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Title: Illustrated key to the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the Microlaimoidea and Desmodoroidea (Nematoda: Chromadorida: Chromadorina)
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Title: Illustrated key to the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the Microlaimoidea and Desmodoroidea (Nematoda: Chromadorida: Chromadorina)
Alternate Title: Bulletin 890 ; Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
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Language: English
Creator: Keppner, Edwin J.
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: July, 1994
Copyright Date: 1994
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Volume ID: VID00001
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    Main
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    Back Matter
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        Page 23
    Back Cover
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Full Text


July 1994 Bulletin 890 (Tech.)





Illustrated Key to the Genera of Free-living
Marine Nematodes of the Microlaimoidea
and Desmodoroidea
(Nematoda: Chromadorida: Chromadorina)


Edwin J. Keppner and Armen C. Tarjan












i,






University of Florida ,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Joseph C. Joyce, Acting Dean for Research
TOavERsnru eL~'2A L:^





































890
SCIENCE
LIBARY



















Edwin J. Keppner, National Marine Fisheries Service, Department of Commerce, 4406 Garrison Road, Panama City, FL 32407;
Armen C. Tarian, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0611.








Contents

A abstract ........................................................................................... . ............. 1
Introduction ...................................................................................... . ........... 1
Acknowledgments .......................................................................................... 1
References Cited......................................................... ................................. 1
Use of the Key ...................................................................................................... 1
List of Genera Included and Corresponding Figure Number.............................. 2
Flow Charts of Taxa Included in the Key ......................................... ............. 3
Key to the Genera of the Microlaimoidea and Desmodoroidea.......................... 4
Illustration Sources.......................................................................................... 19
References from Which Illustrations Were Redrawn....................................... 20























i









Abstract Andrassy, I.
1976. Evolution as the basis for the systematiza-
An illustrated key to 65 genera of free-living tion of nematodes. Akademiai Kiado,
marine nematodes of the superfamilies Micro- Budapest, 288 p.
laimoidea and Desmodoroidea (Nematoda:
Chromadorida: Chromadorina) is given. Illustra- Gerlach, S. A. and Riemann, F.
tions are almost invariably limited to the heads 1973. The Bremerhaven check-list of aquatic
and caudal regions of the included genera, because nematodes. Part 1. Veroff. Inst. Meeresforsch.
those are the regions of the body most pertinent for Bremerhaven, Suppl. 4, 404 p.
identification. Specific anatomical features are
illustrated to facilitate use of the key. Hope, W. D. and Murphy, D. G.
1972. A taxonomic heirarchy and checklist of the
Introduction genera and higher taxa of marine nematodes.
Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 137:1-101.
This is the third in a series of keys to the groups
of the free-living marine nematodes. The purpose Inglis, W. G.
of these keys, along with the keys provided by 1983. An out-line classification of the Phylum
Tarjan (1980) and Platt and Warwick (1983), is to Nematoda. Aust. J. Zool. 31:243-255.
provide students and other interested persons with
a tool to begin the identification of free-living Lorenzen, S.
marine nematodes. 1973. Die families Epsilonematidae (Nematodes).
Hope and Murphy (1972), Gerlach and Riemann Mikrofauna Meeresbodens 25:1-86.
(1973), Andrassy (1976), Lorenzen (1981), and Lorenzen S
Inglis (1983) have published classifications of free- 1981. Entwurf eines phylogenetischen Systems
living marine nematodes. Platt and Warwick (1988) der freilebenden Nematoden. Verbff. Inst.
provided descriptions and figures for the species of Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, Suppl. 7, 472 p.
chromadorids reported from Britain.
The key presented herein is not intended to Platt, H. M. & Warwick, R. M.
reflect phylogenetic relationships. It follows the 1983. Free-living marine nematodes. Part 1.
classification of Lorenzen (1981) with the exception British Enoplids. Cambridge Univ. Press,
that the Ceramonematidae are included with the Cambridge, 307 p.
Desmodoroidea. The key presented herein
includes 65 genera in the suborder Chromadorina, Platt, H. M. & Warwick, R. M.
superfamilies Desmodoroidea (including the 1988. Free-living marine nematodes. Part 2.
Ceramonematidae) and Microlaimoidea. British Chromadorids. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. W.
The key to the genera of the Epsilonematidae is Backhuys, New York, 502 p.
based primarily upon that given by Lorenzen Taran, A. C.
(1973), and the key to the genera of the family 1980. An illustrated guide to the marine nema-
Draconematidae is modified from that presented by todes. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Florida,
Allen and Noffsinger (1978). Gainesville, 135 p.

Acknowledgments Use of the key
We express our sincere appreciation to Dr. G. C. The key is constructed in couplets with Roman
Smart, Jr., University of Florida for his painstaking Numerals followed by a capital letter A or B.
review of this manuscript. We are also indebted to Couplet numbers and lower case letters in boldface
Dr. R. P. Esser of the Division of Plant Industry,
Dr. P. Esser of the Division of Plant Industry, type on the far-right margin of the page refer to the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer location of related lower-ranked taxa. When one
Affairs and Dr. K. B. Nguyenofthe University of arrives at a family or subfamily name, e.g. couplet
Florida for their review and helpful comments. 5. A. Microlaimidae, the genera within that taxon

References cited follow immediately in subcouplets designated by
lower-case letters on the left indented margin, e.g
Allen, M. W. & Noffsinger, E. couplet 5. A. a Bolbolaimus. The bold lower case
M. 1978. A revision of the marine nematodes of letters on the right margin lead to the next choice
the superfamily Draconematoidea Filipjev, 1918 of that subcouplet, e.g. 5. A. a. b. When a genus is
(Nematoda: Draconematina). Univ. Calif. Publ.
Zool. Vol. 109:1-133.


1









divided into subgenera, they follow the genus with Illustrations used in the key were redrawn from
subsubcouplets designated by double lower case published references. In some cases, portions of the
letters in the left twice indented margin. The bold anatomy shown on the drawings are labelled or
double lower case letters in the right margin lead to emphasized with ink; in other cases, pertinent ana-
the next choice of the subsubcouplet, e.g. couplet 9. tomical details have been deleted to better portray
A. d. aa. bb. The number or letter in parentheses the structures of interest. Credit is given for each
on the left-hand margin after the number or letter illustration used. Since this key is proposed for
introducing each couplet allows one to work back- non-profit educational purposes, it is not considered
ward in the key. Numbers in parentheses within to be an infringement of the United States Revised
the couplets refer to figures. Copywrite Law.





List of genera included and corresponding figure number

Genus Figure Genus Figure

Akanthepsilonema 76 Metadasynemella 25
Acanthopharyngoides 30 Metadesmodora -
Acanthopharynx 31 Metaglochinema
Aponchium 8 Metepsilonema 71
Aponema 15 Microlaimus 2,9
Apenodraconema Molgolaimus 13,16
Archepsilonema Monoposthia 5,17,20,21
Bathyepsilonema 75 Monoposthioides 22,23
Bolbolaimus 10 Notochaetosoma 83
Calomicrolaimus 11 Nudora 19
Catanema 43 Onyx 57
Cephalochaetosoma 86 Paradesmodora -
Ceramonema 4 Paradraconema 80
Chromaspirina 56,60 Parallelocoilas 53
Crassolaimus 14 Paramicrolaimus 12
Cygnonema 87 Perepsilonema 68,69
Dasynemella 24 Polysigma 55,59
Dasynemoides 26 Prochaetosoma 88
Desmodora 3,34-41 Pselionema 28
Draconactus 89 Pseudometachromadora 54
Draconema 81 Pseudodesmodora 33
Dracogalerus 85 Pseudonchus 29
Dracognomus 84 Pterygonema 27
Dracograllus 78,79,82 Rhinema 18
Echinodesmodora 42 Sygmophoranema 58
Epsilonema 1,72 Spirinia 48-51
Eubostrichus 46 Squanema 45
Glochinema 70 Stilbonema 44
Ixonema Stygodesmodora 32
Keratonema 77 Synonema 7
Leptepsilonema 74 Triepsilonema 73
Leptonemella 47 Xennella 6
Metachromadora 52,61-67





2









Flow charts of taxa Chr
Chromadorida
included in the key I
Chromadorina
I
Microlaimoidea

Xennellidae Aponchiidae Microlaimidae
I I I
Xennella Aponchium Aponema
Synonema Bolbolaimus
Calomicrolaimus
Crassolaimus
Ixonema
Microlaimus
Molgolaimus
Paramicrolaimus


Chromadorida
I
Chromadorina
I
Desmodoroidea

I I I I
Epsilonematidae Draconematidae Monoposthiidae Ceramonematidae
I I I I
Archepsilonema Apenodraconema Monoposthia Ceramonema
Bathyepsilonema Cephalochaetosoma Monoposthioides Dasynemella
Epsilonema Cygnonema Nudora Dasynemoides
Glochinema Draconactus Rhinema Metadasynemella
Keratonema Draconema Pselionema
Leptepsilonema Dracogalerus Pterygonema
Metaglochinema Dracognomus
Metepsilonema Dracograllus
Perepsilonema Notochaetosoma
Triepsilonema Paradraconema
Akanthepsilonema Prochaetosoma


Desmodoridae
I I I I
Desmodorinae Stilbonematinae Spirininae Pseudonchinae
I I I I
Acanthopharyngoides Catanema Chromaspirina Pseudonchus
Acanthopharynx Eubostrichus Metachromadora
Desmodora Leptonemella Onyx
Echinodesmodora Squanema Parallelocoilas
Metadesmodora Stilbonema Polysigma
Paradesmodora Pseudometachromadora
Pseudodesmodora Sigmophoranema
Stygodesmodora Spirinia


3










Abbreviations used in the key

A amphid LA lateral alae
AS acanthiform setae LS longitudinal striation
AT adhesion tubes P cuticular plates
BC buccal cavity PB pharyngeal bulb
CP caudal gland papilla PR cuticular perforations
CS cephalic sensilla PS precloacal supplement
D denticles R cuticular rdges
ES esophagus S stilt setae
G gubernaculum SCS subcephalic sensilla
GA apophysis ofgubernaculum SP spine
H helmet T teeth
V "r'-shaped marking



Key to the genera of the Microlaimoidea Micoletzky, 1922 and Desmodoroidea Filipjev, 1922.
Microlaimoidea and Desmodoroidea Definition: Cuticle with transverse striations, cuticular punctations
absent. Head often with a helmet. Amphid circular to spiral. Rugae absent from buccal cavity.

1. A. Body with characteristic sigmoid shape (1); ventral rows of specialized spines present
(adhesion tubes and stilt setae) (1AT) .................................................................................... 11
B. Body not characteristically sigmoid-shaped; ventral rows of specialized spines absent ............. 2
2(1). A. Amphid a thin-walled (2A) circle or unispiral; helmet indistinct or apparently absent ............. 3
B. Amphid variable; a thick-walled spiral of 1.0-2.0 turns (3A), loop-shaped to hook-shaped
(4A); a small circle (SA); or a multispiral (41A); helmet distinct (3H) or indistinct .................. 6
3(2). A. Head mitriform (sharply tapered), set off from cervical region by a distinct groove (6)
..................... Xennellidae Cobb, 1920 ...................................................... Xennella Cobb, 1920
B. Head not mitriform, not set off from cervical region by a distinct groove .................................. 4
4(3). A. Buccal cavity characteristically lily-shaped (2BC); teeth usually present; precloacal
supplements in male absent or papilliform ....................................... ..................................... 5
B. Buccal cavity not as above (7BC); precloacal supplements papilliform or cup-shaped
in m ale ....................................................................................................... Aponchidae Cobb, 1920
a. Precloacal supplements of male large, cup-shaped (8PS) .......... Aponchium Cobb, 1920
Precloacal supplements papilliform.............................................. Synonema Cobb, 1920
5(4). A. Cephalic sensilla in three distinct circles (9CS); buccal cavity strongly cuticularized
with prominent teeth; esophagus with posterior pyriform or oval bulb without strongly
cuticularized lumen............................ Microlaimidae De Coninck & Stekhoven, 1933 (in part)
a. Pharyngeal bulb well-developed (9PB); male gubernaculum with dorso-caudally
directed apophyses .................................................................... Bolbolaimus Cobb, 1920
Pharyngeal bulb weakly developed (10PB); male gubernaculum without apophyses ... b
b(a). Caudal glands with single, common opening to exterior ............................................. c
Caudal glands with separate openings to exterior.................... Ixonema Lorenzen, 1971
c(b). Cervical region of body elongated; amphids located far posterior to cephalic
sensilla (11A) ........................................................... Calomicrolaimus Lorenzen, 1976
Cervical region not elongated; amphids located close to cephalic sensilla (2A)........... d
d(c). Males with distinct precloacal supplements (12PS) ... Paramicrolaimus Wieser, 1954
Males without distinct precloacal supplements .................. Microlaimus De Man, 1880
B. First two circles of cephalic sensilla greatly reduced almost indistinct; third
circle of four setiform sensilla (2CS); buccal cavity weakly cuticularized;
esophagus with spherical to oval posterior bulb with strongly cuticularized
lumen (13ES) .................................... Microlaimidae De Coninck & Stekhoven, 1933 (in part)



4









BCS T



AT-- A






4



IA A





7 8 9 IbA es
BC C P S
r ) / U /


sc 13 S l
PB





5









a. Anterior part of esophagus strongly cuticularized (14ES) .... Crassolaimus Kreis, 1929
Anterior part of esophagus not strongly cuticularized ............................................. b
b(a). Amphids strongly cuticularized; gubernaculum of male with dorso-caudally
directed apophyses (15GA); excretory pore at level of
nerve ring....................................................................................... Aponem a Jensen, 1978
Amphids weakly cuticularized; male gubernaculum without apophyses
(16G); excretory pore anterior to nerve ring ...................... Molgolaimus Ditlevsen, 1921
6(2). A. Amphid thick-walled, loop-shaped to hook-shaped (4A), or a small circle (5A); cuticle
with longitudinal rows of ridges (4R) or longitudinal rows of "V'-shaped
m arkings (17V ) .......................................................................................................................... 7
B. Amphid a thick walled spiral of 1.0-2.0 turns (3A & 30A) or a thinner-walled
multispiral (46A); cuticle without longitudinal rows of ridges or "V'-shaped
markings ............................................................................. Desmodoridae Filipjev, 1922 ........... 8
7(6). A. Amphid a small, median circle (17A); cuticle with longitudinal rows of'"V-shaped
markings (17V) ............................................................................ Monoposthiidae Filipjev, 1934
a. Spicules and gubernaculum present (18S & 18G) ...................................... ............. b
Spicules absent; single gubernaculum present (21G) ................................................. c
b(a). Male gubernaculum sigmoid-shaped (18G); precloacal supplements
absent .................................................................................................. Rhinem a Cobb, 1920
Male gubernaculum almost straight (19G); two precloacal
supplements present ........................................................................... Nudora Cobb, 1920
c(a). "V"-shaped cuticular markings begin anterior to or just posterior to amphid (20V);
male gubernaculum straight to curved at tip (21G)............ Monoposthia De Man, 1889
"V"-shaped cuticular markings begin far posterior to amphid (22V),
male gubernaculum arcuate (23G)................................. Monoposthioides Hopper, 1963
B. Amphid loop-shaped to hook-shaped (4A); cuticle with longitudinal rows of ridges;
longitudinal rows of "V"-shaped markings absent ................... Ceramonematidae Cobb, 1933
a. Cephalic sensilla 10 in number....................................................... ............................ b
Cephalic sensilla 4 in num ber ............................................................................................. e
b(a). Cephalic sensilla in two circles of 6 + 4 (24CS) ....................................................... c
Cephalic sensilla in single circle of 10 (25CS) ...... Metadasynemella De Coninck, 1942
c(b). Cuticle with 10 longitudinal ridges (26)....................... Dasynemoides Chitwood, 1936
Cuticle with 8 longitudinal ridges .................................................... ......................... d
d(c). Body with more than 200 annules; with small vacuoles around entire annule
(24) .............................................................................................. D asynem ella Cobb, 1933
Body with less than 200 annules; without small vacuoles around entire
annule .............. ......................................................................... Ceram onem a Cobb, 1920
e(a). Helmet distinctly narrower than cervical region (27H); about
250-325 body annules; male gubernaculum with dorsally directed
apophysis .............................................................................. Pterygonema Gerlach, 1964
Helmet not narrower than cervical region (28H); about 70-280 body annules;
apophysis of male gubernaculum not dorsally directed ............ Pselionema Cobb, 1933
8(6). A. Buccal cavity barrel-shaped (29BC), in two parts with denticles
between anterior and posterior part and at anterior
end (29D) ...................................... Pseudonchinae Cobb, 1920 ...... Pseudonchus Cobb, 1920
B. Buccal cavity not barrel-shaped; teeth present or absent ........................................ .............. 9
9(8). A. Helmet well-developed; buccal cavity present; dorsal tooth present (3T); cuticle
with coarse striations (3), not covered with algae when living..... Desmodorinae Filipjev, 1922
a. Esophageal bulb greatly elongate, divided into three chambers.................................... b
Esophageal bulb round to pyriform, sometimes divided into three chambers ................ c
b(a). Head with large plates at posterior end of helmet
(30P) ................................................................. Acanthopharyngoides Chitwood, 1936
Head without large plates at posterior end of helmet
(31) ................................................................................... Acanthopharynx Marion, 1870



6










10 S 13
pe ps--- '
I 12 14





A ES
PS--..- l /11 Sj
ES
15 16 17 18









G-
G

19 20










0 23









7









c(a). Amphid either not surrounded or less than half surrounded by cuticular
striations (3A ) ............................................................................................................... d
Amphid either completely or more than half surrounded by cuticular striations
(32A ) .............................................................................................................................. e
d(c). Amphids situated on a cuticularized plaque (33A) .. Pseudodesmodora Boucher, 1975
Amphids not situated on a cuticularized plaque
(3A) ......................................................... Desmodora De Man, 1889 (Seven subgenera)
aa. Amphid sausage-shaped with 1-2 spirals (34A) ................................................ bb
Amphid multispiralled (35A) ..................................... .................................. ff
bb(aa). Tail tip smooth, without perforations (36) .................................................... cc
Tail tip not smooth, perforations present (37PR).......................................... ee
cc(bb). Helmet wider than long, anterior part set-off as a large
labial capsule (38) ................................................................ ....................... dd
Helmet longer than wide, anterior part not set-off as a
large labial capsule (34).......subgenus...................... Desmodora De Man, 1889
dd(cc). Cephalic sensilla less than 0.5 head diameter long
(38)...............subgenus ................................... Pseudochromadora Daday, 1899
Cephalic sensilla greater than 0.5 head diameter long
(39CS)............subgenus............................................... Bolbonema Cobb, 1920
ee(bb). Helmet wider than long with one circle of subcephalic
sensilla (38).............subgenus ............................ Xenodesmodora Wieser, 1951
Helmet longer than wide with 3-5 circles of subcephalic
sensilla (40)............subgenus ....................................... Croconema Cobb, 1920
ff(aa). Helmet wider than long (41); subcephalic sensilla
absent..............subgenus................................................... Zalonema Cobb, 1920
Helmet as long as or longer than wide (35); eight subcephalic
sensilla present............subgenus............................. Desmodorella Cobb, 1933
e(c). Amphids situated on cuticularized plaques (32A) ....................................... ............. f
Amphids not situated on cuticularized plaques .......................................... .............. g
f(e). Amphids completely surrounded by cuticular striations
(32A) .................................................................................. Stygodesmodora Blome, 1982
Amphids not surrounded by cuticular striations ....... Metadesmodora Stekhoven, 1942
g(e). Amphid surrounded by cuticular striations (42A)....... Echinodesmodora Blome, 1982
Amphid not completely surrounded by cuticular
striations.................................................................... Paradesmodora Stekhoven, 1950
B. Helmet normal or reduced; buccal cavity present or greatly reduced; teeth
present or absent; cuticle generally with fine transverse striations; cuticle of
live specimens covered with bacteria in some, absent in others ............................................ 10
10(9). A. Helmet normal; buccal cavity extremely reduced; one to two circles of
subcephalic sensilla present on nonstriated part of head; cuticle of live specimens
covered with bacteria ............................................................. Stilbonematinae Chitwood, 1936
a. Pharyngeal bulb present (43PB) ................................................. Catanema Cobb, 1920
Pharyngeal bulb absent (44).......................................................................................... b
b(a). Amphid situated on a cuticularized plaque (45A) .................. Squanema Gerlach, 1963
Amphid not situated on a cuticularized plaque ....................................................... c
c(b). H elm et present (44) ...................................................................................................... d
Helmet absent (46) ................................................................. Eubostrichus Greef, 1869
d(c). Cuticle thick with coarse transverse striations (44)................. Stilbonema Cobb, 1920
Cuticule thin with fine transverse striations (47) ............... Leptonemella Cobb, 1920
B. Helmet reduced (48); buccal cavity weak to strongly developed; teeth prominent or
reduced; subcephalic sensilla absent from nonstriated part of head; cuticle not
covered with bacteria in life ............................................... Spirininae Gerlach & Murphy, 1965
a. Buccal cavity without teeth or teeth minute
(49BC) ............................................................. Spirinia Gerlach, 1963 (Two subgenera)



8










"24 25 26








i "
27
28 29

H .









30 A A

/








9









aa. Tail conoid (50) with fine transverse striations ............
..........subgenus................................................................ Spirinia Gerlach, 1963
Tail narrower, more elongate, transverse striations more
coarsely developed (51)...........subgenus ........ Perspiria Wieser & Hopper, 1967
Buccal cavity with prominent teeth (52T) ..................................... ............. b
b(a). Walls of buccal cavity greatly elongate, parallel
(53BC) .............................................................................. Parallelocoilas Boucher, 1975
Walls of buccal cavity not greatly elongate, not parallel .............................................. c
c(b). Transverse cuticular striations very weak (54). Pseudometaehromadora Timm, 1952
Cuticular striations strong........................................................................................... d
d(c). Male precloacal supplements tubular (55PS)............................................. ............... e
Male precloacal supplements not tubular, usually conical or indistinct (56PS)............. g
e(d). Male precloacal supplements strongly cuticularized and "s"-shaped (55PS)................... f
Male precloacal supplements not as strongly cuticularized, weakly
"s"-shaped (57PS)..................................................................................... Onyx Cobb, 1891
f(e). Cephalic and subcephalic sensilla present (58) ......... Sigmophoranema (Cobb, 1933)
Only cephalic sensilla present (59).............................................. Polysigma Cobb, 1920
g(d). Posterior esophageal bulb weakly developed with weak cuticular lining
(60ES) ............................................................................... Chromaspirina Filipjev, 1918
Posterior esophageal bulb well-developed with strong cuticular lining
(61ES) ............................................. Metachromadora Filipjev, 1918 (Six subgenera)
aa. Precloacal supplements of male with three cuticularized parts, one
central and two lateral (62PS)......subgenus.... Chromadoropsis Filipjev, 1918
Male precloacal supplements narrow ducts (63PS), conical or indistinct........ bb
bb(aa). Somatic sensilla in 10 dense longitudinal
rows..............subgenus.................................................. Metonyx Chitwood, 1936
Somatic sensilla not in 10 dense longitudinal rows .......................................... cc
cc(bb). Head with distinct longitudinal striations
(64LS)..............subgenus .................................. Metachromadora Filipjev, 1918
Head without longitudinal striations ........................................... ........... ... dd
dd(cc). Posterior cephalic sensilla absent or short and stout; amphid situated
on a cuticularized plaque (65A) ..............................subgenus.............................
......................................................................... Metachromadoroides Timm, 1961
Posterior cephalic sensilla present, slender; amphids not situated on a
cuticularized plaque (66A) .............................................................................. ee
ee(dd). Lateral alae present (67LA)..............subgenus ..................... Neonyx Cobb, 1933
Lateral alae absent............subgenus ................ Bradylaimus Stekhoven, 1931
11(1). A. Greatest body width in anterior and posterior body areas (1); amphids spiral,
situated dorso-laterally (68A); cephalic adhesion tubes absent. ................... Epsilonematidae
a. Stilt setae present in adults (78S); subcephalic sensilla not situated in
close proximity to cephalic sensilla; body not constricted posteriorly ............................ b
Stilt setae absent; anterior four subcephalic sensilla in close proximity
to cephalic sensilla (68CS); body with distinct posterior constriction
(69) .................................................................................. Perepsilonema Lorenzen, 1973
b(a). Thick spines present on dorsal surface posterior to head (70SP); peribuccal
part of esophagus expanded........................................................................................ h
Thick spines absent on dorsal surface posterior to head; peribuccal part of
esophagus not expanded................................................................................................ c
c(b). Body distinctly epsilon-shaped; thinnest part of adult body 1.2-1.3 times less
than thickest part of body; stilt setae primarily located in region of vulva ................... d
Body not distinctly epsilon-shaped; thickest part of adult body at most
1.1-1.5 times as thick as the thinnest part of the midbody; stilt setae
not primarily located in vulvar region ........................... Archepsilonema Steiner, 1931
d(c). Adults with two subcephalic sensilla (71SCS) ................. Metepsilonema Steiner, 1927
Adults with six to eight subcephalic sensilla (72SCS) .................................................. e


10










334 35
34 >












37 38
38

36





PR 1 -9





40 41'
39

cs








11









e(d). Each caudal gland with a separate opening to exterior and located on a
papilla (73CP) ............................................................. Triepsilonema Decraemer, 1982
Caudal glands open through single pore not on a papilla ........................................... f
f(e). Adults with subcephalic sensilla anterior to amphid
(74SCS) .......................................................................... Leptepsilonema Clasing, 1983
Adults with subcephalic sensilla at level of, or posterior to, amphid ............................. g
g(f). Adults with four rows of stilt setae; esophagus without a metacorpus
(1) ............................................................................................. Epsilonem a Steiner, 1927
Adults with six rows of stilt setae; esophagus with a metacorpus
(75) .... ... .. .................... ........................................................ Bathyepsilonema Steiner, 1931
h(b). Thick spines begin about level of midbody and extend posteriorly
(76SP) ............................................ Akanthepsilonema Gourbault & Decraemer, 1991
Thick spines restricted to cervical region of body ...................................... ............... i
i(h) Stilt setae glandular, jointed at base (77).. Keratonema Gourbault & Decraemer, 1985
Stilt setae not glandular, not jointed at base ............................................................ j
j(i). Stilt setae in four subventral rows .................................... Glochinema Lorenzen, 1974
Stilt setae in five rows, one ventral and four
subventral .......................................... Metaglochinema Gourbault & Decraemer, 1985
B. Greatest body width usually in esophageal and midbody areas (78); amphids
elongate, loop-shaped to spiral (79A); cephalic adhesion tubes present
(79AT) ........................ Draconematidae ............................................. ......................... 12
12(11). A. Esophagus with swollen corpus and swollen basal bulb (78ES); buccal cavity
obscure, unarmed (80BC) ......................................................... Draconematinae Filipjev, 1918
a. Males and females with cephalic sublateral acanthiform setae on
rostrum (80AS); female tail without sublateral rows of posterior
adhesion tubes; males with or without preanal acanthiform or
corniform setae; if present, never located anterior to subventral
posterior adhesion tubes ............................. Paradraconema Allen & Noffsinger, 1978
Males and females usually without cephalic sublateral acanthiform
setae on rostrum; females with or without sublateral rows of posterior
adhesion tubes on tail, if acanthiform setae on rostrum, then female
tail always with sublateral rows of posterior adhesion tubes; males with
or without large corniform setae anterior to subventral posterior
adhesion tubes and preanally ......................................................................................... b
b(a). First 7-14 body annules posterior to rostrum much larger than succeeding
annules (81) ................................................................................ Draconema Cobb, 1913
First body annules posterior to rostrum not larger than succeeding annules
(82) .................................................................... Dracograllus Allen & Noffsinger, 1978
B. Corpus of esophagus cylindrical, sometimes with slight median swelling;
buccal cavity usually with dorsal tooth ......... Prochaetosomatinae Allen & Noffsinger, 1978
a. Buccal cavity collapsed or weakly developed, unarmed (83); cuticle very
thick, often obscuring internal structure ................................................................ b
Buccal cavity weak to well-developed, armed with small to large dorsal
tooth (84T); cuticle not very thick ..............................................................................
b(a). Cephalic adhesion tubes on posterior one-half of, and just
posterior to rostrum (83AT); rostrum cuticle 4-5 micrometers
thick ....................................................................... Notochaetosoma Irwin-Smith, 1918
Cephalic adhesion tubes on anterior one-half of rostrum (85AT);
rostrum cuticle 7-12 micrometers thick............ Dracogalerus Allen & Noffsinger, 1978
c(a). Amphids inverted "U"-shaped to spiral (85A); buccal cavity
well-developed (86BC); corpus of esophagus with small median swelling,
posterior bulb with cuticularized valve ................................................................ d
Amphids circular to loop-shaped (87A); buccal cavity weak to moderately
developed; corpus of esophagus with posterior bulb with or without
cuticularized valve......................................................................................................... e


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d(c). Amphid an inverted "U"-shape; 8 anterior ambulatory setae
present (84)...................................... Dracognomus Allen & Noffsinger, 1978
Amphid loop-shaped to spiral; 16-30 anterior ambulatory setae
present (86AT) ............................................................. Cephalochaetosoma Kito, 1983
e(c). Esophagus long, terminal swelling without cuticularized valve; cephalic
adhesion tubes located posterior to rostrum, with posterior row of tubes
2-3 rostral widths (26-37 annules) posterior to base of rostrum (87AT);
anterior 50-59% of body slender ......................... Cygnonema Allen & Noffsinger, 1978
Esophagus short, posterior bulb with or without cuticularized valve;
cephalic adhesion tubes on posterior part of rostrum or posterior to
rostrum, with posterior row 1 or less rostral widths (4-11 annules)
posterior to base of rostrum; anterior 25-45% of body slender ........................................ f
f(e). Posterior esophageal bulb with cuticularized valve; buccal cavity
moderately developed with conspicuous dorsal tooth (88T); with or
without 1-2 obscure ventrally situated teeth .......... Prochaetosoma Micoletzky, 1922
Posterior esophageal bulb without cuticularized valve; buccal cavity
weakly developed with conspicuous or inconspicuous dorsal tooth;
ventral teeth absent ...................................................................................................... g
g(f). Rostrum conical; esophageal region swollen dorsally (89ES), ventral
side almost straight; tail cylindrical-conoid with 7-13 tail
annules ............................................................ Draconactus Allen & Noffsinger, 1978
Rostrum broadly rounded; esophagus without dorsal swelling;
tail cylindrical-conoid and spike-like with 3-4 tail
annules ....................................................... Apenodraconema Allen & Noffsinger, 1978


Illustration Sources
Fig. no. Reference Fig. no. Reference
1 Lorenzen 1973, abb. 4, fig. F, p. 46 28 Vitiello & Haspeslagh 1972, Plate 3, fig. 2
2 Wieser 1954, fig. 130b, p. 57 29 Murphy 1964, fig. 2C, p. 117
3 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 9, fig. g 30 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 10, fig. f
4 Vitiello & Haspeslagh 1972, Plate I, fig. 1 31 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 9, fig. g
5 Wieser & Hopper 1967, fig. 41a, p. 327 32 Blome 1982, fig. A, p. 115
6 DeConinck 1942, fig. 44, p. 35 33 Boucher 1975, fig. 8B, p. 121
7 Wieser 1956, fig. 211a, p. 45 34 Boucher 1975, fig. 6B, p. 116
8 Cobb 1920, fig. 79, p. 299 35 Boucher 1975, fig. B, p. 118
9 Gerlach 1953, fig. 25b, p. 570 36 Gerlach 1950, fig. 2e, p. 183
10 Jensen 1978, fig. 3B, p. 167 37 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 8, fig. e
11 Platt & Warwick 1988, fig. 183A, p. 395 38 Inglis 1963, fig. 6, p. 535
12 Jensen 1978, fig. 8D, p. 172 39 Cobb 1920, fig. 49, p. 264
13 Jensen 1978, fig. 6A, p. 170 40 Inglis 1968, fig. 56, p. 54
14 Wieser 1951, fig. 5a, p. 453 41 Cobb 1920, fig. 57, p. 273
15 Jensen 1978, fig. 5G, p. 169 42 Blome 1982, fig. E, p. 115
16 Jensen 1978, fig. 6G, p. 170 43 Platt & Zhang 1982, fig. 2c, p. 232
17 Wieser 1959, Plate XXI. fig. 50a 44 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 12, fig. A
18 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 13, fig. f 45 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 12, fig. d
19 Inglis 1968, fig. 28, p. 45 46 Hopper & Cephalu 1973, fig. 3, p. 581
20 Wieser 1959, Plate XXI, fig. 51b 47 Gerlach 1963 Tafel 11, fig. g
21 Platt & Warwick 1988, fig. 191D, p. 411 48 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 1, fig. f
22 Hopper 1963, fig. 11, p. 851 49 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 1, fig. h
23 Hopper 1963, fig. 18, p. 851 50 Wieser & Hopper 1967, fig. 35b, p. 324
24 Cobb 1920, fig. 34, p. 253 51 Wieser & Hopper 1967, fig. 36b, p. 325
25 DeConinck 1942, fig. 2, p. 8 52 Wieser & Hopper 1967, fig. 39a, p. 326
26 Chitwood 1936, fig. 1T, p. 4 53 Boucher 1975, fig. 3B, p. 108
27 Platt & Warwick 1988, fig. 222A, p. 473

19









54 Wieser 1954, fig. 124a, p. 49 72 Lorenzen 1973, fig. 4a, p. 46
55 Cobb 1920, fig. 106a, p. 326 73 Decraemer 1982, Plate VIII, fig. 5
56 Wieser & Hopper 1967, fig. 37f, p. 325 74 Clasing 1983, fig. Ic, p. 14
57 Gerlach 1963, Tafel 4, figs. c & d 75 Gourbault & Decraemer 1987, fig. 4a, p. 614
58 Gerlach 1951, Tafel 22, fig. 7c 76 Gourbault & Decraemer 1991, fig. 1B, p. 316
59 Gerlach 1956, Tafel 30, fig. e 77 Gourbault & Decraemer 1986, fig. 3a, p. 179
60 Gerlach 1951, Tafel 20, fig. 4a 78 Decraemer 1988, fig. 5D, p. 17
61 Gerlach 1951, Tafel 20, fig. 3a 79 Decraemer 1988, fig. 5C, p. 17
62 Gerlach 1951, Tafel 19, fig. 2d 80 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 57, p. 51
63 Hopper 1961, fig. 28, p. 194 81 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 21, p. 38
64 Chitwood 1951, fig. 7F, p. 638 82 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 110, p. 68
65 Hopper 1969, fig. 12, p. 678 83 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 185, p. 123
66 Wieser & Hopper 1967, fig. 39a, p. 326 84 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 178, p. 117
67 Wieser & Hopper 1967, fig. 39c, p. 326 85 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 192, p. 127
68 Vanreusel & Vincx 1986, fig. 7B, p. 166 86 Kito 1983, fig. 6 no. 2, p. 39
69 Vanreusel & Vincx 1986, fig. 6A, p. 164 87 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 168, p. 114
70 Lorenzen 1974, fig. li, p. 397 88 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 148, p. 97
71 Lorenzen 1973, fig. 16a, p. 69 89 Allen & Noffsinger 1978, fig. 161, p. 107


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Draconematoidea Filipjev, 1918 (Nematoda: matinae Cobb, 1933) avec quelques remarks de
Draconematina). Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. syst6matique. Bull. Mus. r. Hist. nat. Belg.
109:1-133. 18:1-37.
Blome, D. 1982. Systematik der Nematoden eines Gerlach, S. A. 1950. Uber einige Nematoden aus
Sandstrandes der Nordseeinsel Sylt. Mikrofauna der Familie der Desmodoriden. In: Neue
Meeresboden 86:1-194. Ergebnisse und Probleme der Zoologie (Klatt -
Boucher, G. 1975. N6matodes des sables fins Festchrift), Leipzig 1950:178-198.
infralittoraux de la Pierre Noire (Manche Gerlach, S. A. 1951. Revision der Metachromador-
Occidentale). I. Desmodorida. Bull. Mus. Nat. acea, einer Gruppe freilebende marine
D'Hist. nat., 3e series, no 285, Zool. 195:101-128. Nematoden. Kieler Meeresforsch. 8: 59-75.
Chitwood, B. G. 1936. Some marine nematodes Gerlach, S. A. 1956. Diagnosen neuer Nematoden
from North Carolina. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash. aus der Kieler Bucht. Kieler Meeresforsch.
3:1-16. 12:85-109.
Chitwood, B. G. 1951. North American marine Gerlach, S. A. 1963. Freilebende
nematodes. Texas J. Sci. 4: 617-672. Meeresnematoden von den Maledivan II. Kieler
Clasing, E. 1983. Leptepsilonema n. gen. Meeresforsch. 19:67-103.
(Nematoda, Epsilonematidae) from Chile and the Gourbault, N. & Decraemer, W. 1986. Nema-
Caribbean Sea. Zool. Scripta 12:13-17. todes marines de Guadeloupe III. Epsilo-
Cobb, N. A. 1920. One hundred new nemas. nematidae des genres nouveaux
Contrib. Sci. Nematol. IX., pp. 217-343. Metaglochinema n. g. (Glochinematinae) et
Decraemer, W. 1982. Draconematidae and Keratonema n. g. (Keratonematinae n. subfam.).
Epsilonematidae (Nematoda) from Laing Island Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris, 4e sr., 8, 1986,
Papua New Guinea, with one new genus and section A, no 1:171-183.
three new species. Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. Gourbault, N. & Decraemer, W. 1987.
54:1-22. Nematodes marines de Guadeloupe VI. Les
Decraemer, W. 1988. Dracograllus (Nematoda: genres Bathyepsilonema et Leptepsilonema
Draconematinae) from Papua New Guinea, (Epsilonematidae). Bull. Mus. natn. Hist nat.,
with descriptions of new species. Leopold III Paris, 4e, ser., 9, 1987, section A, no 3:605-631.
Biological Station, Laing Island Contribution Gourbault, N & Decraemer, W. 1991. A new ge-
no. 158. Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 58:5-27. nus and species of Epsilonematidae (Nematoda)
from New Caledonia. Zool. Scripta 20:315-319.


20









Hopper, B. E. 1961. Marine nematodes from the Murphy, D. G. 1964. The marine nematode genus
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39:183-199. Cheilopseudonchus n. g. and Pseudonchus
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coast line of the Gulf of Mexico. III. Additional Kosswig Festschrift 1964:113-118.
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41:841-863. marine nematodes. Part 2. British
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Mikrofauna Meeresboden 47:1-22.




















21






Notes






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