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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: External quality factors of Florida avocados
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Title: External quality factors of Florida avocados their importance to the consumer
Series Title: Bulletin 617 ; University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: December, 1959
Copyright Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Avocado -- Quality   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: D.L. Brooke.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026885
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN7749
oclc - 18299076
alephbibnum - 000927046

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Bulletin 617 December 1959





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA











External Quality Factors of Florida

Avocados-

Their Importance to the Consumer



By

D. L. BROOKE
Associate Economist, Department of Agricultural Economics











Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA






























SHAPES
I' 1 6 C o *.. 2., -- -









BLEMISHES




o- s_ l5--aj 4o-50.1












SHAPES







Pear Round
Fig. 1.-External appearance factors studied in Florida avocados.









External Quality Factors of Florida

Avocados-

Their Importance to the Consumer

By D. L. BROOKE

CONTENTS
Page Page
Method of Procedure .............................. 3 Shapes ....................-....-....--.....- ---10
Customers' Recognition of Income Preferences ....................----- ....... 12
Quality Factors .................- .. .....-- 5 Discussion .........-......... ..------.....----- 14
Sizes ...........-- ..... ......-...... ... 5 Sum m ary ................. -- ............. .. 15
Skin Blemishes ................................. 7 Acknowledgments ....----.................-............. 16

INTRODUCTION
Prior to the 1954-55 season there were no grade standards
for Florida avocados. The initiation of a marketing agreement
program for Florida avocados, at the beginning of that season,
focused considerable attention on the problem of grade standards
for this product. Under the marketing agreement program the
Florida Avocado Administrative Committee may limit the move-
ment of avocados into interstate commerce to specified grade
and size qualities. However, data were not available indicating
consumers' preferences with respect to quality. Thus, the de-
velopment of a set of standards reflecting to the maximum the
desires of consumers becomes of paramount importance.
An important aspect of the problem of establishing grade
standards for avocados is the attention consumers give to varia-
tions in external appearance when making a purchase. Because
avocados are used infrequently and by a relatively small segment
of the population, it is essentially impossible to abstract from
existing market reports this facet of the quality problem. There-
fore, this study was designed to determine the extent to which
consumers regarded variations in the external characteristics
of size, shape and appearance of avocados as differences in
quality.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
To measure consumer reaction to variations in external qual-
ity factors, 3 tests, each of 1 week's duration, were established
in retail stores. Size, degree of skin-surface blemish and shape
were the quality factors tested (Fig. 1).







4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

United States standards for Florida avocados 1 provide cer-
tain tolerances within grades for each of these factors. In
grade tolerances for skin blemish, United States standards per-
mit up to 10 percent scab and scar on U. S. No. 1 avocados, from
10 to 25 percent scab and scar on U. S. No. 2 avocados and from
25 to 50 percent scab and scar on U. S. No. 3 avocados.
Fruits used in this test were graded more closely, allowing
only 5 percent or less scab and scar on the surface area of U. S.
No. 1 fruit, 15 to 25 percent scab and scar on U. S. No. 2 fruit
and 40 to 50 percent of the surface area blemished on U. S. No.
3 fruit. This provided customers with an easily recognizable
difference in external appearance of the 3 grades of fruit used
in this test. Had the Standards been followed, it was felt that
some consumers would experience difficulty in visual evaluation
of the difference between some of the U. S. No. 2 fruit and either
the U. S. No. 1 or U. S. No. 3 fruit in the display.
Similar restrictions were placed on grade tolerances for size
and shape variations in the other tests. Grading was supervised
by trained Federal-State inspectors at point of shipment. Ship-
ping containers were grade-marked and the grades were main-
tained throughout each test.
Avocados were purchased from a large handler in the Florida
production area and delivered to Philadelphia in refrigerated
trucks. Refrigerated storage was provided on arrival and in
the test stores prior to display.
A randomized block design was used for 3 1-week periods to
test consumers' recognition of external quality factors. Six
retail stores, 2 in each of 3 income areas (low, medium and
high), required for the tests, were selected by the cooperating
chain organization according to the design criteria.
The 6 retail stores used in the study were supermarkets
owned by a large Northeastern chain. The test stores, all rel-
atively large,2 were located in 3 different income areas in and
around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Philadelphia was chosen because it is an important market
for avocados and its consumers were believed to be quite con-
scious of quality differences in fresh produce. It is a large metro-
politan area located within the region of greatest potential for
the sale of Florida avocados. Philadelphia is on an established

"1USDA, AMS, "United States Standards for Florida Avocados," (22
F.R. 6205) Effective September 3, 1957.
"Weekly average gross sales of $40,000 or more.

I







External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados 5

route of distribution for avocados from Florida; facilities for
receipt and storage were available from a regular handler of
avocados; and the general offices of the cooperating store group
were located there.
Each quality factor was tested in the 6 stores for a full week.
Arrangement of the displays among stores was completely ran-
domized. Subsequent analysis indicated that the randomization
was adequate to remove any bias due to location of fruit in the
display. Daily records of the number of avocados sold were made
in each store.
Tests the first week were of normally shaped avocados of the
Lula variety of varying sizes: small (size 20, average weight 11
ounces), medium (size 16, average weight 14 ounces) and large
(size 12, average weight 1812 ounces) All of the sizes were of
the U. S. No. 1 grade. Avocados were priced according to the
average weight in each of the sizes used and within the range
of prices acceptable to the store management. Size 12's were
priced at 29 cents each, size 16 at 22 cents and size 20 at 17
cents. The 3 sizes, placed side by side in the store display, were
separated by a divider.
In the second week's test normally shaped avocados of the
Lula variety, size 12, with 3 degrees of skin blemish, principally
scab and scar, were used. Variations in amount of surface area
scabbed and scarred were: 0-5 percent, 15-25 percent and 40-50
percent. Fruit of the 3 categories were placed side by side, sep-
arated by a divider, in the store display and sold at a constant
price of 25 cents each.
The third week's test was confined to shape of fruit. U. S.
No. 1 grade, size 14 avocados of the Lula (pear-shaped) and
Booth 7 (round-shaped) varieties were placed in the test stores
and sold at 21 cents each.

CUSTOMERS' RECOGNITION OF QUALITY FACTORS
SIZES
When customers were given a choice of size, within a range
of prices in which the weight-price relationship and quality were
relatively constant, more small-sized avocados were purchased
than large-sized ones. However, their purchases were such that
on a weight basis there was very little difference among sizes
in volume sold (Table 1, Figs. 2 and 3). At constant relative
Official weight-size relationships established by the Florida Avocado
Administrative Committee.







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

prices among sizes, the same weight of size 20 as of sizes 12 or
16 was purchased. This would indicate that about the same
number of flats (quality held constant) would be purchased by
consumers regardless of size. It also indicates that growers
might expect to sell equal volumes of various sizes as long as
they were priced on a weight basis. To move an excess supply of
a given size in a given market, the price-weight relationship be-
tween sizes would have to be changed.

TABLE 1.-NUMBER AND WEIGHT OF FRUIT SOLD AND PERCENT OF FLORIDA
AVOCADO SALES BY SIZE, 6 STORES, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, NO-
VEMBER 3-8, 1958.

Sizes
Store I Total
Number I 12 16 20 _
I No. Pounds No. Pounds No. Pounds No. IPounds
1 14 16.2 16 14.0 27 18.6 57 48.8
2 21 24.3 40 35.0 47 32.3 108 91.6
3 38 43.9 65 56.9 67 46.1 170 146.9
4 51 59.0 53 46.4 72 49.5 176 154.8
5 62 71.7 87 76.1 85 58.4 234 206.2
6 81 93.7 92 80.5 145 99.7 318 273.8

Average 44.5 51.4 58.8 51.5 73.8 50.8 177.1 153.7

Percent

Average 25.1 33.4 33.2 5 41.7 33.1 100.0 100.0


Even though 4 sizes were used in the 3 tests, sales volume
was not significantly different among weeks. Sales per store
the first week, using sizes 12, 16 and 20, averaged 153.7 pounds.
Size 12 avocados were sold the second week and average sales
per store were 154.0 pounds. In the third week size 14 avocados
were used and average sales per store were 145.2 pounds.

SKIN BLEMISHES
When fruit of a single size and 3 different grades, based on
percentage of the surface area blemished by scab and scar, were
placed on display at the same price, customers definitely pre-








External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados 7


Number
Sold
Legend:
Sizes
12 16 20
120

100


80


60

40





1 2 3 4 5 6 Average
Stores per Store
Fig. 2.-Number of avocados sold by size, 6 stores,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3-8, 1958.

Pounds
Sold
Legend:
105 Sizes




75


60 :




30 *


15


1 2 3 4 5 6 Average
Stores per Store
Fig. 3.-Pounds of avocados sold by size, 6 stores,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3-8, 1958.








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ferred the almost perfect fruit.4 Almost half (47 percent) of
the total sales were of fruit having between 0 and 5 percent of
the surface area blemished. Less than one-third (31 percent)
of the sales were of fruit with 15 to 25 percent of its aggregate
surface area showing scab and scar (Table 2 and Fig. 4).

TABLE 2.-NUMBER OF FRUIT SOLD AND PERCENT OF FLORIDA AVOCADO
SALES BY PERCENT OF SURFACE AREA BLEMISHED, 6 STORES, PHILADEL-
PHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, NOVEMBER 10-15, 1958.

Percent of Surface Area Blemished I Total
0-5 15-25 [ 40-50
Store Number Numr
Number Sold

1 ..................---... 31 | 8 6 45
2 .....--...---.... ... -- 44 31 1 20 95
3 ...............-...... ... 56 42 24 122
4 -------...............--......... 66 48 40 154
5 ...............-.....--.. 85 59 45 189
6 ....--..------ ------. 97 57 40 194

Average .........--.. 63.2 40.8 29.2 133.2

Percent Sold

Average ..........------..... 47.4 30.7 21.9 100.0


It is perhaps significant that the store serving the lowest
income clientele had the highest percentage (68.9) of its fruit
sales in the 0-5 percent blemish group. One reason advanced
for this is that low-income consumers may be relatively more
quality conscious than consumers with more money to spend
for food. Also, consumers unfamiliar with avocados may have
picked the unblemished fruit, believing quality to be associated
with appearance.
For all stores in the study, 22 percent of the sales in this test
were fruit containing 40 to 50 percent scab and scar or other
external blemishes. This indicates that there is a substantial
number of consumers who regard external blemishes as less im-

SResults here indicated that the chances are better than 1,000:1 that
similar results would be obtained should the same test be repeated.







External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados 9

portant than maturity or softness or some other non-measured
factor when they buy avocados.

Percent
of
Sales
Legend:
Percent of Area Blemished
70
0-5 15-25 40-50
60 E3 0

50

40 . ..-. ..






10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 Average
Stores per Store
Fig. 4.-Percent of sales of avocados by degree of surface area blemished,
6 stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 10-15, 1958.

Data on daily sales show that purchases were higher each
day of the week for fruit of the best grade. Sales of 15-25 per-
cent blemished fruit were second in importance each day except
Tuesday, when second place in sales went to the 40-50 percent
blemish group (Table 3). Further inspection of the data shows
that as the week progressed, sales of 0-5 percent fruit declined,
sales of 15-25 percent fruit increased and there was relatively
little change in importance of sales per day in the 40-50 percent
blemished fruit.
Fresh fruit were placed in the displays at the beginning of
each week and the display was replenished from supplies in cold
storage on a daily basis. Displayed fruit were not refrigerated.
Project enumerators observed that customers judged fruit, in
most cases, by handling. Hard or firm fruit appeared to be
replaced by the customer until a softer fruit was encountered.
It is believed that maturity and consumer buying habits were
responsible for the differences in purchases among blemish







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

groups. Firm fruit replaced fruit sold from the display each
day. Early in the week when firmness was relatively constant
among grades, sales were highest for the best grade fruit. By
mid-week the display of 15-25 percent blemished fruit contained
relatively more soft fruit than the 0-5 percent display and custo-
mers chose the softer (15-25 percent) fruit. By Saturday, be-
cause of earlier relative sales among grades, firmness was again
equalized and purchases of the best grade predominated. Pur-
chases of the third group (40-50 percent blemish) were made
by a few customers each day who could not find what they
wanted among the better grades of fruit or who were looking
for softer fruit for immediate consumption.

TABLE 3.-PERCENT OF DAILY SALES OF FLORIDA AVOCADOS BY PERCENT OF
SURFACE AREA BLEMISHED, 6 STORES, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA,
NOVEMBER 10-15, 1958.

Percent of Daily Sales by
Day of Week Blemish Group Total
0-5 15-25 40-50
Monday ...---...---...... 53.5 24.4 22.1 100.0
Tuesday ..------......-..- 57.0 20.2 22.8 100.0
Wednesday ........ .. 51.6 24.7 23.7 100.0
Thursday ...--...-..- 40.0 35.6 24.4 100.0
Friday .....---- -.....--... 42.6 39.5 17.9 100.0
Saturday .-..--... ....-- 50.0 27.5 22.5 100.0

Average ...---....-..... 47.4 30.7 21.9 100.0


SHAPES
Customers did not exhibit a significant preference for shape
of fruit when relative quality and price were constant. While
it is true that 10 percent more round fruit was sold, this was
not a sufficient difference to be significant. Of the fruit sold,
55 percent were the round (Booth 7) type and 45 percent the
pear-shaped (Lula) type (Table 4 and Fig. 5). While both size
and weight of fruit were constant, some difference was observed
in the rapidity with which the 2 fruits ripened. The round type
softened somewhat more quickly when placed in unrefrigerated
displays. This may have unduly influenced the customer's choice
between shapes of fruit.








External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados 11


TABLE 4.-NUMBER OF FRUIT SOLD AND PERCENT OF FLORIDA AVOCADO
SALES BY SHAPE OF FRUIT, 6 STORES, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA,
NOVEMBER 17-22, 1958.

Shapes I Total
Pear* Round** I
Store Number
Number Sold


1 .......-... ....... ....-.... 17 27 44

2 ...........-............. .. 32 51 83

3 ....--....- .....------------ 85 78 163

4 ---............-.....-- ........ 74 99 173

5 ----.... ..-... -- .......-----93 100 193

6 ...---.......... ..- ---..... 109 140 249


Average ....-..-- .....-....-...- .... 68.3 82.5 150.8

Percent Sold

Average ........-- ..........--.... 45.3 54.7 100.0

Normally shaped fruit of the Lula variety, size 14.
** Normally shaped fruit of the Booth 7 variety, size 14.


TABLE 5.-PERCENT OF DAILY SALES OF FLORIDA AVOCADOS BY SHAPE OF
FRUIT, 6 STORES, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, NOVEMBER 17-22,
1958.

Percent of Daily Sales by
Day of Week Shape of Fruit I Total
Pear Round_

Monday --.......-..-............-- 61.4 38.6 100.0

Tuesday ..--- ----.... ---- 45.1 54.9 100.0

Wednesday --..---...... -----... 38.5 61.5 100.0

Thursday .--.........--.. ....... 45.5 54.5 100.0

Friday .---------....-........ .. --44.5 55.5 100.0

Saturday --------------------.. .. 43.4 56.6 100.0


Average ----------.-... ....--- 45.3 54.7 100.0
"____________________________________________I ______________________________







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Number
Sold
Legend:
Shape
140
Pear Round

120

100

80

60

40

20


1 2 3 4 5 6 Average

Stores per Store
Fig. 5.-Sales of avocados by shape of fruit, 6 stores,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 17-22, 1958.

A comparison of sales by shape and day of the week indicates
that sales on Monday were highest for pear-shaped fruit while
sales each of the remaining days of the week were highest for
round fruit (Table 5). Sales of pear-shaped fruit decreased
rapidly as hard fruit replaced sales from the display through
Wednesday. By Thursday, when degree of firmness between
displays was more nearly equal, sales of pear-shaped fruit in-
creased. There was relatively little change in proportion of
purchases by shape of fruit the remaining days of the test
week.
INCOME PREFERENCES

In all tests conducted, sales were highest in the areas of
high-income families and lowest in the low-income group. After
making an adjustment for store size in terms of dollar volume
of total produce sales, 22.4 percent of the avocado sales were
among the low-income group, 37.3 percent medium-income and
40.3 percent high-income (Table 6). There was much less differ-
ence in importance of avocado sales between the medium- and








External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados 13

high-income groups than between the medium- and low-income
groups.

TABLE 6.-PERCENT OF SALES OF FLORIDA AVOCADOS PER $1,000 OF PRO-
DUCE GROSS BY INCOME AREAS AND WEEKS, 6 STORES, PHILADELPHIA,
PENNSYLVANIA, NOVEMBER 3-22, 1958.

Income Group Percent of Avocado Sales per $1,000 of Produce Gross
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Average

Low ....... ---.................... 21.4 25.1 20.6 22.4
Medium ....................- 35.4 36.9 40.0 37.3
High ........... .....-- ---. 43.2 38.0 39.4 40.3

Average .............. 36.4 32.1 31.5 100.0


Total produce sales were relatively more important than
avocado sales among the low-income group and less important
among the medium- and high-income groups when adjustments
were made for store size. Twenty-nine percent of the produce
sales were among low-income families, 32.5 percent medium-
income and 38.5 percent high-income (Table 7). This type of
difference in importance would be expected when comparing
purchases of a group of items containing staples with purchases
of a specialty or luxury item of the diet.

TABLE 7.-PERCENT OF TOTAL PRODUCE SALES PER $1,000 OF STORE GROSS
BY INCOME AREAS AND WEEKS, 6 STORES, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA,
NOVEMBER 3-22, 1958.

Income Group Percent of Produce Sales per $1,000 Store Gross
I Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Average

Low ........................... 29.3 28.7 29.0 29.0
I I
Medium ...---...--------... 32.5 32.3 32.7 32.5
High .......................... 38.2 39.0 38.3 38.5

Average .......- ....--- 32.2 34.0 33.8 100.0


Avocado sales as a percentage of total produce sales per
store ranged from 0.4 percent among the low-income group to
0.7 percent among the high-income group during the period
studied (Table 8). Again it is evident that there was less differ-







14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ence in importance of avocado sales between the medium- and
high-income groups than between the medium- and low-income
groups. Relatively few avocados would be sold in low-income
areas of larger cities except, perhaps, in those areas containing
a high proportion of Latin Americans or other persons who were
more familiar with avocados.

TABLE 8.-AVOCADO SALES AS PERCENT OF STORE PRODUCE SALES BY IN-
COME AREAS AND WEEKS, 6 STORES, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA,
NOVEMBER 3-22, 1958.

Income Group Avocado Sales as Percent of Produce Sales
IWeek 1 Week 2 Week 3 Average
Low ............................ .38 .40 .32 .37
Medium .................... .63 .59 .61 .61
H igh .......................... 1 .76 .61 .60 .66

Average .................. 1 .62 .55 .54 .57


DISCUSSION
Florida sales offices probably need not be too concerned about
sizes and shapes of avocados sold, other than to fill direct orders.
Wholesale buyers and commission handlers have a range of sizes
from which they may choose with some confidence. Within the
range of choice offered consumers in this study, about the same
weight of fruit was sold in retail stores regardless of size or
shape. Some price differential beyond that used in this study
would be required to dispose of an excess of fruit of a particular
size or shape.
While consumers preferred the better grade fruit, purchases
of poor grade 5 fruit were substantial. A larger total revenue
may accrue to the industry by permitting shipment and sale of
some poor grade fruit. Not more than 20 percent of the total
shipments to the particular segment of the market studied
should be permitted to be of grade 3 fruit. Further research on
this point would be beneficial.
Chain store and other buyers need not be overly conscious
of "breaking" 6 fruit in purchases for immediate store delivery.
Some softer, but not "mushy," fruit in a display apparently

SAs measured by external blemishes.
A term used in the trade to indicate fruit yielding slightly to hand
pressure.







External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados 15

assists sales. Some customers each day want fruit for imme-
diate consumption.
SUMMARY
The Marketing Agreement Program for Florida avocados,
initiated at the beginning of the 1954-55 season, focused con-
siderable attention on the problem of grade standards for the
product. While a set of standards has been adopted by the in-
dustry, they are subject to change if such changes are necessary
to market the product more efficiently and satisfy consumer
preferences. Thus, the determination of consumer recognition
of external quality factors in avocados, to develop a set of stand-
ards reflecting the maximum desires of consumers, is of para-
mount importance. The objective of this study, therefore, was
to determine the extent to which consumers regarded variations
in the external characteristics of size, shape and appearance of
avocados as differences in quality.
To test consumer quality preferences, 3 tests, each of 1
week's duration, were conducted in 6 retail supermarkets in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from November 3 to 22, 1958. Tests
the first week were of normally shaped, U. S. No. 1 grade avo-
cados of the Lula variety of varying sizes: small (size 20, aver-
age weight 11 ounces), medium (size 16, average weight 14
ounces) and large (size 12, average weight 181/2 ounces). Tests
the second week included normally shaped avocados of the Lula
variety, size 12, with 3 degrees of skin blemishes, principally
scab and scar. Tests the third week were of size 14 avocados,
U. S. No. 1 grade, of the Lula variety (pear-shaped) and Booth
7 variety (round-shaped). Results of the tests were:
1. Small-sized avocados were purchased in larger number
than large-sized ones but, on a weight basis, about the same
quantity of avocados was purchased by consumers, regardless
of size.
2. Customers expressed a very decided preference for the
better grades of fruit and chose among these grades for softer
fruit. However, one-fifth of the sales were badly blemished
fruit.
3. Consumers did not exhibit a significant preference for
shape of fruit. Sales by shape appeared to vary with relative
softness of the fruit on display.








16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

4. Sales were highest in the areas of high- and medium-
income consumers for each week's test and for total sales during
the period studied.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Grateful appreciation for valuable assistance in the preparation and
conduct of this study is expressed to all who participated. Mr. D. M. Big-
gar, manager, Avocado Administrative Committee, assisted in planning
the study, arranging for supplies and coordinating test shipments. Mr.
H. E. Kendall, South Florida Growers Association, cooperated in securing,
packing and shipping fruit. Mr. R. M. Wimbish and members of the
Homestead Office of the Federal-State Inspection Service supervised the
grading of fruit according to standards for each test.
Messrs. William and Robert Gosser, H. J. Gosser and Company, Phila-
delphia, Pennsylvania, extended the facilities of that organization for the
receipt, storage and distribution of supplies and the administration of ac-
counting procedures. Mr. R. Wunner, H. J. Gosser and Company, gave
valuable assistance in securing test stores and coordinating supplies. Penn
Fruit Company, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, supplied the test stores.
Messrs. T. Franchetti, H. Greenberg, A. Pedano and other employees of
Penn Fruit Company cooperated in selecting stores and furnishing infor-
mation required for the transformation of data for analytical purposes.
Dr. W. O. Ash, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, approved the statistical design of the experiment.













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