled. It seemed as
if it had been poisoned. And if the cattle ate any of it, they were taken
ill, and died.
All the while the mountain was throwing out lava, there was a great storm
of thunder and lightning. And often the red light would shine in the sky.
Some of the stones thrown out were immensely large, and were carried
to a distance of five miles.
40 A LITTLE ABOUT ICELAND.
A LITTLE ABOUT ICELAND.
THERE is only one town in all Iceland, and that is by the sea-side. It is
a very poor place, not much better than a village.
The people live by the sea-side in order to catch the fish. They have
wooden houses, with painted doors to make them look smart.
There are no inns. An inn-keeper would not find much custom in
When a man wants an inn he goes to the church.
The church is used for many purposes besides preaching in.
A gentleman once went to church in Iceland. He saw the people
sitting on great boxes instead of in pews. He asked the reason why, and
"Oh, sir, we keep our best clothes in the boxes!"
There was no lock on the church-door, and a man could go in and out
to his box, just as he liked.
How curious that would be thought in England I
The farmer keeps his bags in the church, and makes it quite a lumber
room. People have to eat and sleep in it, when they use it for an inn.
The churches are a long way off each other. There are not many
of them in Iceland.
What kind of houses are those little wooden ones, inside ?
They look smart enough with their green shutters; but they are not
very comfortable. The windows are very small, and are not opened
enough. The Icelanders are not fond of fresh air, or of pure water.
They are very dirty people, and wash neither themselves nor their
clothes half as often as they should do. They ride on brisk little horses,
that trot up and down the rough places, and do not often stumble. And
they catch a great deal of fish in summer, and salt it for the winter.
They eat fish and butter. The butter is squeezed very dry and packed up
to keep a long time. We should think it rancid stuff.
The rich people eat beef, and mutton, and rye bread. No corn can
A LITTLE ABOUT ICELAND. 47
grow in Iceland. And some of the rich people have larger houses and
better built. The doors and windows, and most of the fittings, are brought
over from Denmark.
How do the people of Iceland dress?
They wear woollen clothes to keep themselves warm. The rich women
are very smart indeed. An Iceland lady will have on a blue cloth
petticoat, and a scarlet boddice, and a ruff of red and blue round her neck.
She will have silver chains in her hair, and put on a curious high head-
dress with a handkerchief at the top.
The wool comes from the sheep. But there are no machines in
Iceland to make it into cloth. The women wash it and spin it themselves.
They are very busy in the long winter evenings. For they make the
cloth into petticoats, and knit their own gloves and stockings.
Besides all this, they get the eider down ready for sale.
The eider down is very soft and warm. It comes from the breast of a
duck, and is used to make quilts of.
If you were to kill an eider duck people would be very angry.
If you were to kill an eider duck people would be very angry.
48 THE GULF STREAM.
There is one place where the nests are so close together that you can
hardly help treading upon them. And the birds are so tame they will not
move out of your way.
The duck pulls the soft down off her breast to line the nest with, and
make a bed for her young ducklings.
But the Icelander comes creeping up when the duck is not at home,
and takes away the down.
He takes an egg or two as well. For he thinks the eggs very nice
When the duck comes back and finds the down gone, she sets to work
and pulls some more off.
Her breast soon loses all its down, and then her mate pulls off some of his.
The ducks do not stay all the year in Iceland. When the little ones
can swim they all go off, and not one of them is to be seen.
But the Iceland woman has a great quantity of down that has been
stolen from the nests. She mixes it with feathers and straw to make it
go further. And when it is all ready, she sells it to make into quilts and
THE GULF STREAM.
ONCE upon a time, people did not know that there was such a place as
But some clever men, who thought a great deal, wondered where
certain things came from.
Some trees were cast up on the shore, and these trees did not grow
anywhere either in Europe, or Asia, or Africa.
Where could they have drifted from ?
We know where they had drifted from. They had drifted on the sea
all the way from America.
A stream or current of water brought them. It is called the Gulf
This stream is warmer than the rest of the sea, and is of a different
THE GULF STREAM. 49
colour. It comes from the Torrid Zone, and flows on through the sea for a
very long way.
Why is it called the Gulf Stream ?
Because it has travelled round the Gulf of Mexico. When it comes
out, people name it
the Gulf Stream. The
Gulf Stream does Eng-
land a great deal of
good. Without it the.
weather would be very
cold indeed. Our seas .
would be blocked up -'i -
with ice, and our ships
could not sail about "
for a great part of the
We might as well .
livein the FrozenZone
as in England without "
the Gulf Stream. \x' ':- '
But the stream of" .
warm water comes -
straight from the Gulf -.'. .
of Mexico to the west- -- -
ern shores of Europe. '
It makes the climate '
mild, and prevents the
sea from ever being 5 -.
blocked up with ice. THE GRAPE WEED.
There are some parts of America quite as far from the Frozen Zone as
England is. But they are as cold as Iceland, or the country where the poor
Esquimaux live. The reason is, because the Gulf Stream does not flow that
way to warm them.
50 THE POLAR SEA.
Fishes and animals that live in the seas of the Torrid Zone are some-
times carried along in the Gulf Stream as far as the British shores. They
have kept in the stream all the way, or the cold of our seas would have
There is a curious sea-weed that floats in the Gulf Stream. It has
seeds upon it that look like little bunches of grapes. The sailors call it
the grape-weed, and they are very fond of bringing some home in a bottle
to show to their friends. There is such a great deal of this weed, in one
place, that ships are almost set fast in it.
How thankful we ought to be that the Gulf Stream flows near enough
to give us some of its warmth, and that we are not frozen up like the poor
THE POLAR SEA.
Is there a sea of water round the North Pole ? I thought it was all ice.
And so many people thought; and many brave men have been turned
back by the cold.
But in these days, something new is always being found out.
A clever man, named Dr. Kane, stayed all the winter up in the ice.
When the spring came, he got his ship along, and still kept going towards
He went on for more than a hundred miles, and then the ice actually came
to an end! An open sea, like that in the picture, rolled at his feet. The
water was of a green colour, and felt almost warm. The waves were dashing,
and wild-fowl and sea-gulls were flying about and enjoying themselves.
The air felt milder, instead of colder, and he could hardly believe he was
so near the North Pole.
You may think how glad he was! And what wonderful news he had
to bring home with him! One of the men set up a flag, as a sign of
It was an American flag, because the captain of the ship was an American.
Did he go any further?
THE RED MAN. 51
No. The sailors were so worn out with the hardships they had gone
through, they could go no further.
When they had planted their flag, and enjoyed the sight of the polar
sea, they turned back. But more people are gone, and we hope soon to
know all about it.
THE POLAR SEA.
I have just told you how the Gulf Stream makes England warm. It
is thought that a current of the same warm water flows to the Pole, and
may be the reason of the open sea.
THE RED MAN.
WHo lived in America when the white man came there ?
A great many people lived there. They had not white skins as we
have. Their skins were a reddish-brown, or copper coloured. They were
called Indians. We call them American Indians.
It is a glorious country for any one to live in. There are rivers full of
fish, and forests full of game. And there are buffaloes, and wild horses,
and deer and turkeys, and pigeons without number.
52 THE RED MAN.
But, in spite of this, the white man is driving the red man quite out
of the country.
The reason is, the white man gets all kinds of knowledge. He has
learned to make ships and guns, and machines of every sort you can think
of. He is always learning and making something new.
The red man does not care to learn. He knows how to hunt and to
fish. He can find his way through the deep forests. He can tell you the
track of the wild animal by the slightest mark on the ground. He knows
a great deal about the use of the plants and herbs that grow in the
But when he has killed enough game to satisfy his hunger, and
when he has made a roof of some kind to shelter him, he is content. He
does not want to be troubled with knowledge or improvements. So when
the white man begins to clear the forest, and to build houses, and to grow
corn, the red man retires from before him. He goes away to some place
where he can do as he likes, and not be disturbed. So the white man
gets stronger, and the red man weaker.
I must tell you something about the red man.
He is very tall and fine looking. He would be handsome, if he did
not paint his face as you see in the picture.
He wears a strip of soft leather wrapped round his foot instead of a
shoe. He calls it a mocassin. His stockings or leggings are of cloth or
leather, and are stitched on, and not taken off. He does not wear his
best clothes every day. He paints his body, and wears a short kind of
skirt, with a girdle round his waist, and a plume of feathers on his head.
But when he wants to be grand, he puts on his robes.
His robe is of skin, taken from the buffalo or the deer. But it is very
much adorned with figures, and with porcupines' quills. And often it has
a deep fringe upon it.
What is the fringe made of?
I am sorry to tell you that it is made of human hair. The hair of the
men he has killed, because they were his enemies.
It is one of his customs to scalp his enemy when he has killed him.
THE RED MAN.
TIHE RED MAIN.
Then lie flourishes the scalp in his hands, holding it by the hair. The
more scalps he can get, tile better he is thought of.
From this you perceive that the red man is not a Christian.
He worships a being whom he calls the Great Spirit. He prays to
him, and calls him Father.
But the Indian has no Bible, and no knowledge of Jesus Christ.
He thinks there is an Evil Spirit who can get the mastery over the
Good Spirit. What a sad idea that is The Indian is always afraid lest
the Evil Spirit should do him harm. When he is ill, and feels as if he
were going to die, he sends for the medicine-man.
Is the medicine-man a doctor ?
54 THE BABY'S CRADLE.
Yes, he is a doctor, though that is not all. He can prescribe medicine,
which he makes out of the herbs that grow in the forest. And sometimes
the medicine does the patient good. Whether it does him good or not he
must take it, for there is no other doctor to be had.
What else does the medicine-man do?
Ho is the mystery man. That is, he pretends to have power over the
Evil Spirit. And this is why the Indian sends for him, when he thinks
he is going to die.
He comes dressed up in the skin of some wild animal, so that you
might almost fancy it was the animal itself walking in. He makes a
dreadful noise, and shakes his spear, and dances, and rattles bones together,
and grunts, and howls. He would be turned out, in a moment, if the tent
belonged to the white man. But the poor Indians stand by in silence,
and look on with awe. They think all the noise and howling will drive
away the Evil Spirit.
If the poor patient dies in the midst of the tumult, the medicine-man
says it is the will of the Great Spirit. And he packs up his traps and
goes off. Perhaps to dance and howl by the bed-side of somebody else.
THE BABY'S CRADLE.
WHEN the Indian is a little baby, and can neither talk nor walk, his mother
carries him about in a cradle like what you see in the picture.
What a funny kind of cradle! How different from what we have in
This cradle is not slung round the mother's neck, but it is kept in its
place by a broad band, that passes round her head.
Do not you see this in the picture? The cradle itself is merely a piece
of board, with a slip of wood at the bottom, for the baby's feet to rest
on. The baby looks as if it were standing, but it is held up by those straps
which pass from one side to the other of the cradle, and lace it in. One
strap-or hoop, for it is made of wood-goes round its head to keep it steady.
THE BABY'S CRADLE. 55
THE BABY'S CRADLE.
The baby cannot move either hand or foot.
When it gets home, its mother will let its hands and arms loose. Then
it can play with its playthings.
What are its playthings?
They are little tinkling coins and bits of tinsel, that shine and please
They hang down from the hoop, or strap, that keeps the baby's head in
place. It will play with them for hours, and be as happy as possible.
Does the Indian mother love her baby ?
66 THE MEDICINE-BAG.
Oh yes: very much indeed !
If it were to die, she would fret and grieve most sadly.
She would go about with the cradle on her back just the same.
What! when the child was gone ?
Yes; she will fill it with black feathers, and carry it about for at least
Sometimes, when she is at work in her house, she will lean the cradle
against the side of the tent, and sit close by it. Then she will talk to it,
as if her baby was inside, and say all manner of loving things to the
Poor mother! I am sure you are very sorry for her.
THE Indian has left his cradle a long time ago. When he was old enough,
his mother took him out of the cradle, and let him roll about on the grass,
and do just as he liked.
He was still a baby, and could neither walk nor talk. But he was
strong and healthy; and he soon grew up to be a lad.
Where did his father and mother live ? Sometimes in a tent, sometimes
in a hut made of logs. The tent was used in summer. It was a very large
tent, and held a great many people. It was called a wigwam.
How was it made ?
Of the skins of buffaloes stretched on long poles, and coming to a point
at the top, as you see in the picture.
The skins were very nicely dressed, for the Indian can do this well; or
rather, his wife can. Most of the work falls to the lot of the women. You
may see how busy they are !
When the skin is dressed, it is as soft and beautiful as possible. If it
gets wet twenty times a-day it will dry just as soft as ever. The skins are
stitched together to make them large enough. Sometimes they have
pictures on them, of animals, and birds, and men.
THE MEDICINE-BAG. 57
Wll.hvAMS OF THE RED MEi;N.
When the tent had to come down, every one was very busy indeed.
Tie poles were tied together, and dragged along by horses to the place
where the Indians wanted to go.
The poor tired women are often glad to ride on the poles or on the
backs of the horses. They have done all the work of taking down the tents.
The little Indian lad likes to move about. He has a very merry life of
it. Sometimes he swims in the clear river, or gallops with his father over
the prairie, or sits and listens to the tales of the old men, and hears how
many battles they have fought, and how many enemies they have killed.
The fighting men are called warriors. They are very brave. If they
were put to the greatest pain, they would never cry out. The little lad is
not old enough yet to be a warrior. But the time comes at last. He is
fifteen years of age, and he wants to leave off playing with the boys, and
take his place among the men.
Will the grave old warriors allow him ?
58 THE MEDICINE-BAG.
Not till he gets a medicine-bag. I will tell you how he gets his
He goes into a cave quite away from his friends. Then he sits down
on the floor. He means to be in that cave four days without anything to
eat. He thinks the Great Spirit will be pleased with him, if he torments
himself in this way.
Time passes on. In spite of his strength he begins to be faint and
weary. The sun rises and sets, the moon and stars look peacefully down.
Again it is morning. Yet he has neither had bit or drop. He has made
up his mind to fast to the end, if it kills him.
He is lying now on the floor. His eyes are shut. This is the time
when he thinks the Great Spirit will tell him how to make his medicine-bag.
He begins to doze; then he dreams a little. He has seen the great
buffalo hunted on the plains, and perhaps he dreams of it. When he
wakes up, he says the Great Spirit has told him to make his medicine-bag
of the skin of a buffalo.
The Indians will think that the Great Spirit has spoken to him. But
it is only a dream.
If he had dreamed of a dog, or a horse, or even a rat, he would have
said that he must make his medicine-bag of its skin.
This is why the medicine-bags are made of all kinds of materials under
Then the poor, faint lad, weary and giddy with fasting, gets up. He
staggers out of the cave, for he can hardly walk. When he reaches his
tent he calls out for something to eat. His mother gives him plenty of
food, and he makes a hearty meal. Then he thinks about hunting the
He gets on his horse, and gallops off to the prairie. There he knows
that he shall find plenty of buffaloes.
What great fierce-looking creatures they are! Their long shaggy hair
hangs over their eyes. Their huge horns are very frightful. But the
young Indian has seen the buffalo before to-day, and he knows what to do.
His nimble little horse gallops much faster than the buffalo can run. He
THE FEAST OF GREEN CORN. 59
soon comes close up to it, and, in a moment, a sharp arrow is in the
The arrow was shot from the bow of the young Indian. Another
follows it quick as thought, and very soon the poor buffalo is stretched dead
on the plain.
The Indian has plenty of material out of which to make his medi-
What good will his medicine-bag do him ?
He thinks it will prevent the Evil Spirit from hurting him. He would
not lose his medicine-bag for the world. You could not buy it of him for
money. Unless, indeed, he meets with one of the good missionaries and
learns to be a Christian.
Then he knows that God is Almighty, and can keep him from Evil
Spirits, and guard him by night and by day.
And when he is sure of this, he will cast his medicine-bag to the winds.
THE FEAST OF GREEN CORN.
SHOULD you like to hear a little more about the red men ?
There are many tribes or nations, each of which has a chief over it.
The tribes have funny names: one is called "Blackfeet," another "Flat-
head," another "Crow," and so on.
Do they grow corn ?
Yes; they grow Indian corn, or maize, as it is called.
They gather the corn and dry it to use in the winter. That is, as
much of the corn as is left.
They are very fond of green corn, and boil it in kettles and eat it.
People in England would never think of being so wasteful as to eat
the corn before it was ripe.
But the red man is not so careful and thrifty as his brother the
As soon as the ear of corn has swelled enough, and is soft and tender,
60 THE FEAST OF GREEN CORN.
the Indian women go and feel it. If
"7 it is ready to get, they bring back
word to the tents.
S11 / And then comes the feast of green
S // corn.
S '- Nothing is to be done for the next
',f) ew days, not even fighting; and the
\ .. .. Indian will go without food, and make
; I himself as hungry as he can, that he
\ : :' may eat the more of the green corn.
/ When all is ready, and the corn
'i ^ ~gathered, the whole village comes to
the place where the feast is to be held.
Where is the feast held ?
In an open space in the middle
of the village. An Indian village is
nothing but a number of tents, or huts,
THE RED MAN'S COr.. put very near each other. A space
is always left--a kind of play-ground I might call it-where the Indians
have their games and dances.
Here the feast of green corn is going to be held.
A fire is made, and a kettle full of corn hung over it. This first
kettleful is to be offered to the Great Spirit.
While it is boiling, a great deal of singing and dancing is going on.
Four of the medicine-men, with their rattles, and with ears of corn in their
hands, dance nearest to the kettle.
Then the chiefs and warriors form a larger circle, all with ears of corn
in their hands, and dance, while a song of thanksgiving is sung to the
It is like a harvest feast.
A number of bowls are laid on the ground, each with a spoon in it.
The spoon is made of buffalo horn. The Indians are going to eat out of
THE BUFFALO. 61
When the first kettleful of corn has been boiled enough, it is offered
to the Great Spirit, and the ears of corn burned.
Then another fire is made, and the feast begins in earnest.
The chiefs eat their corn first, and then the whole tribe fall upon the
young tender ears, boiled just to a turn, and devour as much as they can;
and they sing and dance, and give themselves up to pleasure.
The feast lasts till all the green corn is gone, and the corn that is left
in the fields has grown too ripe and too hard to be eaten with any com-
fort. Then, the half-stripped fields are left till the harvest.
GoD has taken care to provide food for all His children. Though they are
of different colours and nations, they are under His protection. And it is
He who opens His hand and supplies their wants.
It is He who gave the reindeer to the Laplander, and the camel to the
Arab, and has filled the great sea with living creatures which serve as food
There is the whale, the walrus, and the seal, all of which afford an
abundant supply to the poor half-starved people who live in the Frozen
Zone. And as we go on further, we shall find large juicy fruits growing in
profusion, and cocoa-nuts, and dates, for those who have their home under
the burning sun of the Torrid Zone.
In the vast plains or prairies of America, there are thousands and
thousands of wild cattle roaming about, and yielding food to the tribes
of Indians, and also to the white men.
The Indian could not live without the buffalo.
The buffalo meat is his chief food. He dries it for the winter, and
feasts upon it in the summer. The buffalo skin makes his fine dresses and
robes, and also his tents.
As I told you before, he can dress these skins and make them look very
62 THE BUFFALO.
nice indeed. And he has plenty of practice. Everything in an Indian
village is made out of buffalo."
The Indian hunts the buffalo with his nimble little horse.
His horse came from the prairie, and once scampered about wild and
free. But one day, when the Indian wanted a horse, he came to look
at the wild herd in the prairie. He galloped up, and threw his lasso
round the neck of the first he could reach. All the quickest of the horses
were out of his sight in a moment.
The horse, that was caught, could not get away, because the more it
pulled, the tighter the noose was round its throat. Then the Indian got off
his own horse, and tied the two fore-legs of the one he had caught together.
It soon left off struggling, and was led away by its new master and made
So you see the prairie gives the Indian horses to ride upon, as well as
buffaloes to hunt.
The great heavy buffalo cannot run so fast as the nimble little horse.
The Indian shoots his arrow while the horse is going at full speed. But
he does not often miss his aim. He has his quiver slung over his back,
and arrow after arrow flies as quick as lightning.
The red man knows how to hunt the buffalo.
Sometimes a grand hunt takes place.
All the Indians of the village go out on horseback.
The great herd of buffaloes is feeding in the prairie. The Indians
make a circle all round them, and then gallop furiously upon them, shoot-
ing arrows in every direction. There is a dreadful noise and dust; horses,
buffaloes, and men, are all mingled in confusion. The men are so quick and
clever, that if thrown off their horses, they will scramble out of the way
of danger. They will even climb along the backs of the buffaloes till they
have reached a place of safety.
The hunt lasts a long time, and does not end until nearly all the buf-
faloes have been killed. Then the hunters go away, leaving the field strewed
all over with dead buffaloes.
The next day the women come to finish the work. The men think
~--i~-~ _~---~. .-
BUFFALOES HAVING A GALLOP
THE INDIAN WHEN HE IS OLD. 65
they have done enough; and they sit and smoke their pipes at home. The
women go out and skin the buffaloes, and cut them up into meat. It is
hard work, and they come back so loaded they can hardly crawl.
There are great rejoicings at the plenty of food that is being brought in.
Sometimes the Indians dance the buffalo dance. They are very fond of
dancing, as you perceive.
Each man has the great head and horns of a buffalo on his shoulders,
and dances about as if he were mad. And another man will hunt him
about as if he were a buffalo. When the man is tired of being hunted
about, he stoops down, and then the other man shoots a blunt arrow at him.
Then the man who is shot, drops down and pretends to be killed. He is
dragged away, and the women brandish their knives over him, and pretend
to think he is a buffalo.
The dance is danced when the buffaloes have roamed a good way off
and not one of them is to be seen.
The medicine-man tells the people that they must begin to dance, and
then the buffaloes will come.
So on they dance, day after day, shooting and shouting, until at last
news is brought that the buffaloes are in sight.
Then the dance stops, and all the men seize their horses and set off for
The medicine-man has a shout of thanks--cheers, we should call them.
Because the poor ignorant Indian believes that the buffaloes have been
danced back again.
THE INDIAN WHEN HE IS OLD.
WHEN the Indian gets an old man, he cannot go out hunting as he used to
do. And he cannot fight, or dance, or go about from place to place.
He is very feeble and infirm, and wants some one to take care of him.
Then what becomes of him ?
The tribe to which he belongs do not very well know what to do with
66 THE PRAIRIE ON FIRE.
an old man. They are obliged to move about, and hunt, and go through
a great many hardships.
Perhaps they cannot stay any longer in the place where they are.
Then I will tell you what they do.
They make a little shed or hut for the poor old man, so that he may
have a shelter. And they give him a little meat and a vessel of water.
And then they bid him good-bye.
Are they going to leave him?
Yes. All alone in the wilderness, with no one to speak to or to be
kind to him. And with howling wolves on every side.
How very dreadful i
It is dreadful. People in Christian countries are shocked to think of
it. But the Indians are used to forsake their parents if they live to be old.
The poor old man had very likely left his father in the same way.
He does not make any trouble of being left. He tells his children to
go and take care of themselves. He knows he is a burden to them, and
will be better out of the way.
A traveller will sometimes come upon a little hut of skins, standing
quite by itself
What will he see inside ?
Nothing but a few bones.
He feels very sad. He knows that he has come to a place where some
poor old man has been left.
THE PRAIRIE ON FIRE.
Do you see those red streaks in the sky? I wonder where they come
from! Volumes of smoke keep rolling on, and there is a queer, crackling
noise. The noise seems to get nearer and nearer; and now it rolls along
with a mighty sound like thunder. On come, the red leaping flames. It
is easy to see what is the matter-
The prairie is on fire !
TH PAIIEON FIE
THE PRAIRIE ON FIRE. 69
What is the prairie ?
It is an immense plain or common that reaches for miles and miles.
Long waving grass grows in it. It is like a waving sea of grass.
Where is the prairie ?
The prairie in the picture is in North America. It is the place where
the Indian fetches his horses from, and where he hunts his buffaloes.
How many things there are in this vast country!
Mighty rivers; deep forests; and now the rolling, far-spreading prairie.
Birds and animals make their home in the prairie. The wild horse
gallops about with its mane flowing in the wind. The fierce buffalo is there.
The wolves roam about in packs. There is plenty of food for them all.
The wolf does not eat grass. He preys on the smaller animals; and
seizes and tears to pieces whatever falls in his way. He even attacks a
wild horse, or a buffalo, if it is weak or old, and cannot keep up with the
rest. The eagle and the vulture hover in the air, and find something to
pounce down upon and devour.
But now a terrible fright has seized the wild beasts of the prairie.
The long waving grass is on fire !
I cannot tell who has done the mischief. Perhaps an Indian left his
fire burning, or dropped a spark from his pipe; or the dry weather has
lasted a long time, and the grass takes fire of its own accord. At any rate,
the mischief is done. If men are at hand, they try to stop the fire by
burning a large space all round where they stand. When the fire gets to
the bare place it stops. There is nothing more for it to burn. But such a
fire as this, has got beyond the power of any one to stop.
What becomes of the poor animals ?
They have but one way of escape, and that is by flight.
The horses gallop madly along-their eyes starting, their manes flowing.
The buffaloes are not so swift, but they make all the haste they can. Each
tries to shift for himself. Each knows, by instinct, that the red scorching
flames are coming to devour him.
There is scarcely anything in this part of the world so terrible, and so
out of the power of man to control, as the prairie on fire !
70 THE HERONS IN THE CEDAR SWAMP.
THE HERONS IN THE CEDAR SWAMP.
It ,t .: -1:. ti. whit ii i ii Ai ricat
ii t l."t -. .n tl. a i t' iii ... ti. ir ees
"Tl, -i, th,, 1-1:wk m --tt,1 to
'*l1 .12i- i'i.^ j1 iii-t I rae:'l .t11i nil l3 l. :-l' it t t 11 *.Jp.
.... Ti l.i' iii. .i-tt...l t t r, t t i : ii. see
au It I- fiil t-il ti.-z.; tli ,t n-l : _I tt- lt ol-. you
"u lro1f1 .-, t I.ts w,- n tl Tl.i. tr! ink -.1 tli. trees
-'I. li.tt .-4-l th, t .' := .t see
t 1t :I A .I v.- iih I tUi- Wii l l .I L ti till t. *way
h1-t. i ,' r..tt a*I .. i-t ti.-' lir. ri I 11r;:i: tle- most
) s dismal noise you can imagine.
L ; d :. -: -' -'"
.: l< ,1 t,. 1,b th Ii.[.I. ma : lr r ,-,p.. n~i m ~4
THE HERONS IN THE CEDAR SWAMP. 71
It is scarcely possible for a man to make his way through the cedar
It is called swamp, because the ground under foot is soft like a bog, and
if any one tries to walk there, he sinks up to his knees at every step.
Great logs of fallen trees block up the way, and thick bushes of laurel
fill up every bit of room. He has to squeeze through the bushes, and
clamber over the logs, and wade through the bog.
Besides this, he has to swim over pools of water, where the alligator is
lurking in the mud. For the alligator loves the gloom and darkness of
the cedar swamp.
There is a long-legged bird, called a heron, which loves the swamp as well
as the alligator.
There are many kinds of herons, but this is the night-heron. Like the
owl, he flies about in the night.
Every spring, a great flock of herons come to the swamp. They fly to
their old nests, on the top of the tallest trees. The young birds who have
no nests set to work to make them.
The nests are made of sticks, and lined with twigs and wool. They
are so large that only one nest can be built on a single tree.
The mother heron lays four eggs, a little bigger than hen's eggs.
When the young herons are a few weeks old, they begin to climb about
the branches. But they do not fly till they are nearly grown up.
When night comes, the herons sally out to find something to eat.
There is plenty of food for them in the ponds and creeks of water.
They catch fish, and frogs, and insects, and anything that comes in their
The heron wades into the water, and stands there, looking for a fish to
come swimming by.
The moment the fish comes near enough, the heron pounces upon it
with his long bill, and devours it.
The frogs are sharper than the fishes. They dive into the mud, and lie
there quite still, until they think the heron is gone.
But the heron is as cunning as they are. He does not mean to go.
72 THE HERONS IN THE CEDAR SWAMP.
1 I s th, e ,,t h-re tlhe tfro,: h isi gone
-. ,.. ...l,,wtI ilt,, th ,. 11111.u 1 h ,. I .'l, l. ,.-l, e to
it. I:. ,.l.. nit na k the -lii.It-u t noise
WE m with Ili If lst the ft... -thould heat
u"t. tlh.-- h.. -tnd; wlit.lhi .z.
_H,1_ 1. ,.v ,ati,:it, vh,..r h- ip w .tch-
-. ,," .., l is f .
Ie st.l .. 12 tih t th l'.: thinks
I,, 1 Im-t 1I.. : .. I it pult- I n lit t silly
.. 'Th,.n ,.1 .vn .. tOle t rony
= 12Na ,: it 1 r It 111 'l1i and
\VI 17ih,- 1i..-. WI-ril I- roeS
HERONS FISHING IN A SWAMP.
l iNl _' _, ,
BeN .-,.. ,"> ,.iVM
SIR WIALTER RALEIGH AND HIS TWO PLANTS. 73
back to his swamp, and stands on one leg till he has digested his
The Indians admire the long flowing feathers of the heron, and wear
them on their heads for an ornament.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH AND HIS TWO PLANTS.
PEOPLE in England did without tea for a very long time. And for a long
time, they did without potatoes.
Where did the potato come from ?
From North America. Sir Walter Raleigh first brought it to England
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
He brought another -
plant as well, which is not '
half so useful. I mean the
He had seen the In-
dians smoke, and he thought \
he should like to try. So
he found out all about /
tobacco, and learned to
A funny story is told
about Sir Walter Raleigh
and his cigar.
When he got back to
his own house in England, THE TOBACCO PLANT.
and was sitting over the fire, he began to smoke. In the middle of his
smoking the door opened and in came his servant-man.
Now, this man had never seen any one smoke in his life, and did
not know there was such a plant as tobacco.
74 SIR WALTER RALEIGH AND HIS TWO PLANTS.
When he saw the smoke coming from his master's mouth, he thought
he was on fire.
He cried out in a fright, and ran to fetch a bucket of water to put out
the fire. Before Sir Walter had time to explain, he was deluged with
water, and his clothes were wet through.
But very soon the old servant got used to seeing people with smoke
coming out of their mouths, and all the young nobles of the court began to
smoke because Sir Walter did. And from the very first, the tobacco was
made a great fuss with.
How did people like the potato?
Not at all. Nobody would eat it. Yet Sir Walter told them how
useful it would be. The potato,
'. he said, could be made to grow
A -, in England. The tobacco will
"- --. "not grow anywhere but in a
-' '- hot country. And when the
"' 7^' ,.' corn-harvest failed, which it often
used to do, people need not starve
-' if they had plenty of potatoes.
Queen Elizabeth, who was a very
S:Ijj Sir Walter said. And she had
Potatoes served up at her own
table. The grand people, who
a ''^ dined with her majesty, were
S'" / _. K obliged to eat them. But they
g went away and spread a report
THE POTATO PLANT. that the potato was poisonous.
They said so, because the potato belongs to the same order as the deadly
nightshade and many other poisonous plants. And they could not believe
it was wholesome. So, in spite of all that Queen Elizabeth could do, no
one would eat potatoes, and they were left for the pigs.
When did people find out their mistake?
THE WILD PIGEONS OF AMERICA. 7.5
Not till many years after. The poor potato was despised and forgotten
till the reign of the French king, Louis XVI.
A man lived in this reign, who was very clever in growing plants for
food. He felt sure he could make the potato a great blessing to the
country. And he set about to try.
Did he succeed ?
After a great deal of trouble he did. People laughed at him, and
would not take any notice of what he said. But he went on growing the
potato till he had brought it to perfection. Even then, no one would
have eaten it, if the king had not taken its part. The king had large
pieces of ground planted with potatoes. And he went about with the
flower of the potato in his button-hole.
No one dare laugh at the king; and when he said potatoes were to be
eaten, people began to find out how good and wholesome they were.
By degrees the potato was more and more liked. In these days there
is no vegetable that is so highly thought of. We could never do without
What was the name of the wise Frenchman who would grow the
We ought never to forget it.
His name was Parmentier.
THE WILD PIGEONS OF AMERICA.
A VAST army of pigeons makes its home in the forests of America.
If you went into the forest where they live, you would find the trees
beaten down and broken. Great branches lie strewed on the ground. And
the ground is as much trampled down, as if an army of soldiers had been
The pigeons have done all the mischief.
When they have eaten up all the nuts and acorns, and every bit of
76 THE WILD PIGEONS OF AMERICA.
fruit they can find, and
:- -- have destroyed as much
S.,.. -- -- -- i as they have eaten, they
e-- m- go to another place.
"The whole army of
pigeons rises into the
-air with a rushing noise
-h like thunder.
SThey fly so high
It that nobody can shoot
Once, a man was
sailing down the river,
and he went on shore
to get something to eat.
While he was in the
--[shop, there came a rush-
S ing noise that was just
like a hurricane. He
thought it was a hurri-
cane, and that the house
Swas going to be blown
WILD PlGEONS. down.
But the man he was talking to merely said, "Ah there are the pigeons."
It was a very wonderful sight. The air was full of pigeons. On they
swept by-and on-and on. There seemed no end to them. Their wings
shone and glistened in the sun; and looked now green, and now purple,
and kept changing colour every minute.
For three days this army of pigeons kept flying past.
It was a mile in breadth; and it was two hundred and forty miles long !
The rushing noise made by the wings of the pigeons was so great, that
horses on the road took fright, and people could hardly hear themselves
THE BEAVER. 77
When the pigeons reach the part of the forest to which they are going,
they rush in with a tremendous noise. They soon batter down the
branches with their wings, and make a scene of ruin like what they have
Do people try to catch the pigeons ?
Yes. When they know the pigeons are on the wing, they turn out
with their guns and try to shoot them.
They can only shoot the pigeons when they come to the ground to pick
up nuts and acorns.
Then they shoot so many that they get quite tired of eating them for
Indeed, the very name of the pigeon is disliked.
THE beaver would have been left to build his house in peace if it were not
for his fur coat.
The Indian thinks his flesh very nice to eat, and every now and then
has a feast of it. But the Indian would never have cared to kill more
beavers than he wanted for his own use.
But the white man found out that the skin of the beaver was a
famous thing to make hats of-yes, and bonnets too-for those who liked
them very warm.
When beaver hats began to be worn, the Indians were paid money to
bring as many beaver skins as they could.
For a long time the poor beaver had very little rest for his enemies.
It was in vain he made his house as strong as he could. The Indian
was always on the watch to break in upon him; and if he tried to swim
away, the spear of the Indian would be sure to wound him. In fact,
thousands of beavers fell victims to the hat-makers every year.
In these days silk hats are worn a great deal, and the beaver trade is not
so brisk as it used to be.
78 TTHE BEAVER.
SWhat kind of a house
-does the beaver make ?
".' ; It is a house by the
.r water; and is built of
..,:,'..;4. 1 .i, '., mud and stones, and
', : branches of trees.
">. Great many beavers
S' '," i' live together, and build
', their houses all at once.
,' i "' .... The beaver is very fond
i'm "'of company.
But he does not like
"; -'i-- the water to get into
J -his house. lie seems to
i -- know that if a great deal
.of rain came, the water
"" would rise and swim him
Sand his friends away.
So he sets to work to pre-
vent such a misfortune.
You cannot think
how clever he is. He
makes a fence across the
aw:s. stream just as a man
might do. The fence is made of thick stakes of wood driven into the bed
of the river. This stops the water when it gets high, and will not let it
rush on to the house of the beaver.
All the beavers work at the fence, and do not rest until it is done.
They use their sharp teeth instead of a saw, and get on so fast that the
fence is soon finished. When all is safe, they begin to make their houses.
What do the beavers live upon ?
They eat the roots of a kind of water-lily, that grows at the bottom of
the water; and they gnaw the bark of trees, and devour berries, and herbs,
THE MAHOGANY TREE. 79
and what else they can find. In the summer they cut sticks and pieces
of wood with their sharp teeth, and lay them before their houses.
This is done that they may have something to eat in the winter.
The little beavers are very fond of play. They make a cry something
like that of a child. A gentleman once saw a number of little beavers at
play. He crept towards them with his gun in his hand, ready to shoot.
But their pretty gambols, and the cry they made, reminded him of his
children at home. He could not find it in his heart to shoot; and, I am
happy to say, he left the little beavers to have their gambols in peace.
THE MAHOGANY TREE.
A VERY great tree grows in America. It grows near the Bay of Honduras.
It has a thick solid trunk, and wide-spreading arms. Its leaves are a
shining green, and it bears little white flowers.
This tree takes a long time to grow It does not come to its full size
in the lifetime of a man. It is called the mahogany tree.
Do you mean the mahogany like our chairs and tables?
Yes. Once, people did not know anything about mahogany.
Sir Walter Raleigh went a great many voyages in the days of Queen
Elizabeth. He brought part of a mahogany tree from America, and had
his ships mended with it.
He thought it a very fine wood. But there were so many fine things
in the New World, that the mahogany was passed over.
A long time after this, it chanced that a few boards came to England in
a ship. The captain of the ship had a brother who was a doctor.
The doctor was building a house, and he thought he would use the
boards to make his doors of.
He tried to use it, but the workmen said the wood was so hard it spoiled
So, after all, only a piece of the mahogany was used, and that was made
into a candle-box.
80 WHERE DOES THE COTTON COME FROM?
But the candle-box looked so handsome when it was done, that every
one who saw it admired it.
And people began to think what a fine wood this mahogany was.
Very soon the maker of the candle-box had enough to do.
All his customers wanted furniture made of the new wood. And you
will not wonder that he made his fortune as well.
How do people get the mahogany ?
It grows in the forests, and the black men are sent to cut it down. A
black man climbs up the tallest tree he can find. Then he looks round
to see how many mahogany trees are growing there. He knows them by
their reddish colour. Then he points them out to the other negroes, and
they set to work to cut them down. When the trees are felled and cut
into logs, the negroes make a raft of them, and float them all down the
river. When they get to the sea, ships are ready to take them to Europe.
WHERE DOES THE COTTON COME FROM?
THERE is scarcely anything we see about
us so common as cotton. We meet with
_11 it everywhere.
SIn the great town of Manchester there
'l are warehouses and factories full of cotton.
t In the shop windows you can see cotton
i gowns by hundreds. People use cotton,
.,_ .' and wear cotton, every day of their
I wonder where all the cotton comes
SN''. ot from England; though a very
"' clever man once said that it would grow
TBr COTO rPLAN. Grow ? What is it a plant ?
~ ~~ ~; -P' .; "
_- I -" = -_.V .I '"
' _-I- I -: .: .,.-,_. i ,' .-
1 ii%1 ,I iu
_. .t. ;
ii,: Q: ; 'hiii;
:,-,.. ..l~ 14 .- _
JIM. .. ', _
'i, ", ', ;i't
:- -_-= =_. 5- III. ,
WHERE DOES THE COTTON COME FROM? 88
Yes, it is a plant. All the cotton in the warehouses and in the shops,
once grew on a shrub.
The shrub grows in many countries. It grows in America, and in
India, and in China, and in Persia, and in Sicily.
A writer who lived in very old times, when Great Britain was over-
grown with forests, speaks of the cotton tree. He says:
There is a plant which does not bear fruit, but cotton; and the
people make their clothes of it."
Do you see the flower of the cotton tree ? It is white, and the leaves
are a dark glossy green. The seed or pod bursts when it is ripe, and then
the owner of the cotton plantation knows that it is time to bestir himself.
Then, women and children come into the plantation before the sun
rises. If the sun shines on the cotton it will turn yellow. Sometimes
they take off the whole of the pod just as it is. In other places, they take
out the cotton and leave the pod behind.
Look at the pod in the picture. It has burst, and that is the cotton
ready to be gathered.
How does the cotton look when it is in the pod ?
Not as it does in the shop windows, of course. It is merely the rough
material which Nature gives us.
The cotton now looks like a white pulp, and is mixed with the seeds
that have come with it out of the pod.
The first thing to be done is to get the cotton away from the seeds.
This is very tiresome to do, and takes a long time, if the men do it by
hand. That is, without the help of a machine.
In India, all the cotton is picked by hand. A man can only do about
a pound of cotton in a day. This is very slow work indeed.
In other places people use machines. In America, the cotton-planters
have a very large machine. It can cleanse, or separate from the seeds,
eight or nine hundred pounds of cotton a-day.
What q difference between the two ways !
In England we have machines of all kinds. When the cotton comes to
us, we can have it made into cloth very quickly indeed.
84 THE SUGAR-CANE.
Manchester is a famous place for cotton. Some years ago it was quite
a village. Cotton did not come to England in such quantities then ; for it
had to be spun by hand, and we did not use so much.
But a clever man invented a machine to spin it, and then people could
get it for less money.
Cotton comes to us now from all parts of the world. And as our
steam-ships fly across the waves, they bring it very quickly. I will give
you some idea of how fast the machines do their work. A man had ten
large bales or bundles of raw cotton come to him. The bales were taken
into the top-rooms of his factory. They were moved down by degrees
fiom one story to another. In one story they were carded, then spun, then
woven. By the end of ten days the cotton had travelled down to the
lowest story of all.
Not in bales Oh no!
It was now a white strong cloth, ready to be made up.
THE sugar that tastes so nice in your tea comes a long way off.
It comes from a plant called a sugar-cane. You see in the picture
what kind of a plant it is. It grows like a cane, and has a bunch of
leaves at the top. It is really a grass, though it does not look much
Where does the sugar-cane grow ? In countries where it is very hot.
The monkeys and the humming-birds live in that country. The sun pours
down his rays so fiercely that you could not bear it a moment.
But the black people do not mind the heat so much as we do. See
how busy they are !
They are cutting down the canes, and tying them in bundles. The
canes are quite ripe, and are full of a sweet juice, which is going to be
made into sugar. To squeeze this juice out, the canes are put into a mill.
-:- --= =: '- -, : I -F
S-_ ,- o :7=--7 -e ;I ; o .- --
-~ -~ -- .--i~ ___
~~~~" -. I"p r----- 'i I' .-,. j---.:.-_--.- :- -- --
.. _- 7--
GATHERING THE SUGAR-CANES.
;1 1 '':t .,,_].. -=-_.-:_ :.. ;
, ,' ,7',i,, ',,,I ,- "I ,1o1 .. .... '
,',I ,! I !.i,,',i,',' ,'
.I~ ~ 1- .. i":' t [i:,, .',. .,.,
GATHERING THE SUGAR'CANES,
THE SUGAR-CANE. 87
The mill is nothing more than two great rollers, ana as the juice is
squeezed out, it runs into a kind of cistern beneath.
Then, it has to be boiled directly, or else it goes sour.
The juice becomes a thick syrup with being boiled. It is put into
shallow basins to get cool. As it cools, it becomes sugar. When the sugar
is made it is packed into great tubs called hogsheads. But it is not yet
quite clear. Holes are pierced in the bottom of the tubs, and a thick sub-
stance like treacle drains away. The thick substance is called molasses.
When this is done, the sugar is ready to be shipped off to other
countries. The black people who made the sugar used to be slaves. A
cruel man drove them to work with a whip. But now they are all
If you look on the map, you will find a group of islands called the
88 WHERE DOES COCOA COME FROM?
West Indies. One of these islands belongs to England. It is called
Jamaica. It is a very lovely island indeed. The air is sweet with spices.
Birds of the brightest colours flit among the trees. But it was not a happy
island while it was full of slaves. The slaves were made to work hard
among the sugar-canes, and were bought and sold like cattle. But, thank
God there are no slaves now. The sugar-cane grows in America. And
here were slaves to dig, and hoe, and cut the bundles of canes, and get
out the sugar.
But in America there are no slaves now. All have been set free.
Where do the slaves come from ?
From Africa. I am sorry to tell you, that men went -in ships on
purpose to steal them.
WHERE DOES COCOA COME FROM?
Do you ever drink cocoa ?
People who think that tea does them harm, and keeps them awake at
night, are glad to take cocoa.
Cocoa is thicker than coffee, and has a great deal of support in it.
Travellers often take little cakes of
A / cocoa with them on their journeys. When
I(.' they are hungry, and cannot get anything
to eat, they are in no danger of starving,
if they have plenty of cocoa.
Cocoa is often called chocolate.
Where does cocoa come from
It comes from Mexico.
It is made from the seeds of a tree
called the Cacao, or the Chocolate Tree.
COCOA SEED. The Chocolate Tree is very easy to
make grow. It has a smooth gray bark, and large oval leaves, and clusters
of pale pink flowers.
~~T -.-._- _.
..... -_ --,j _
L ,,. ..E ..
HARVEST OF TH-E COCOA IN MEXICO.
WHERE DOES COCOA COME FROM? 01
When the fruit is fully grown, it becomes of a red-brown colour. It is
full of seeds placed in rows. These seeds are what the cocoa is made of.
All round the seeds is a soft pulpy substance that has a pleasant acid
taste. The people of Mexico eat it with sugar, as we should an orange.
Those Indians who are too lazy to take any trouble, eat the pulp, and
throw the seeds away.
In places where these lazy Indians set up a camp, heaps of seeds are
found lying about and wasted.
But the man who wishes to make himself and his family well off, will
not throw away seeds that are precious almost as gold.
He will plant chocolate trees round his house. They will have to be
shaded from the sun; and to do this he will set banana trees close by
them. The banana will throw a cool and pleasant shadow, and also give
him plenty of food. He can live on his bananas while the chocolate
plants are growing.
His chocolate plants do not flower for some years, and this is the worst
part of the story. But he must have patience, and take care that the
caterpillars do not eat them. When the fruit does come, flocks of parrots
will settle on the trees, to feast on the nice soft pulp.
If he does not mind, they will run away with all his fruit.
But if he has been careful, and picked off the caterpillars, and driven
away the parrots, he will have a famous crop.
His trees will have had all the lower branches taken off, and they will
form the most delightful walks; and the long rows of trees, all loaded with
fi-uit, will rejoice his heart.
He will begin to think that it is time to have his fruit gathered.
Then will come a negro, with a forked wooden stick. He will pull off
the fruit with the stick, and then another negro will carry it off to a
Some old negroes and some women, who cannot do very hard work,
are in the shed. They are going to take out the seeds.
They cut the fruit open, and then take out the seeds with a wooden
92 THE FOREST IN BRAZIL.
The seeds are not quite clear from the pulp. They are put into a hole,
and covered with fine sand. This is done to get out all the moisture.
The seeds are then spread on mats in the sun to get perfectly dry.
How big are the seeds?
About an inch long. Some seeds are larger than others.
When the seeds are quite dry, they are packed in bags made of the hide
of the buffalo, and sent to all parts of Europe and America.
Are they ready for use?
No. They have to be roasted like coffee-berries, and then they are
crushed under a roller till they become a fine powder. A little sugar and
spice are added, and a little water.
Then the cocoa is pressed into packets, such as you see in the shops.
THE FOREST IN BRAZIL.
You cannot fancy anything half so wonderful as the forest in the pic-
ture. There is nothing like it in England ; no, nor in all Europe.
There are trees in this forest which are taller than the tallest church
steeple. Quite deep in the forest, they grow so thick together, and there
are so many shrubs, that no one can get through, except it is the Indian,
for he can make his way where a white man cannot.
Do you see those curious plants that hang down from the branches of
the trees like cords or streamers ? They are called vegetable cables,
because they are so much like ropes. They wind round and round the
trees for miles and miles. The monkeys run along them merrily. Great
rivers run through the forest. In America everything is great. Great
mountains, great rivers, and great forests.
There is a little stream or creek almost hidden by the gigantic ferns
and shrubs. Some of the Indians are swimming or wading along. It is
easier to find a path along the water, when the forest is so thick, than on
What Indians are they ?
THE FOREST IN BRAZIL. 03
FOREST IN BRAZIL.
They belong to the great family of Indians who lived in America
when the white man came.
They live scattered about, some in villages, some in solitary huts, some
..P~ h ~ -N
Thybeog oth retfaiyofIdin -h lvd nAmrc
94 THE FOREST IN BRAZIL.
in the forest. They have not the same habits as the red men of the north.
They do not depend so much on hunting. In this hot climate, there are
plenty of fruits. The plantain and the banana both supply the Indian
with food. One cluster of bananas will yield as many as a hundred and
sixty fruits. The fruit is very sweet and nice, and stands in the place of
bread. If the Indian has a little plot of bananas round his hut, he will
not trouble himself to grow anything else. Like his brother in the north,
he would do anything rather than work.
When he wants to hunt the wild beasts, or to fight, he takes his bow
His arrows are often deadly, because they are tipped with poison.
Where does he get the poison from? From one of the plants that grows
in the forest. It is called mandioc, and serves him for food as well as
The plant grows about as high as a man, and has a twisted stem,
covered with knots or bumps. The wife of the Indian digs up the roots
while her husband lies down at his ease, and smokes his pipe.
He wears very little clothing in this hot country. But he will have
a plume of feathers on his head, and his knife in his girdle.
He is quite content to be idle, and to let his wife work for him.
She is as busy as can be. When she has dug, or rather drawn, the
roots of mandioc out of the ground, she washes them, and then pounds
them with a wooden club till they are a thick pulp.
She will put the pulp into a bag made of a great leaf, and hang it on
a stick over the fire. A heavy stone is hung to the bottom of the bag,
and very soon the juice begins to run out. It runs into a gourd that is
set to catch it.
This juice is the deadly poison, and as it drops, the wife keeps dipping
her husband's arrows into it.
When the juice has stood a long time it is quite clear, and a white
powder, like starch, is at the bottom of the gourd. The wife pours off
the poison, and washes the fine powder in water.
It is ready then, to be made into a cake, and used for food.
THE INDIAN'S DRINKING FEAST. 95
The white people in Brazil use this white powder as we do flour. They
have mills to grind it, instead of preparing it in the rude way the Indian
The flour is called farinha. Almost every dish on the table is partly
made of farinha.
It is the staple food of Brazil.
THE INDIAN'S DRINKING FEAST.
THE Indian likes, now and then, to have a drinking feast.
He does not eat anything at the feast, but he will sit and drink for
two or three days together.
What does he drink ?
A strong liquor made from the root of the mandioc.
He does not make it himself. There is a saying among the Indians,
that the banqueting drink, as it is called, must be made by the hands of
How do the women make it?
In a way that we should not think very nice. Indeed, we should not
like to touch it.
The women slice the roots of the mandioc, and boil them till they are
When the roots are cool, the women set to work to chew them. Then
they put out the chewed roots into a vessel of water, that stands close by.
When they have chewed all the roots, the whole contents of the vessel are
boiled up, and stirred while boiling.
When the liquor has been boiled long enough, it is poured into a number
of jars, and buried in the floor of the house.
The mouths of the jars have been tightly stopped, and in a few days
the liquor begins to ferment.
Soon after, it is thought ready to be used, and then the drinking feast
96 THE TAPIR.
The women make a fire close by the jars to warm up the liquor. Then
the men come, dancing and singing, to the house, and the women serve
out the drink in cups made of a gourd.
When the jars are all emptied in one house the Indians go to another.
And so they go on drinking, till every drop of the liquor is gone.
What a bad use to make of the mandioc root It is as if the Indian
were trying to poison himself, as well as his arrows!
THOUGH the Indian does not like trouble, he will take a great deal some-
times. He will have a field of mandioc near his hut..
But the wild beasts of the forest like mandioc as well-as the Indian.
They will come trampling into his field in the night, and eat as many plants
as they can.
So the Indian has to keep watch, or his harvest will be a very poor
Do you see the animal in the picture ? He has a great snout like a
pig, and is fond of eating leaves and fruit, and rooting about in the forest.
If he kept in the forest, it would be all very well. But lie will come steal-
ing into the mandioc fields of the Indian.
The tapir, for this is the name of the creature, does not come out except
at night. The Indian knows this, and it is at night he goes to look for
He can guess which way the tapir will come, for he is very clever at
finding out the track of animals.
Then, he makes a little shelf to stand on, between two trees, and gets
He has his gun in his hand, or else his bow and arrow. And lie stands
there, hour after hour, waiting.
Nothing can tire out the patience of an Indian I
i, .l I .F.' g. ,.
THE JAGUAR AND THE TAPIR.