• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Center information
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Acknowledgement
 Summary
 Introduction
 Objectives
 Procedures
 Findings
 Conclusion
 Reference






Group Title: Industry report - University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Market Research Center ; no. 88-3
Title: Distribution of goat meat in selected metropolitan Florida markets
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026923/00001
 Material Information
Title: Distribution of goat meat in selected metropolitan Florida markets a report
Series Title: Industry report Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
Physical Description: vi, 21 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Degner, Robert L
Locascio, J. David, 1955-
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, a part of the Food and Resource Economics Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1988>
 Subjects
Subject: Goat meat -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Goat industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 21.
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert L. Degner and J. David Locascio.
General Note: "May 1988."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026923
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001370144
oclc - 18768278
notis - AGN1746

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Page i
    Center information
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
    Summary
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Objectives
        Page 1
    Procedures
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Findings
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Conclusion
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Reference
        Page 21
Full Text








Industry Report 88-3


DISTRIBUTION OF GOAT MEAT IN SELECTED
METROPOLITAN FLORIDA MARKETS


A Report by


Robert L. Degner and J. David Locascio


May 1988


The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of
the Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 82611


















DISTRIBUTION OF GOAT MEAT IN SELECTED
METROPOLITAN FLORIDA MARKETS









A Report by

Robert L. Degner and J. David Locascio










May 1988









The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of
the Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611




























ABSTRACT


The objective of this research was to determine the current market-
ing environment for goat meat in Florida. Of the 164 meat wholesalers
interviewed in the Miami, Fort Lauderdale and Tampa metropolitan areas,
only 24 firms were currently selling goat meat. Total goat meat sales
amounted to approximately 842,500 pounds per year. Over half the
respondents mentioned limited supply as a major marketing p^hlem. The
three largest firms represented only 15 percent of thefirms handling
goat meat, but accounted for 82 percent of the total product volume.
About 96 percent of the goat meat received was from out of state includ-
ing slightly less than two percent imported.

The distribution of goat meat is very limited, even in areas with
large ethnic populations. Annual per capital goat meat consumption as
derived from wholesale sales is only 0.26 pounds for the three metropoli-
tan areas. In addition, present prices received by north Florida
producers for live animals (on a carcass equivalent basis) are substan-
tially higher than wholesalers are presently paying for out-of-state
product.










THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL MARKET RESEARCH CENTER


The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center is a service of the

Food and Resource Economics Department. Its purpose is to provide

timely, applied research on current and emerging marketing problems

affecting Florida's agricultural and marine industries. A basic goal of

the Center is to provide organized groups with practical solutions to

their marketing problems. The Center seeks to provide marketing research

and related information to producer organizations, trade associations,

and governmental agencies concerned with improving and expanding markets

for Florida's agricultural and marine products.

Client organizations are required to pay direct costs associated

with their research projects. Such costs include labor for personnel and

telephone interviewing, mail surveys, travel, and cc- ',r analyses.

Professional time and support is provided at no charge by IFAS.

Professional agricultural economists with specialized training and

experience in marketing participate in every Center project. Cooperating

personnel from other IFAS units are also involved whenever specialized

technical assistance is needed.

For more information about the Center, contact:

Dr. Robert L. Degner, Director
Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
1083 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904) 392-1845










TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

LIST OF TABLES . . . . ... . . iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . v

SUMMARY . . . . . . . vi

INTRODUCTION . . . . ... . . .. 1

OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . 1

PROCEDURES .. . . . . . .. 2

FINDINGS . . . . .. ... .... . ... 4

Availability of Goat Meat . . . . .. 4

Product Form . . . .... . 4

Wholesale Volume . . . . .. ... .. 7

Wholesale Prices . . . .... .. .. 9

Origin of Supply . . . . ... . 11

Distribution Channels . . . . ... .. .13

Marketing Problems . . . .. . 13

Ethnic Origin of Consumers . . . ... .15

Seasonality of Sales . . . ... .. 16

CONCLUSIONS . . . . ... . . 18

REFERENCES . . . . . . . 21










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Florida standard metropolitan areas with highest concen-
trations of selected ethnic populations . . 3

2 Proportion of meat wholesalers selling goat meat, by
market area . . . . ... . 5

3 Past sellers' reasons for quitting . . . 6

4 Product forms usually bought by wholesalers . . 6

5 Product forms sold by wholesalers . . . 7

6 Proportions of goat meat sold frozen versus fresh, by
wholesalers . . . . . . 7

7 Number of wholesale firms selling goat meat, by firm
size and market area . . . .... .. 8

8 Annual goat meat sales, by volume categories . . 9

9 Wholesalers' purchase and re-sale prices for goat meat,
by firm size . . . . ... . 10

10 Origin of wholesale goat meat supplies . . .. .11

11 Wholesale supply sources. . . . .. .12

12 Out-of-state sources of goat meat as reported by
wholesalers . . . . . . 13

13 Wholesale distribution of goat meat . . .. 14

14 Problems associated with goat meat, as reported by whole-
salers . . . . .. . . 15

15 Ethnic origin of goat meat consumers, as perceived by
sellers . . . . ... . .. 16

16 Firms selling goat meat continuously versus seasonally 17

17 Months in which wholesale demand for goat meat is
greatest . .... ...... .. ....... 17

18 U.S. per capital consumption of selected meat items .... .19










ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Our sincere appreciation is expressed to Dr. Robert Bradford, Direc-

tor of the Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs, Florida A & M

University (FAMU), to Dr. Claude McGowan, Extension Animal Science

Specialist, FAMU, and to their staffs for their interest in the agricul-

tural economy of north Florida. We are grateful for their financial

support. We are indebted to Dr. James R. Simpson, Extension Livestock

Specialist, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of

Florida, for his suggestions during the formative stages of the project

and for his review of the manuscript. Special thanks also go to Renelle

Ramirez for typing this manuscript.










SUMMARY


* The objective of this research was to determine the current marketing
environment for goat meat in Florida sold through conventional,
wholesale marketing channels for meat.

* Data from the 1980 Census of the Population were used to identify three
metropolitan areas in Florida where large concentrations of ethnic
populations are located. The three areas were identified as Miami
(Dade County), Fort Lauderdale (Broward County), and Tampa (Hills-
borough County). Previous research indicated that these areas were
likely candidates for relatively high goat meat consumption, and were
selected because of this characteristic.

* Of 164 meat wholesalers interviewed, only 24 firms (15 percent) were
currently selling goat meat. Twelve firms had previously sold goat
meat, and 128 had never sold goat meat.

* Of the 12 firms that had discontinued selling goat meat, half mentioned
insufficient demand as the primary reason for quitting. Five mentioned
supply problems and four mentioned competition from cheaper substi-
tutes.

* Ninety-three percent of the goat meat was purchased in whole carcass
form. Estimates of goat carcass weights ranged from 25 to 45 pounds
and averaged 36.4 pounds. Over half the total volume was cut into
primals before resale and 41 percent of the volume was resold in the
whole carcass form. Ninety-three percent of the wholesalers' sales
were comprised of frozen meat.

Total goat meat sales in the three major market areas identified in
this study amounted to approximately 842,500 pounds per year. The
three largest firms represented only 15 percent of the firms handling
goat meat, but accounted for 82 percent of the total product volume.

The weighted average purchase price for all firms was slightly under
$0.95 per pound. The weighted average sale price for all firms was
just under $1.09 per pound. The weighted average mark-up was 15
percent.

On a total volume basis, about 94 percent of the goat meat received was
from out of state, with about four percent being obtained within
Florida. Slightly less than two percent was imported. Texas was the
most commonly cited out-of-state source.

Approximately 52 percent of the goat meat volume reported by the firms
in this study was sold to retail grocers. About one-third was sold to
restaurants. Ten percent went to varied foodservice operations
including ships, labor camps, and jobbers that also serve the foodser-
vice trade. The remaining six percent went to individuals.











SUMMARY CONTINUED


* Over half the respondents mentioned limited supply problems. Com-
plaints of limited supplies came predominantly from large- and medium-
size firms.

* Baitians were mentioned by 13 of 22 firms as being important consumers
of goat meat. Jamaicans, other Caribbean islanders, Asians, Cubans,
Mexicans, other Latins, American blacks and Greeks were also mentioned
as significant consumers of goat meat.

* Three-fourths of all wholesalers carrying goat meat sell it throughout
the year. About two thirds of all wholesalers (including all those in
the large category) identified seasonal fluctuations in consumer
demand. Generally, November through March was identified as the peak
demand season for goat meat.

* Miami, Fort Lauderdale and Tampa are thought to have the highest per
capital goat meat consumption in the state. However, annual per capital
goat meat consumption as derived from wholesale sales is still only
0.26 pounds for the study area.

* The ethnic populations thought to be consuming the greatest quantities
are generally on the lowest rung of the socio-economic ladder, which
may make it more difficult to promote among non-ethnic populations.

* Another consideration is the low wholesale price of goat meat relative
to current live prices. For example, a live goat weighing about 75
pounds will bring about $45.00 ($0.60 per pound) to the farmer in north
Florida. Thus, the total carcass cost is around $1.47 per pound,
exclusive of transportation and handling charges. Wholesalers are
currently paying less than $1.00 per carcass pound.










Distribution of Goat Meat in Selected
Metropolitan Florida Markets

by R. L. Degner and J. D. Locascio*


INTRODUCTION


American consumers are among the best fed in the world. They enjoy

a diverse, high-quality diet in which animal protein plays a major role.

Although many species of animals are consumed in the United States, beef,

pork and poultry are the most important. In other countries, particu-

larly developing countries, goat meat is a more common source of animal

protein.

Goat meat consumption in the United States is limited at this time.

However, there is increasing interest in goat production as an alterna-

tive agricultural enterprise for small farms in north Florida. While

dairy products are important to Florida's emerging goat industry,

increased goat meat consumption can improve the economic viability of

goat production.


OBJECTIVES


For the last several years, faculty at the University of Florida

have cooperated with Florida A & M University in assessing the marketing

environment for goat meat in Florida. In 1986, livestock auction

managers were interviewed to identify buyers of live goats and to

determine typical marketing channels for these animals in Florida. As a

result of this preliminary work, additional research was conducted in



*R. L. Degner is Professor and Director, and J. D. Locascio is a
Research Assistant in the Florida Agricultural Market Research Center,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.










Distribution of Goat Meat in Selected
Metropolitan Florida Markets

by R. L. Degner and J. D. Locascio*


INTRODUCTION


American consumers are among the best fed in the world. They enjoy

a diverse, high-quality diet in which animal protein plays a major role.

Although many species of animals are consumed in the United States, beef,

pork and poultry are the most important. In other countries, particu-

larly developing countries, goat meat is a more common source of animal

protein.

Goat meat consumption in the United States is limited at this time.

However, there is increasing interest in goat production as an alterna-

tive agricultural enterprise for small farms in north Florida. While

dairy products are important to Florida's emerging goat industry,

increased goat meat consumption can improve the economic viability of

goat production.


OBJECTIVES


For the last several years, faculty at the University of Florida

have cooperated with Florida A & M University in assessing the marketing

environment for goat meat in Florida. In 1986, livestock auction

managers were interviewed to identify buyers of live goats and to

determine typical marketing channels for these animals in Florida. As a

result of this preliminary work, additional research was conducted in



*R. L. Degner is Professor and Director, and J. D. Locascio is a
Research Assistant in the Florida Agricultural Market Research Center,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.










late 1986 and early 1987. The basic objective of the more recent

research was to determine the marketing environment for goat meat in

Florida sold through conventional, commercial marketing channels for

meat. The results are published in two parts. This report focuses on

wholesale distribution channels, and another looks at supermarkets as a

marketing outlet (Locascio and Degner).

Specific objectives of the wholesale study were to (1) determine the

present levels of goat meat being marketed through wholesale meat firms,

(2) determine wholesalers' attitudes towards handling goat meat, (3)

evaluate the potential for selling more goat meat through wholesale

outlets, and (4) identify marketing problems and constraints on market

expansion.


PROCEDURES


Data from the 1980 census of the population were used to identify

three metropolitan areas where large concentrations of ethnic populations

are located. The three areas were identified as Miami (Dade County),

Fort Lauderdale (Broward County), and Tampa (Hillsborough County) (Table

1). These three markets total over 3.2 million people, of which 1.3

million were comprised of ethnic groups hypothesized to be likely

consumers of goat meat. These ethnic groups included Spanish, American

blacks, Greeks, Italians and Portuguese, with fifty-three percent of the

ethnic residents being of Spanish descent. Meat wholesalers in the three

market areas were identified through advertisements in telephone com-

panies' Yellow Pages. A total of 164 wholesale firms were identified

and their managers interviewed by telephone. It should be stressed that

these three market areas are not representative of the state as a whole.
























Table 1.--Florida standard metropolitan areas with highest concentrations of selected ethnic populations.


Ethnic Group


Standard Metropolitan Areas
Miami Tampaa Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood Jacksonville Orlando West Pala Bch./Boca Raton


--------------------------------------------(Persons)------------------------------------------

Spanish Origin 580,994 64,199 40,315 13,366 25,972 28,505
Black 269,670 84,834 111,258 156,575 90,595 76,264

Greek 4,685 1,248 3,960 1,201 910 1,603

Italian 34,742 18,849 73,092 8,327 14,919 23,405
Portuguse 1.795 670 1.536 458 645

Total 891,886 169,800 230,161 179,927 133,041 130, 464

"The Tampa metropolitan area includes only Hillsborough County.
Source: 1980 Census of Population.










Previous research indicated that these areas were likely candidates for

relatively high goat meat consumption, and were selected because of this

characteristic. Thus, the following findings should be judged as

indicative of relatively high goat meat consumption areas rather than

being typical of the state as a whole.


FINDINGS


Availability of Goat Meat


Of the 164 meat wholesalers interviewed, only 24 firms or 15 percent

were currently selling goat meat (Table 2). Seven percent had previously

sold goat meat, and 78 percent had never sold goat meat. Of the 12 firms

that had discontinued selling goat meat, half mentioned insufficient

demand as the primary reason for quitting (Table 3). Nearly as many, 42

percent, mentioned supply problems. Managers of one-third of the firms

that had discontinued goat meat sales said that cheaper substitutes,

primarily mutton, had reduced the demand for goat meat. The manager of

one firm indicated that he discontinued goat meat because he preferred to

handle fresh goat meat, but the only product that was consistently

available to him was frozen carcasses.


Product Form


Estimated goat carcass weights handled by the meat wholesalers in

the study areas ranged from 25 to 45 pounds and averaged 36.4 pounds.

Ninety-three percent was purchased in whole carcass form (Table 4). Four

percent of the total volume was purchased in the form of live animals and

saddles (i.e., the hind quarters and loin section of the carcass)

constituted about three percent.
















Table 2.--Proportion of meat wholesalers selling goat meat, by market area.


Currently
Market Area Selling Goat Previously Sold Never Sold Totals

(Number) (Percent) (Number) (Percent) (Number) (Percent) (Number) (Percent)

Miami 13 18 6 8 52 73 71 100

Ft. Lauderdale 2 5 4 11 32 84 38 100

Tampa 9 16 2 4 44 80 55 100

Totals 24 15 12 7 128 78 164 100











Table 3.--Past sellers' reasons for quitting.


Reason Number Percent

Insufficient Demand 6 50

Supply Problems 5 42

Cheaper Substitutesa 4 33

Product Form 1 8

All four respen dts said mutton vas much cheaper and felt that
buyers commonly substituted mutton for goat.


Table 4.--Product forms usually bought by wholesalers.


Form Percent Pounds

Whole Carcasses 93 782,528

Live Animals 4 36,160

Saddles 3 21,625

Total 100 840,313










Over half the total volume was cut into primals before resale.

Forty-one percent of the volume was resold in the whole carcass form

(Table 5). Saddles constituted less than three percent of volume, and

about three percent was sold in cubes or diced. About one-half of one

percent was sold as half carcasses. Ninety-three percent of the whole-

salers' sales were comprised of frozen meat (Table 6). Only seven

percent of the total volume was sold fresh.


Table 5.--Product forms sold by wholesalers.


Form Percent Pounds

Primals 53.1 442,466

Whole 41.2 343,252

Diced 2.6 21,275

Saddles 2.6 21,625

Half 0.5 3.900

Total 100.0 832,518


Table 6.--Proportions of goat meat sold frozen versus fresh, by whole-
salers.


Product Form Pounds Percent

Frozen 782,760 93

Fresh 55,438 7

Total 838,198 100


Wholesale Volume


Annual goat meat sales volume estimates were obtained from 23 of the

firms currently selling goat meat. Firms were classified as large,











medium or small based upon their

with goat meat sales in excess

Medium-size firms were defined

pounds per year. Firms selling

tuted the small category.


annual goat meat sales (Table 7). Firms

of 100,000 pounds were defined as large.

as those selling from 10,000 to 99,999

less than 10,000 pounds per year consti-


Table 7.--number of wholesale firms selling goat meat, by firm size and
market area.


Sizea

Market Area Small Medium Large Total

Miami 7 2 3 12b

Tampa 5 3 1 9

Ft. Lauderdale 2 0 0 2

Totalb 14 5 4 23b

aSize categories were based upon annual sales volume as follows:
small (less than 10,000 pounds), medium (10,000 to 99,999 pounds) and
large (more than 100,000 pounds).

One firm in Miami did not report volume.


Combined goat meat sales by 20 wholesalers was approximately 842,500

pounds for 1986 (Table 8). Reported volume totals do not include

wholesalers buying from other local wholesalers to avoid double counting.

Three firms in the large category represented only 15 percent of the

firms handling goat meat. However, they accounted for 82 percent of the

total product volume. Four medium-size firms represented 20 percent of

the firms and 11 percent of the product volume. The 13 firms in the

small category comprised 65 percent of the firms handling goat meat, but

accounted for only seven percent of the annual product volume.










Table 8.--Annual goat meat sales, by volume categories.a


Volume

Average Total Per Percent
Volume Category Firms Per Firm Category of Total

(Number) (Percent) (----------Pounds-----------)

Small
(<10,000 Ibs.) 13 65 4,410 57,330 7

Medium
(10,000-99,999 Ibs.) A 20 23,155 92,620 11

Large
(100,000+ Ibs.) 3 15 230,833 692,499 82

Total 20 100 -- 842,449 100


aDoes not include brokers or firms
meat from other local firms.


which purchase all of their goat


On the average, large firms each sold about 230,800 pounds of goat

meat in 1986, or about 4,400 pounds per week (Table 8). In contrast, the

medium-size firms averaged only 23,150 pounds per year, or 445 pounds per

week and the small firms averaged slightly over 4,400 pounds per year, or

only 65 pounds per week. These figures indicate that goat meat sales in

the study areas are concentrated in the hands of very few large volume

firms. Further, most of the large firms are located in the Miami area.


Wholesale Prices


Prices paid for goat meat by wholesalers varied considerably. The

largest variation occurred among small firms. Small wholesalers reported

prices ranging from $0.64 to $2.00 per pound, compared with $0.95 to

$1.50 by medium-size firms and $0.90 to $1.00 by large firms (Table 9).














Table 9.--Wholesalers' purchase and re-sale prices for goat meat, by firm size.


Average Purchase Average Sale
Market Purchase Price Sale Price Average
Level Price Range Price Range Mark-Up N

--------------Dollars Per Pound-------------) (Percent) (Number)

Wholesale:

Small 1.06 .64 2.00 1.61 .76 4.50 34 13

Medium 1.19 .95 1.50 1.64 1.15 2.19 27 4

Large .96 .90 1.00 1.07 .96 1.14 10 3

Mark-up is expressed as the percent of sale price.










The weighted average purchase price for all firms was slightly under

$0.95 per pound.

Prices received by wholesalers for goat meat were also highly

variable. Sale prices ranged from $0.76 to $4.50 per pound for the small

firms, $1.15 to $2.19 fur the medium-size firms, and $0.96 to $1.14 for

large-size firms. The higher prices reported by small- and medium-size

firms were for small quantities that were sold directly to consumers (in

effect, retail). Overall, the weighted average sale price was just under

$1.09 per pound. Thus, the weighted average mark-up was 15 percent for

all wholesale firms.


Origin of Supply


On a total volume basis, about 94.5 percent of the goat meat

received was from out of state, with just under four percent being

obtained within Florida (Table 10). Slightly less than two percent was

imported.


Table 10.--Origin of wholesale goat meat supplies.


Origin Volume

(Pounds) (Percent)

Other States 775,179 94.5

Florida 31,095 3.8

Imports 14,113 1.7

Totala 820,387 100.0

aThe total does not include the combined volume of 22,062 pounds for
respondents that either did not know the origin of goat meat supplies or
did not answer this question.







12


Ten of the firms receive their supplies of goat meat exclusively

from other states, while two firms buy exclusively within Florida and two

exclusively from foreign sources (Table 11). Three firms received

supplies through various combinations of in-state, out-of-state and

foreign sources. Three bought exclusively from other local wholesalers.


Table 11.--Wholesale supply sources.


Sourea


Number


Other states 10

Florida 2

Foreign countries 2

Florida and other states 1

Other states and foreign countries 1

Florida, foreign countries and
other states 1

Local wholesalers 3

No answer or did not know 4

Total 24


Texas was the most frequently cited out-of-state

by seven firms (Table 12). Iowa was mentioned twice,

Colorado, Illinois, Georgia and a vague "mid-west"

identified once. New Zealand was identified twice as

while Australia and Jamaica were each identified once.


source, mentioned

while New Mexico,

source were each

a foreign source,











Table 12.--Out-of-state sources of goat meat as reported by wholesalers.


State/Area Number

Domestic:
Texas 7
Iowa 2
New Mexico 1
Colorado 1
Illinois 1
Georgia 1
Midwest 1
Foreign:
New Zealand 2
Australia 1
Jamaica 1


Distribution Channels


Approximately 52 percent of the goat meat volume reported by the

firms in this study went to retail grocers. About one-third was sold to

restaurants, and ten percent went to varied foodservice operations

including ships, labor camps, and jobbers that also serve the foodservice

trade. The remaining six percent went to individuals (Table 13).


Marketing Problems


Firms currently selling goat meat were questioned about marketing

problems. Seventy percent of those responding experienced at least one

marketing problem (Table 14). Half the respondents indicated problems

with limited or unavailable supplies. Complaints of limited supplies

came predominantly from large- and medium-size firms. Three mentioned

limited demand. Oversupply, fatty carcasses, high price, and lack of

fresh product (as opposed to frozen) were factors mentioned by other

firms.






















Table 13.--Wholesale distribution of goat meat.

Outlet

Size Grocery Restaurants Individuals Othera lotal

(Percent) (Pounds) (Percent) (Pounds) (Percent) (Pounds) (Percent) (Pounds) (Percent)b (Pounds)
Small 45 19,950 39 17,484 16 7,258 0 0 100 44,692
medium 60 55,120 14 13,000 26 24,500 0 0 100 92,620

Large 51 33L125 34 237.975 A 14.00 11 8 100 692.500
Total 52 428,195 32 268,459 6 46,158 10 87,000 100 829,812

aOther includes ship lines, institutions, farm labor camps, and jobbers that serve a wide variety of
foodservice outlets.
percent totals may not sum to 100 due to rounding.











Table 14.--Problems associated with goat meat, as reported by whole-
salers.


Problem Number Percent


Supply Problems:

Product frequently unavailable,
limited supplies 10 50

Oversupply 1 5

Other Problems:

Limited demand 3 15

Fatty carcasses 1 5

Product too expensive 1 5

Frozen competes with fresh 1 5

No Problems 6 30

a b

percentages are based upon 20 respondents.

Columns are not summed because of multiple responses.


Ethnic Origin of Consumers


Wholesalers selling goat meat were asked for their opinions as to

the ethnic origin of goat meat consumers. Haitians were mentioned by 13

of 22 firms responding to the question as being important consumers of

goat meat (Table 15). Jamaicans and other Caribbean islanders were

mentioned by eight and four firms, respectively. Asians were thought to

be significant consumers of goat meat by six firms. Only three firms

responding to this question mentioned Cubans as important goat meat

consumers. Mexicans and other Latins were cited by three and five firms,











respectively. Other ethnic groups mentioned included American blacks and

Greeks, each mentioned by three firms.


Table 15.--Ethnic origin of goat meat consumers, as perceived by sellers.


Ethnic Group Number Percenta

Caribbean:

Baitian 13 59

Jamaican 8 36

Other 4 18

Asian Indian 6 27

Latin:

Cuban 3 14

Mexican 3 14

Other 5 22

American Black 3 14

Greek 3 14

Other 4 18

percentages are based upon 22 respondents. Percentages are not
summed because of multiple responses.

bIncludes Italian, middle-eastern, and rural southerners.


Seasonality of Sales


Three-fourths of all wholesalers carrying goat meat sell it through-

out the year (Table 16). These year 'round sellers include all medium-

and large-size firms and 60 percent of small-size firms. Forty percent

of the firms in the small-size category handle goat meat only on a

seasonal basis.










Table 16.--Firms selling goat meat continuously versus seasonally.


Size Continuously Seasonally Total

(Number) (Percent) (Number) (Percent) (Number) (Percent)

Small 9 60 6 40 15 100

Medium 5 100 0 0 5 100

Large 4 100 0 0 4 100

Total 18 75 6 25 24 100


Although most sold goat meat year 'round, about two-thirds of all

wholesalers (including all those in the large category) identified

seasonal fluctuations in consumer demand. Generally, November through

March was identified as the peak demand season (Table 17). This time

period encompasses several important religious and non-religious holidays

(i.e., Thanksgiving, Christmas and Easter) and also the peak period of

seasonal farm labor.


Table 17.--Months in which wholesale demand for goat meat is greatest.


Month Number Percenta

January 10 45
February 10 45
March 13 59
April 2 9
May 0 0
June 0 0
July 1 5
August 0 0
September 1 5
October 3 14
November 9 41
December 12 55
No particular month 7 32

percentages are based upon 22 responses; they are not summed
because of multiple responses.










CONCLUSIONS


Total goat meat sales in the three major market areas identified in

this study amounted to approximately 842,500 pounds per year. Even

though these areas are thought to have the highest per capital consumption

in the state, annual per capital goat meat consumption as derived from

these estimated wholesale sales is still only 0.26 pounds. Given the

average carcass weights of 36.4 pounds reported by firms interviewed, the

commercial market in these three areas requires approximately 23,150 head

of goat per year. Even if the non-commercial, direct-to-consumer sales

are substantially larger than those of the commercial market, it is

doubtful whether per capital consumption amounts to one pound per capital

per year. In contrast, 1985 per capital consumption figures for beef,

pork, chicken, fish and turkey were 106.9, 66.0, 57.4, 14.5 and 11.9

pounds, respectively. Per capital consumption of lamb and mutton amounted

to 1.6 pounds (Table 18).

Based upon the total number of firms selling goat meat in the three

market areas, it is obvious that distribution of goat meat is very

limited. Further, when analyzing the total quantity of goat meat

handled, it is clear that consumption is limited, even among ethnic

populations. Also, the ethnic populations thought to be consuming

significant quantities are generally on the lowest rung of the socio-

economic ladder, which may make it more difficult to promote among non-

ethnic populations.











Table 18.--U.S. per capital consumption of selected meat items.


Per Capita
Type of Meat Consumption

(Pounds)a

Beef 106.9

Pork 66.0

Chicken 57.4

Fish 14.5

Turkey 11.9

Lamb/Mutton 1.6

Goat 0.26b

aCarcass weight.

bper capital figures for goat meat are estimates for the three market
areas in Florida. This figure is probably much higher than for the U.S.
as a whole.

Source: Bunch, Karen L., 1985.


Another point to consider is the low price of wholesale goat meat

relative to current live prices. For example, a live goat weighing about

75 pounds will bring about $45.00 ($0.60 per pound) to the farmer in

north Florida. Assuming a dressing percentage of 50 percent, the carcass

weight will be 37.5 pounds, resulting in a carcass cost of $1.20 per

pound. If a $10.00 per head slaughtering charge is assumed, the

slaughter charge amounts to $0.27 per pound. Thus, the total carcass

cost is $1.47 per pound, exclusive of transportation and handling

charges, substantially more than wholesalers are currently paying.

Working backwards from current wholesale prices of $0.95 per pound and

assuming a slaughter charge of $0.27 per pound, the resulting carcass










cost is $0.68 per pound. Again, assuming a 50 percent dressing per-

centage, the live weight value of the animal is $0.34 per pound or

approximately $25.50 per head. The critical question is, "Can north

Ylorida producers compete with out-of-state suppliers for the commercial

market?"

Florida producers' prospects for success will be enhanced if demand

and subsequently wholesale prices are increased. Market development will

be the key. Mainstream consumers must be exposed to the product, and

convenient product forms must be developed. A live goat, delivered via a

gooseneck trailer to a street corner in Miami, is not exactly a con-

venience food item. Pre-cooked, or at least properly packaged, products

must be developed for the consumer and for the foodservice trade. The

foodservice trade and consumers will require education as to the merits

of goat meat. Foodservice outlets are probably the one best method of

expanding the market at relatively low cost. Because the typical middle

class American consumer is basically unfamiliar with the product,

foodservice outlets, particularly restaurants, can prepare the product

correctly and offer a tasty alternative to conventional meat products for

American consumers.

In conclusion, Florida goat producers must not lose sight of the

fact that they have to compete with out-of-state suppliers. By taking an

active role in market development activities, and by becoming more effi-

cient. Florida producers can become more competitive.






21


REFERENCES


Bunch, Karen L. Food Consumption, Prices and Expenditures: 1985.
United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
Statistical Bulletin Number 749.

Bureau of Commerce. General Social and Economic Characteristics:
Florida, 1980 Census of Population. United States Department of
Commerce. July 1983.

Locascio, J. David and Robert L. Degner. Opinions and Attitudes of Chain
Supermarket Representatives Toward Goat Meat. Staff Report 14,
Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, Food and Resource
Economics Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville. May 1988.




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