• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Preface
 Abstract
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Procedures
 Economic impact of agriculture...
 Results of economic impact...
 Earnings impact
 Employment impact
 Economic interrelationships
 Summary of economic impact...
 Descriptive overview of agriculture...
 Soils
 Climate
 Irrigation
 Natural disasters
 Historical view of Dade county...
 Value of production
 Geographic shifts in production...
 Production of selected agricultural...
 Commercial ornamental horticul...
 Types of nursery operations
 Survey analyses
 Gross sales per acre
 Traditional vegetables
 Tomatoes
 Bush and pole beans
 Potatoes
 Squash and seed corn
 Sweet corn
 Okra and cucumber
 Eggplant, peppers, cabbage, and...
 Tropical vegetables
 Malanga
 Boniato
 Calabaza
 Cassava
 Long beans
 Thai and Chinese eggplant, tindora,...
 Bitter melon
 Luffa and winged beans
 Tropical fruits
 Limes
 Avocados
 Mangos
 Mamey sapote
 Plantains and bananas
 Papayas and carambola
 Lychee
 Longan
 Atemoya
 Sugar apple
 Guava
 Passion fruit and Barbados...
 Kumquat and other tropical...
 Reference






Group Title: Industry report - Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, University of Florida - 90-4
Title: Economic impact of agriculture and agribusiness in Dade County Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026927/00001
 Material Information
Title: Economic impact of agriculture and agribusiness in Dade County Florida submitted to Special Agricultural Advisory Committee and the Dade County Farm Bureau
Series Title: Industry report Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
Physical Description: xii, 107 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moseley, Anne E., 1952-
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center a part of the Food and Resource Economics Dept., University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Economic aspects -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 106-107)
Statement of Responsibility: by Anne E. Moseley.
General Note: "December 1990."
Funding: Industry report (Florida Agricultural Market Research Center) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026927
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001636181
oclc - 24122249
notis - AHR1023

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Preface
        Page i
    Abstract
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Figures
        Page ix
    Executive summary
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1 (MULTIPLE)
    Procedures
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Economic impact of agriculture upon Dade county's economy
        Page 4 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Results of economic impact analysis
        Page 10 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 11
    Earnings impact
        Page 12
    Employment impact
        Page 13
    Economic interrelationships
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Summary of economic impact analysis
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Descriptive overview of agriculture in Dade county
        Page 24 (MULTIPLE)
    Soils
        Page 25
    Climate
        Page 26
    Irrigation
        Page 27
    Natural disasters
        Page 28 (MULTIPLE)
    Historical view of Dade county agriculture
        Page 29 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Value of production
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Geographic shifts in production areas
        Page 39
    Production of selected agricultural commodities
        Page 40
    Commercial ornamental horticulture
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Types of nursery operations
        Page 43
    Survey analyses
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Gross sales per acre
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Traditional vegetables
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Tomatoes
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Bush and pole beans
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Potatoes
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Squash and seed corn
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Sweet corn
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Okra and cucumber
        Page 65
    Eggplant, peppers, cabbage, and southern field peas
        Page 66
    Tropical vegetables
        Page 67 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 68
    Malanga
        Page 69
    Boniato
        Page 70
    Calabaza
        Page 71
    Cassava
        Page 72 (MULTIPLE)
    Long beans
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Thai and Chinese eggplant, tindora, and long squash
        Page 75
    Bitter melon
        Page 76
    Luffa and winged beans
        Page 77
    Tropical fruits
        Page 78 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 79
    Limes
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Avocados
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Mangos
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Mamey sapote
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Plantains and bananas
        Page 93
    Papayas and carambola
        Page 94
    Lychee
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Longan
        Page 97
    Atemoya
        Page 98
    Sugar apple
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Guava
        Page 101
    Passion fruit and Barbados cherry
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Kumquat and other tropical fruit
        Page 104
    Reference
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




/00
c3$1#


DOCUMENT


Industry Report 90-4




Economic Impact of Agriculture and
Agribusiness in Dade County, Florida




submitted to

Special Agricultural Advisory Committee
and the Dade County Farm Bureau





by
Anne E. Moseley


Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of the
Food and Resource Economics Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


December 1990


:1 2~


V ,















Economic Impact of Agriculture and
Agribusiness in Dade County, Florida




submitted to


Special Agricultural Advisory Committee
and the Dade County Farm Bureau





by

Anne E. Moseley


Contributing authors:

Robert L. Degner
Susan D. Moss
DeArmand L. Hull
Rodney L. Clouser
W. David Mulkey



Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of the
Food and Resource Economics Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


With the support of
Metropolitan Dade County


December 1990









PREFACE


This study was conducted at the request of numerous individuals and

organizations in Dade County representing agricultural and business interests

and local government. It was conducted with the financial and technical

support of Metropolitan Dade County, Dade County Youth Fair, Inc., the City

of Homestead, Dade County Agri-Council, the Dade County chapter of the

Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association, and the Dade County Farm Bureau.

The conclusions and opinions expressed in this report are those of the

authors and do not necessarily represent those of the grantors.









ABSTRACT


This study evaluates the importance of agricultural production and

related activities to Dade County's economy. Data for analyses were based on

published and unpublished data and interviews with growers, shippers,

extension personnel and others familiar with Dade County agriculture. Input-

output analysis was used to determine the economic impact of agricultural

subsectors, i.e., fruit, vegetable and nursery subsectors, on the Dade County

economy and economic interrelationships with other sectors of the county's

economy. Input-output analysis showed sales of agricultural products

contributed $910 million to Dade County output, almost $300 million to the

county's income and generated over 23,000 full-time equivalent jobs. The

vegetable industry contributed the most in terms of dollars and jobs,

followed by the nursery industry and then the fruit industry. Descriptions

of selected commodities produced in the county and a historical view of

agriculture in the county are also reported.



Keywords: Economic Impact, Input-Output Analysis, Fruits, Vegetables,
Ornamental Horticulture.









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This study would have been impossible without the cooperation of the

many organizations and individuals interested in the future of agriculture in

Dade County. We are grateful to the six organizations that provided monetary

support: Metropolitan Dade County, Dade County Youth Fair, Inc., the City of

Homestead, Dade County Agri-Council, the Dade County chapter of the Florida

Nurserymen & Growers Association, and Dade County Farm Bureau. Kristin Oak,

executive director of the Dade County Farm Bureau, also coordinated monetary

contributions and handled administrative details associated with the project.

In addition to partial funding, many of these organizations also provided

technical assistance. In-kind assistance was also provided by the Beacon

Council and the Community Bank of Homestead. We are particularly grateful to

Robert Epling, President of the Community Bank for coordinating the various

activities of the special advisory committee created to guide the research

effort.

Technical assistance was also provided by many organizations and

individuals. Special thanks go to the Florida Agricultural Statistics

Service, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the

Dade County chapter of the Florida Foliage Association, the Florida Lime and

Avocado Administrative Committees, The Florida Tomato Committee, the Mango

Forum, the Tropical Fruit Growers Association, and J. R. Brooks & Son Inc.

Technical support was also given by Carlos Balerdi, David Holmes, Mary

Lamberts, and Chris Meline, all associated with the Florida Agricultural

Extension Service in Dade County. Jonathan Crane, now with the IFAS Tropical

Research and Education Center in Homestead, also provided invaluable









assistance. Special thanks are also extended to Seymour Goldweber, retired

Extension Specialist, for his many contributions to the study. We also

appreciate the cooperation of the many agricultural producers, packers, and

shippers who took time to provide data essential to the study. We also

extend our appreciation to Stephanie Mack for her help with the manuscript.










TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
PREFACE . . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . .. . ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . .. v

LIST OF TABLES . . . .. . . vii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . .. . . ix

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . .. x

INTRODUCTION . . . . .. . . 1

OBJECTIVES . . . . .. . .. 1

PROCEDURES . . . . . . . 2

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE UPON DADE COUNTY'S ECONOMY . 4
Overview of Input/Output Analysis . . . . 4
Results of Economic Impact Analysis . . . .. 10
Output Impact . . . . . 10
Earnings Impact . . . . . 12
Employment Impact . . . . .. 13
Economic Interrelationships . . . .. 14
Summary of Economic Impact Analysis . . . .. 22

DESCRIPTIVE OVERVIEW OF AGRICULTURE IN DADE COUNTY . .. 24
Physical Characteristics . . . . .. 24
Land Area and Population . . . .. 24
Soils . . . . . . 25
Climate . . . . . . 26
Irrigation . . . . 27
Natural disasters . . . .. 28
1989 Christmas freeze . . .. 28
Hurricanes . . . . 29
Historical View of Dade County Agriculture . . .. 29
Acreage in Farms . . . . .. 29
Value of Production . . . . .. 34
Geographic Shifts in Production Areas . . .. 39
Production of Selected Agricultural Commodities . .. 40
Commercial Ornamental Horticulture . . .. 41
Types of nursery operations . . ... 43
Survey Analyses . . . ... 44
Gross sales per acre . . ... 48










TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED


Tropic


Tropic


Traditional Ve et s


Tomatoes . . .
Bush and pole beans . .
Potatoes . . .
Squash . . .
Seed Corn . . .
Sweet corn . . .
Okra . . . .
Cucumber . . .
Eggplant . . .
Peppers . . .
Cabbage . . .
Southern field peas . .
Strawberries . . .
Turnips . . .
aal Vegetables . . .
Malanga . . .
Boniato . . .
Calabaza . . .
Cassava . . .
Other specialty vegetables .
Long beans . .
Thai and Chinese eggplant
Tindora . . .
Long squash . .
Bitter melon . .
Luffa . . .
Winged beans . .
Other specialty vegetable
:al Fruits . . .
Limes . . . .
Avocados . . .
Mangos . . .
Mamey Sapote . . .
Plantains and bananas . .
Papayas . . .
Carambola . . .
Lychee . . .
Longan . . .
Atemoya . . .
Sugar apple . . .
Guava . . ..
Passion fruit . . .
Barbados cherry . .
Kumquat . . .
Other Tropical Fruit . .


REFERENCES . . . .


. .


. .


. .
. .

. .


. .
. .











. .


Page
50
52
56
58
60
60
63
65
65
66
66
66
66
67
67
67
69
70
71
72
72
73
75
75
75
76
77
77
78
78
80
85
87
91
93
94
94
95
97
98
99
101
102
102
104
104









LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Multipliers used to estimate the economic impact of Dade
County's agricultural sector. . . . . 8

2 Total value of production by agricultural subsector, Dade County, 1988-
89 . . . . . . . 9

3 Subsector contribution and economic impacts of agriculture on Dade
County, 1989. . . . . . 11

4 Agricultural sector's impact on output and multipliers by industry,
Dade County. . . . . ... ...... 15

5 Agricultural sector's impact on earnings and multipliers by industry,
Dade County . . . . .. . .... 17

6 Agricultural sector's impact on employment and multipliers by industry,
Dade County. . . . . . 19

7 Number of farms categorized by acreage, value and size, for Dade County
and the State of Florida. . . . . .. 30

8 Farms and agricultural land use in Dade County and the State of
Florida. . . . . . . 32

9 Total land in orchards for fruits and nuts, Dade County and the
State of Florida . . . . .. 33

10 Acreage and gross sales by agricultural production subsector, Dade
County, 1974, 1978, 1982, and 1987. . . . 34

11 Trends in Dade County agriculture, by production subsector, 1960-
61 through 1988-89 . . . .... ... 37

12 Estimated value of traditional vegetables sold outside of and
within Dade County, 1988-89. ..... . . 51

13 Tomato prices, production and total sales, Dade County, 1982-83
through 1988-89. .. . . . . 53

14 Tomato acreage, Dade County and the State of Florida, 1980-81 to
1989-90. . . . . . . 54

15 Bush and pole bean acreage, Dade County and Florida, 1976-77 to
1988-89. . . . . . . .. 57









LIST OF TABLES CONTINUED


Table Page

16 Harvested acres of potatoes, Dade County and Florida, 1976-77 to
1988-89 . . . . . . ... 59

17 Harvested acres of squash, Dade County and the State of Florida,
1972-73 to 1988-89. . . . .. ..... .61

18 Acreage of selected traditional vegetables, Dade County, 1979-80
to 1988-89. . . . . ... . . 64

19 Estimated value of tropical vegetables sold outside of and within
Dade County, 1988-89. . . . . .. 68

20 Acreage for selected tropical vegetables, Dade County ... 69

21 Planting & harvesting dates and yields, selected tropical
vegetables, Dade County. . . ... . 74

22 State and county lime acreage by acres, trees, and year set,
January 1989. . . . . . . 81

23 Dade County monthly fresh packed lime shipments, 1978-79 to
1988-89. . . . .. . . 83

24 Estimated total value of tropical fruits sold within and outside
of Dade County, 1988-89. . . . . .. 84

25 State and County avocado acreage by acres, trees, and year set,
January 1989. . . . .... . .. 86

26 Dade County monthly fresh avocado shipments, 1978-79 to
1988-89. . . . . . . 88

27 State and county mango acreage by acres, trees, and year set
Dade County. . . . . . . 90

28 Acreage of select tropical fruits in Dade County 1982-83 to 1988-
89 . . . . . . . 92


viii









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure I Page

1 Value and acreage of Dade County agriculture production,
by selected subsectors, values in 1988 dollars . . 36

2 Major production systems and acreages as reported by nursery
survey respondents. . . . . .. 46

3 Production system specialization as reported by nursery
survey respondents . . . . . 46

4 Proportions of wholesale and retail sales reported by nursery
survey respondents . . . . . 47

5 Total nursery gross sales of plants and services. . 47

6 Proportions of gross sales inside and outside Dade County. 49

7 Total sales and production of tomatoes, Dade County, 1982-83
through 1988-89 . . . . .. .. 55

8 Harvested acres of squash, Dade County and the State of Florida,
1976-77 to 1988-89 . . . . . 62









EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


* Due to the non-traditional nature of Dade County agriculture, there is
reason to believe that estimates of the economic value of agriculture
in the county are sometimes under-reported. This study provides an in-
depth understanding of the importance of agriculture to the Dade County
economy.

* The study focused on row crops including traditional and tropical
vegetables, tree crops, i.e. tropical fruit production, and commercial
ornamental horticulture.

* The aggregate economic impact of Dade County's agricultural sector and
its interrelationships with other sectors of the county's economy were
estimated with Input-Output analysis. Economic data required for the
Input-Output analysis were obtained from published sources and personal
interviews.

* Gross sales to destinations outside Dade County (termed "exports") are
used to calculate the economic impact of agriculture on the county.
These sales bring "new" dollars into the county thereby stimulating
local economic activity. The effect of this economic activity is
measured in terms of output, earnings and employment.

Agriculture's total output impact on Dade County in 1989 was $910
million, approaching almost $1 billion. Of this output impact,
vegetables contributed 56 percent or $511 million; nurseries were
almost 30 percent or $271 million; and fruits constituted 14
percent or $127 million.

The total earnings impact of agriculture on Dade County in 1989
was almost $300 million. Vegetables constituted over 60 percent
or $181 million; nurseries contributed over a quarter of county
income impact, or $76 million; and fruits represented 13 percent,
almost $40 million.

In order for the agricultural industry to deliver $466 million in
gross export sales, more than 23,000 full-time equivalent jobs
were required from Dade County agriculture and other industries.
For vegetable producers to deliver $280.6 million in external
sales, 14,117 jobs were required; likewise, the nursery industry
required 5,891 jobs to produce $120.8 million in export sales;
and for the fruit industry to deliver $64.8 million in sales
outside Dade County, 3,060 full-time jobs were required across
all Dade County industries.

* There are approximately 1.25 million acres of land area in Dade County,
with almost three quarters of this under water, in water conservation
areas, or considered submarginal for urban or agricultural uses.









* According to U.S. Department of Commerce Census of Agriculture:

Since the 1970s, physical land area devoted to agricultural
production has remained relatively constant at approximately 6.6
percent of total county acreage.

Between census years 1974 and 1987, farmland acreage increased
slightly, about nine percent. However, during the same period,
the number of farms increased by 86 percent, while the average
farm size decreased from 88 acres to 51 acres.

In 1987, over half of all Dade County farms were nine acres or
less in size. Fifteen percent were 50 acres or larger.

Between 1982 and 1987, there was nearly a 20 percent increase in
vegetable acreage in the county. The value of vegetable
production increased by nearly nine percent in the five year
period between 1982 and 1987.

Acreage devoted to fruit production steadily increased, by over
65 percent, between census years 1974 and 1987. The value of
fruits produced in Dade County increased by 8.5 percent between
1978 and 1987.

Commercial ornamental horticulture acreage increased by over 64
percent between 1982 and 1987. The value of nursery production
during the same time period increased by over 70 percent.

Of the agricultural subsectors included in this study, census
data showed that only field crops declined in terms of acreage
and value of production. However, interim years between census
data collection showed wide variation in field crops acreage and
production value, according to Extension Service estimates.


S For the economic impact analysis, official 1989 estimates of individual
commodity production values were used when available. Unofficial
sources, including growers, shippers and packers, were consulted to
determine values for those commodities for which there were no official
estimates and the proportion of all commodities shipped out of the
county.

There were at least 18 different traditional vegetables
commercially grown in Dade County. During 1989, the estimated
value of these traditional vegetables was $267 million of which
approximately 98 percent was shipped out of the county. With
respect to value, the top four traditional vegetable commodities
were tomatoes, bush beans, potatoes, and sweet corn.

More than 16 tropical and specialty vegetables, as well as a
variety of herbs and spices are grown. The estimated value of
tropical vegetables sold during 1989 was $26 million with an









estimated 70 percent shipped to locations outside Dade County.
Malanga, boniato, calabaza, and cassava constituted most of the
tropical vegetable production.

S Of approximately 15 commercially grown tropical fruits, the
highest value crops are limes, avocados, and mangos. Tropical
fruit sales for 1989 were estimated at $74 million with
approximately 88 percent shipped out of the county.

S Due to the complexity and diversity of the commercial ornamental
horticulture industry, a survey of nurseries in Dade County was
conducted to determine the value of production and the proportion
of sales destined to out-of-county clientele. Across all
production systems, including container, field, and greenhouse,
gross sales per acre were estimated to be about $28,000.
Approximately $171 million of nursery products were sold during
1989. Over 70 percent of these sales were exported out of the
county.


xii









1

INTRODUCTION


Despite the fact that Dade County is the most populous urban center in

Florida, it is also a major producer of agricultural products, ranking second

in the state in terms of the size of its agricultural industry with products

valued at $312 million in 1986. There is reason to believe that published

estimates significantly underreport the economic value of agriculture in Dade

County due to the non-traditional nature of Dade County agriculture. As a

result, estimates of agricultural activity that attempt to quantify the

economic importance of agriculturally related activities in the county (e.g.

input supply, transportation, marketing, etc.) may be significantly

underestimated as well.


OBJECTIVES


This study was undertaken to provide a more complete understanding of

agriculture and agribusiness and their economic importance to Dade County.

Information obtained may be used by policy makers and industry officials to

consider a broad range of policies affecting the interests of agricultural

producers, agribusiness firms, and citizens of the county.

Specific objectives were to: (1) identify the major elements of

agricultural production and agribusiness, (2) assemble available published

and unpublished data for the major agricultural and agribusiness elements,

(3) identify potential sources of primary economic data to supplement

secondary data as necessary, (4) determine the aggregate economic impact of

the agricultural sector and estimate economic interrelationships with other

sectors of the county's economy, and (5) prepare descriptive profiles and









2

specific estimates of economic impacts for individual sectors as resources

permitted.


PROCEDURES


The elements of the agricultural and agribusiness industry were

identified through personal interviews of individuals familiar with Dade

County agriculture. Field work was conducted in Dade County in cooperation

with the Dade County extension staff. The major focus was on row crops

(including traditional and tropical vegetables), tree crops, and ornamental

horticulture. Interviews were conducted with members of the agricultural

community and officials of the Cooperative Extension Service, the Florida

Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Federal agricultural

agencies, trade associations, and other local business and government

sources. Interviews provided leads for obtaining published and unpublished

data.

Objectives 2 and 3 were met through personal interviews described

above. Published data were evaluated for accuracy and refined to meet the

requirements of input-output analysis. For example, published estimates of

farm values of various crops were adjusted to reflect values at the shipping

point. Data for making such adjustments were obtained from trade

associations or shippers as required.

Objective 4 was largely achieved through the use of macroeconomic

analytical techniques, primarily input-output analysis. This technique

allowed economic interrelationships existing between agriculture and other

sectors of the economy to be estimated. Analysis employed an existing input-









3

output model of the Dade County economy estimated by the U.S. Department of

Commerce.

The remainder of this report is organized into two major sections:

"Economic Impact of Agriculture Upon Dade County's Economy" and "A

Descriptive Overview of Agriculture in Dade County." The first and most

important section discusses the analysis of the agricultural sector's impact

on Dade County's economy. The second section provides a physical description

of the county as it pertains to the agricultural sector, a view of the

county's agricultural sector's history, and descriptions of selected

commodities produced in the county.









4

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE UPON DADE COUNTY'S ECONOMY


Overview of Input/Output Analysis


The purpose of economic impact analysis is to help planners, analysts,

and interested individuals estimate the total economic effect that a

particular sector or industry has upon a region's output (gross sales),

earnings (income), and employment. The agricultural sector of Dade County's

economy "exports" commodities to locations outside of the county. These

"exports," in turn, affect the county's economy by stimulating additional

local economic activity, as dollars generated from sources outside Dade are

used for purchases within the county.

When Dade's agricultural commodities are sold outside the county, the

agricultural industry directly affects the region's economic activity by

bringing new dollars into the county. These direct effects then produce

indirect impacts or effects on the regional economy as dollars generated by

external sales are used for local purchases. For example, farmers spend

money for wage payments in all phases of agricultural production from land

preparation, planting and harvesting to transporting produce to warehouse

facilities for storage and subsequent packaging and processing for export out

of the county. Indirect impacts, in the form of goods and services provided

by local businesses and individuals to the agricultural sector, can include

activities such as (1) business services like accountant work, banking

activities, or any services that are provided to the agricultural industry,

(2) sale of inputs used by the agricultural sector such as fertilizers,

machinery and equipment, office supplies, packing materials, and the like,

(3) sale of parts and repair services, and (4) other similar kinds of









5

activities. These indirect effects represent additional economic activity

and result in additional jobs and income for local residents, generated from

external sales by the agricultural industry.

In addition to direct and indirect effects, there are also induced

effects or impacts associated with the production of agricultural

commodities. Induced effects represent the spending activities of employees

who earn income in jobs provided by the businesses involved, either directly

or indirectly, in the production of regional (agricultural) exports. This

induced effect is income that is spent by consumers on purchases of services

including such things as retail sales, local bank accounts, dry cleaning

services, car repairs, and the like.

Thus, the economic impact that agriculture has upon Dade County's

economy is the combined direct, indirect, and induced effects. For example,

if for some reason agricultural "export" sales increase and local production

expands, then the increase in sales represents new direct economic activity

and increased local expenditures for labor and other agricultural inputs.

This increased activity then triggers a chain of increased local spending by

service and input supply industries as they increase their output and local

purchases in order to supply increased demands of the agricultural sector.

This expansion, in turn, leads to increased output and local purchases by

firms supplying the input and service businesses (30). For example, a local

tire business might experience increased sales (indirect effect) because it

supplies the local transport company that provides freight services for

agricultural producers. At the same time, tire sales personnel spend income

for a variety of local goods and services, one example could be purchases of

health services (induced effect). Thus, each dollar in additional sales,









6

when spent locally, triggers a chain reaction of additional indirect and

induced spending activities.

Total economic repercussions associated with an additional dollar of

external sales from a region is referred to as the multiplier effect. The

multiplier for a particular export industry is a measure of the total

economic activity (direct, indirect, and induced) associated with an

additional dollar of external sales by the industry in question (30). As

illustrated earlier, an increase in export sales has repercussions via

additional economic activity within the region. On the other hand, the

converse is also true. A decrease in agricultural export sales in the county

will have economic repercussions in the form of decreases in regional

economic activity. The multiplier therefore can measure the impact of either

an increase or a decrease in export sales activities.

Additional economic activity, however, is not infinite in its ripple

effect through the economy. Some dollars earned in the direct activity are

not spent locally. A part of direct sales dollars are used for such things

as taxes and fees paid to state and federal agencies, payments to landowners

who reside outside the county, and as payment for goods and services which

are imported into Dade County (seed purchased from Mid-West companies,

externally located computer consultants servicing equipment, etc). The size

of the multiplier associated with increased/decreased regional export sales

varies with the size of the region and with the industry in question. In

general, the larger and more diverse the economy of the region and the more

complex the industry in terms of its linkages to other local industries, the

larger the multiplier effect (30).









7

The means of estimating the economic impact that the agricultural

sector has upon the county is through use of multipliers based on regional

input-output (I-0) models. The foundation of the I-0 model is a transactions

table structured like a mileage chart on a road map. Each industry (or

sector) in the region is listed as a selling industry in a row and as a

purchasing industry in a column of the table. Entries in the table indicate

the distribution of sales and the pattern of purchases for each sector of the

regional economy. For example, agricultural products and services is treated

as one sector, real estate as a sector, wholesale trade as a sector, etc.

until the entire local economy is divided into economic sectors producing

similar products. Households are considered a separate sector which

purchases goods and services and sells labor. In effect, the transaction

table provides a picture of interactions between local sectors and allows the

flow of dollars to be traced through the economy. Multipliers are calculated

based on the information generated from the transactions table.

Because they are dollar multiples of the initial dollar spent for the

output (sales) of the industry, total changes in output are referred to as

output multipliers (1). Earnings multipliers for the agricultural industry

in Dade County show the total earnings (direct, indirect, and induced) to

households employed in Dade County industries in order for the agricultural

sector to deliver a dollar of sales outside the county. The employment

multiplier for Dade County's agricultural industry shows the number of full

time equivalent jobs that Dade County industries provide, directly,

indirectly, and induced, in order for the agricultural sector to deliver $1

million of "export" sales.









8

For this study, Dade County's agricultural sector consists of three

subsectors: (1) vegetable production, (2) fruit production, and (3)

commercial ornamental horticulture. Multipliers for subsectors of Dade

County's agricultural sector (Table 1) were estimated by the Bureau of

Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of Commerce using their Regional

Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) (1).


Table 1.--Multipliers used to estimate the economic impact of Dade
County's agricultural sector.


Agricultural Subsectors

Impact area Fruits Vegetables Nurseries

(---------------Multipliers---------------)


Output 1.8261 1.7771 1.8255
Earnings 0.6106 0.6457 0.6323
Employment 47.1729 50.2991 48.7482

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Input-Output Modeling
System (RIMS II).


In order to estimate the impact that agricultural production had upon

Dade County's economy during the 1988-89 production season, total gross sales

were estimated for each subsector: (1) vegetables, (2) fruits, and (3)

commercial ornamental horticulture. For the purpose of describing the

agricultural industry, vegetable production was disaggregated to include

itemization of traditional vegetable and tropical vegetable production.

However, for the impact analysis, vegetable production is aggregated into one

subsector.









9

Since economic impact analysis estimates an industry's affect upon

regional economic activity when products or commodities are exported from the

region (county), it is the dollar amounts of total gross sales (for each

subsector: vegetables, fruits, and commercial ornamental horticulture)

shipped out of Dade County that are used (Table 2). The amount of total

gross sales of each subsector that remains in Dade County (dollars generated

from local, in-county sales) is added back into the output impact calculation

to show the total output impact of the sector. That is to say, local sales

do not generate new activity or rather do not bring in new dollars into the

county. They are simply added, without a multiplier effect, back into the

estimated output impact calculation from the I/O model.


Table 2.--Total value of production by agricultural subsector, Dade County,
1988-89.


Value of crop sold Value of crop sold Total crop
Subsector outside of Dade within Dade value

(-------------------- Dollars -------------------)
Traditional
vegetables 262,491,448 4,833,549 267,324,997
Tropical
vegetables 18,179,384 7,790,196 25,969,580

Subtotal 280,670,832 12,623,745 293,294,577


Tropical fruits 64,862,931 9,091,786 73,954,717


Horticulture 120,851,980 50,569,268 171,421,248


Total 466,385,743 72,284,799 538,670,542


Total


466,385,743 72,284,799


538,670,542









10

Results of Economic Impact Analysis


Table 3 summarizes the impacts of agricultural subsectors on the Dade

County economy and includes respective subsector multipliers. Impacts for

output, earnings and employment are reported separately for each agricultural

subsector and for the agricultural industry in total.


Output Impact


Output multipliers in Table 3 (from Table 1) estimate the total changes

in output that occur in all Dade County industries for each additional dollar

of output that the agricultural subsectors deliver outside Dade County.

Vegetable production exported (sold) outside Dade County during 1988-89

totaled $280,670,832 (gross sales of commodities shipped out of Dade County).

The output multiplier for vegetables is 1.7771 indicating that each dollar in

vegetable sales outside Dade County has a local impact of more than $1.77.

Thus, multiplying gross export sales (output) of vegetables times the output

multiplier results in vegetable production during 1988-89 having a estimated

economic impact of $498,780,132 (numbers may not calculate precisely due to

rounding). Similarly, export fruit production estimated at $64,862,931,

times the (total) output multiplier for fruits (1.8261) equals an estimated

economic impact of $118,446,197 during the 1988-89 season; nursery export

sales estimated at $120,851,980, times the nursery (total) output multiplier

of 1.8255 equals an estimated economic impact of $220,615,287 for the 1988-89

production season.











Table 3.--Subsector contribution and economic impacts of agriculture on Dade County, 1989.


Agricultural Subsectors


Fruits Vegetables Nurseries Total Ag Sector


Total gross (FOB) export sales (Dollars)

Percentage of FOB


Output

Multiplier

Output impact

Percentage of output impact


Earnings

Multiplier

Earnings impacta

Percentage of earnings impact


Employment

Multiplier

Employment impact

Percentage of employment impact



Sales wintin Dade County


Total

Total output impact (Dollars)

Percentage of output impact


64,862,931

13.91




1.8261

118,446,197

14.14




0.6106

39,605,305

13.32




47.1729

3,060

13.26



9,091,786




127,537,983

14.01


280,670,832

60.18




1.7771

498,780,132

59.53




0.6457

181,229,155

60.97




50.2991

14,117

61.19



12,623,745




511,403,877

56.19


120,851,980

25.91




1.8255

220,615,287

26.33




0.6323

76,414,708

25.71


48.7482

5,891

25.54


50,569,268




271,184,555

29.80


466,385,743

100.00


837,841,616

100.00






297,249,168

100.00


23,069

100.00


72,284,799




910,126,415

100.00


Impacts do not include employment and earnings associated with agricultural production
bTotal output impact is the output impact from export sales plus sales within Dade.


for local sales.









12

To obtain the total output impact for each subsector, the amount of

output that remains within the county is added back to the (I/O model) output

impact estimates. For fruits, the output impact of $118,446,197 is added to

local sales of $9,091,786 for a total economic impact of $127,537,983 during

the 1988-89 production season. Similarly, for vegetables, the total output

impact for 1988-89 was $511,403,877 (impact output of $498,780,132 plus local

sales of $12,623,745), and for nursery and greenhouse production, the total

output impact for 1988-89 was $271,184,555 (output impact of $220,615,287

plus local sales of $50,569,268). The combined total output impacts from

vegetables ($511.4 million), fruits ($127.53 million), and nursery ($271.18

million) production indicate that the agricultural sector of Dade County had

a total output impact of $910,126,415 during the 1988-89 production season.


Earnings Impact


Earnings or income multipliers for a particular subsector provide an

estimate of the income that is generated in all Dade County industries in

order for each agricultural subsector to deliver a dollar of output to final

demand. Or stated differently, earnings multipliers for each subsector can

be viewed as estimates of the total (direct, indirect, and induced) dollar

changes in earnings that occur in households employed by Dade County

industries for each additional dollar of output (sales) the agricultural

subsectors deliver outside the county (ultimate purchasers). .To illustrate,

for the nursery and greenhouse subsector, the (total) income multiplier is

0.6323 (Tables 1 and 3) which is interpreted as follows: for each additional

dollar of export sales the nursery subsector delivers, $.63 in earnings is

generated in income all Dade County industries. Similarly, for each









13

additional dollar of export sales delivered by the vegetable industry and the

fruit industry, there is approximately $.64 and $.61, respectively, generated

in income to consumers supplying labor to Dade County industries.

The total impact (generated from external sales) that the agricultural

sector had upon Dade County earnings during 1988-89 was $297,249,168. A

summation of earnings or income impacts in 1988-89 are as follows: (a)

nurseries $76,414,708, (b) vegetables $181,229,155, and (c) fruits

$39,605,305. This impact is understated because there are income effects not

estimated for sales made within Dade County. That is, for the $72,284,799

(total from the three subsectors) of agricultural production during 1988-89

that constituted sales within Dade County, estimates are not available for

the income effects associated with this local economic activity.


Employment Impact


Employment multipliers for the agricultural subsectors in Dade County

show the number of full-time equivalent jobs that Dade industries provide,

directly, indirectly, and induced, in order for the subsector in question to

deliver $1 million of external sales. The employment multiplier for the

fruit subsector is 47.1729 (Table 3) which means that in order for the fruit

industry to deliver $1 million in export sales, Dade County industries must

provide the equivalent of 47 full-time jobs. For the nursery and vegetable

subsectors, Dade industries must provide 48 and 50 jobs, respectively, in

order for the respective subsector to deliver $1 million of "export" or

external sales. This translates to the following when each multiplier is

calculated with the gross subsector export sales: (1) there were 5,891 jobs

provided by Dade industries in 1988-89 in order for the nursery industry to









14

produce the estimated $120.85 million in external sales; (2) for the

vegetable industry to produce $280.67 million in export sales during the

1988-89 season, 14,117 jobs were required of Dade County industries; and (3)

with respect to fruit production, 3,060 jobs were provided by industries in

the county in order for there to be $64.8 million in external sales by the

fruit industry.

Adding together each subsector's impact on Dade County employment,

there were 23,069 full-time equivalent jobs provided by county industries as

a result of the agricultural sector's export sales during 1988-89.


Economic Interrelationships


In addition to total impacts noted above, Tables 4-6 illustrate the

interrelationships between the three agricultural subsectors and each of 39

other sectors of the Dade County economy for output, earnings, and

employment. The 39 sectors are listed on the left of each table and the

three agricultural subsectors are listed across the top. The final row of

each table reflects the respective aggregate multipliers for each

agricultural subsector and the total impact of that sector on the county

economy. Numbers in the tables reflect that part of the total agricultural

impact which occurs in the sector listed for a particular row. Each table

(Tables 4-6) shows both disaggregated multiplier values for each agricultural

sector (impacts on a per dollar basis) and actual disaggregated impacts for

each sector.

The greatest amount of economic activity generated by agriculture in

the county occurs within the agricultural sector itself. For example, of the

$118.44 million economic impact generated by fruit production export sales,












Table 4.--Agricultural sector's impact on output and multipliers by industry, Dade County.


Subsector

Greenhouse and nursery
Fruits Vegetables products Total

(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
FOB export values: 64,862,931 280,670,832 120,851,980 466,385,743
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Industry aggregation number and
designation Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacts Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacts

(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)


1 Agricultural products and agricultural,
forestry, and fishery services
2 Forestry and fishery products
3 Coal mining
4 Crude petroleum and natural gas
5 Miscellaneous mining
6 New construction
7 Maintenance and repair construction
8 Food and kindred products and tobacco
9 Textile mill products
10Apparel
11Paper and allied products
12Printing and publishing
13Chemicals and petroleum refining
14Rubber and leather products
15Lumber and wood products and furniture
16Stone, clay, and glass products
17Primary metal industries
18Fabricated metal products
19Machinery, except electrical
20Electric and electronic equipment
21Motor vehicles and equipment
22Transportation equipment, except motor
vehicles


1.1090
0.0001
0.0000
0.0003
0.0011
0.0000
0.0240
0.0227
0.0026
0.0176
0.0135
0.0115
0.0268
0.0039
0.0064
0.0013
0.0003
0.0023
0.0028
0.0021
0.0001


71,932,988
6,486
0
19,459
71,349
0
1,556,710
1,472,389
168,644
1,141,588
875,650
745,924
1,738,326
252,965
415,123
84,322
19,459
149,185
181,616
136,212
6,486


0.0014 90,808


1.0674
0.0001
0.0000
0.0002
0.0014
0.0000
0.0226
0.0238
0.0026
0.0181
0.0055
0.0113
0.0182
0.0036
0.0035
0.0012
0.0003
0.0022
0.0024
0.0020
0.0001


299,588,040
28,067
0
56,134
392,939
0
6,343,161
6,679,966
729,744
5,080,142
1,543,690
3,171,581
5,108,209
1,010,415
982,348
336,805
84,201
617,476
673,610
561,342
28,067


0.0014 392,939


1.0990
0.0001
0.0000
0.0003
0.0009
0.0000
0.0209
0.0235
0.0027
0.0146
0.0042
0.0186
0.0320
0.0103
0.0034
0.0015
0.0003
0.0022
0.0027
0.0021
0.0001


132,816,323
12,085
0
36,256
108,767
0
2,525,806
2,840,021
326,300
1,764,439
507,578
2,247,847
3,867,264
1,244,775
410,897
181,278
36,256
265,874
326,300
253,789
12,085


0.0013 157,108


3.2754
0.0003
0
0.0008
0.0034
0
0.0675
0.0700
0.0079
0.0503
0.0232
0.0414
0.0770
0.0178
0.0133
0.0040
0.0009
0.0067
0.0079
0.0062
0.0003


504,337,352
46,639
0
111,849
573,055
0
10,425,678
10,992,476
1,224,688
7,986,169
2,926,917
6,165,351
10,713,799
2,508,156
1,808,367
602,405
139,916
1,032,535
1,181,527
951,343
46,639


0.0041 640.855
Continued.












Table 4.--Agricultural sector's impact on output and multipliers by industry, Dade County, continued.


Subsector
Greenhouse and nursery
Fruits Vegetables products Total
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
FOB export values: 64,862,931 280,670,832 120,851,980 466,385,743


Industry aggregation number and
designation Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacts
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
23Instruments and related products 0.0010 64,863 0.0011 308,738 0.0010 120,852 .0031 494,453
24Miscellaneous manufacturing 0.0027 175,130 0.0028 785,878 0.0033 398,812 0.0088 1,359,820
industries
25Transportation 0.0356 2,309,120 0.0350 9,823,479 0.0336 4,060,626 0.1042 16,193,226
26Communication 0.0207 1,342,663 0.0211 5,922,154 0.0246 2,972,959 0.0664 10,237,776
27Electric, gas, water, and sanitary
services 0.0314 2,036,696 0.0272 7,634,247 0.0282 3,408,026 0.0868 13,078,969
28Wholesale trade 0.0759 4,923,097 0.0715 20,067,965 0.0905 10,937,104 0.2379 35,928,166
29Retail trade 0.0768 4,981,473 0.0757 21,246,782 0.0750 9,063,899 0.2275 35,292,154
30Finance 0.0260 1,686,436 0.0274 7,690,381 0.0249 3,009,214 0.0783 12,386,031
31Insurance 0.0187 1,212,937 0.0199 5,585,349 0.0189 2,284,102 0.0575 9,082,389
32Real estate 0.1171 7,595,449 0.1392 39,069,380 0.1124 13,583,763 0.3687 60,248,592
33Hotels, lodging places, and 0.0136 882,136 0.0124 3,480,318 0.0121 1,462,309 0.0381 5,824,763
amusements
34Personal services 0.0118 765,383 0.0117 3,283,849 0.0118 1,426,053 0.0353 5,475,285
35Business services 0.0395 2,562,086 0.0357 10,019,949 0.0415 5,015,357 0.1167 17,597,392
36Eating and drinking places 0.0335 2,172,908 0.0343 9,627,009 0.0342 4,133,138 0.1020 15,933,056
37Health services 0.0347 2,250,744 0.0367 10,300,619 0.0360 4,350,671 0.1074 16,902,034
38Miscellaneous services 0.0373 2,419,387 0.0375 10,525,157 0.0368 4,447,353 0.1116 17,391,897
39Householdsb 0.6106 39,605,305 0.6456 181,201,095 0.6322 76,402,622 1.8884 297,209,022
Total 1.8261 118,446,197 1.7771 498,780,132 1.8255 220,615,287 5.4287 837,841,616

aThe product of the FOB export values and the individual multiplier equals the respective dollar impact value.

bTotals in the dollar impact columns do not include the household sector.











Table 5.--Agricultural sector's impact on earnings and multipliers by industry, Dade County.


Subsector

Greenhouse and nursery
Fruits Vegetables products Total

(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
FOB export values: 64,862,931 280,670,832 120,851,980 466,385,743


Industry aggregation number and
designation Multiplier Impacts Multiplier Impacts Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)


1Agricultural products &
agricultural, forestry, and fishery
services
2Forestry & fishery products
3Coal mining
4Crude petroleum & natural gas
5Miscellaneous mining
6New construction
7Maintenance & repair construction
8Food & kindred products & tobacco
9Textile mill products
10 Apparel
11Paper & allied products
12Printing & publishing
13Chemicals & petroleum refining
14Rubber & leather products
15Lumber & wood products & furniture
16Stone, clay, & glass products
17 Primary metal industries
18Fabricated metal products
19Machinery, except electrical
20Electric & electronic equipment
21Motor vehicles & equipment
22 Transportation equipment, except
motor vehicles


0.4089 26,522,452


0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0003
0.0000
0.0087
0.0032
0.0005
0.0044
0.0025
0.0034
0.0032
0.0009
0.0016
0.0003
0.0001
0.0006
0.0007
0.0005
0.0000


0
0
0
19,459
0
564,308
207,561
32,431
285,397
162,157
220,534
207,561
58,377
103,781
19,459
6,486
38,918
45,404
32,431
0


0.0004 25,945


0.4477 125,656,330


0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0004
0.0000
0.0082
0.0034
0.0005
0.0046
0.0010
0.0033
0.0023
0.0009
0.0009
0.0003
0.0001
0.0005
0.0006
0.0005
0.0000


0
0
0
112,268
0
2,301,501
954,281
140,335
1,291,086
280,671
926,214
645,543
252,604
252,604
84,201
28,067
140,335
168,403
140,335
0


0.0004 112,268


0.4248 51,337,922


0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0002
0.0000
0.0077
0.0033
0.0005
0.0037
0.0008
0.0055
0.0044
0.0022
0.0009
0.0004
0.0001
0.0006
0.0007
0.0005
0.0000


0
0
0
24,170
0
930,560
398,812
60,426
447,152
96,682
664,686
531,749
265,874
108,767
48,341
12,085
72,511
84,796
60,426
0


0.0004 48,341


1.2814 203,516,704


0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0009
0.0000
0.0246
0.0099
0.0015
0.0127
0.0043
0.0122
0.0099
0.0040
0.0034
0.0010
0.0003
0.0017
0.0020
0.0015
0.0000


0
0
0
155,898
0
3,796,369
1,560,654
233,193
2,023,635
539,510
1,811,434
1,384,853
576,855
465,151
152,001
46,639
251,764
298,403
233,193
0


0.0012 186,554
Continued.












Table 5.--Agricultural sector's impact on earnings and multipliers by industry, Dade County, continued.


Subsector
Greehouse and nursery
Fruits Vegetables products Total
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
FOB export values 64,862,931 280,670,832 120,851,980 466,385,743


Industry aggregation number and
designation Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
23 Instruments and related products 0.0003 19,459 0.0003 84,201 0.0003 36,256 0.0009 139,916
24Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries 0.0007 45,404 0.0007 196,470 0.0008 96,682 0.0022 338,555
25 Transportation 0.0138 895,108 0.0137 3,845,190 0.0131 1,583,161 0.0406 6,323,460
26Communication 0.0049 317,828 0.0050 1,403,354 0.0058 700,941 0.0157 2,422,124
27Electric, gas, water, and sanitary
services 0.0033 214,048 0.0029 813,945 0.0028 338,386 0.0090 1,366,379
28Wholesale trade 0.0268 1,738,326 0.0252 7,072,905 0.0320 3,867,264 0.0840 12,678,495
29Retail trade 0.0344 2,231,285 0.0339 9,514,741 0.0336 4,060,626 0.1019 15,806,653
30Finance 0.0076 492,958 0.0080 2,245,367 0.0073 882,219 0.0229 3,620,545
31Insurance 0.0061 395,664 0.0065 1,824,360 0.0061 737,197 0.0187 2,957,221
32Real estate 0.0039 252,965 0.0050 1,403,354 0.0035 422,982 0.0124 2,079,301
33Hotels, lodging places, & amusements 0.0037 239,993 0.0035 982,348 0.0035 422,982 0.0107 1,645,323
34Personal services 0.0050 324,315 0.0050 1,403,354 0.005 604,260 0.015 2,331,929
35Business services 0.0174 1,128,615 0.0162 4,546,868 0.0183 2,211,591 0.0519 7,887,074
36Eating and drinking places 0.0094 609,712 0.0097 2,722,504 0.0096 1,160,179 0.0287 4,492,398
37Health services 0.0182 1,180,505 0.0193 5,416,947 0.0189 2,284,102 0.0564 8,881,555
38Miscellaneous services 0.0128 830,245 0.0130 3,648,721 0.0128 1,546,905 0.0386 6,025,872
39Householdsb 0.0021 136,212 0.0022 617,476 0.0022 265,874 0.0065 1,019,562
Total 0.6106 39,605,305 0.6457 181,229,155 0.6323 76,414,708 1.8886 297,249,168


aThe product of the FOB export value and the multiplier equals the dollar impact value for each respective industry designation.

bTotal in the dollar impact columns does not include the household sector.











Table 6.--Agricultural sector's impact on employment and multipliers by industry, Dade County.


Subsector

Greenhouse and
Fruits Vegetables nursery products Total
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
FOB export values 64,862,931 280,670,832 120,851,980 466,385,743
------------------------------------------------------ ---------------- --------------- ----------------

Industry aggregation number and designation Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacts

(FTE) (FTE) (FTE) (FTE)


1 Agricultural products and agricultural,
forestry, and fishery services
2 Forestry and fishery products
3 Coal mining
4 Crude petroleum and natural gas
5 Miscellaneous mining
6 New construction
7 Maintenance and repair construction
8 Food and kindred products and tobacco
9 Textile mill products
10Apparel
11Paper and allied products
12 Printing and publishing
13Chemicals and petroleum refining
14Rubber and leather products
15Lumber and wood products and furniture
16 Stone, clay, and glass products
17 Primary metal industries
18Fabricated metal products
19Machinery, except electrical
20Electric and electronic equipment
21Motor vehicles and equipment
22Transportation equipment, except motor vehicles


33.9646 2,203.04
0.0015 0.10


0.0000
0.0008
0.0125
0.0000
0.4987
0.1591
0.0366
0.4092
0.0938
0.1899
0.1191
0.0613
0.1057
0.0140
0.0028
0.0274
0.0258
0.0209
0.0009
0.0144


0.00
0.05
0.81
0.00
32.35
10.32
2.37
26.54
6.08
12.32
7.73
3.98
6.86
0.91
0.18
1.78
1.67
1.36
0.06
0.93


37.1873 10,437.39


0.0015
0.0000
0.0004
0.0154
0.0000
0.4729
0.1670
0.0375
0.4235
0.0369
0.1864
0.0846
0.0579
0.0573
0.0129
0.0025
0.0258
0.0220
0.0195
0.0008
0.0146


0.42
0.00
0.11
4.32
0.00
132.73
46.87
10.53
118.86
10.36
52.32
23.74
16.25
16.08
3.62
0.70
7.24
6.17
5.47
0.22
4.10


35.2857 4,264.35


0.0014
0.0000
0.0008
0.0100
0.0000
0.4409
0.1645
0.0396
0.3401
0.0283
0.3118
0.1643
0.1456
0.0557
0.0182
0.0028
0.0263
0.0250
0.0206
0.0008
0.0143


0.17
0.00
0.10
1.21
0.00
53.28
19.88
4.79
41.10
3.42
37.68
19.86
17.60
6.73
2.20
0.34
3.18
3.02
2.49
0.10
1.73


106.4376 16,904.78
0.0044 0.69
0.0000 0.00
0.0020 0.26
0.0379 6.34
0.0000 0.00
1.4125 218.36
0.4906 77.07
0.1137 17.68
1.1728 186.51
0.1590 19.86
0.6881 102.32
0.3680 51.33
0.2648 37.82
0.2187 29.67
0.0451 6.73
0.0081 1.22
0.0795 12.20
0.0728 10.87
0.0610 9.32
0.0025 0.38
0.0433 6.76
Continued.











Table 6.--Agricultural sector's impact on employment and multipliers by industry, Dade County, continued.


Subsector
Greenhouse and
Fruits Vegetables nursery products Total
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
FOB export values 64,862,931 280,670,832 120,851,980 466,385,743


Industry aggregation number and designation Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacts Multiplier Impacta Multiplier Impacta
(FTE) (FTE) (FTE) (FTE)
23Instruments and related products 0.0141 0.91 0.0144 4.04 0.0142 1.72 0.0427 6.67
24Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 0.0516 3.35 0.0524 14.71 0.0642 7.76 0.1682 25.81
25 Transportation 0.5969 38.72 0.5932 166.49 0.5673 68.56 1.7574 273.77
26Communication 0.1598 10.37 0.1628 45.69 0.1884 22.77 0.5110 78.83
27Electric, gas, water, and sanitary services 0.0989 6.41 0.0850 23.86 0.0841 10.16 0.2680 40.44
28Wholesale trade 1.2599 81.72 1.1863 332.96 1.5021 181.53 3.9483 596.21
29Retail trade 2.6607 172.58 2.6240 736.48 2.5987 314.06 7.8834 1,223.12
30 Finance 0.3509 22.76 0.3713 104.21 0.3351 40.50 1.0573 167.47
31Insurance 0.2862 18.56 0.3033 85.13 0.2889 34.91 0.8784 138.61
32Real estate 0.4524 29.34 0.5848 164.14 0.4073 49.22 1.4445 242.70
33Hotels, lodging places, and amusements 0.3825 24.81 0.3632 101.94 0.3618 43.72 1.1075 170.47
34 Personal services 0.6098 39.55 0.6112 171.55 0.6148 74.30 1.8358 285.40
35Business services 1.2417 80.54 1.1597 325.49 1.3063 157.87 3.7077 563.90
36Eating and drinking places 1.3564 87.98 1.3882 389.63 1.3854 167.43 4.1300 645.04
37 Health services 0.8041 52.16 0.8500 238.57 0.8322 100.57 2.4863 391.30
38Miscellaneous services 0.6943 45.03 0.7064 198.27 0.6931 83.76 2.0938 327.06
39Households 0.3937 25.54 0.4162 116.82 0.4076 49.26 1.2175 191.61
Total 47.1729 3,059.77 50.299114,117.49 48.74825,891.32 146.220223,068.58


aThe product of the FOB export values divided by one
by each designated industry.


million and the individual multiplier equals the number of full-time employees generated


Source: BEA, RIMS II earnings multipliers calculated using 1987 earnings/employment relationships and location quotients.









21

$71.9 million (Table 4, row 1, column 2) occurs within the agricultural

sector. With respect to interrelationships with other sectors of Dade

County's economy, the real estate sector is the second most important sector

affected by agricultural output. For example, of the $1.77 of total economic

activity generated by a dollar of export sales from vegetable production (the

vegetable production multiplier for all sectors is 1.7771), approximately

$.13 of this is economic activity which occurs within the real estate sector

(Table 4, row 32, column 3). Stated differently, this indicates that for

every dollar of export sales produced by the vegetable industry in Dade

County, approximately $.13 of economic activity is generated in the real

estate sector. Similarly, for every dollar of export sales from nursery or

from fruit production, approximately $.11 of economic activity is generated

in the real estate sector (the nursery multiplier associated with real

estate, 0.1124, is found in Table 4, row 32, column 5, and the fruit

multiplier associated with real estate, 0.1171 is found in Table 4, row 32,

column 1). Thus, concluding the example, this illustrates that rentals,

commissions on land sales, management fees, and other activities in the real

estate industry as well as any employee wages can be affected by changes in

agricultural output.

In a manner similar to that for output above, Table 5 disaggregates the

earnings impact across 39 sectors of the Dade economy. To illustrate the

economic interrelationships with other sectors of Dade County's economy, for

each additional dollar of "export" sales (outside the county) that fruit

production delivers, there is an estimated $.03 (the multiplier, 0.0344, is

found on Table 5, row 39, column 1) of income generated in retail trade

industries by the fruit sector. Similarly, for each dollar of external sales









22

that nurseries deliver, there is an estimated $.03 of income earned by

households employed by the Dade County wholesale trade industry (earnings

multiplier equal to 0.0320 is found in Table 5, row 28, column 5). For

vegetable production, delivering an additional dollar in external sales,

generates almost $.02 in income to consumers employed in health services

industries (income multiplier equal to 0.0193 is found in Table 5, row 37,

column 3). In each case estimates include direct, indirect, and induced

activity.

Table 6 reports similar disaggregated impact information for

employment. Considering the economic interrelationships with other sectors

of the Dade County economy, the second greatest impact that the agricultural

sector had upon Dade employment was in the retail trade industry. In order

for the fruits subsector of the agricultural industry to deliver $1 million

of export sales, 2.66 full-time equivalent jobs (employment multiplier equals

2.6607, as found in Table 6, row 29, column 1) had to be provided, directly,

indirectly, and induced, by Dade County retail trade industries. Similarly,

for the vegetable and nursery industries, 2.62 (Table 6, row 29, column 3)

and 2.59 (Table 6, row 29, column 5) jobs, respectively, had to be provided

by Dade County retail trade industries for each respective subsector to

deliver $1 million of external sales.


Summary of Economic Impact Analysis


Of the total $910 million economic impact on Dade County output, the

vegetable industry contributed 56 percent or $511.4 million (Table 3), the

nursery industry contributed almost 30 percent or $271.18 million, and the

fruit industry contributed 14 percent or $127.53 million of the total output.









23

This pattern of subsector contribution to the total impact remains the same

for the other economic impact results. Agriculture's impact on Dade County

income totaled almost $300 million in 1988-89. Of this total, approximately

61 percent of the economic impact on county earnings (income) was generated

by the vegetable subsector ($181 million), 25 percent or $76.4 million by the

nursery industry, and 13 percent or $39.6 by fruit production. A total of

23,069 full-time equivalent jobs (employment impact) were required in all

Dade County industries in order for the agricultural sector to produce an

output impact of $837.8 million in external sales during the 1988-89

production season. Of this number of workers in jobs related, either

directly or indirectly to or induced by, the agricultural sector, 61 percent

or 14,117 jobs were generated by vegetable production, 25 percent or 5,891

jobs by nursery production, and 13 percent or 3,060 jobs by fruit production.









24

DESCRIPTIVE OVERVIEW OF AGRICULTURE IN DADE COUNTY


In order to fully appreciate the environment in which agriculture

exists in Dade County, it is helpful to first look at physical

characteristics which contribute to the uniqueness of Dade County

agriculture, and then review agriculture in the county from a historical

perspective. The remainder of this report is devoted to describing Dade

County agriculture by looking at its physical characteristics, its history

and selected commodities which are currently produced in the county.


Physical Characteristics


Land Area and Population


Dade County covers 1,955 square miles or over one and one quarter

million acres. However, 72 percent of the land area in the county is either

covered by water, in water conservation areas, in national parks, or is sub-

marginal; i.e., unsuitable for urban or agricultural use (9). Within the

last three decades, some land previously considered sub-marginal has been

converted to agricultural production and urban development by means of

advanced technology. There are approximately 83,000 acres of farm land in

the county, of which over 21 percent is foreign-owned (2).

With 15 percent of the state's population, Dade county ranks first in

state population, estimated to be over 1.8 million in 1988 (2). Dade

County's populated area is located along the coastal ridge. With respect to

number of persons per square mile, Dade is the third most densely populated

county in the state, and Miami is the second most populous city in Florida

with just over 369,000 inhabitants.











Soils


There are primarily two soil types on which Dade's fruits, vegetables,

and nursery crops are grown: Miami oolite, a solid rockland soil and Perrine

marl, both basically calcium carbonate. The marl and rockland farming soils

are extremely low in organic matter and nutrients. Even with the use of

summer cover crops, organic buildup in these soils is slow and requires good

management year round. Both soils types are alkaline with pH's of 7.5 to

8.5. Crops raised on either type of soil depend on commercial fertilizer

applications for nutrients (20). The consistency of rockland and marl soils

are quite different. The rock soil is hard but very porous and requires

frequent irrigation. On the other hand, flooding can be a problem for the

marl land because marl is a dense soil and percolation is slow.

Most of Dade's winter vegetables are grown on rock soil. Rock soils

are located inland on elevations ranging from eight to fourteen feet above

sea level. Preparation of rock soils for cultivation is unique and

expensive. The rock soils must be broken up with track-type tractors (D8 or

D9 Caterpillars), with specially designed plows to scarify the solid rock

into small particles. Tractor clearing of rockland started in 1920 in the

area of Coral Gables. Until that time, rockland vegetable farming was

impractical, but since 1947, vegetable acreage on the rockland has increased

steadily. Prior to 1925, rockland vegetable farming in the South Dade

pinelands was confined to "pot hole" areas in the pines. Farmers confined

winter vegetable growing to the marl areas of the East Glade and the inland

finger glades. Some growers followed these practices through 1935 and even

later (7).









26

Perrine marl land must be contoured and shaped to allow appropriate

runoff and drainage of excess water. Marl land used for cultivation ranges

from elevations of one to two feet along the coastline to elevations up to

seven and eight feet near the rock ridge and in the inland glades. As long

as flooding is controlled, almost anything will grow on the marl. Potatoes,

other root crops such as malanga and boniato, and large tree nurseries are

currently found on marl lands.

Salt intrusion from hurricane storm surge can severely pollute the East

Glade marl vegetable lands and tree farms. Due to the very slow leachability

of marl soil, salt pollution may prevent land use for several years

afterward. During the 1970s, a hurricane dike was built to deter salt

intrusion, hoping to protect farmland and residences located near the

coastline. Salt intrusion may also occur during severe droughts when the

fresh water table declines.


Climate


Dade County, Florida is located on the lower east coast of the state at

the bottom of a 400 mile long peninsula that is no more than 100 miles wide

at its widest point. The Tropic of Cancer, 23.4 degrees North latitude, is

approximately 140 miles south of Homestead. The county has a subtropical

climate, wet and hot in the summer (May to November) and cool and dry through

the winter (December to April). Average temperatures range from 67* F in

January, steadily increasing to an average of 83" F in July and August, then

again decreasing to the mid to low 70s during the fall. For Miami the

average annual high temperature is 82.6" F and the average annual low is

68.7* F with the highest temperature of record (at the Miami International









27

airport) being 98* F and the lowest temperature of record being 30" F (2).

In the farming areas around Homestead, temperatures of 25* F and lower have

been reported. Subfreezing temperatures may occur about every two years with

moderate to severe damage to agricultural commodities. Frosts are recorded

almost every winter. Droughts have influenced production practices and

affect the area every few years. There is occasional flooding during the wet

season, which lasts from June through October. The greatest amount of

rainfall generally occurs in September and October. Average annual rainfall

is approximately 58 inches (38), with as much as 100 inches reported in the

Homestead area in the early 1970s.


Irrigation


Low rainfall during the dry season combined with the porous nature of

the rock soils necessitates the use of irrigation. Irrigation systems,

therefore, play an important role in agricultural production in Dade County.

Encased wells for portable overhead high-pressure volume gun irrigation rigs

are used primarily for winter vegetable production. Permanent solid set

sprinkler irrigation is used in the production of fruits and nursery crops.

Permanent and portable solid set sprinklers also provide frost and freeze

protection for many crops (20). Trickle and drip low volume irrigation

systems are also used by farmers in Dade County. Farmers and researchers are

converting irrigation systems to low volume systems due to recent droughts,

water restrictions, and increased urban water use.











Natural disasters


Although Dade County enjoys a highly productive sub-tropical growing

environment, the area is also susceptible to a wide range of potentially

devastating natural disasters, such as freezing temperatures, droughts,

hurricanes, and floods.


1989 Christmas freeze.--What has become known as the "Christmas Freeze

of 1989" was an extremely damaging freeze. High winds caused wind burn and

plant desiccation. High winds can be a hazard during a freeze because most

types of irrigation normally used for freeze protection become ineffective

when the winds reach 15 mph and higher. Long duration of record low

temperatures in the Homestead area (25" F ) and frost occurring for two

consecutive nights also contributed to the severity of damage. This freeze

was preceded by temperatures in the upper 70s and some low 80s. Plants had

not had any low temperatures to "winterize" the plants in preparation for

more severe conditions. Therefore, any one of the factors listed above

(wind, duration, record low temperature, and frost) can severely damage trees

and plants, but the combination of all four destroyed a large portion of the

winter vegetables, with nursery and grove damages continuing to appear as

late as the summer of 1990.

Freezes in Dade County are not a unique occurrence. The freeze in 1958

caused "financial loss to Dade County's agriculture (that) was the greatest

of any on record (as of 1958)... The official low temperature for the morning

of February 5, 1958, near Homestead was 25 degrees" (8). More recently,

freezes occurred during 1960, 1962, 1967, 1977, 1983, 1985, and 1989. Of

these freezes, the 1958, 1977, and 1989 caused the most extensive crop









29

damage. This report considers the 1988-89 growing season and harvests, thus

only production data prior to the 1989 Christmas freeze is included.


Hurricanes.--Hurricanes also have devastating effects upon the county,

in general, and the agricultural industry, in particular. Hurricane Donna in

1960, Betsy in 1965, and Inez in 1966 were the last hurricanes to cause

damage in Dade County. Hurricane Donna, in particular, caused extensive

damage in the county.

Hurricane winds can cause severe damage. Nursery shadehouses and plant

material are extremely vulnerable to high winds. Tropical fruit groves can

sustain severe damage from high winds due to potential tree destruction and

crop loss, and vegetable land can sustain damage from hurricane storm surge

and high winds.


Historical View of Dade County Agriculture


Many aspects of Dade County agriculture have changed over time. The

number of farms, size of farms, types of farms, value of farm production, and

geographic location of farms in the county have all changed.


Acreage in Farms


Census of Agriculture data gives some perspective of the changes Dade

County agriculture has undergone in the 1970s and 80s. In 1974, there were

872 farms in Dade County; by 1987, there were reportedly 1,623 (Table 7).

Thus the number of farms in the county increased by 86 percent over the

thirteen year period. Farms with less than ten acres more than doubled in

number, the largest increase of any size category. In 1974, there were 437

















Table 7.--Number of farms categorized by acreage, value and size, for Dade County and the State of Florida.


YEAR

1974 1978 1982 1987

Dade Florida Dade Florida Dade Florida Dade Florida

Total number of farms 872 32,466 1,354 44,068 1,483 36,352 1,623 36,556
Approximate land area
(Acres) 1,306,816 34,618,304 NA 34,620,800 1,251,366 34,657,843 1,251,366 34,657,843
Proportion in farms 5.6 38.1 NA 38.4 7.0 37.0 6.6 32.3

Value of land and buildings
($1,000) 281,682 8,896,000 533,476 15,444,000 683,663 20,066,304 555,066 19,849,908
Average value/farm
(Dollars) 323,030 278,479 394,930 351,646 461,567 552,586 342,513 543,830
Average value/acre
(Dollars) 3,691 685 4,965 1,149 7,835 1,576 6,853 1,790

Number of farms with:
1 to 9 acres 437 7,090 665 10,997 544 2,449 877 7,300
10 to 49 acres 262 9,802 411 10,771 334 3,489 499 13,346
50 to 179 acres 73 4,645 150 5,255 103 2,083 142 8,379
180 to 499 acres 64 1,338 79 1,702 69 1,204 68 4,255
500 to 999 acres 19 419 31 537 15 602 23 1,598
1,000 to 1,999 acres 11 196 16 235 12 323 12 789
2,000 acres and over 6 130 2 146 1 400 2 889


Source: Census of Agriculture 1974, 1978, 1982 and 1987, Florida Edition, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census.










31

farms that were one to nine acres in size, and by 1987 there were 877 farms

in this size category. This smallest size category, nine acres or less, had

grown to represent over half of all farms in the county (54 percent) by 1987.

Eighty-five percent of Dade farms (1,376 farms) were of 49 acres or less in

size in 1987.

Dade County's average per acre value of land and buildings is nearly

four times higher than the state average (Table 7). This is probably the

result of substantially higher per acre land values for the county.

Although between 1974 and 1987 there was an 86 percent increase in the

number of farms in Dade County, there was only an 8.8 percent increase in the

amount of farmland acreage (76,318 acres in 1974 up to 83,061 acres reported

in 1987). It appears that larger parcels were being subdivided into smaller

units during this time period (Table 8). From 1974 to 1987, harvested

cropland, "all other land" (land other than cropland or woodland), and

irrigated land all showed substantial increases in the number of farms but

much smaller increases in the amount of acreage. The "all other land "

category captures increases in the number of farms for smaller orchards,

groves, and nurseries. Harvested cropland from 1974 to 1987 increased from

771 farms to 1,420 farms, representing an 84 percent increase; whereas, the

amount of acreage over this time period increased by only 11 percent (from

55,730 acres in 1974 to 61,997 acres in 1987). The number of farms

considered "all other land" more than doubled between 1974 and 1987, from 328

farms to 696 farms, representing a 112 percent increase. At the same time

however, acreage for this "all other land" category increased by only 14

percent, 12,046 acres in 1974 to 13,734 in 1987. The number of irrigated

farms more than doubled between 1974 and 1987, a 137 percent increase from











Table 8.--Farms and agricultural land use in Dade County and the State of Florida.

YEAR



1974 1978 1982 1987


Dade Florida Dade Florida Dade Florida Dade Florida


Number of farms 872 32,466 1,354 44,068 1,483 36,352 1,623 36,556

Acreage in farms 76,318 13,199,365 98,574 13,306,231 87,420 12,814,216 83,061 11,194,090

Average farm size (Acres) 88 407 73 302 59 353 51 306


Land in farms according to use:

Total cropland
farms 812 28,658 1,246 38,240 1,378 30,565 1,464 29,386
acreage 62,096 3,721,831 74,506 4,497,004 72,784 4,093,583 66,313 3,790,599

Harvested cropland
farms 771 23,620 1,198 29,643 1,336 24,396 1,420 22,677
acreage 55,730 2,304,043 64,084 2,761,473 58,940 2,643,147 61,997 2,240,831

Cropland used only for pasture or
grazing
farms 55 12,034 72 16,691 71 11,766 55 11,460
acreage 2,064 1,086,074 4,313 1,299,766 9,240 1,072,069 1,340 1,004,426

All other cropland
farms 66 4,315 163 7,502 121 5,132 135 6,264
acreage 4,302 331,714 6,109 435,765 4,604 378,367 2,976 545,342

Total woodland including pasture
farms 43 9,943 102 12,184 84 10,157 71 9,457
acreage 2,176 2,932,880 5,785 2,978,291 4,832 2,875,028 3,014 2,213,679

All other land
farms 328 19,877 601 27,812 642 23,479 696 23,779
acreage 12046 6,544,654 18,283 5,830,936 9,804 5,845,605 13,734 5,189,812

Irrigated land
farms 503 7,749 885 11,657 1,078 10,550 1,195 11,981
acreage 44,469 1,558,735 48,930 1,991,068 47,819 1,585,080 53,158 1,622,750

Source: Census of Agriculture 1974, 1978, 1982, 1987, Florida Edition, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census.









33

503 farms to 1,195 farms. Irrigated acreage also increased during this time

frame by almost 20 percent, from 44,469 acres to 53,158 acres.

Dade County showed large percentage increases in numbers of orchards

and orchard acreage compared to declining numbers statewide (Table 9). The

number of Dade County farms in orchard production in 1974 totaled 448 and

steadily rose to 902 by 1987, more than doubling the county's number of

orchard farms. At the same time, the orchard acreage was also increasing in

the county. In 1974 there were 10,557 acres in orchards which steadily

increased to 17,452 by 1987. This represents a 65 percent increase in Dade

County's orchard acreage between 1974 and 1987.


Table 9.--Total land in orchards for fruits and nuts, Dade County and
the State of Florida.


Dade County State of Florida


Year No. of Farms Acres No. of Farms Acres


1974 448 10,557 11,079 912,079
1978 721 14,920 13,441 938,036
1982 822 15,644 11,214 938,527
1987 902 17,452 9,965 762,066
% change
1974-87 +101 +65 -10 -16

Source: Census of Agriculture, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1987, Florida
Edition. U.S Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census.


While the number of orchards and orchard acreage in Dade County showed

significant increases between 1974 and 1987, the state showed declining

acreage and numbers of farms devoted to orchard production. During that time

period, the number of orchards and orchard acreage in Florida decreased by 10









34

percent and 16 percent, respectively: from 11,079 farms in 1974 to 9,965 in

1987, and from 912,079 acres in 1974 declining to 762,066 acres in 1987.

These numbers reflect increasing development of tropical fruits production

unique to Dade County in the 1970s and 80s while there was a decline in fruit

and nut production in other parts of the state.


Value of Production


Census of Agriculture (36) data also provides some information on the

value of agricultural production in Dade County. Table 10 and Figure 1 show

published values for agricultural production from the census. All dollar

values are reported in 1988 dollars, constant dollars adjusted for inflation.

Gross production values for vegetables, fruits, and commercial ornamental

horticulture generally show increases over the reported census years.

Between 1978 and 1987, the value of fruits produced in Dade county increased

by about nine percent, from $25.8 million to over $28 million.


Table 10. -- Acreage and gross sales by agricultural production
subsector, Dade County, 1974, 1978, 1982, and 1987.

Subsectorsa

Commercial
Ornamental
Year Fruitsb Vegetablesc Field Cropsc Horticulture

(Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000)
1974 10,612 NA 26,423 NA 19,099 NA 1,205 37,242
1978 14,970 25,800 29,498 64,428 18,535 17,256 2,269 67,832
1982 15,677 21,396 28,145 79,431 11,173 15,344 3,144 70,661
1987 17,496 28,015 33,503 86,248 6,739 14,154 5,107 121,229

aDollar values are real. Base year -1988.
bFruit acres represent planted acreage.

cVegetable and Field Crop acreage represents harvested acres.








Fruits Vegetables

3 5 .....- .... ... ............ ..... ...................... 14 0 3 5 ... 33.5 ... .. .. ......... 14 0

30 120 30 2. 29 120
26.4
25 100 25 100 S
= 862
S794 -
CO 20 ..-- ..- -..- -..... 20 .......................... 80 0 20 80 0
20 17.5 80 0
15.0 15.7 s 644
o 15 60 15 60 0
10.6
S 10 25 8 2. 10 40
S1 258 28.0
5 21 j 20 5 20
0 1 --- u -- u -- u -- -I --- --1 0 0. 0 -- -- -- ------ -- -- -- 0
1974 1978 1982 1987 1978 1982 1987 1974 1978 1982 1987 1978 1982 1987

Field Crops Commercial Ornamental Horticultue

3 5 -. .............. .. .. ..... .. ... .. 140 3 5 ...... 14 0
Ln
121.2
30- 120 30 -- 120

S25 100 o 25 100

S20 80 20 80
0 67.8 70.7
S15 60 g 15 60 0
311.2 6 0 ,1
10 7 0 37.2
C 10 17 40 A 10 40
5 17.3 15.3 14.2 205.1
5 20 5 1 .2 I 2 : 20

1974 1978 1982 1987 1978 1982 1987 1974 1978 1982 1987 1974 1978 1982 1987

Figure 1.-- Value and acreage of Dade County agriculture production,

by selected subsectors, values in 1988 dollars.









36

Gross sales of vegetables rose by about 34 percent over the same time period.

Commercial ornamental horticulture showed the greatest gain in gross sales;

in 1987, gross sales had risen to $121.2 million from $67.8 million in 1978,

an increase of about 79 percent. Since the 1974 census, the value of gross

sales of ornamental horticulture production more than tripled.

Another source of historical data for Dade County is published by Dade-

IFAS County Agricultural Extension Service (Table 11). All dollar values

reported in Table 11 are also in 1988 constant dollars. Although the

absolute numbers reported by the extension service do not correspond with

census numbers, gross production values generally show the same trend as

census data. The extension estimates are useful in that they provide a year-

by-year picture of production acreage and gross sales. Between the 1960-61

season and the 1988-89 season, the value of production for vegetables almost

tripled, from $91 million in 1960 to more than $264 million in 1988.

Commercial ornamental horticulture estimates for the same time frame show an

even greater increase in gross production figures. The value of production

for horticulture in Dade County almost quadrupled between 1960 and 1988,

increasing from approximately $38.1 million to nearly $140 million. However,

the most dramatic increase was in fruit production which may reflectincreased

acreage in the 1970s and 80s of higher valued fruits. Between 1960 and 1988

the gross value of tropical fruit production in Dade County increased more

than 13 fold, from almost $5.9 million to $79.4 million.

The category entitled "field crops", as reported by Dade Extension,

generally includes field corn, sorghum and sweet corn. During the 17 seasons

reported, field crops varied substantially in both acreage and value of

production. In the 1960s and 70s, Dade County's poultry and livestock














Table 11.--Trends in Dade County agriculture, by production subsector, 1960-61 through 1988-89.


Acreage and values of agricultural production subsectorsa

Commercial ornamental
Season Fruitsb Vegetablesc Field cropsd horticulture Poultry and livestocke

(Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) (81.000)


16,000

13,595

13,500

13,020

10,690

10,750

11,145

11,429

11,690

11,905

11,350

11,550

11,650

12,300

12,400

12,700

13,675


5,874 40,158

9,554 37,540

12,999 41,625

16,799 49,170

16,723 52,250

12,855 44,680

12,714 43,920

22,848 43,306

22,320 43,655

27,584 47,255

27,620 44,500

35,972 43,136

36,989 45,100

38,338 45,635

37,987 42,490

45,366 46,625

44,183 39,815

--- 44,300


91,028

99,069

102,291

120,765

109,316

106,801

136,014

134,832

139,199

109,403

155,965

145,185

159,746

165,301

161,009

157,701

123,011

128,633


1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

1965-66

1966-67

1967-68

1968-69

1969-70

1970-71

1971-72

1972-73

1973-74

1974-75

1975-76

1976-77

1977-78


--- 38,149

--- 35,194

--- 29,983

--- 30,794

--- 33,762

--- 37,624

--- 35,374

--- 35,274

--- 34,934

--- 34,562

--- 45,253

--- 51,129

--- 56,557

54,464

--- 102,650

--- 111,300

--- 111,888

--- 105,210


316

717

145

3,588

31,123

15,198

14,061


--- 23,184

--- 19,304

--- 18,960

--- 19,159

--- 20,063

17,947

--- 15,932

--- 15,308

--- 15,892

16,140

--- 15,971

--- 15,156

--- 19,166

15,960

--- 13,464

--- 12,577

--- 12,375


Continued.


2,500

3,000

1,000

2,200

20,800

12,240

14,400

13,000


---


---













Table 11.--Trends in Dade County agriculture, by production subsector, 1960-61 through 1988-89, continued.


Acreage and values of agricultural production subsectorsa

Commercial ornamental
Season Fruitsb Vegetablesc Field cropsd horticulture Poultry and livestock

(Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000) (Acres) ($1,000)

1978-79 -- --- 42,950 148,495 12,000 -- --- 103,716 -

1979-80 16,300 48,347 48,420 151,633 10,000 10,858 --- 98,832 --- 10,786

1980-81 18,038 38,324 46,825 147,244 9,600 8,589 3,800 110,430 --- 3,097

1981-82 19,971 35,390 49,755 170,811 6,800 5,620 3,800 110,152 --- 2,485

1982-83 20,200 44,877 53,560 166,913 6,800 5,670 4,000 108,000 --- 1,323

1983-84 21,300 39,517 54,100 200,286 10,220 8,859 4,000 127,560 --- 957

1984-85 22,230 46,835 55,525 187,698 7,620 5,424 4,365 127,231 --- 1,145

1985-86 21,640 52,078 58,245 247,942 6,330 8,209 4,867 140,508 --- 1,170

1986-87 22,725 43,400 52,095 203,746 4,846 1,795 4,868 142,570 --- 1,269

1987-88f --- --- --- --- --- --- .........

1988-89 20,537 79,403 57,731 264,415 9,000 17,100 5,000 139,996

aDollar value figures are real dollars. Base year-1988.

bFruit acres represent planted acreage.

CVegetable acreage represents harvested acres.

d"Field crops" includes field corn, sorghum and sweet corn (except 1988-89 included only field corn).

*Acreage for poultry and livestock was not reported.

fNo published report for the 1987-88 season.

Source: Dade County Agriculture Statistical Report, 1980-81. Dade-IFAS Cooperative Extension Service, Homestead, Florida.









39

industry used field corn and sorghum grown in the southern part of the

county, and it may be that, as the poultry and livestock industry began to

decline at the end of the 1970s, field crop production also began a slight

decline. However, when growing seasons in other parts of the United States

result in shortages of seed corn, acreage in Dade County increases. For

example, seed corn production in the county increased dramatically during the

1988-89 season to compensate for drought and subsequent crop failure in the

Mid-west. In 1988-89, there were an estimated 9,000 acres of seed corn

planted (sorghum and field corn were unreported during that season), whereas

during a normal season, there are approximately 500-700 acres of seed corn

planted. The largest acreage and production value for field crops, 20,800

acres and $31 million, occurred during the 1974-75 season.


Geographic Shifts in Production Areas


As crop production values and acreage have changed during the last

three decades, changes have also occurred in the location of farming

activities. For over sixty years, there was continuous farming in Everglades

National Park's Hole-in-the Donut. In 1975, farming activities in the Donut

ceased and tomato and other vegetable growers were forced to find other

acreage (12). With new technology, land previously believed to be sub-

marginal was converted to agricultural use. During the late 1980s, the East

Everglades, also known as "the other side of the dike", was farmed without

severe flood damage. Tree row trenches are back filled and "bedded up"

affording some protection from flooding. In 1988, land adjacent to the

eastern boundary of Everglades National Park was purchased for vegetable

production by six farming enterprises. This area, known as "the Frog Pond",









40

is the largest contiguous area of farmland in Dade County, comprising eight

and one half square miles or approximately 5,400 acres. Although the Frog

Pond was purchased by farmers, a majority of land used for winter vegetable

production (with the exception of potato production) is annually leased

rather than owned by farmers, due primarily to the high cost of acreage.


Production of Selected Agricultural Commodities


Dade County's diversified commercial agricultural industry can be

categorized into four major subsectors: ornamental horticulture, traditional

vegetables, tropical vegetables and tropical fruits. The discussion which

follows addresses each of the subsectors, identifying principle commodities,

describing the nature of production and trends for selected commodities, and

estimating production and value of production.

NOTE: (1) All economic information pertaining to nurseries and all

other crops described in this report do not include costs of production. No

consideration has been given to capital start-up costs or any other financial

commitments, obligations, investments, or expenditures necessarily required

for a farmer or nursery owner to conduct business. (2) The following

descriptive discussions of the various agricultural commodities produced in

Dade County were based upon the amount of available information. Published

and unpublished data and information were much more abundant for some crops

than for. others. The length of descriptive information is in no way

indicative of importance. (3) It should also be noted that the total

economic impact of agriculture was essentially based upon new dollars that

are generated by sales of production and embodied services sold outside of

Dade County. Thus, it was necessary to estimate sales of all commodities









41

within and outside of the county. In addition, the vast agricultural service

industry which includes landscaping, lawn care, tree surgeons, etc, in Dade

County was not included in this study because most of these services are

performed within the county and thus do not generate "new" dollars.


Commercial Ornamental Horticulture


The very nature of Dade County's sub-tropical environment encourages a

diverse, complex horticultural industry. The nursery industry in Dade County

has grown from 492 nurseries and flower growers in 1957-58 (8) to 750

nurseries registered with Florida's Department of Plant Inspection (DPI) in

1989. This represents over a 52 percent increase in the number of nurseries

in the county in just three decades. Considering that some of these

nurseries have multiple locations, it is currently estimated that there are

now between 1,000 and 1,200 nursery sites in Dade County. Of the 750

nurseries in Dade County, there are less than five that have been in business

for over 20 years under the same name and continuous ownership, according to

the owner of one of these oldest nurseries. During the foliage boom in the

mid to late 1970s when there was an unprecedented demand for green plants,

estimates of the number of nurseries in Dade County ranged as high as 1,000

nursery business establishments with as many as 1,400 different nursery sites

in the county.

As a result of the increase in nursery production and competition, a

nursery may define its market niche by specializing in a particular plant

species, a plant that is difficult to cultivate, or otherwise is a unique

commodity as compared to other producers. For example, there are nurseries

that specialize in orchids, bromiliads, bamboo, bonsai, certain palms, or as









42

a part of the larger nursery business, the specialization might be a

particular growing technique or method.

In addition to plant nurseries, the commercial ornamental horticulture

sector also includes: (a) agribusinesses providing services, including

landscape and interiorscape maintenance, landscape contractors and

architects, (b) suppliers of nursery equipment and materials, (c) a cut

flower industry with 80 importer/offshore growers of which three are multi-

million dollar import-export establishments, and (d) a vast array of

businesses that employ various types of horticultural experts (i.e. golf

courses, condominium complexes, cemeteries, parks, etc.). In 1986, DeArmand

Hull of Dade County Cooperative Extension estimated the size of grounds

maintenance services to include 62 golf courses, 3,554 condominiums, 30

irrigation and pump suppliers, over 200 major corporations, and cemeteries,

residential lawn care businesses, hospitals, banks, universities, schools,

horticultural attractions, county and city park systems, and the like. For

example, Hull found that the City of Miami alone has 105 parks.

The diversity of Dade County's horticulture industry juxtaposes multi-

county and international marketing channels for plants and services, adding

to the complexity of the industry. Although 750 registered nursery

businesses can be identified as physically located within the county, the

clientele of these nurseries range from the immediate area of Broward, West

Palm Beach, Monroe, and Dade counties in Florida to other parts of the U.S.,

Canada, Europe, and the Caribbean. For example, some plant material is

shipped as far as Japan, Taiwan, Australia, and Hawaii.











Types of nursery operations


There are basically three types of nurseries in Dade County (1) field,

(2) container, and (3) greenhouse, with a number of Dade nursery owners

having varied acreage combinations of the three. Field nurseries are always

grown on marl soil because it is prohibitively expensive to harvest trees

grown on rockland soils. They generally range in size from one to two acres

to several hundred acres depending on the type of production, however, there

are some smaller fields of less than an acre in the glades area where there

are small pockets of marl land. Field nurseries usually have trees in the

ground from a minimum of 1.5 years to 4 years depending upon the type of

tree. Field nurseries with larger trees, such as Washingtonia, Royal Palms,

Black Olive, Mahogany, and Live Oak, require more acreage (growing space) and

longer growing times. Field nurseries can plant between 500 and 1,000 trees

per acre: generally speaking, either extreme can result in a negative rate

of return on investment. Tree densities that are too low can result in

inefficient, uneconomical use of space, and densities that are too great can

result in crowded, poor quality trees. In order to gain the greatest

economic returns, some progressive field nurseries are integrating plant

species, smaller trees interspersed among larger ones.

Field nurseries in Dade County supply trees to malls and various indoor

establishments throughout the U.S. and Canada. Since these trees have been

grown in full sun, nurseries must, depending on the final destination point,

transfer the trees to large shadehouses for a period of time appropriate for

acclimation. Similarly, shadehouses are also used in container nurseries.

Landscape plants destined for South Florida can be grown in full sun;

however, for those plants shipped to other destinations or grown for









44

interiorscape purposes, shadehouses are used to reduce the amount of sunlight

under which the plant is grown, thereby adapting plants to a variety of

conditions.

In addition to field nurseries and container nurseries, there are also

nurseries that specialize in liners, starter plants grown from tissue culture

or seed, and supplied to growers who then cultivate the plant from three

months to as much as two years, depending upon the plant species. A wide

variety of liners and larger plant material are supplied to growers in South

Florida from growers located within the county as well as other parts of the

U.S., Europe, the Caribbean, and Central America. Some larger nursery

businesses have their own off-shore operations that supply liners and smaller

plant material to their Dade County operation.


Survey Analyses


It is important to stress that the survey, analyses, and conclusions

provided as a part of this study do not include the service sector of the

ornamental horticultural industry. Restricted by time, resources, and the

industry's diversity and complexity, this study only surveyed the Dade County

nurseries registered with DPI, and this survey was developed to determine the

aggregate economic impact of plant nurseries. Therefore, with respect to

commercial ornamental horticulture's economic contribution to the

agricultural sector in Dade County and subsequently the County's economy as

a whole, the estimates provided in this report DO NOT INCLUDE SERVICES


provided by the industry.









45

The mail survey, requesting nursery information for 1989 (pre-Christmas

freeze of 1989), was conducted during the spring of 1990. DPI provided its

most current 1989 computer listing of all registered Dade County nurseries.

Data from this DPI computer list indicated that almost 83 percent of

all Dade County nurseries were ten acres or less in size: (a) 40 percent of

nurseries in Dade County were less than one acre in size and (b) 42.6 percent

of nurseries were one to ten acres in size.

The DPI computer list showed a total of 725 nurseries with correct

mailing addresses. A total of 205 surveys (28.3 percent) were returned, and

of this number, there were a total of 150 questionnaires providing usable

data. This represents a 20.7 percent usable response rate for the economic

portion of the survey. It is not unusual for agricultural mail surveys of

this type to have only a 10 to 15 percent response rate. All subsequent

discussion of the economic data refers only to the 150 useable responses.

The DPI computer list reported a total of 6,106 acres of nurseries in

Dade County. From the survey, a total of 2,104 acres were reported by

nursery owners, representing a third (34.5 percent) of Dade's nursery acreage

as reported by DPI. Also from the survey, container acreage (881 acres)

represented 41.9 percent of the sample acreage; field acreage (1,147 acres)

represented 54.5 percent of the sample and greenhouse production (75 acres)

represented 3.6 percent of the sample (Figure 2).

With respect to production systems, 46.7 percent (70 nurseries)

specialized solely in container production, and 59 nurseries or 39 percent of

the sample had a combination of container, greenhouse, and/or field

operations (Figure 3). Approximately 94 percent of the gross sales were from

wholesale trade (Figure 4), 92.5 percent of gross sales were from plant sales








Field, 1,147 acres, 54.5%


Greenhouse,
75 acres, 3.6%


Containers, 881 acres, 41.9%


Figure 2.-- Major production systems and
acreages as reported by nursery
survey respondents.




Containers only,46.7%


SField only, 6.0%
Greenhouses only, 8.0%


Combination 39.3%


Figure 3.-- Production system specialization as
reported by nursery survey
respondents.








WHOLESALE 94.2%


RETAIL 5.8%


Figure 4.--


Proportions of wholesale and retail
sales reported by nursery survey
respondents.


Plant Sales 92.5%


Sales of Services 7.5%


Figure 5.-- Total nursery gross sales of plants
and services.









48

and 7.5 percent were from sales of services (Figure 5). Considering gross

income from plant sales, 70.5 percent was generated from sales to firms

located outside Dade County (Figure 6).


Gross sales per acre.--Certain types of nursery production have greater

gross sales per acre than other types. Generally, field nurseries show the

lowest overall gross income per acre, then container, and the greatest gross

income per acre, theoretically, is from greenhouses. This indicates that the

less intensely the acreage and space is utilized and/or the slower the

turnover rate of plant material, the lower the gross income per acre. This

is a very simplistic explanation because management practices, horticultural

experience, and a variety of other factors can affect gross income.

Responses from the nursery survey generally indicated that field operations

with more space required for growing larger plants over a longer period of

time showed lower gross income per acre than container nurseries that have a

faster plant turnover rate and require less space per plant. The most

intensely utilized space, with much larger gross income per acre, is the

greenhouse operation. Survey results indicated that considering all types of

nursery operations, the average gross income per acre was $28,074.

Therefore, it is estimated that Dade County's nursery industry produced a

total gross revenue of $171.4 million (6,106 acres at $28,074/acre) during

1989.












Sales outside Dade County


Sales inside Dade County 29.5%


Figure 6.-- Proportions of gross sales inside and
outside Dade County.


70.5%











Traditional Vegetables


Dade County is known for its "winter vegetable" production due to the

commodities grown in winter months, when much of the U.S. vegetable

production is dormant. Traditional vegetables produced in Dade County

include tomatoes, potatoes, yellow squash, zucchini, pole beans, bush beans,

sweet corn, seed corn, strawberries, cucumbers, pickles, okra, eggplant,

peppers, cabbage, southern field peas, and turnips. (Seed corn is

technically an agronomic crop but it is listed in this section for lack of a

more appropriate classification within the report.) This list represents

those vegetables grown in Dade County for which there were (1) published

data, (2) data collected from local growers, or (3) data that could be

estimated by using local information on acreage and yield and using published

prices. Therefore, this list is not considered exhaustive; there may be

other vegetables grown in Dade but are not itemized here because production

is either very small or is unreported.

During the 1988-89 season, traditional vegetables grown in Dade County

accounted for approximately half of the value of all agricultural production.

Traditional vegetables were estimated to have an aggregate total gross

production value of $267.3 million of which 98 percent or $262.49 million

were sales outside the county (Table 12). The distinction made between the

proportions of commodity sales within the county vs. sales outside of Dade

County is necessary for economic impact analysis and is explained in greater

detail in that section of the report. With respect to total crop value,

tomatoes, bush beans, potatoes, and yellow squash are the most extensive

traditional vegetable crops in Dade County. Commentary on production of each











of these four major commodities follows.


vegetables are also discussed briefly.


Table 12.-- Estimated value of traditional vegetables sold outside of and
within Dade County, 1988-89.


Commodity



Tomatoes
Bush beans
Potatoes

Yellow squash

Seed corn
Sweet corn
Pole beans
Okra
Cucumbers (slicers)

Zucchini

Eggplant
Hot peppers
Cabbage
Southern field peas
Other


Total


Value of crop sold Value of crop sold Total crop
outside Dade within Dade value

(------------------- Dollars --------------------)


110,588,940
51,879,960
30,205,890

20,580,000

17,100,000
8,004,150
7,840,000
3,593,936
3,443,418
2,352,000

780,790
327,600
786,744
384,000
4,624,020


262,491,448


1,117,060
524,040
305,110

420,000
0
80,850
160,000
73,346
347,820

48,000

7,887
36,400
16,056
96,000
1,600,980


4,833,549


111,706,000
52,404,000
30,511,000

21,000,000

17,100,000
8,085,000
8,000,000
3,667,282
3,791,238
2,400,000

788,677
364,000
802,800
480,000
6,225,000


267,324,997


aOther includes estimated data for bell peppers, strawberries, pickling
cucumbers, and turnips.

Source: Published, unpublished, and estimated data. All itemized
listings are public information estimates. Confidential data have been
aggregated.


Selected other traditional












Tomatoes


Tomato land preparation begins during the late summer months, although

at this time only minimal acreage is available. Beginning in late September,

as fall progresses, more and more acreage is planted. Generally, major

tomato harvesting occurs in January and extends through mid-April. Although

the Immokeelee area has some tomato production during the annual market

window from January through March, Dade County is the main nationwide source

of tomatoes during this time frame.

Tomato plants are grown through a black plastic bed cover which helps

reduce weed growth, nutrient leaching, and some disease problems. Almost the

entire 1988-89 tomato crop grown in Dade County was planted on stakes (21).

The stakes are metal rods regularly spaced down the row and connected with

string to support the plants as they mature and produce fruit. Tomatoes are

harvested at the mature green stage of development several times during the

season; large gondolas (bathtub shaped truck transport) are driven to the

tomato field, loaded with green tomatoes, and then transported to the

packinghouses where the tomatoes are packaged and sometimes ripened. This

harvest may then be followed by a "U-pick" harvest where local residents can

pick vine-ripe tomatoes.

Handling of fresh tomatoes grown in Dade County is regulated by the

Florida Tomato Committee under Federal Marketing Order No. 966 and Federal

Marketing Agreement No. 125 for Fresh Florida Tomatoes (21). The agreement

and order, initiated and formulated by the Florida tomato industry, regulates

grade, size, container, and inspection requirements. Upon the basis of the

tomato industry's recommendations, the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture appoints

members and alternates to serve on the Florida Tomato Committee.









53

Tomatoes are the single largest crop grown in Dade County with respect

to total commodity production value, accounting for about 42 percent of the

value of traditional vegetables and 21 percent of all agricultural

production. During the 1988-89 season, total gross sales for tomatoes

produced in Dade County were over $111 million (Table 13). Dade County's

1988-89 season had the largest production yield (11.3 million cartons) and

the highest season price ($9.86) over the seven reported seasons. Comparing

the 1988-89 season production and total gross sales with 1982-83, there were

increases of over 23 percent in production yield and almost 40 percent in

total (gross) sales, but compared with 1983-84, there were increases of only

6.26 percent in production and 6.59 percent in total gross sales (Figure 7).

However, the 1988-89 production of $111 million represented 17 percent or

almost one fifth of Florida's total production value.


Table 13.--Tomato prices, production and total sales, Dade County, 1982-83
through 1988-89.


Total 1988
Season Price Productiona Sales Dollars

(Dollars) (1000 cartons) ($1000) ($1000)
1982-83 8.15 9,194 74,962 80,959
1983-84 9.24 10,665 98,581 104,792
1984-85 9.15 9,618 88,014 91,623
1985-86 7.77 8,025 62,357 64,290
1986-87 7.02 8,650 60,679 63,470
1987-88 7.46 11,294 84,257 86,363
1988-89 9.86 11,333 111,706 111,706

aOne carton weighs 25 pounds.

Source: Florida Tomato Committee Annual Report, 1982-1989.







S120 13
CI

S 110 12
0
5 1 1 0 ......... ....................... .. .... . ... ..... ...... ................... ......... ......... ........ ... ... .......... .... .. ......... .... ...... ..... .. ..................... 1 2 0
0
Co Total Sales C



90 Production /
co
-- 90 10


J 80 .. .. .. . . . ... .8 ................ .......


70 8 0

60 1 1 I1 7
1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89
SEASON

Figure 7.--Total sales and production of tomatoes, Dade County,
1982-83 through 1988-89.









55

During the first four seasons of the 1980s, Dade County harvested

tomato acreage constituted almost one-third of the state's entire harvested

acreage (Table 14).


Table 14.--Tomato acreage, Dade County and the State of Florida, 1980-81 to
1989-90.

Dade Acreage as a
Dade proportion of total
Season County Florida' Florida acreage

(Acres) (Acres) (Percent)
1980-81 13,403 44,801 29.9
1981-82 10,898 39,095 27.9
1982-83 12,892 43,386 29.7
1983-84 12,787 45,400 28.2
1984-85 11,180 44,729 25.0
1985-86 11,602 45,530 25.5
1986-87 11,113 50,908 21.8
1987-88 9,135 53,939 16.9
1988-89 8,015 57,663 13.9
1989-90 5,742 49,306 11.6

aLost or abandoned acreage from each district removed.

Source: Florida Tomato Committee Annual Reports, 1980-80 to 1989-90


However, by the middle of the decade, during the 1984-85 and 1985-86 seasons,

the county's harvested tomato acreage had declined to 25 percent or one-

quarter of Florida's total acreage. In the 1980-81 production season, 13,403

acres of tomatoes were harvested in the county; compared to 8,015 acres in

1988-89, this represents a 40 percent decline in Dade County's harvested

tomato acreage during these nine production seasons. The 1989-90 production

season showed further decline in Dade County's harvested tomato acreage

(5,742 acres) due to the devastating Christmas freeze that severely damaged









56

plants in various stages of bearing fruit. However, even as acreage has

declined, total production and crop value has increased, largely due to

technological advances such as the shift to staked from ground production.


Bush and pole beans


Beans are harvested several times during the season; bush bean multiple

cropping accounts for the greater portion of Dade's large bean acreage. Pole

beans are also produced as a multiple crop. The smaller acreage allotted to

pole bean production may be explained because pole beans are generally much

more labor intensive than bush beans. All pole beans are staked, increasing

costs of production due to added labor requirements. Pole beans are

harvested from October through the late April while bush beans are harvested

from October through the middle of May (11).

Bush beans are grown in most areas of Florida. The southeastern area

(Homestead and Pompano) continues as the major production area. Pole beans

are grown primarily in Dade County, with small acreages in Gadsden and Marion

Counties and the west central area. During the 1988-89 season, estimated

total gross sales for beans produced in Dade County was over $60 million,

$52.4 million for bush beans and $8 million for pole beans (Table 12).

In 1988-89, in terms of millions of bushels produced, Florida's bean

growers produced the smallest crop since 1980-81 season, because some early

bean land was used for a larger than normal seed corn crop during the 1988-89

season. However, the bean acreage trend for the state as a whole has been

downward in recent years (17). By comparison over the ten year time period

from 1976-77 to 1985-86, Dade County's bean acreage continually increased

from 5,530 acres in 1976-77 to a peak of 23,000 acres in 1985-86. During the









57

next two seasons Dade bean acreage declined slightly, and the 1988-89 season

had the lowest reported acreage during the 1980s (Table 15).


Table 15.--Bush and pole bean acreage, Dade County and Florida, 1976-77 to
1988-89.


Dade acreage
as a proportion
Dade of total Florida
Season County Florida acreage

(Acres) (Acres) (Percent)
1976-77 5,530 40,000 13.8
1977-78 7,250 51,000 14.2
1978-79 7,400 54,100 13.7
1979-80 9,750 54,300 18.0
1980-81 12,500 42,600 29.3
1981-82 16,300 48,300 33.7
1982-83 20,000 47,000 42.6
1983-84 21,100 46,500 45.4
1984-85 21,800 46,900 46.5
1985-86 23,000 38,170 60.3
1986-87 20,950 34,250 61.2
1987-88 20,200 30,350 66.6
1988-89 11,625 28,100 41.4

Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, (1977-89).


Florida's bean acreage has been declining since the 1981-82 season,

while Dade's acreage has been increasing, averaging around 21,000 acres per

season between the 1982-83 and 1987-88 seasons. The result is that Dade

County's share of Florida's total bean acreage has been increasing.

Beginning with the 1979-80 season, Dade County's percentage of Florida's

total bean acreage began a steady increase, from 18 percent in 1979-80 to a











peak of 66.6 percent during 1987-88. As mentioned previously, Dade's bean

acreage during the 1988-89 season was the lowest in eight seasons, probably

as a result of increased seed corn production. However, local packer

estimates differ from official estimates; packers indicated that 16,000 to

17,000 acres of bush beans and approximately 2,500 acres of pole beans were

harvested during the 1988-89 season. These estimates would more closely

follow Dade bean acreage trends of previous years.


Potatoes


The dominant potatoes grown for winter harvest in south Florida are the

"red-skinned" varieties, with most of the winter crop sold for table stock

but a few sales to the potato chip industry (17). During the 1988-89 season,

Dade County's potato crop was estimated to have total gross sales of just

over $30 million.

Potato planting in 1988-89 began in late October with harvest generally

occurring from mid-February to mid-April (11). Potatoes are grown on marl

land, most of which is privately owned in contrast to other winter vegetable

land, most of which is leased.

During the 13 seasons from 1976-77 to 1988-89, harvested potato acreage

in Dade County declined by 31.4 percent from the peak of 7,350 acres

harvested in 1977-78 to 5,040 harvested acres in the 1988-89 season (Table

16). Florida harvested potato acreage between 1976-77 (30,100 acres) and

1988-89 (42,600 acres) increased by approximately 41.5 percent. Dade's

harvested potato acreage has shown a fairly constant decrease during the

thirteen reported seasons while Florida harvested potato acreage has

generally shown an increase during the same time frame. The result is that









59

Dade County's share of Florida total acreage has been diminishing over time.

Harvested potato acreage in the county during 1976-77 was 23.1 percent of

total Florida acreage; by the 1979-80 season Dade acreage was almost a

quarter of all harvested potato acreage in the state. From that season on

(1979-80), Dade harvested potato acreage declined each season to the lowest

in thirteen seasons, 11.8 percent in 1988-89. However, total gross sales

almost doubled between the 1984-85 season and 1988-89, according to

unpublished confidential sources. Although harvested acreage has been

declining, in terms of total gross sales and economic activity, potato

production remains an important vegetable enterprise in the county.

Table 16.--Harvested acres of potatoes, Dade County and Florida, 1976-77 to
1988-89.

Dade acreage as a
Dade proportion of total
Season County Florida Florida acreage

(Acres) (Acres) (Percent)
1976-77 6,950 30,100 23.1
1977-78 7,350 32,300 22.8
1978-79 6,000 28,000 21.4
1979-80 6,750 27,300 24.7
1980-81 6,400 29,900 21.4
1981-82 5,200 31,900 16.3
1982-83 5,100 31,300 16.3
1983-84 5,400 33,600 16.1
1984-85 5,500 35,100 15.7
1985-86 5,000 32,600 15.3
1986-87 5,000 35,700 14.0
1987-88 NA 36,100 NA
1988-89 5,040 42,600 11.8

NA data not available.
Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, 1977-1989.











Squash


Squash production in Dade County includes both yellow crookneck and

zucchini, although zucchini is grown on a much smaller scale. Local acreage

estimates for 1988-89 for Dade County included approximately 4,500 acres of

yellow crookneck and 800 acres of zucchini. Total estimated gross sales for

the 1988-89 season was approximately $21 million for yellow squash and $2.4

million for zucchini. Squash is another of Dade County's winter vegetables

that is multiple cropped. There are approximately eighteen squash growers in

the county. Squash harvesting begins in late September and continues through

July of the following year (11).

Harvested squash acreage in Dade County has generally shown an increase

during the seventeen production seasons from 1972-73 to 1988-89 (Table 17).

During this time period, Dade harvested acreage increased by over a third or

35 percent, from 2,970 harvested acres in 1972-73 to 4,018 acres in 1988-89.

Florida's harvested squash acreage showed the same approximate trend during

this period (Figure 8), increasing by 39 percent from 9,800 harvested acres

in 1972-73 to 13,650 acres in 1988-89. Generally, Dade's harvested squash

acreage has consistently ranged from one-quarter to one-third of the state's

total harvested acreage during the seventeen production seasons from 1972-73

to 1988-89.


Seed Corn


Dade County seed corn production during the 1988-89 crop year was

substantially higher than normal production years due to adverse growing

conditions in the Mid-west. There are at publishing date primarily two seed











Table 17.--Harvested acres of squash, Dade County and the State of Florida,
1972-73 to 1988-89.

Dade acreage as a
Dade proportion of total
Season County Florida Florida acreage

(Acres) (Acres) (Percent)
1972-73 2,970 9,800 30.3
1973-74 3,730 10,100 36.9
1974-75 3,000 11,200 26.8
1975-76 3,400 11,400 29.8
1976-77 3,500 12,000 29.2
1977-78 3,600 11,850 30.4
1978-79 3,400 13,350 25.5
1979-80 3,600 13,500 26.7
1980-81 3,900 14,800 26.4
1981-82 4,550 16,600 27.4
1982-83 4,550 16,100 28.3
1983-84 5,600 16,800 33.3
1984-85 5,300 16,500 32.1
1985-86 4,800 15,800 30.4
1986-87 5,000 15,200 32.9
1987-88 5,250 14,000 37.5
1988-89 4,018 13,650 29.4

Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, 1972-73 to
1988-89.








18,000


16,000

W 14,000

< 12,000

W 10,000
I--
C)
W 8,000

S6,000
I


4,000

2,000


72-73 74-74 76-77 78-79 80-81 82-83 84-85 86-87 88-89
73-74 75-76 77-78 79-80 81-82 83-84 85-86 87-88


YEAR


Figure 8.--


Harvested acres of squash, Dade County and the
State of Florida, 1976-77 to 1988-89.


---~


-- --


-' --









63

corn producers in Dade: DeKalb and Pioneer Corporation; Ag Alumni was the

third seed corn producer in Dade County prior to the end of the decade, but

the 1989-90 production season was the last crop year for this company. These

two producers, DeKalb and Pioneer, on average, have a combined total of 500

to 700 acres of seed corn in a given season. However, the 1988-89 season was

abnormal for Dade County because a drought and subsequent crop failure in the

Mid-west during the spring and summer. Seed corn acreage was increased to an

estimated 9,000 acres to compensate for lost acreage due to this drought. A

number of local agricultural producers were contracted by large Mid-West seed

corn companies to plant seed corn. Estimated total gross sales of seed corn

grown in Dade County was $17.1 million for the 1988-89 season. Dade County

seed corn production is used primarily as foundation stock for breeding

purposes as opposed to seed corn for planting.


Sweet corn


Of the vegetables discussed below in this section, sweet corn has the

largest estimated annual acreage and the largest annual gross sales. In

1988-89 gross sales of sweet corn were estimated at just over $8 million.

Estimated sweet corn acreage for Dade was approximately 3,800 acres during

the 1988-89 season and has ranged around 3,000 acres since 1984-85. Dade's

sweet corn acreage comprised only 7.5 percent of Florida's total acreage

during the 1988-89 season; however, the state continued as the nation's

leading grower of fresh market sweet corn and led the nation in production

value (17). During the 1988-89 production season, Dade County growers began

harvesting in early January, and during mid-February through March, Dade

county growers were picking at peak level. The harvest season for sweet corn












Table 18.--Acreage of selected traditional vegetables, Dade County, 1979-80 to 1988-89.


Commodity


Bell Sweet
Season Okra Cucumbers Eggplant peppers Cabbage corn Strawberries

(-------------------------------------. Acres ---------------------------------------)
1979-80 2,300 1,200 120 100 200 3,900 100
1980-81 1,000 1,100 100 75 200 1,700 100
1981-82 700 1,000 100 55 275 1,100 35
1982-83 875 650 120 75 180 2,570 50
1983-84 875 1,100 275 90 80 1,400 50
1984-85 900 1,300 225 110 120 2,900 ---a
1985-86 950 1,350 190 110 90 2,900 ---a
1986-87 900 1,350 150 230 530 3,400 ---*
1987-88 ---a ---a .._a --a ---a --a ..
1988-89b 800 1,750 124 53 400 3,859 ---"

aNo published estimates available.

bPreliminary.

Source: Dade-IFAS Cooperative Extension Service, Homestead, Florida, 1979-80 to 1988-89.









65

grown in the county is from mid-December through the beginning of May (Tables

12 and 18).


Okra


Local Dade County estimates of okra production for the 1988-89 season

included $3.6 million in gross sales and approximately 800 planted acres;

okra acreage estimates indicate that acreage has remained relatively constant

at 800 to 900 acres each season since the early 1980s. Dade County produces

okra for local use as well as for shipments to other states (17). Okra is

harvested in Dade County from mid-February through mid-December (Tables 12

and 18)(11).


Cucumber


Cucumber production in Dade County includes production of slicers and

pickling cucumbers. Total gross sales of slicers during the 1988-89 season

were estimated at approximately $3.7 million; gross sales of pickles produced

in Dade is confidential and therefore included in the "other category."

Estimated annual acreage of cucumbers, including both slicers and pickles,

averaged over 1,100 acres between 1979-80 and 1986-87, with the 1988-89

season estimate of cucumber acreage at approximately 1,750 acres. As

compared with slicers, pickle acreage has been generally a larger proportion

of Dade County annual cucumber acreage. Cucumbers, generally, are harvested

from September through mid-December and from February through June (Tables 12

and 18)(11).











Eggplant


Estimated eggplant gross sales for 1988-89 were about $788,000, and

acreage was estimated to be approximately 124 acres. Dade County's eggplant

acreage was estimated at approximately 200 acres between the 1983-84 to 1986-

87 seasons. Eggplant is harvested year-round in the county, with an

estimated 98 percent being shipped out of Dade County (Table 12 and 18).


Peppers


Both hot peppers and bell peppers are grown in Dade County. Bell

pepper acreage in 1988-89 was estimated at 53 acres, and hot pepper acreage

was estimated by local growers to be around 200 acres. Gross sales of bell

peppers produced in 1988-89 were confidential and unreported; hot pepper

gross sales for the season were estimated by growers to be approximately

$364,000 (Tables 12 and 18).


Cabbage


Estimated total gross sales of cabbage for the 1988-89 season was

$800,000, with approximately 400 acres of cabbage grown in Dade. Cabbage

harvest begins in mid-December and continues through the end of April (Tables

12 and 18)(11).


Southern field peas


Total gross sales of field peas produced during 1988-89 was estimated

to be almost $500,000. Southern field peas are harvested from the beginning

of April through mid-December (11). No acreage estimates were available

(Tables 12 and 18).











Strawberries


This crop is grown by several Dade farmers, but gross sales for 1988-89

are confidential and unreported. Strawberry acreage for the 1988-89 season

was estimated by local growers to be around 80 acres. Strawberrries are

harvested from mid-December through the end of April, and produced only for

local consumption. During the 1988-89 season, Dade County strawberry

growers began transplanting during mid-November, with U-Pick harvest

beginning around mid-December (17).


Turnips


Like strawberries, turnips are grown by only a few Dade farmers, and

gross sales for 1988-89 are confidential and unreported. Acreage was also

unreported. Turnips are harvested December through March (11) and exported

to locations outside the county.


Tropical Vegetables


Vegetables included in this section are those that are generally grown

in the tropics but grown in Dade County due to favorable tropical growing

conditions. Scientific names are indicated below for these vegetable crops

because of the confusion sometimes associated with identifying them. The

Dade County Agricultural Extension Service reported 14,100 acres of tropical

vegetables planted in the 1988 calendar year (17). Dade County tropical

vegetables were estimated to have aggregate gross sales of $25.9 million

during 1988-89 (Table 19). With respect to acreage and total gross sales,

malanga, calabaza, boniato, and cassava are the largest tropical vegetable

crops in Dade County (Table 20). The Miami and Tampa Bay areas are the main











points of consumption in Florida for the four leading tropical vegetables,

and supplies shipped out of the state are primarily destined for the New York

City and Philadelphia markets (17).


Table 19.--Estimated value of tropical vegetables sold outside of and within
Dade County, 1988-89.


Value of crop sold Value of crop sold Total crop
Commodity outside Dade within Dade value

(--------------------. Dollars ----------------------)
Malanga 9,800,000 4,480,000 14,280,000
Calabaza 1,100,000 900,000 2,000,000
Boniato 4,680,000 1,170,000 5,850,000
Cassava (yuca) 840,000 560,000 1,400,000
Thai & Chinese
eggplant 143,748 1,452 145,200
Bitter melon 39,917 403 40,320
Winged beans 14,256 144 14,400
Long squash 47,520 480 48,000
Luffa 30,413 307 30,720
Long beans
(Asparagus beans) 179,626 1,814 181,440
Tindora 58,905 595 59,500
Other 1,245,000 675,000 1,920,000


Total 18,179,384 7,790,196 25,969,580


"Other includes watercress, chives, fuzzy squash, lablab
cabbage, other herbs, etc.


beans, Chinese


Source: Published, unpublished, and estimated data. All itemized
listings are public information and estimates. Confidential data have been
aggregated.









69

Table 20.--Acreage for selected tropical vegetables, Dade County.


Season Malanga Boniato Calabaza Cassava

(---------------------- Acres ---------------------)
1979-80 4,100 5,500 1,100 200
1980-81 4,000 5,500 900 200
1981-82 2,500 6,000 400 300
1982-83 1,690 3,375 975 560
1983-84 2,155 3,600 900 750
1984-85 2,400 4,000 1,000 850
1985-86 2,500 5,000 1,200 1,900
1986-87 2,500 2,000 800 1,000

1987-88a -- --

1988-89 5,100 6,000 1,000 1,000

aNo published estimates available.

Source: Dade County Agriculture Statistical Report, 1979-80 to
1988-89, Dade/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service, Homestead, Florida.


Other specialty vegetables for which grower estimates of acreage and

crop value were collected for the county include long beans (asparagus

beans), Thai and Chinese eggplant, tindora, long squash, bitter melon, luffa,

and winged beans. In addition to these, there are other tropical vegetables

and herbs produced in the county, but confidentiality precludes itemizing

gross sales, and only a cursory description of these is available.


Malanga


There are two types of malanga grown in Dade County: (1) malanga

(blanca and amarilla) scientifically known as Xanthosoma sp. and commonly

called tannier, yautia, or cocoyam and (2) malanga islefa with a scientific

name of Colocasia esculenta Schott commonly known as taro, dasheen, tannier,









70

eddoe, or cocoyam (13). Malanga blanca is a starchy tuber with a shaggy

brown skin and a beige colored flesh. Malanga islefa or taro has been grown

as a specialty crop in Florida since the early 1900s and has been a basic

food plant in the Orient for over 2,000 years. Taro is a brown, barrel-

shaped shaggy tuber with varying flesh colors of white, beige, and light

grey. Malanga can be used as a potato substitute (23).

Grower estimates indicated that there were approximately $14.3 million

in gross sales of malanga during the 1988-89 season on approximately 5,100

acres in Dade County. Approximately one-third of the production during 1988-

89 was consumed within the county. Acreage during 1988-89 was the highest

reported in Dade County, up by almost 25 percent from the peak of 4,100 acres

reported for 1979-80 and more than double the acreage reported for the 1985-

86 and 1986-87 seasons (Table 20).

Malanga can be harvested year round depending on the planting date

(11). It is generally harvested after an 18-month growing season but can be

harvested earlier, resulting in smaller tubers and reduced yields. Another

factor affecting harvest yields is the soil in which the crop is planted. In

Dade County, tropical root crops, including malanga and boniato, produce 50

to 75 more bags per acre on marl soils than on rockland soils (13). Malanga

yields in the county generally range from 150 to 200 fifty pound bags per

acre.


Boniato


Ipomoea batatas is the scientific name for boniato, also commonly

called tropical sweet potato. This tropical, white sweet potato has a taste

similar to, although less sweet than, the traditional Thanksgiving sweet









71

potato (23). It is available year round (11) and is one of the tropical

vegetables that is double cropped. Boniato production was estimated by

growers to have total gross sales of $5.8 million in 1988-89. Approximately

20 percent of the boniato grown in Dade in 1988-89 remained within the county

for local consumption. Local growers estimated that there were at least

6,000 acres of boniato in the county during the 1988-89 season. Thus,

boniato acreage for 1988-89 equalled the 1981-82 record of 6,000 acres;

interim years showed declining boniato acreage, with the 1986-87 crop year

having an all time low of only 2,000 acres (Table 20). Boniato yields (50-75

more bags per acre on marl soils than rockland soils) range from 250 to 375

fifty pound bags per acre.


Calabaza


The scientific name for calabaza is Cucurbita moschata, and it is

commonly known as the Cuban pumpkin or simply as a pumpkin (13). The

calabaza is thought to have been cultivated by the Mayan and Aztec Indians

when the first explorers stepped ashore in the New World. The calabaza

pumpkin, also referred to as the tropical pumpkin because of its origin and

the tropical areas of the world where it is cultivated, is frequently round,

more commonly pear shaped, and varies in color from solid green to

traditional orange to a striped variation of the two (23).

Estimated gross sales of calabaza for 1988-89 was $2 million of which

about 60 percent of sales were to clientele outside of Dade County. Local

growers estimated there were 1,000 acres of calabaza in 1988-89. With the

exception of the 1981-82 season when only 400 acres were planted, calabaza

acreage during the 1980s remained relatively constant, ranging between 800









72

and 1,200 acres. Calabaza is one of the tropical vegetable crops in Dade

County that is double and triple cropped. It is harvested from late March

through late December (11).


Cassava


Manihot esculanta is the scientific name for cassava or yuca. Cassava

is a bark covered root vegetable with a white flesh and is grown only in

tropical climates. Its foliage forms a green lacy canopy about six feet over

its roots. Its high starch content makes it useful as a thickener. It is

also the source of tapioca. The outer bark and underskin of th'e root must be

peeled before using (23). In addition to the root, the cassava foliage is

consumed as a legume in some Third World countries where cassava is a food

staple.

Cassava grown in Dade County during the 1988-89 season was estimated by

local growers to have total gross sales of approximately $1.4 million,

representing production on an estimated 1,000 acres. Cassava acreage

increased during the 1980s, from an estimated 200 acres in 1979-80 to

approximately 1,000 acres in 1986-87 and 1988-89. Cassava is harvested from

mid-December through early May (11). Yields are estimated at approximately

200 to 290 fifty pound bags per acre (13). An estimated sixty percent of

gross sales of cassava grown in Dade County in 1988-89 were sales to

clientele outside the county.


Other specialty vegetables


Other specialty vegetables are grown on a much smaller scale than the

tropical vegetables listed above and are destined primarily for New York and









73

Chicago but are also shipped to New Orleans, Los Angelos and other major U.S.

cities. There are approximately eight Dade County growers producing a

variety of these vegetables. Grower acreage of any one crop may be small but

intercropping accounts for larger parcels, ranging from five to ten or more

acres. Local consumption of these vegetables is generally supplied from

backyard gardens; thus, it is estimated that 99 percent of production of

these vegetables is shipped out of Dade County. Many of these vegetables are

double cropped, planted, generally speaking, in March and again in September.

Many of these vegetables can be grown on a trellis or left to crawl along the

ground.


Long beans.--Long beans, Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis, are

also referred to as yardlong beans or asparagus beans. These are similar to

black-eyed peas in taste, cuisine preparation, and appearance except that

they grow to be two to three feet in length, hence the name yardlong beans.

Long beans are double cropped: planted in September with harvest in November

and December and planted again in February with harvest from mid April

through May (Table 21). Approximately 4,200 pounds are harvested per acre.

There are two types of long beans, pole long beans and bush long beans; the

former requires support by trellis or fence. Long beans are generally

shipped to New Orleans, New York, and Chicago.

Long beans grown in Dade County during the 1988-89 season were

estimated to have gross sales of approximately $181,000 (Table 19). During

1988-89 there were an estimated 54 acres of long beans harvested in the

county.












Table 21.--Planting & harvesting dates and yields, selected tropical
vegetables, Dade County.

Average
Vegetable Planting Harvest & duration yield/acre


Long Squash



Bitter Melon


Winged Beans


Chinese Squash
(Luffa, Loofa,
Loofah)


March ---->
Sept ---->


March ---->
Sept ---->



March ---->


March
Sept


May June & July
Nov Dec


May June & July
Nov Dec 'til freeze
or end Feb


May Nov


300 boxes,
box 45 lb


80 boxes,
box 40 Ib


2400 lbs


May June & July
Nov Dec 'til freeze
or end Feb


80 boxes,
box 30 Ibs


Long Beans


Tindora


Sept ----> Nov & Dec
Feb ----> mid April May


Feb ----> May Oct


Fuzzy Squash



Chinese Cabbage


March ---->
Sept ---->


Oct-Nov -->


June July
Nov Dec


300 boxes,
box 45 lbs


mid-Nov March/April planted
continuously in stages; stops when
warm in north US


Chinese Okra



Thai & Chinese
eggplant


March ---->
Sept ---->


March ---->
Sept ---->


May July
Nov Jan


100 boxes,
box 45 lb


May July
Nov & Dec until cold
weather


6000 lbs


Source: Dade County specialty vegetable growers, 1990.


4200 Ibs



8500 lbs











Thai and Chinese eggplant.--These eggplant are similar to the varieties

normally available in the supermarket but differ in size and shape. Thai

eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) is quite small and round while Chinese

eggplant (Solanum melongena) is long and cylindrical and is purplish in

coloration. Thai eggplant is purple, white, green, or white with green

netting.

Both eggplant types are double cropped: planted in March and harvested

from May through July, then planted again in September and harvested

beginning in November, continuing into December until cold weather curtails

production. Eggplant production is estimated to yield approximately 6,000

pounds per acre (Table 21).

For the 1988-89 season, Dade County Chinese and Thai eggplant

production was estimated to have total gross sales of approximately $145,000

(Table 19). There were an estimated 44 harvested acres of eggplant during

the 1988-89 season.


Tindora.--Tindora (Coccinia cordifolia) looks like a tiny cucumber but

is grown as a perennial vine, like grapes. It is planted in February and

harvested from May through October. During one season a grower can harvest

approximately 8,000 to 9,000 pounds of tindora from one acre (Table 21).

Like the other specialty vegetables in this section, tindora is shipped out

of Dade County to New York and Chicago. During the 1988-89 season tindora

gross sales for the county totaled an estimated $59,500 (Table 19). This

represents harvest from approximately seven acres.


Long squash.--Long squash (Lagenaria siceraria) can be grown as a table

vegetable or can be used as a gourd or container after being left to dry and











the contents removed. Long squash grown in Dade County are harvested for

both purposes. The long squash resembles a huge, long zucchini and is sold

at about 3 to 4 pounds per squash. The vines can be allowed to creep on the

ground or a trellis can be started at the beginning of the season. The long

squash can grow to a length of two to three feet. When used as a vegetable,

it is harvested when the fruit is still young, but when used as a gourd, it

is left on the vine to mature (22).

Long squash is double cropped, planted in March and harvested from May

through June and July, then planted again in September and harvested in

November and December. Long squash yields are approximately 300 boxes per

acre, with a box weighing approximately 45 pounds (Table 21). It was

estimated that 8 acres of long squash were harvested in the county during

1988-89, representing gross sales of approximately $48,000 (Table 19).


Bitter melon.--There are several varieties of bitter melon; the one

grown in Dade County (Momordica charantia) is a mild, Indian variety with a

smooth exterior. These are shaped like a long, slightly curved zucchini;

some varieties are much more bitter than others. Bitter melon can be grown

on a trellis or can be left to crawl along the ground. Yields are generally

over 3,000 pounds per acre or approximately 80 (40 pound) boxes per acre.

There were an estimated 18 harvested acres of bitter melon in the county

during 1988-89. Bitter melon is double cropped, planted in March and

harvested beginning in May and continuing into June and July (Table 21); a

crop can be planted again in September with harvesting beginning in November

continuing until the end of February or until freezing temperatures curtail









77

production. For the 1988-89 season, gross sales of bitter melon for the

county was estimated at approximately $40,000.


Luffa.--Luffa (Luffa cylindrica) is also known as Chinese squash,

loofa, or loofah and is an Old World tropical vine. The fruit of the vine

has a fibrous, spongelike interior. The dried, fibrous part of this fruit

can be used as a washing sponge or as a filter. Luffa is also called the

"vegetable sponge". Perhaps this name indicates the dual purpose of the

plant since it can also be cultivated as a table vegetable. This vine can be

planted along a fence line, provided with a trellis, or the vines can crawl

on the ground. Luffa can be double cropped with the planting in March being

harvested from May through July and the planting in September being harvested

beginning in November and continuing until the end of February unless

freezing temperatures occur (Table 21). Yields are approximately 2,400

pounds of fruit per acre. During the 1988-89 season, there were

approximately $30,000 of luffa produced in Dade County, representing 16

harvested acres of produce.


Winged beans.--Although gross sales of winged beans for the 1988-89

season were estimated to be only $14,400, local growers indicated that this

crop has shown greater gross sales and production in past seasons. During

1988-89 six acres were cultivated with an approximate harvest of 2,400 pounds

per acre. Winged beans are planted only once, during March of each year

(Table 21). These beans are a vine vegetable requiring overhead trellises

for good growth and development. Winged beans have seeds similar to soybeans

in composition. Seeds average approximately 34 percent protein (dry weight

basis) and 17 percent oil. Even the tuberous roots can be consumed. They









78

contain 20 percent protein (dry weight basis) which is much higher than the

protein content in other edible roots and tubers such as yams (2 percent),

potatoes (2 percent), and cassava (1 percent) (22).

The name winged beans is derived from the appearance: the long and

rectangular pods possess wing-like structures (22). When cut cross-wise, the

ruffled edges of winged beans have a wing-like appearance, giving the

resulting slices a four-pointed star shape. At one time exclusively grown in

Papua New Guinea and Southeast Asia, these beans are now grown in the warmest

climates of the United States. Wing beans taste and can be prepared

similarly to snap beans (23).


Other specialty vegetable crops.--There were almost $2 million in gross

sales of other specialty vegetables grown in Dade County during the 1988-89

production season. This included such crops as Chinese okra, fuzzy squash,

Chinese cabbage, watercress, lablab beans, Chinese mustard, and herbs such as

chives, lemongrass, Thai spices, basil, and similar kinds of herbs and

spices. These crops are grown on small acreage, generally three acres or

less in size.


Tropical Fruits


In terms of total value of production and acreage, the largest tropical

fruit crops in Dade County are limes, avocados, and mangos. Other principal

fruit crops include specialty bananas and plantains, carambola, papaya, mamey

sapote, lychee, longan, passion fruit, sugar apple, atemoya, guava, kumquat,

and barbados cherries. There is also limited commercial fruit production and

small acreages of sapodilla, keylime, ambarella, canistel, coconut,









79

jaboticaba, jackfruit, white sapote, black sapote, loquat, macadamia,

monstera or ceriman, pummelo, Spanish lime, star apple, minneola tangelo,

tamarind, and wampee. These latter fruits will not be detailed for this

report, but detailed descriptions of some can be found in Popenoe (34).

Dade County's climate encourages tropical fruit production and

experimentation. A number of commercial tropical fruit growers are

experimenting with growing techniques and marketing strategies for exotic,

imported fruit trees. These growers travel around the world in an effort to

improve their production practices and learn new techniques through research

and interaction with growers in other countries, and make presentations to

local growers to help educate and promote the industry. In addition to the

commercial aspect, there are a wide variety of exotic fruit trees planted in

backyard gardens by non-commercial growers.

Introducing new fruit varieties can be costly for growers, but may be

worth the risk, depending upon market demand. In 1980 there were only about

ten acres of carambola trees in Dade County; by the end of the decade, there

were almost 500 acres (14). Innovative growers began experimenting with new,

sweeter varieties in the early 1980s. As acreage was expanding, the new

varieties were being introduced to consumers and marketing strategies were

being developed. In the case of carambola production, for those growers who

were bold enough to risk planting a new tropical fruits, it appears that

there is a substantial market among consumers for the new product. This was

not the case with lem'nlimes. A total of 18 acres, approximately 3,200

trees, were planted in the 1970s (15) to develop this crop which, as the name

infers, is a cross between lemons and limes. This was not a commodity that









80

attained consumer preference, additional acreage was not planted, and the

venture was subsequently left undeveloped.

Introducing a new crop, therefore, can be an expensive risk for

agricultural producers. Carambola growers discovered that protecting young

plants from strong winds helped increase plant growth and speed production.

However, constructing windbreaks is a very costly technique. Given there

might not be market demand for the new product, incurring the expense of

innovative production techniques like windbreaks, is an additional risk for

agricultural producers. Even when aggressive, persistent marketing

strategies are implemented, the grower can lose hundreds of thousands of

dollars or more, depending upon the initial level of investment.


Limes


Lime production in Dade County is administered by a committee that

began operation on March 31, 1955. The Florida Lime Administrative Committee

regulates the handling of limes grown in South Florida under the Federal

Marketing Agreement number 126 and the Federal Marketing Order 911. The

agreement and order, initiated and formulated by lime growers in South

Florida, regulates grade, size, quality, containers, pack specifications,

flow to market only during specified times, and marketing holidays. The

administrative committee is elected by the Florida Lime Industry and

subsequently appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States

(25).

Dade County lime acreage by the end of 1987 totaled 6,290 acres out of

a total state acreage of 6,792; thus, Dade acreage constituted 92.6 percent

of the entire state's lime acreage (Table 22). With respect to the number of












Table 22.--State and county lime acreage by acres, trees, and year set,
January 1989.


Year set


Other counties


Pre-1944
1944-53
1954-63
1964-67
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978

1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

1985
1986
1987


Dade

(Acres)
5
87
302
526
126
194
82
61
48
141
44
244
243
692
481

1,075
965
64
57
164
93

299
99
198


6,290 997,700 502


63,000 6,792 1,060,700


County

(Trees)
600
10,000
50,500
81,500
23,100

32,200
13,200
10,700
7,000
23,900
7,800
39,600
35,700
112,800
74,200

166,000
154,300
10,500
10,900
27,500
15,800

44,900
19,900
25,100


(Acres)
0
0
0
1

0
1
0
0
0
0
72
0
73
0
5

68
0
0
3
72
22

178
7
0


(Trees)
0
0
0
100

0
100
0
0
0

0
6,100
0
10,400
0
600

8,200
0
0
400
8,300
2,100

25,700
1,000
0


Total


Source: "Tropical Fruit." Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, M89T1, Orlando,
Florida, January 1989.


State

(Acres)
5
87
302
527

126
195
82
61
48

141
116
244
316
692
486

1,143
965
64
60
236
115

477
106
198


total

(Trees)
600
10,000
50,500
81,600
23,100
32,300
13,200
10,700
7,000

23,900
13,900
39,600
46,100
112,800
74,800

174,200
154,300
10,500
11,300
35,800
17,900

70,600
20,900
25,100









82

trees planted, by the end of 1987, Dade County, with 997,700 trees, had 94

percent of Florida's total of 1,060,700 planted lime trees. Less than 400

acres of lime trees had been planted in the state before 1964, all were

planted in Dade County. By the end of 1973, there were 1,572 acres of limes

planted in Dade County, representing almost a four fold increase in acreage,

but still only representing one-quarter of the total lime acreage that was

attained by the end of 1987. There were major plantings from 1975 through

1980, constituting 3,700 acres of trees or almost 60 percent of all lime

acreage planted in the county as of the end of 1987.

All subsequent discussion referring to Dade County lime production and

estimated gross sales for 1988-89 is based on published numbers and

information from the Florida Limes Annual Report. This annual report

includes information pertaining to packed limes only; it does not include

processed or juice lime production. It should be noted, then, that lime

gross sales estimates for the 1988-89 are conservative estimates for Dade

County lime production because these estimates do not include the processed

or juice lime segment of the industry.

Dade County limes are harvested year round. In terms of the number of

bushels of fresh limes produced each month, peak lime production generally

occurs during June, July, August, and September (Table 23). Comparing

seasons between 1978-79 and 1988-89, the 1984-85 season showed the highest

production of fresh limes (1,620,467 bushels), with a minimum production of

over 100,000 bushels during eight consecutive months (May through December).

Some of the highest production months also occurred during the 1984-85

season, with June, July, and August each having a minimum of 220,000 bushels.

The only other season with this same kind of record was in 1982-83, when
















Table 23.--Dade County monthly fresh packed lime shipments, 1978-79 to 1988-89.



Season


Month 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89

(--------------------------------------------------------bushel--------------------------------------------------------


36,634 37,291 34,769 34,353 57,094 65,884 67,627 89,915


55,357

58,309

156,909

116,483

91,690

41.708

33,275

57,240

33,296

33,328

41,108


88,925

141,039

144,683

157,006

110,578

56,942

48,425

79,636

42,127

34,151

33,476


86,276

143,282

194,341

165,050

103,410

87,572

74,867

91,200

44,946

31,985

33,136


28,705

78,387

194,257

140,556

118,595

77,610

68,520

104,193

50,448

34,650

40,269


130,507

173,744

254,507

200,638

146,022

112,296

102,699

148,670

90,750

60,359

48,705


98,756

161,659

227,608

207,262

123,804

87,436

72,188

98,914

52,838

39,403

50,375


164,262

252,007

233,174

220,848

107,888

103,028

101,561

119,370

82,690

85,353

82,659


142,007

141,159

182,505

196,255

137,847

122,133

85,012

93,981

78,639

78,038

55,713


42,940 105,517


53,416

131,216

187,131

175,376

133,354

112,622

91,907

137,483

92,944

92,474

84,134


130,746

145,472

184,659

171,201

150,606

119,323

93,327

85,457

57,594

54,141

54,737


65,508

126,379

226,560

226,749

189,189

132,938

103,519

85,514

97,380

58,300

80,288

74,673


April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

January

February

March



Total


Source: Florida Limes, Annual Report of the Lime Administrative Committee, 1984-85 season and 1988-89 season.


755,337 974,279 1,090,814 970,543 1,525,991 1,286,127 1,620,467 1,403,204 1,334,997 1,352,780 1,466,997









84

total annual production was over 1.5 million bushels. Since the 1982-83

season, well over a million bushels of fresh limes have been harvested each

production season.

During the 1988-89 crop year, total gross sales of limes produced in

Dade County equalled $28.5 million (Table 24). Of this total, an estimated

95 percent are shipped out of the county. It is estimated that 90 to 95

percent of all 'Tahiti' limes produced in the United State are produced in

Dade County.


Table 24.--Estimated total value of tropical fruits sold within and outside
of Dade County, 1988-89.


Commodity


Limes

Mangos

Avocados

Papayas

Plaintain & Bananas
Mamey Sapote

Other"


Value of crop sold Value of crop sold
outside Dade within Dade

(-------------------- Dollars ----------

27,109,091 1,426,794

11,880,000 2,970,000

16,881,340 888,492

437,000 437,000
580,000 580,000
500,000 2,000,000

7,475,500 789,500


Total crop
value

-----------)

28,535,885

14,850,000

17,769,832

874,000
1,160,000
2,500,000

8,265,000


Total 64,862,931 9,091,786 73,954,717

aOther includes estimated data for carambola, passion fruit, lychee,
atemoya, sugar apple, guava, kumquat, longan, and Barbados cherries.

Source: Published, unpublished, and estimated data. All itemized
listings are public information and estimates. Confidential data have been
aggregated.











Avocados


Avocados have been cultivated in tropical America since pre-Columbian

times. The first recorded importation into Florida was in 1833 and into

California in 1871 (26). There are at least 56 major varieties of Florida-

grown avocados (18), thus accounting for the difficulty of readily

identifying Florida avocados.

The Avocado Administrative Committee regulates the handling of avocados

grown in South Florida under Federal Marketing Agreement number 121 and

Federal Marketing Order 915 (19). The committee began operation on March 31,

1954. The agreement and order, initiated and formulated by avocado growers

in South Florida, regulates grade, maturity, size, containers, pack

specifications, and marketing holidays for avocados. The administrative

committee is elected by the South Florida Avocado Industry and subsequently

appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States.

By the end of 1987, Dade County's avocado acreage (10,076) and number

of trees planted (1,004,900) made up 90 percent of Florida's total acreage

(11,239) and trees (1,111,300) (Table 25). One-third (or 3,382 acres) of

Dade County's total avocado acreage (10,076) was planted prior to 1954; at

that time, no other avocado acreage had been reported in the state. Since

1954, a minimum of 140 acres (1983) were planted each year up until the 1984

season, when new plantings of avocado acreage began a severe decline. The

largest acreage planting occurred during 1980 when 730 new acres of avocados

were planted. New plantings of avocado acreage in Dade County have declined

during the 1980s; from 1984 through 1987, only a total of 132 acres of

avocados were planted in Dade County.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs