• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Center information
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Acknowledgement
 Summary
 Introduction
 Main
 Conclusion
 Appendix
 Reference






Group Title: Industry report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 85-3
Title: Evaluation of a multi-vegetable freezing facility for the north Florida region
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026930/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of a multi-vegetable freezing facility for the north Florida region a report
Series Title: Industry report Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
Physical Description: vii, 39 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Degner, Robert L
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, a part of the Food and Resource Economics Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Processing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen vegetables   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 39.
Statement of Responsibility: by R.L. Degner ... et al..
General Note: "December 1985."
Funding: Industry report (Florida Agricultural Market Research Center) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026930
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000989110
oclc - 17856047
notis - AEW5968

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Center information
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    List of Tables
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page v
    Summary
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Conclusion
        Page 28
    Appendix
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Reference
        Page 39
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







INDUSTRY REPORT 85-3


Evaluation
Freezin
North F


i

i.F.A.S.- Univ. of Fior!,'






Hetable


DECEMBER 1985

















ABSTRACT


The study evaluated the feasibility of growing and

freeze processing selected vegetable crops in Northwest

Florida. Vegetable crops were selected on the basis of

production efficiency, processing suitability, and product

marketability. A large number of vegetable crops were

initially considered for processing. Broccoli, cauliflower,

lima beans, okra, and southern peas were selected for

detailed evaluation. An equipment list and cost estimates

were prepared for a dual line freezing facility with output

capacities of 3,800 pounds per hour for lima beans and

southern peas and 2,800 pounds per hour for broccoli,

cauliflower and okra.


Key Words: vegetables, processing, freezing
















The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center


A Service of
the Food and Resource Economics Department
of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



The purpose of this Center is to provide timely, applied
research on current and emerging marketing problems affecting

Florida! s agricultural and marine industries. The Center

seeks to provide research and information to production,

marketing and processing: firms, and groups and. organizations

concerned with improving and. expanding. markets for Florida

agricultural and marine products.

The Center is staffed by a basic group of economists

trained in agriculture and marketing. In addition, cooperat-

ing personnel from other IFAS units provide a wide range of

expertise which can be applied as determined by the require-

ments of individual projects.
















EVALUATION OF A MULTI-VEGETABLE FREEZING FACILITY
FOR THE NORTH FLORIDA REGION








A Report by

R. L. Degner, T. D. Hewitt, R. F. Matthews
S. Olsan, W. P. Smith and A. A. Teixeira








November 1985








The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of
the Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611













TABLE OF CONTENTS


Pacre


LIST OF TABLES ..

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .

SUMMARY . ..

INTRODUCTION . ..

PROCEDURE .

VEGETABLE SELECTION .

THE MODEL PLANT .

PROCESSING COSTS .

RAW PRODUCT COSTS .

IMPLICATIONS .

CONCLUSIONS . ..

APPENDIX . .


REFERENCES .. ..


. . . . 11



S . . iii



. . . . v

. . . . vi


. . . . 2

. . . . 2
. . . . 2
. . . 0 0 5 e 2


* 0 s S S 5 0 S S.

o 0 0 0. 0 0

* 5 0 5 0 5 C 0


. 8

. 14


* S C S S 5 0. 5 0 5 0 5 S S S

* S 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5


O. . .


20

28

29


. . .


. O .










LIST OF TABLES


Table

1 Equipment costs . . . .

2 General plant equipment . . .

3 Building space requirements . .

4 Initial investment and related annual
costs . . . . .

5 Operating capital for first season .

6 Processing costs by operating line .

7 Breakeven farm-level prices of selected
vegetables for processing, north Florida,
1985, and current prices paid to farmers
in other areas . . . .

8 Packout rates and current costs per. pound
of finished product, selected vegetables

9 Wholesale prices for selected frozen
vegetables, 1980-1984 . .

10 Estimates of net returns for selected
vegetables processed in'Florida . .

11 Operating time, output, and net revenue
generated by the processing plant under
two operating scenarios . .

12 Processing vegetable acreage require-
ments under two operating scenarios .


Page

. 7

.

. 10










LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES


l Pace

1 U.S. pack of collards, kale, turnip
greens and squash, 1973-1984 . . 30

2 Estimated costs of producing one acre of
broccoli for processing, north Florida,
1985 . . . . .. 31

3 Estimated costs of producing one acre of
cauliflower for processing, north
Florida, 1985 . . . . 32

4 Estimated costs of producing one acre of
lima beans (shelled) for processing,
north Florida, 1985 . . .. 33

5 Estimated costs of producing one acre of
okra for processing, north Florida, 1985 34

6- Estimated.costs of producing one acre of.
southern peas (shelled) for-processing,
north Florida, 1985 . .. .. 35

7 Per capital consumption of selected fro-
zen and canned vegetables, 1963-1983 . 36

8 Packout rates and current costs per
pound of finished product, selected
vegetables . . . . 37

9 U.S. pack of selected frozen vegetables,
1973-1984 . . . . 38


iii










LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Pace

1 Growing seasons for selected vegetables,
north Florida . . ....... 4

2 Vegetable freezing plant process flow
diagram . . . . 6









AC~tOWLEDGMMXNTS


Special thanks go to Frigoscandia Contracting, Inc. and

Key Technology, Inc. for providing cost estimates of pro-

cessing equipment. Appreciation is also expressed to the

American Frozen Food Institute and The Food Institute for

providing secondary data, and to Dr. Cecil Smith for

assistance in collecting primary data.

Thanks also go to Renelle Kiddy for typing the manu-

script and to Kevin Parrish for his help in preparing the

final manuscript.









SUMMARY


* This study examines the economic feasibility of growing
and freeze processing vegetables in north Florida.

Freezing was selected as the processing method because
frozen vegetables are gaining in popularity while canned
vegetables are declining.
Researchers representing Agricultural Engineering, Food
Science, Vegetable Crops and Food and Resource Economics
participated in this study.

Vegetable selection criteria included both physical and
economic constraints. Soil and climate, growing,
harvesting, and processing costs, trends in per capital
consumption and competing imports were all considered.
Vegetables were also selected to maximize season length
so that fixed costs could be allocated over greater
product volume.

* Broccoli, "cauliflower, baby lima- beans, southern peas
and okra were selected for detailed-evaluation. Various
combinations of vegetables' could- be processed from mid-
April through November.

* A model plant was designed with dual preparation lines,
feeding into one- freezer which utilizes the. individual
quick freezing- process. Line 1, designed for peas and
beans, has an output.capacity of 3,800 pounds per hour.
Line- 2, for broccoli, cauliflower- and okra, has a
finished product capacity of-. 2,800 pounds per hour.
These capacities are for the smallest commercial
freezing equipment currently available. All vegetables
are packed in 1,000 pound bulk bins.

*The initial investment was estimated at $3,165,000. The
major cost components were land ($40,000), plant
building ($564,000), equipment ($1,130,000), engineering
($678,000) and operating capital for the first season
($753,000).

* Total processing costs were estimated at 20 cents per
pound for line 1 and 30 cents per pound for line 2.
Total finished product costs for broccoli, cauliflower,
lima beans, okra and southern peas were 52.2, 56.4,
43.5, 45.9 and 42.3 cents per pound, respectively.











* At prevailing wholesale market prices for the five
crops, cauliflower and southern peas would provide net
returns of only 3 and 4 cents per pound, respectively.
Lima beans, at 18 cents per pound, had the greatest
estimated net return. Broccoli would result in
estimated losses of 4 cents and okra would return only 2
cents per pound.

* Production of cauliflower, southern peas and lima beans
would result in maximum net plant revenues of $479,000,
if the additional quantities of product would not reduce
wholesale market prices.

* The estimated return on investment would be
approximately 15 percent. This assumes breakeven prices
to growers. Thus, the rate of return is relatively low
for a commercial venture.

*Stability of market prices and the competitive stance of
existing processing firms is of major concern. Specific
contractural arrangements should be explored prior to
investing in a processing facility.









EVALUATION OF A MULTI-VEGETABLE FREEZING FACILITY
FOR THE NORTH FLORIDA REGION

R. L. Degner, T. D. Hewitt, R. F. Matthews,
S. Olson, W. P. Smith and A. A.- Teixeira


INTRODUCTION

Adverse economic conditions are causing farmers and

others in the agribusiness sector to search for more profit-

able agricultural enterprises. There is considerable

interest in growing vegetables for the processing market in

many areas. This paper examines the economic feasibility of

growing and freeze processing vegetables in north Florida.

Freezing was selected as the processing method because

of-the increasing popularity of frozen-vegetables, largely at

the expense of the canning industry. Annual per capital

consumption of frozen vegetables has risen steadily for the

past three decades, and in 1980-83 averaged 11.0 pounds, an

increase of 11 percent over the 1970-74 period (2). In

contrast, annual per capital consumption of canned vegetables

declined by 30 percent during the same period (1). Canning

of tomatoes and pickling of cucumbers were not considered in

this study because previous research indicated that these

enterprises would not be profitable because of Florida's

relatively high growing costs (7, 4).











PROCEDURE

A task force of researchers representing the Agricultu-

ral Engineering, Food Science, Vegetable Crops and Food and

Resource Economics departments considered a large number of

vegetable crops for the model freezing plant. Data required

by this study were obtained from equipment manufacturers,

trade associations, extension specialists and vegetable

processors in other states, and published secondary sources.


VEGETABLE SELECTION

Vegetable selection criteria included physical produc-

tion constraints such as soil and climate, corroborated by

production research in the north Florida and south Georgia

growing region. Growing and harvesting costs for a number of

vegetable crops were estimated- and compared with those in

other growing areas where possible. Marketing aspects were

also analyzed, particularly trends in the quantities packed

by the U.S. freezing industry, trends in per capital consump-

tion and competing imports. Vegetables were also selected to

maximize season length so that fixed costs could be allocated

over greater product volume.

Physical characteristics of the vegetables were also

considered, with preference given to those that did not

require highly specialized processing line equipment. Also,

a conscious effort was made to keep the total number of

vegetable crops to a minimum to reduce changeover time.









After considering the foregoing factors, five vegetables

were selected for more detailed evaluation, namely broccoli,

cauliflower, baby lima beans, southern peas and okra. In

north Florida, broccoli and cauliflower can be harvested from

mid-April through May and also in October and November. Lima

beans can be harvested from June through August, and southern

peas from June through September. The harvest season for

okra is July through October. These five vegetables result

in a total processing season of 30 weeks or 1,440 hours

(Figure 1).

Other vegetables initially examined but later rejected

included sweet corn, squash, snap beans and greens such as

kale, turnip and mustard greens.:and collards. Sweet corn was

eliminated. because production costs- in north. Florida were

much. higher than in other major- U.S. producing areas.

Farm-level. breakeven costs. in Florida. were. estimated at 12.8

cents, per. pound, but the prevailing price paid to Minnesota

sweet corn producers was 2.6 cents per pound in 1985. Thus,

it appears that Florida producers have a substantial cost

disadvantage, even after considering transportation. Squash

was ruled out because it does not freeze well; for satis-

factory processing, it would probably have to be breaded,

which would require additional equipment. Snap beans were

also eliminated because of preparation line equipment needs.

Greens were eliminated for several reasons. They

require specialized handling equipment and yields of finished

product are relatively low, approximately 60 percent, of















Cauliflower
Lima Beans
L u t h n a Bs- ... .t.. .. '''.... ..." *..... ,'.. .....o,
Southern Peas ...,. .'.'... ..:, ;*;:. ...:, .:,




APR |MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPIOCTINOV


Figure 1.--Growing seasons for selected vegetables, north Florida.










farm weight. However, the most important consideration was

the declining market for greens. In the past decade, the

U.S. pack of kale, turnip greens and collards has decreased

by 25, 45 and 40 percent, respectively. Similarly, from 1978

until 1983, the pack of mustard greens declined by 25 percent

(3, Appendix Table 1).


THE MODEL PLANT

The model plant was designed with dual preparation

lines, feeding into one freezer which utilizes the individual

quick freezing process (IQF). Line 1, designed for peas and

beans, has an output capacity of 3,800 pounds per hour. Line

2, for broccoli, cauliflower and okra, has a finished product

capacity of 2,800 pounds-per hour. These capacities are for

the smallest commercial freezing equipment currently avail-

able (5, 6). Larger plants have: been shown to be more

efficient, but a small plant was selected as the model

because of the lack of a processing industry in the study

area (9). All products are to be packed in poly-lined bulk

bins (1,000 pound "tote bins" on pallets) prior to entering

frozen storage (Figure 2).

Total equipment costs for the plant were estimated at

$1,130,000. This includes $183,000 for a pea/bean harvester

combine, $300,000 for the two processing lines, and $272,000

for the freezer and refrigeration plant (Table 1). The plant

requires a building of 14,100 square feet; at $40 per square

foot, the estimated cost is $564,000. The detailed general












Line 41 (3,800 Ibs./hr.):
Peas, Beans


Line #2 (2,800 Ibs./hr.):
Brocol i, Caul i flower, Okra


Figure 2.--Vegetable freezing plant process flow diagram.










Table 1.--Equipment costs.


Item


Pea/bean harvester combine

Preparation line #1

Preparation line #2

General plant equipment

Freezer and refrigeration plant

Total equipment


Dollars

183,000

125,000

175,000

272,000

375Q000

1,130,000


Cost


- -


- -











plant equipment and building space requirements shown in

Tables 2 and 3 are based largely on research conducted by

USDA (8). Land and site work costs are estimated at

approximately $40,000, and engineering services at about 40

percent of plant and equipment costs, or $678,000 (Table 4).

The initial year's operating capital requirements (Table 5)

would add another $753,000, resulting in a total initial

investment of $3,165,000. Depreciation, taxes, insurance,

maintenance, repair and interest on the initial investment

result in annual overhead costs of $597,940 (Table 4).


PROCESSING COSTS

Because of. the differences in the lengths of growing

seasons for the various crops, it was assumed that beans and

peas would be processed on Line 1 for 16 weeks or a total of

768 hours and broccoli, cauliflower or okra would be pro-

cessed on Line 2 for 14 weeks or 672 hours. Line 1 requires

only half the labor of Line 2. Further, Line 1 has a greater

production capacity, 3,800 pounds per hour as compared with

2,800 pounds. Thus, variable costs are 8 cents per pound of

finished product for Line 1 and 13 cents for Line 2. When

supervisory costs and other overhead (fixed) costs are added,

total processing costs are estimated at 20 cents per pound

for Line 1 and 30 cents per pound for Line 2 (Table 6).









Table 2.--General plant equipment.


Item


Fork lift truck

Boiler

Truck weigh scale

Half-ton pick-up

Sewage plant

Air compressor system

Sanitation equipment

Office equipment

Shop equipment

Laboratory equipment

Total general equipment cost


Cost


Dollars

55,000

50,000

40,000

12,000

60,000

5,000

10,000

10,000

15,000

25, 000

272,000


- -


-











Table 3.--Building space requirements.


Operation


Space required


Receiving

Preparation line #1

Preparation line #2

IQF freezer

Filling area

Freezer warehouse storage

Dry storage

Office

Rest rooms

Laboratory

Shop

Boiler room

Refrigeration plant

Total building area

Building cost @ $40/ft.


Square feet

800

1,700

3,400

600

400

4,400

600

200

200

100

200

500

1.000

14,100 ft.

$564,000







Table 4.-Initial investment and related annual costs.


Tax, insurance
maintenance, Interest Annual
Item Initial cost Depreciation repair* (12%) cost

land and site work
(5 acres @ $8,000/acre) $ 40,000 $ 0 $ 2,000 $ 4,800 $ 6,800

Plant building (30-yr.)
(14,100 ft. 0 $40) 564,000 18,800 28,200 67,680 114,680

Equipment (10-yr.) 1,130,000 114,000 56,500 135,600 305,100

Engineering (40% plant
and equipment) 678,000 Q 0 81,360 81,360

Operating capital 753.000 0 90,000 90.000

Total $3,165,000 $131,890 $86,700 $379,440 $597,940


*Based upon 5 percent of plant and equipment.











Table 5.--Operating capital for first season.


Item Cost

1,000
Dollars
Direct labor 211

Supervisory personnel (3 @ $15,000;
1 @ $30,000) 75

Energy and utilities ($71.50/hour x 1,440) 103

Taxes, insurance, maintenance and repair 87

Interest on investment (12%) 277

Total 753

aBased upon $5.00 per man hour with 20 personnel on
Line #1 and 40 on Line #2 for 768 and 672 hours,
respectively.

based upon 5 percent of plant and equipment.







Table 6.--Processing costs by operating 14ne.


Lina 1 Line 12
Peas, beans Broccoli, cauliflower, okra
(768 hrs. 0 3,800 lbs./hr.) (672 hrs. 0 2,800 lbs./hr.)

Cost Item Cost basis Unit cost Cost basis Unit cost


------Dollars/pound----------------
Variable costs;

labor $100/hr. 0.03 $200/hr. 0.07

Utilitiesb $72/hr. 0.02 $72/hr. 0.03

Packaging $30/1,000 lbs. 00/ $30/1,000 1be. 0.03

Total variable costs 0.08 0.13

Fixed costs:

Supervisory personnel
(0 $75,000/yr.) $52./hr. 0.01 $52/hr. 0.02

Overhead ($597,940
annual) $415/hr. .1 $415/hr. 01

Total fixed costs 0.1

Total processing costs 0.20 0.30

aBased on $5.00 per man hour with 20 personnel on Line 11 and 40 on Line |2.

bBased on: 620 kwh. electricity @ $0.08/kwh.,
10 gal./hr. fuel oil 0 $1.25/gal. and
6,000 gal./hr. water and sewage @ $1.50/1,000 gal.











RAW PRODUCT COSTS


Detailed estimates of production costs were developed

for broccoli, cauliflower, lima beans, okra and southern

peas. Breakeven prices were calculated for average produc-

tion levels in north Florida and also for a range of possible

yields (Appendix Tables 2-6). The breakeven price per pound

at average yields, delivered to the processing plant, was

18.9 cents for broccoli. Interestingly, the prevailing

prices paid to growers in California and Tennessee were 19.4

and 18.5 cents per pound, respectively, in early 1985 (Table

7). Florida's breakeven price for cauliflower was 13.2

cents, slightly below the 14.6 cents per pound received by

California growers.

Florida's breakeven price on lima beans was estimated to

be about 22.3 cents per pound. During the spring of 1985,

growers in Georgia were being paid 17.8 cents and growers in

Tennessee were receiving 19 cents (Table 7). Growers in

north Florida can produce okra for about 13.2 cents per

pound, and during the summer of 1985, growers in Georgia and

Tennessee were receiving 15 and 18 cents per pound, respec-

tively. Finally, the breakeven price for southern peas

produced in north Florida was estimated at 21.2 cents per

pound. The prices paid to Georgia producers this year varied

from about 18 to 24 cents per pound, depending on maturity

and whether or not the processor harvested the crop. The

average price received by Georgia growers was estimated to be









Table 7.--Breakeven farm-level prices of selected vegetables for
processing, north Florida, 1985, and current prices paid
to farmers in other areas.


Florida Prices paid
Crop breakeven price in other areas

--------Cents per pound----------

Broccoli 18.9 19.4, 18.5a

Cauliflower 13.2 14.6b

Lima beans 22.3 17.8, 19.0c

Okra 13.2 15.0, 18.0c

Southern peas 21.2 22.0b

aPrices paid in California and west Tennessee, respectively.

price paid in California.

CPricas paid in Georgia and west Tennessee, respectively.










about 22 cents. In Tennessee, growers received 18 to 20

cents per pound with the processor harvesting (Table 7).

Unfortunately, production costs for these vegetables

could not be accurately determined for other growing areas,

with the exception of southern peas in Georgia. However, it

is reasonable to assume that prices paid to farmers for

processing vegetables do not greatly exceed costs of produc-

tion in most areas. Thus, a simple comparison of the

foregoing breakeven prices and prices paid to growers in

other areas indicates that north Florida growers can probably

compete favorably.

Breakeven prices at the farm level and packout rates of

85, 50, 95, 83 and 95 percent for broccoli, cauliflower, lima

beans, okra and southern peas, respectively were used to

determine the raw product cost per pound of finished

product. Because of trim and cull losses in the processing

plant, finished raw product costs range from about 5 to 100

percent greater than the farm-level breakeven prices (Table

8). When processing costs of 30 cents per pound for broc-

coli, cauliflower and okra are added to the finished raw

product cost, the total costs of the processed products were

52.2, 56.4 and 45.9 cents per pound, respectively. The total

finished product costs for lima beans and southern peas were

43.5 and 42.3 cents per pound, respectively (Table 8).

Examination of wholesale prices for the five types of

frozen vegetables revealed that most have been relatively

stable over the past five years, although there have been a








Table 8.-Packout rates and current costs per pound of finished product, selected
vegetables.


Farm Ral Raw
breakeven Packout product price product Total coat of
Item cost rate adjustment factor cost processed product

Cents per
pound --- ercent------ ---Cents per pound--
Broccoli 18.9 85 1.1765 22.2 52.2

Cauliflower 13.2 50 2.0000 26.4 56.4

ima beans 22.3 95b 1.054f 23.5 43.5

Okra 13.2 83 1.20 8 15.9 45.9

Southern peas 21.2 95b 1.0526 22.3 42.3

aIncludes processing costs of 30 cents per pouna for broccoli, cauliflower and okra
and 20 cents per pound for lima beans and southern peas.

bBased upon shelled farm weight.











few abberations which probably resulted from fluctuations in

supplies (Table 9). For most vegetables, there have been

gradual price increases over the past several years.

Wholesale prices for 1984, shown in Table 9, were compared

with the estimated finished product costs shown in Table 8.

However, most published prices had to be adjusted for

location and packaging to make them comparable.

A New York destination was assumed for all finished bulk

products. A west coast origin was assumed for broccoli,

cauliflower and lima beans, and a southeastern origin, 1,000

miles from New York, assumed for okra and southern peas.

Transportation costs were estimated to be $1.17 per mile. It

was further assumed that all deliveries were made in 1,000

lb. tote bins at 36,000 lbs. per trailer load. On this

basis, Florida's transportation advantage over product

originating on the west coast was estimated to be about 6.5

cents per pound of finished product.

Where wholesale prices were reported for 2.5-pound

foodservice packages, the wholesale prices were reduced by

6.3 cents per pounds for peas and beans and 6.9 cents per

pound for broccoli, cauliflower and okra to reflect reduced

costs associated with bulk packaging. After the required

price adjustments were made, estimated costs of Florida

produced products were compared with estimated wholesale

prices from other areas. These comparisons indicate that

Florida's production, processing and transportation costs for

broccoli would be about 4 cents per pound greater than the









Table 9.--Wholesale prices for selected frozen vegetables,
1980-1984.


Year

Item 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980

----------Cents per pounda------....

Broccolib

spears 54.5 52.5 54.5 56.5 54.0

cut 43.5 41.5 43.0 45.5 N.A.

chopped 41.0 385 40. 42.5 A.

averagec 48.5 46.4 48.15 50.4 N.A.

Lima beans 62.0 61.5 61.0 56.5 48.0

Cauliflower 60.5 58.0 65.0 62.5 53.5

Whole okrad 58.5 58.5 58.5 53.5 49.0

Southern pease 57.5 56.5 55.5 51.5 48.5

aAll prices were observed in October.

bp.O.B west coast basis in 2.5-pound foodservice
pack for October.

CThe average price for broccoli is a weighted average
based upon the midpoint of the reported prices weighted
by 0.5, 0.3 and 0.2 for spears, cut and chopped, respec-
tively.

dDelivered basis in 2.5-pound foodservice pack.

eBlack-eyed peas in 2.5-pound-foodservice-pack; deli-
vered basis, 38,000-pound or more truckloads.

Source: (2)












estimated delivered price in New York of product shipped from

the west coast (Table 10). However, Florida's costs for

cauliflower and lima beans appear to be 3 and 18 cents per

pound below the delivered wholesale price of these items

shipped from California. Florida's respective costs for okra

and southern peas are only 2 and 4 cents per pound under the

delivered wholesale price of product shipped from the

southeast (Table 10).


IMPLICATIONS


Based upon the differences between estimated costs of

vegetables grown and processed in north Florida and estimated

market prices, it appears that broccoli should not be grown

for processing. However, frozen and fresh broccoli consump-

tion has increased dramatically in the past decade and

further increases in consumer demand are expected (11, Table

7). If production does not keep pace with consumer demand,

upward pressure on prices may eventually make broccoli an

attractive crop for processing. It should be noted, however,

that broccoli production has increased with the eastern and

southern areas of the U.S. in recent years, and imports

increased by 117 percent from 1979 to 1983 (Appendix Table

8).

The small price differential for cauliflower makes it a

marginal crop at the present time. However, by processing a

spring and a fall crop, a total of 672 hours of plant time

could be devoted to it, resulting in production of roughly
I*








Table 10.-Estimates of net returns tor selected vegetables processed in north Florida.


Estimated Estimated Difference between
Florida costs( market prices, estimated Florida
delivered to delivered to costs and
Item New York New Yorka market prices

C--ents per pound-------

Broccoli 56 52 -4

Cauliflower 60 63 3

Lima beans 47 65 18

Okra 50 52 2

Southern peas 46 50 4

aBased upon 1984 wholesale prices as repor"e by the Food Institute. Assumes west
coast origin for broccoli, cauliflower and lima beans, and southeastern origin for okra
and southern peas. Assumes bulk delivery. F,O.B. west coast prices for spears, cut and
chopped broccoli were weighted by 0.5, 0.4 pad 0.2, respectively.










1.9 million pounds of finished product and net returns of

$56,000 at 1984 prices (Table 11). All net returns are

reported on a pre-tax basis. About 2.4 million pounds of

farm-level cauliflower production would be needed. At

average yields, this would require approximately 170 acres

(Table 12). The market situation and outlook for cauliflower

is very similar to that for broccoli. Consumer demand has

been increasing rapidly and is likely to continue, but so has

production. Yields in other growing areas have also been

improving, and imports more than doubled from 1979 to 1983

(11, Appendix Table 8). Another concern is the stability of

the wholesale price level at current levels, particularly as

affected by increased production in north Florida. Examina-

tion of industry data shows a total frozen pack in recent

years of approximately 100 million pounds per year (Appendix

Table 9). Florida's increased production would increase

total supplies by about 1.8 percent. Precise estimates of

the effects of additional quantities on wholesale prices are

not available, but the effects would likely be small.

During the June-September period, there is a great deal
of overlap in the growing seasons for lima beans, southern

peas and okra. Thus, the rational approach is to select

those crops that will provide the maximum net revenue to the

processing plant. Assuming that the basic wholesale price

relationships will continue, lima beans should be the
predominant crop. Because lima beans have the highest net

return, the plant should process them exclusively during the








Table 11.-Operating time, output, and
two operating scenarios.


pet revenue generated by the processing plant under


Percent of Net revenue at
Product Houra Eppd U.S. packI current prices

1,000 1,000 dollars
Cauliflower 672 1,882 1.8 56

Baby lima beansb

Scenario A 576 2,189 2.9 394

Scenario B 288 1,094 1.4 197

Southern peasb

Scenario A 192 739 2.8 29

Scenario B 480 1,824 7.0 73

Total net revenue:

Scenario A 479

Scenario B 326


aPercentage shown is based upon
1978-1983, except for lima beans and


average annual U.S. pack for the six-year period
southern peas, which are based upon 1983 only.


bro maximize revenue, the plant would process lima beans for 576 hours and southern
peas for 192 hours (Scenario A). Scenario B shows the result of processing equal quanti
ties of lima beans and southern peas for 192 hours (Scenario A). Scenario B shows the
result of processing equal quantities of lima beans and southern peas when both are in
season and southern peas only during September.











June-August period and process southern peas only during

September.

Okra does not appear to be an attractive crop at present

because of the relatively low profit margin. Although the

industry pack of okra has been increasing in recent years,

wholesale prices have remained virtually unchanged. This has

probably been caused by the large increases in okra imports

(Table 9, Appendix Table 8).

The maximum profit scenario, "Scenario A," results in

576 hours of processing time devoted to lima beans, during

which time approximately 2.9 million pounds would be pro-

cessed. At present prices, net revenue would be $394,000.

Under Scenario A, the plant would operate 192 hours to

produce 730,000 pounds of southern peas, and net returns

would amount of $29,000. The production of lima beans and

southern peas would amount to about 2.9 percent and 2.8

percent of the respective 1983 U.S. packs of these items

(Table 11, Appendix Table 9). Net revenue from Scenario A

would be about $479,000 per year. This would yield a net

return on the initial investment of about 21 percent.

Assuming average yields, Scenario A would require about

1,150 acres of lima beans and about 440 acres of southern

peas to operate at capacity for the June through September

period. The combined acreage of cauliflower, lima beans. and

southern peas would be approximately 1,760 acres (Table 12).

Scenario B assumes that equal quantities of lima beans

and southern peas would be processed in the June through







L-
Table 12.--Processipg vegetable acreage reP irements under two operating scenarios.


Product total product output Raw product required Acreagea


-------.,000 pouds----------
Cauliflower 1,882 2,352 168

Baby lims beansi

Scenario A 2,189 2,304 1,152

Scenario B 1,094 1,152 575

Southern peas:

Scenario A 730 768 439

Scenario B 1,824 1,920 1,097

Total acreage requWreds

Scenario A 1,759

Scenario B 1,840

aAcreage at average yields of 7 tons, 1 toq, and 0.875 ton for cauliflower, baby liua
beans and southern peas, respectively.











August period, and only southern peas would be processed in

September. This scenario was developed because many growers

have traditionally grown this crop in the north Florida-south

Georgia region, and some growers in the study area may have

had experience with growing southern peas for the processing

market.

Under Scenario B, the plant would process lima beans for

288 hours, producing roughly 1.1 million pounds of product.

This would amount to 1.4 percent of the 1983 U.S. pack, and

net returns to the plant would be 197,000 from lima beans.

Southern peas would be processed for 480 hours, producing 1.-8

million pounds and net revenues of $73,000 at 1984 prices.

Total net revenue under Scenario B at 1984 prices was

estimated at $326,000, which is a 10 percent return on the

initial investment. However, the quantity of southern peas

packed under Scenario B represents 7 percent of the 1983

U.S. pack. This volume may result in a significant reduction

in the wholesale price level (Table 11). Total acreage

required to operate the plant under Scenario B would be

1,840. This would include 168 acres of cauliflower, 575

acres of lima beans, and 1,097 acres of southern peas (Table

12).

Scenario A is the most rational alternative from the

standpoint of net returns at present price levels, and it

appears likely that potential impact on wholesale prices

would be less as well.









Present market structure is another el maen to be

considered which can affect the likaly success of a process-

ing plant. The number of plants with annual sales of
$100,000 or more processing cauliflower was 20 in 1982, while

18 processed lima beans (2). Although the exact number
processing southern peas was not reported, it is estimated at

fever than 10. Larger numbers of firms generally result in a

more competitive business environment. If there are a very
few but large plants processing southern peas, it may be

difficult to compete with them.

Demand trends for lima beans and southern peas are
another serious concern. Both products have been suffering

long-term- declines. Per- capital consumption, which is
raeportd-only for lims bans=, has decreased from 0.7 pounds

pae year. in-the' 19 l sand 1970"' s t' only 0.3 pounds in-

1983. This- decline in popularity is also reflected in

industry pack statistics (Appendix Tables 7 and 9). The
average annual pack of southern peas has declined by nearly
20 percent from the 1973-79 to the 1980-84 period. In a

shrinking market environment, it could be more difficult to

become established. This will be particularly true where

existing firms have a lower-cost structure. Competing firms'
cost structure and pricing strategies can pose serious

barriers to entry for a new firm.










CONCLUSIONS

Wholesale price trends and estimated processing costs

for a new north Florida vegetable freezing plant indicate

that cauliflower, lima beans and southern peas would have a

modest profit potential at 1984 wholesale price levels. If

these prices prevail, the estimated return on investment

would be approximately 15 percent. It should be noted that

this return assumes that all vegetables are obtained at

breakaven prices. Thus, no profits accrue to producers.

However, the breakeven producer prices do include interest on

fixed assets used in production at 12 percent and interest on

operating capital at 12 percent. An overhead and management

charge is included, but costs include no land charges.

The stability of the wholesale prices is of primary
concern. Existing processing firms may make entry into this

market very difficult; at this point, it is virtually

impossible to predict other firms' reaction and the resultant

wholesale price levels for the three crops under considera-

tion. One recommended course of action is to explore the

market for these vegetables with potential buyers and discuss

possible contractural arrangements prior to investing in a

processing facility. If satisfactory contracts can be

arranged, a freezing plant may give north Florida an eco-

nomically viable alternative.

































APpENDX







Apwendix Table 1.


--U.S.


pack of collarda,


kale,


turnip greens and Su)ash,


1973-1984.


Year Colards Kale astard greens lmarnip greens Bsha

---- -----1,0oO pounds- ----------

1973 20,885 4,425 N.4. 18,630 26,343

1974 20,336 5,029 H.1. 11,120 31,330

1975 14,126 5,071 N.1. 15,545 27,906

1976 17,022 4,597 N.j. 14,457 35,377

1977 19,269 6,515 N.1. 17,168 41,598

1978 17;901 5,403 )q,595 13,735 43,826

1979 16,534 3,637 10,020 15,948 38,149

1980 13,206 4,292 7,465 10,705 36,737

1981 16,051 4,788 13.011 13,020 46,833

1982 18,031 4,727 8,516 9,799 65,179

1983 9,440 2,894 7,998 11,925 62,738

1984 12,968 3,335 N.1. 10,299 66,467


types,


including zucchini.


Includes saubreade4.


Source s


American Frozen Food Institute.


aAll















Append4x blate 2.*-tsatfiatd costs ot produuing one acre of breacol
wCta Ftorda, 1983.


tor processing,


It- Unit Qulnt Prie YValue Tour cost


CN ztumcs. ner.Narmnt,
tlSd
Lim, pwlied
Frtit LIzer, sixed
Stdedresa1 fr tlzer
Mefricf de
Mgtfeide
Fungicf a
Spreaderscicster
tractor

fruct (pick-up)
Labore (tmfpt., hoeing)
Irrigation
Interes-t on op. c.
Tetal pre-harvst ucash expes


ere
ton
cu.-

acre
acre

acre
ct,


hr.
hr.
a'.
br.
hpt.
Sgtl


1

10
I

.3
1
1
1

12

20
40
S3
624.311


92.00
22.00
7.10
8.30@
33.00
63.00
20.00

3.42
3.34
.11
430
7.23
.063


92.00
11.00
71.00

33.00
62.00
20.00
5.00
41.04
28.32
2.20
180.00
36.23

644.4
M4.89


F.x e.asest. ar,-h.at-est
Tractor

Truck (pf1k-up)
Irrgati on
Ovrcteod and .nagemant
Totat premftrest fixed osets


12
12
20t
1
M64.19


3.44
7.30
.1S
53.00
.10


4.0*
90.00
3.00
53.00

258.57


Tetalt petarvuet eats


923.44


)orat eostst*

Labor


Total ltarvst costs


23.00
60.00
50.00
12.00


250.00
240.00
50.00

58.00


Total casts


1,311.M4


*reakeravn trceatf P

2
3
r k ~~ r


.r4ena at Variaus t$.ida
Pife el/ton)
753.73
503.32
377.87





4-,




Apenlfx r ate 3.-ofatfatas casts o prod uiing one acre et cauiftI -r fur processing,
narta FtLorida, 198 .


tm unit Quant. Pric Valu Yaour ease
-- |


eaits *xaonsen. se harvnet


,ee, d lt d
Limfe applied
Prtf:Ir, aIxed
fldrdrna fert!fTer

naSerstitde


spreuedr-t cket
Teraer
Mct tastyup)
Trak (wiakwUQ)
Lar (trmMpe., haein )
trrigati
tarest a o r.a ep.
prharest esas exspa


are
ton
ko'.
cut.
one.

acre
are
acre

me.
hr.
al.

pi.
P-
<


1
.3
10


1
13
1
12

20
2S


17.3,00

.to.
7.10
8o0
3.300
n3.00

3.00

2.6
.11
4.50
7.5
.045


173.00
11.00
71.00
42.50
33.40
62.00
38.00
9.00
61.04
28.2
2.20
180.00
36.25
7.43
772.L


FixeS gaus. ne.Aarmnet
Trctom

Truek (plktupt
Irrlgatio
Ove dM .fl mnamwa
Tat l pneMrnvt flxed 5


12
12

1
n20kI


mt:
Wt*-


34'
7.30

53.00-
.10


90.00
3.00
3.400

269.33


tatl p cimarvetr cotst


1,*Ol1.9


fl4td b n (rorscatd)

lar

TotaL haars-t casts


23.00
60.00
o0.00
12.00


230.00

30.00

104.00


Total costs.


1,434.79


Uronc^ Cautfflour g4en
vIelgd. nu/amerl
S
6

8
9


at v 4.au Y 'tds

369.16
307.63
263.61
230.72
205.09


Tetal















Appendfx frabl 4.*5.stiated casts af producing one acre of Liae beans (sAeILtd)
cssing, narnn Florida, 1985.


for pro-


Its Unit aurnt. Price Va(ue Tour cost
-I


*xamn. rprp.
asd
LI.., sIpt fed
Ftrtfttizr, cix
S1de*-dregs fert
Ierbicide
Inhactlcid*
Fimasni~lde
Tracter
MNaAfn-ry
Trut (pplck*up)
Labor
trrigatlen
Intlers a on
pre-harvst ea


arrestt


:ed












rC *XBH


Lb.
ton

cit.
acre

acre
hr.
hr.
el.
he.
aept.
al


75

10
2
1
1
1
3
3
20
6
.3
2S.I9


.40
22.00
7.10
8.50
12.00
16.50
7.50
3.42
3.56
.11
4.50
7.23
.065


40.00
11.00
71.00
17.00
12.00
16.50
7.50
10.26
10.61
2.20
27.00
21.7!

28S.24


f aed casta. wrne- rvafst
Trsteer
Nmbinery-
Trutk (p< cu')
IrrIgation
Overhead anm Inageflnt
Tota pre-farnt- fixed cost


3
3
20
1
284.24


3.8,
6.76
.13
53.00
.10


11.32
14.28
3.00
S3.00

110.22
OG~o
'1Log
110.22


Total prhervent csGta


CustmI harveint
(ltteld coabine)
MIau Ia
Total harvest cass


40.00
12.00


40.00

52.00


TocaiL citss


ppppfrgqn Lift'.
Yil.d (tons/


I
.5


1.

1.5


9bn ,wrf en at v'1u
crfZ (.Prtct
a92
593
U64
337
297


.92
.28
.46
.17
.64


Cash


Total


394.46


446.46







34




Appmnuix Table .--*satistnrt cats of producing ne a re of okr for processin,. nor.n
ftered., 1915.


Itam Unit umnt. Price VelU Taur ea


LiS, ppl ied
Fertltuw, *alad
SId@rive fnt tLtzer
erldti .d l
tlftaiidme

Traesat

Trck (pgik*up)

Irngatian
tmnmrus an oper. e~s.
Tota pnhTrv.nst casJ expenses


alre

hr.
a'.
be.


3.

2
1
1


20
12
3
n3a.47


2.71
22.30
7.10

8.00
16.00
3.4,
3.56
.11
4.00

.065


22.00
11.00

17.00

16.00
13.46
14.24
2.20

21.75

243.


rld. easts. wrflrvntt
Trusteer
N-ft -if t

lrrigaltw
Ovel rtaed s fU at u
Total per *fvmt ftxs -st~U


4
4
21
1
ti6'


3.44.
4.76
.1t
33.0W
.10


11.36
19.04
3.00


114.97
a &.F


Tetatl pfarvest o01 .


360.a3.


IWart eortst:
Ftled boxes (prantetl
Libor
Taul ra
Total ha rnet easts


25.00
190.00
12.00


150.00

940.00
0&1~


Total eltac


1,320.43


Ireukeni Ocrs .egn at Various 4.(dm
ygp(d ..Lseierl. P9r40 ft/n)
3 4L0.21
4 330.16
5 264.13
6 220.11
7 1a.M6











35




Appendix Table 6.**-stsaated costs of producing one acre of southern peas (s l Led) for
proealfng, north fl orida, 1983.



Its Unit quant. Prfe, Value Your east
-I


exUefsfl. fr.-har

LIe, applied
Pnt t llfe, a edl
lerbjitde
Inurf cide
Treteer
Nacainery,
Truec Labor
tlrtwatton
Intmrnt on aper.
pre-harvet cash


ves3<


cap.
*X01,--l


Lb.
ton



aere

hr.

si.
hr.
Upt.
Is,
-e11
IIIII


1453
22.00
7.10
14.00
26.00
3.'2
3.56
.11
4.50
7.25
.065


37.30
11.00
28.44
ll.ao
14.40
26.00
13.48
14.24
2.20
27.00
21.7!

2048.0


Fxsd


Total


Tractr
Machinery
Truck pickupu)
Itrrgatlon
Overwed and
pretharvt ft


vent


4
4
20
1
208.50


nagement
ed casts


3.d4'
4.76.
.13
33.00
.10


13.36
19.0A
3.00
33.00

111.25


Total pre-farmst coats


319.75


Custom harvetindlg
(shelilin cotfine)
tlau ing
Total harvest castsa


44.00
12.00


40.00

50.50
td.JO

$o. o


Total casta


370.25


Br1-lwur Scutftorn Sqgp aPf en



.5!

1


at Vacfous Iet+id

1,441.00
740.50
423.14
370.25
296.20


eCsh


Total


L


I












Aperfitix Taale


.**-Per scaita onstaption of ste(ectd fromzen n4 and h t nrauotn,


1963-1983.


Tear rotai eCaulifttno r Liae beamn Total froesn Trota cmnSa


1943 0.6 0.2 0.7 7.2 27.4
1944 0.7 0,2 0.7 7.6 27.4
1945 .7 0.2 0.7 8.! 28.0
1946 0.? 0.3 0.7 8.4 2.4
197 0. 0.5 0.3 0.7 9.0 29.4
1964 0.4 0.3 0.7 9.6 30.4
1969 04 0. 9.1 31.5
1970 0. .3 0.7 9.4 31.1
1971 0.9 O. 06.& 9.7 31.2
1972 1.0 0.6 0.7 9.9 32.1
197n 1.1 O.4 o.7 10.6 32.5
1974& 1.0 .4 0. 10. 1 31.3
1973 0;9 0.6 03 9.64 29.
1976 1.0 0.6 0.5 10.1 30,9
197 1.1 0.46 0S 10.2 30.4
1978 1.4 0.5 0.s 10.7 29.
1979 1.4 .53 0. 11.2 29.0
1980 1,4 0.. 0.3 10o. 28.7
1981 1.5 0. 0.3 11.6 26.0
1982 1.5 0.5 0.5 11.0 25.4
1983 1.5 0.5 0.5 11.1 25.5


al'xaude tmmco proa4uds.

aUreer- USOA (10).











Appendix


Table


imports


tables,


selec ted


frze an


veqa-


1979-1983.


Year Broccoli Cauliflower Okra

-----------1,, 1000 pounds ------------

1979 15,451 10,010 10,749

1980 23,898 9,720 11,598

19821 27,823 13,574 14,558

1982 31,870 20,570 24,175

1983 33,551 21,085 22,309


Source:


American
(Thia Food


Institute


of Food


Distribution


Institute)


.--t.S.






Appendix Table 9.--I.S.


pack of selecad frozen vegetables,


Year Broccoli caulifluer Baby lt beans Okra Southern peas

---------------1,00 pounds------------ -
1973 213,365 96,098 98,112 40,597 41,974

1974 245,285 93,754 97,163 42,992 30,881

1975 191,630 76,056 85,670 27,970 21,745

1976 201,513 67,807 43,854 27,489 31,368

1977 314,395 96,670 92,154 41,551 36,054

1978 276,519 127,513 81,145 16,295 36,981

1979 298,618 101,130 82,775 33,305 21,099

1980 290,657 84,766 52s,78 41,698 20,933

1981 306,755 105,161. 67,484 43,774 33,404

1982 335,516 111,644 91,781 54,339 23,821

1983 285,358 100,541 as,1#2 46,038 22,926

1984 365,764 102,106 82,985 54,579 28,207


source;


American Frozen Food Institute.


1973-1984*











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Markets in review. Vol. 1. 1985 Edition: Canned
VeYetables. .uitls. Juices. Fish and Meat Products.
Fairlawn, New Jersey.

2. American Institute of Food Distribution. 1985. Food
Markets in Review. Vol. II. 1985 Edition: Frozen
Vegetables. Fruits. Fish Concentrates. Edible Nuts.
Dried Fruits and Dry Beans. Fairlawn, New Jersey.

3. American Frozen Food Instituta. 1984. Frozen Food Pack
Statistics. McLean, Virginia.

4. Degner, Robert L. 1985. An Economic Analysis of
Cucumber Production for the Proaessin Markeat. Florida
Agricultural MarAet Research Canter Staff Report Number
13 Instituta of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

5. Frigoscandia Contracting, Inc. 1985. Personal communi-
cation. Atlanta, Georgia..

6. eay Technology, Inc. 1985.. Personal communication.
Milton-Fraewatar, Oregon.

7. Matthews, R. F; at-al. 1984. "VPtantial for the Expan-
sion of. the Tomato Processing. Industry in Florida."
Preaaedincrs of, the Frorda State Hortfcultural Societv
97:125-128.

8. Pearson, James L. and John R. Brooker. 1969. Planning
Data foa Marketina Selected Fruits and Vegetables in the
South: Part II. Freezing. Handbook. Southern Coopera-
tive Series Bulletin Number 150.

9. USDA-ERS. 1971. Commercial Frazino of Six Veaetable
Crons in the South. Marketing Research Report Number
926. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC.

10. USDA-ERS. 1984. Food Consntion. Prices. and Exrendi-
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U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC.

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Yearbook. Bulletin TVS-236. Washington, DC.




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