• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic Note
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Preface
 Abstract
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Procedures
 Findings
 Conclusions
 A : Survey materials
 B : Information statistics
 C: Fund-raiser sample
 D: Restaurant Patron's and Fund-raisers...
 Reference






Group Title: FAMRC Industry Report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 99-1
Title: Aquaculture and marketing of the Florida bay scallop in Crystal River, Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026873/00001
 Material Information
Title: Aquaculture and marketing of the Florida bay scallop in Crystal River, Florida
Series Title: FAMRC industry report
Physical Description: 67 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moss, Susan D
Degner, Robert L
Adams, Charles M
Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, Food and Resource Economics Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: <1999>
 Subjects
Subject: Bay scallop -- Marketing -- Florida -- Crystal River   ( lcsh )
Aquaculture -- Florida -- Crystal River   ( lcsh )
Consumers' preferences -- Research -- Florida -- Crystal River   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 67).
Statement of Responsibility: by Susan Moss, Robert Degner, Charles Adams.
General Note: "January 1999."
General Note: "Submitted to Florida Sea Grant Project R/LR-A-20."--Cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026873
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002557530
oclc - 43460851
notis - AMS3781

Table of Contents
    Historic Note
        Section
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Preface
        Page 1
    Abstract
        Page 2
    Acknowledgement
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
    List of Tables
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Executive summary
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Introduction
        Page 10
    Procedures
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Findings
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Conclusions
        Page 41
        Page 42
    A : Survey materials
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    B : Information statistics
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    C: Fund-raiser sample
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    D: Restaurant Patron's and Fund-raisers Comments
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Reference
        Page 67
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




00
/426233
PP/


UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA


Aquaculture and Marketing

of the Florida Bay Scallop

in Crystal River, Florida


FAMRC Industry Report 99-1
January 1999


by
Susan D. Moss
Robert L. Degner
Charles M. Adams


Submitted to Florida Sea Grant
Project R/LR-A-20

by the Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0240


100
F6$7fi
99-1




(?A45 35&/


Aquaculture and Marketing of the

Florida Bay Scallop in Crystal River,

Florida








FAMRC Industry Report 99-1
January, 31 1999



by
Susan Moss
Robert Degner
Charles Adams




Submitted to Florida Sea Grant
Final report on Project R/LR-A-20


by the Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0240


UNIVERSITY OF FLOi-i, L L












I ob
F&/7 7



'LIBRARP







PREFACE


Aquaculture in the state of Florida is in the developmental stages and the Florida Legislature is
developing new legislation to encourage commercial ventures like scallop aquaculture. Florida's
Nature Coast which includes Crystal River, very much needs new commercial ventures for displaced
fishermen. This project has all the elements for success since it includes the cooperation of Sea Grant
Faculty with the local community. The project will benefit the local economy of Citrus County
through the involvement of fishermen with scallop aquaculture and a specialized fishery product.

The conclusions and opinions expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily
represent those of the grantors.








ABSTRACT


This study was undertaken to determine market acceptability and marketing strategies for whole bay
scallops produced in aquacultural environments. Data for analyses were collected by surveying
patrons of upscale, white tablecloth restaurants where seafood is a featured, but not exclusive, menu
item. Freshly harvested whole bay scallops were prepared by chefs at four participating North
Florida restaurants during September and October of 1997 and 1998, the peak harvest season for
scallops. Survey respondents rated whole bay scallops favorably in regard to appearance, taste,
texture, value and overall satisfaction. Ratings were generally very good. Over 85 percent indicated
they would order whole bay scallops in the future.

Keywords: bay scallops, Argopecten Irradians, marketing, consumer evaluations







ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The authors are deeply indebted to the chefs of the four restaurants that participated in the study.
Thanks go to Mr. David Palmer of "December's" in Inglis, Mr. Peter Stefani, chef of "The Heron"
and "The Island Room" in Cedar Key and Mr. Elmo Moser, chef of the "Sovereign" restaurant in
Gainesville. Appreciation is also expressed to Mr. Don Sweat, Sea Grant Marine Science extension
agent, and Dr. Norm Blake, University of South Florida, for their help throughout the project.

Special thanks also go to Dr. Charles Moss, for his assistance with the analysis utilizing information
theory, and for writing the "Information Statistics" section. Gratitude is also expressed to Ms.
Vivian Thompson for typing the final manuscript.








TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFA CE ....................................................... ... ..... 1

ABSTRACT .................................................................. 2

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................... 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..... ................................................... 4

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................. 6

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES ............................................... 7

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION .........................................................10

OBJECTIVES ........................................... ....................11

PROCEDURES ..............................................................11
The Virginia Experience Investigated ....................... .............. 11
In-Restaurant Consumer Evaluation Experiment In North Florida ................ 12

FINDINGS ..................................................................15
Respondent Attributes ................................................... 15
Restaurant Patrons' Reasons for Trying ..................................... 17
Initial Reaction to the Thought of Eating a Whole Bay Scallop ................... 18
Attributes of Whole Bay Scallops Rated by Survey Participants .................. 18
Appearance ..... ................................................ 22
T aste ..... ...................................................... 24
Texture .... ..................................................... 28
V alue .......................................................... 28
Overall Satisfaction ............................................... 32
Willingness to Order Whole Bay Scallops in the Future at the Same Price ......... 36
Reaction of Chefs in the Florida Experiment ................................. 39

CONCLUSIONS ........................................... ..................41

APPENDIX A: Survey Material ................................................ 43
Q questionnaire .... ...................................................... 44
A Note to the Wait Staff ................................................. 46


4








APPENDIX B: Information Statistics ................. ........................ 47
Technical Note on Information Statistics ................................. 48

APPENDIX C: The Fund-raiser Sample ........................................ 50
Respondent Attributes ................. .......... ................ .. ... 51
Fund-raisers' Reasons for Trying ................................. ....... 51
Initial Reaction to the Thought of Eating a Whole Bay Scallop ................... 53
Attributes of Whole Bay Scallops Rated by Survey Participants .................. 53
Appearance.....................................................55
Taste ........................................................ 55
Texture ......................................................... 58
Overall Satisfaction ............... .................... ............58

APPENDIX D: Restaurant Patrons' and Fund-raisers' Comments ..................... 61
Comments from Restaurant Patrons ........................................ 62
Fund-raiser Comments ................................................... 65

LITERATURE CITED ......................................................... 67








LIST OF TABLES


Table 1. Demographic and behavioral characteristics of the restaurant sample ........... 16
Table 2. Restaurant patrons' reasons' for trying whole bay scallops ................... 17
Table 3. Initial reaction to the thought of eating a whole bay scallop, rated by
restaurant patrons, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an
upscale restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption ................... 19
Table 4. Attribute ratings for whole bay scallops by restaurant patrons ................. 21
Table 5. Attribute ratings for whole bay scallops by the fund-raiser respondents .......... 21
Table 6. Appearance of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender,
age category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency
of shellfish consumption .............................................. 23
Table 7. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant
patrons in regard to their evaluation of the appearance of whole bay scallops ..... 25
Table 8. Taste of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age category,
frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency of shellfish
consumption ..................................................... 26
Table 9. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant
patrons in regard to their evaluation of the taste of whole bay scallops .......... 27
Table 10. Texture of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age
category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency
of shellfish consumption .............................................. 29
Table 11. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of
restaurant patrons regarding the texture of whole bay scallops ................. 30
Table 12. Value of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age
category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency of
shellfish consumption .................... ........................... 31
Table 13. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of
restaurant patrons regarding the value of whole bay scallops .................. 33
Table 14. Overall satisfaction with whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by
gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and
frequency of shellfish consumption ....... ............................. 34
Table 15. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of
restaurant patrons on overall satisfaction with whole bay scallops .............. 35
Table 16. Restaurant patrons' willingness to order whole bay scallops in the future at the
same price, by gender, age category, frequency of dining out and frequency of
shellfish consumption ............................................... 37
Table 17. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant
patrons on the willingness to order whole bay scallops in the future ............ 38








LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES


Appendix Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the fund-raiser sample ................ 52
Appendix Table 2. Fund-raisers' reasons for trying whole bay scallops .................. 52
Appendix Table 3. Initial reaction to the thought of eating a whole bay scallop,
rated by fund-raisers, by gender, age category, frequency of dining
at an upscale restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption ............... 54
Appendix Table 4. Appearance of whole bay scallops rated by fund-raisers, by
gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant,
and frequency of shellfish consumption ................................. 56
Appendix Table 5. Taste of whole bay scallops rated by fund-raisers, by gender,
age category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency
of shellfish consumption ............................................. 57
Appendix Table 6. Texture of whole bay scallops rated by fund-raisers, by gender,
age category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency
of shellfish consumption ............................................. 59
Appendix Table 7. Overall satisfaction with whole bay scallops rated by, by gender,
age category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency
of shellfish consumption ........................................... 60








EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


* This study was undertaken to determine consumer acceptance of locally aquacultured Florida
whole bay scallops.

* The American bay scallop has been successfully cultured as a specialty product in areas
along the east coast from Virginia to New England. Supply has been inadequate to meet
demand in these areas.

* Intensive harvesting and environmental pollution over the last 20 years have resulted in the
decline of bay scallops in local Florida estuaries. As a result of this decline, the Florida
Marine Fisheries Commission banned commercial harvest of the species and limited
recreational harvest to areas north of the Suwannee River.

* The Shellfish Biology Laboratory at the University of South Florida has developed
techniques for growing the Florida Bay Scallop by aquacultural methods. Research indicates
that commercial production may be feasible in locales with satisfactory water quality.

* While American consumers traditionally enjoy eating the white fleshed, succulent adductor
muscle of scallops, the small size of this muscle in Florida bay scallops makes aquaculture
production for the muscle only infeasible.

* An in-restaurant survey carried out during the peak scallop season of September and October
of both 1997 and 1998 was utilized to determine consumer acceptance. During both seasons,
scallops used in the study were relatively small, ranging in size from 1"-1 '2" (25-35mm) in
diameter.

* Four local moderately upscale restaurants participated in the study. These restaurants are
well known for seafood specialties, but do not serve seafood exclusively. Professional chefs
prepared the product and promoted it as a menu special.

* Consumers rated specific product attributes of professionally prepared whole bay scallops.
In addition, the consumers were asked if they would purchase the product again at the same
price.

In addition to the restaurant patrons, a group of citizens participating in a community fund
raising event were asked to evaluate the whole bay scallops. The results from this sample
were not analyzed with the restaurant patrons due to the fact that their demographics were
not comparable, they did not purchase the product as a separate menu item, and they were
served undersized, late season specimens that were somewhat inferior to those served in the
restaurants.








* Survey results indicated that the product was very well received. Appearance, taste, texture,
value and overall satisfaction generally received very good ratings. Taste received the
highest ratings while value received the lowest. Written comments indicated that the value
was rated lower because of the small size of the scallops.

* There seemed to be little apprehension regarding eating the whole bay scallop among survey
participants. However, the chefs indicated that local residents and older people that were
more likely to be familiar with the muscle-only scallop were not well represented among
survey respondents because the chefs felt these people avoided the whole scallop. They
would have likely rated their hesitation to purchase the product more highly.

* Eighty-seven percent of the restaurant patrons indicated that they would purchase the product
again at the same price, indicating a high degree of acceptance of the product.

Promotional efforts emphasizing the "locally-grown," "environmentally friendly"
"aquacultured" product aspects can be utilized by restaurants serving whole bay scallops.
Menu specials, recommendations by chefs or serving staff and table-tent style advertising
can be effective marketing techniques.

Although consumer evaluations were generally positive, several product attributes need to
be improved. Consumers' and chefs' perceptions of value could be improved by providing
larger sized scallops, about 1/ 2"-134" (35-45mm) in diameter. Further, the chefs also
expressed a preference for scallops with cleaner shells; many of the scallops had heavily
fouled shells which were difficult or impossible to clean.

Finally, commercial market development will require stable, reliable supplies of scallops and
bi-weekly deliveries because of the product's limited shelf life.








INTRODUCTION


More than 35 species of scallops are harvested world wide and many of these species are the

focus of intense aquaculture. The American bay scallop has been one species that has been

aquacultured in China and the meats enter the US market as a relatively inexpensive frozen product.

However, in several places in New England, New York and Virginia, the species is now cultured and

sold whole in the shell as a specialty product. Remarkably, market demand has exceeded

production.

Intensive harvesting and environmental pollution over the last 20 years have resulted in the

decline of bay scallops in local Florida estuaries. As a result of this decline, the Florida Marine

Fisheries Commission banned scallop harvest for recreation south of the Suwannee River and totally

banned the commercial harvest of the species from wild stocks. Since 1990, the Shellfish Biology

Laboratory at the University of South Florida has developed the techniques for growing the Florida

Bay Scallop for restoration of the species for recreational purposes. Bay scallop aquaculture

research indicates that commercial production may be feasible in locales with satisfactory water

quality.

Traditionally, American consumers have only eaten the white fleshed, succulent adductor

muscle of scallops. However, the small size of this muscle in Florida bay scallops makes

aquaculture production for the muscle only economically impractical. The successful development

of commercial culture of bay scallops in Florida is therefore not only dependent on a successful

culturing process, but on the marketability of the whole bay scallop. Further, a new specialty

product such as whole bay scallops must have a marketing strategy for timely delivery of desired








quantities of the product to the retail market. Product acceptability and overall market potential of

the product requires evaluation. This study has been undertaken to determine consumer acceptance

of the whole bay scallop produced under local conditions.



OBJECTIVES


The primary objective of this study is to determine market acceptability and marketing

strategies for whole bay scallops produced in aquacultural environments in Florida. Specific

objectives included 1) determining how consumers rate specific product attributes of Florida whole

bay scallops including appearance, taste, texture, value and overall satisfaction with the product

when prepared by professional chefs in an upscale restaurant setting, 2) measuring consumers'

reactions to the thought of eating a whole bay scallop, and 3) determining if consumers were

satisfied enough with the product to purchase it again.


PROCEDURES


The Virginia Experience Investigated


During the period of June 16-18, 1997, eight chefs representing six upscale restaurants in the

Williamsburg/Yorktown/Virginia Beach, Virginia areas were interviewed. All eight chefs had

participated in a pilot marketing program for cultured whole bay scallops initiated several years

earlier by the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences (VIMS), College of William & Mary. Most were

general menu, white tablecloth restaurants that typically offered several seafood appetizers and

entrees. However, two were upscale seafood specialty restaurants.

11








The general marketing environment in the Williamsburg/Yorktown/Virginia Beach areas of

Virginia shares many of the same attributes as north central Florida which make them both positive

marketing environments for seafood products. Tourism, mild climates, beaches, and a reputation

for abundant seafood make the two markets comparable in many ways. Because of these

similarities, it was anticipated that the Virginia chefs' experiences and suggestions for marketing

acquacultured scallops could be readily adapted by many north central Florida restaurants.

Insight gained from the Virginia chefs' interviews was used to identify restaurants in North

Florida with a high probability of successful marketing of whole bay scallops. In addition,

comments regarding successful preparation techniques from the Virginia chefs were relayed to the

participating Florida chefs to aid with their preparation decisions.


In-Restaurant Consumer Evaluation Experiment In North Florida


Four upscale, white tablecloth restaurants in North Florida, known for their excellent seafood

items, were willing to prepare whole bay scallops for the in-restaurant consumer evaluation survey.

These restaurants, while known for excellent seafood, were not exclusively seafood restaurants.

During September and October of both 1997 and 1998, the peak season for scallop harvest in North

Florida, whole bay scallops were harvested on Thursday afternoons by research personnel, chilled

to approximately 45"F overnight, and delivered to the cooperating restaurants on Friday afternoons.

Immediately after harvest, the scallops were taken to a commercial seafood wholesaler where

they were placed in a polyethylene-lined expanded styrene shipping box. The scallops were usually

placed in four layers of 25 each, for a total of 100 per box except for weeks when only 70 were

packed. Each layer was separated by moist newspapers. Two chilled gel-packs were placed inside

12








each box to maintain temperatures in the 45- 50F range during the one to two hours they were in

transit to the restaurants. All boxes were tagged with shellfish harvest permits in compliance with

Florida's Department of Environmental Protection's rules for fresh shellstock.

A "daily discard" form was affixed to the lid of each container so that daily mortality rates

could be determined. However, reliable estimates of scallop mortality could not be obtained because

the limited supplies of scallops available to each restaurant (70 to 100 per week) were usually

exhausted within 24 to 48 hours after delivering. The only exception was the very first week;

combined data from three restaurants showed losses of two percent during the first 24 hours, and two

restaurants had a cumulative loss of about 22 percent after 72 hours. Initially, it was anticipated that

restaurants would receive shipments of scallops each week. However, inclement weather prevented

harvest on numerous occasions, and limited quantities of marketable sizes also reduced product

availability during both the 1997 and 1998 season. The chefs prepared the whole bay scallops as

menu specials and recommended them to customers.

To gain the cooperation of the chefs, no restrictions were placed on the preparation or

cooking methods. However, wait staff was required to record the type of dish each respondent had

eaten so that consumer evaluations could be analyzed by type of dish. All four restaurants served

the scallops as some type of appetizer; these appetizers ranged from chioppini (fisherman's stew)

to scallops Rockefeller to simple lemon-shallot butter or garlic butter sauce. The appetizers ranged

in price from $4.95 to $7.95. Only one restaurant used the scallops as an ingredient in a main entree;

scallops and smoked trout were incorporated into a pasta dish that was priced at $14.95.

Approximately 6 to 8 scallops were served in each dish, depending on the size of scallops available.

Analyses of respondents willingness to buy scallops again by type of dish eaten revealed no

13








significant differences among the various dishes.

A total of 106 restaurant patrons completed questionnaires, far short of the initial goal of 400

observations. A copy of the questionnaire is found in Appendix A. According to the chefs,

approximately 50 percent of the patrons ordering whole bay scallops completed questionnaires. This

was corroborated by analyzing the numbers of scallops delivered to the restaurants and the numbers

of scallops served in each dish. As mentioned previously, the number of consumer observations was

severely restricted by product availability. The wait staff was instructed to promote the product and

given instructions as to how to administer the questionnaire. A copy of the instructions to the wait

staff is also found in Appendix A. Chefs were given an incentive of $5.00 for each completed

questionnaire; in most cases, the chef gave the entire incentive to the wait staff.

In addition to the restaurant patrons, citizens participating in a community fundraising event

were asked to evaluate the whole bay scallops. These "fund-raisers" were given samples of the

whole bay scallops which had been prepared by a chef associated with one of the restaurants

participating in the formal study. It should be noted that data from the "fund-raiser" sample were

not analyzed in combination with the restaurant patrons due to demographic differences and the fact

that the fund-raisers did not have to purchase the product. Further, the whole bay scallops sampled

by the fund-raisers were not comparable to the product served to the restaurant patrons. They were

late season scallops that were smaller than those used in the restaurant evaluations.

Statistical analyses were conducted on the various product attributes and respondents'

demographic characteristics. While some relationships between demographic characteristics and the

responses were hypothesized, none could be found statistically significant based on Chi-square

analyses because of the limited sample sizes and the nonnormal distribution of both the response

14







variables and the independent variables (Snedecor and Cochran, 1967). However, informational

statistics were employed to ascertain the relative amount of information a given characteristic

contributed to the various survey responses (Cover & Thomas, 1991). An overview of the

information statistics procedure is found in Appendix B. In order to effectively utilize the

Information Statistics technique, the five-point semantic differential scale was collapsed into three

categories, i.e., "excellent" and "very good" into "positive"; "good" became "neutral" and "fair" and

"poor" were categorized as "negative". Tabular results of statistical analyses and discussion of the

survey responses and respondents' demographics follows. These results provide valuable insights

for developing market development strategies for whole bay scallops.


FINDINGS


Respondent Attributes


Of the 106 restaurant patrons completing the survey, 62 were male and 44 were female

(Table 1). Fourteen percent were under age 35, and 37 percent were between 35 and 49 years of age.

About 36 percent were between 50 and 64, and 12 percent were 65 years of age or older. Roughly

half, 50 respondents, reportedly dined at moderately upscale restaurants in moderation, that is more

than once per month but less than once per week. Thirty-six (34 percent) were classified as

"infrequent" patrons of upscale restaurants, dining out once per month or less. Nineteen (18 percent)

were classified as "frequent" patrons of upscale restaurants, dining at such restaurants once per week

or more. There were 40 restaurant patrons (38 percent) that reported eating shellfish infrequently,

that is less than once a month. Thirty-eight (36 percent) were classified as moderate consumers of








Table 1. Demographic and behavioral characteristics of the restaurant sample.
Restaurant
Characteristic Patrons
Number Percent

Gender
male 62 58.5
female 44 41.5
Totals 106 100.0

Age category
under 35 14 14.1
35-49 37 37.4
50 64 36 36.4
65+ 12 12.1
Totals 99 100.0

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less) 36 34.3
moderate (more than once per month, 50 47.6
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week) 19 18.1
Totals 105 100.0

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less) 40 38.5
moderate (more than once per month, 38 36.5
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week) 26 25.0
Totals 104 100.0








shellfish, indicating that they ate shellfish more than once per month but less than once per week.

Twenty-six (25 percent) were frequent shellfish consumers, indicating that they ate shellfish at

least once a week.

Restaurant Patrons' Reasons for Trying

Respondents were asked why they selected whole bay scallops. Multiple answers were

allowed, with possible responses being 1) Familiarity with product, 2) Suggested by staffer chef,

3) Menu special, 4) Price and 5) Curiosity. Nearly two-thirds (63.5 percent) of the restaurant patrons

indicated that their decision to select whole bay scallops was influenced by wait staff or the chef

(Table 2). Thirty-four (33 percent) noticed whole bay scallops were a menu special and similar

numbers were simply curious. Thirty-two were familiar with the product and six cited price as an

influencing factor.




Table 2. Restaurant patrons' reasons' for trying whole bay scallops.


Reasons Restaurant Patrons
Number Percenta

Suggested by staff or chef 66 63.5
Menu special 34 32.7
Curiosity 34 32.7
Familiar with product 32 30.8
Price 6 5.8
aPercentages are based on 104 responses and do not add to 100 since each respondent was
permitted to cite more than one reason.








Initial Reaction to the Thought of Eating a Whole Bay Scallop


Most respondents in the restaurant sample had few qualms about eating whole bay scallops.

The initial reaction to the thought of eating a whole bay scallop was not one of hesitation for most

of the restaurant patrons (Table 3). On a rating scale of one to nine, where one was not hesitant at

all and nine was extremely hesitant, the average response was 2.2. None of 105 respondents

answering the question indicated a nine. Only eighteen scored their hesitation as five to eight, which

could be interpreted as having reservations about eating the scallops whole. Sixty-nine, almost two-

thirds, were not hesitant at all. Females rated their hesitancy slightly higher than males, and

respondents 65 and older were the least hesitant. Those respondents eating out more often were

slightly more hesitant than others and those respondents eating shellfish at least once per week were

the least hesitant. Information measures were not calculated because of zeroes at the various rating

levels.

Attributes of Whole Bay Scallops Rated by Survey Participants

The restaurant patrons were asked to rate the whole bay scallops with regard to attributes of

appearance, taste, texture, value and their overall satisfaction with the product using a five-point

semantic differential scale. Respondents assigned a value of excellent, very good, good, fair or poor

to each attribute.









Table 3. Initial reaction to the thought of eating a whole bay scallop, rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age category,
frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Rating Responding
(Not hesitant at all--------------------Extremely hesitant) no. no.


Gender
male
female


Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

All characteristics


11 4 1 2
0 1 1 3


0 1 0
2 1 2
2 0 1
1 0 0


4 1 1 3
3 4 0 1


8 4 0 1


5 2 1 1
3 2 0 4


18 3 1 1 0

69 11 5 2 5


3 0
5 0


2 0
3 0
3 0
0 0


2 0
3 0


1 0 2 3 0 2.8


2 0
3 0


1 0 2 0 2.0

2 3 8 0 2.2


39
38

26

105










Summaries of the respondents' ratings for appearance, taste, value and overall satisfaction

appear below. In general, restaurant patrons' evaluations were positive, with nearly 80 percent of

the respondents rating appearance and taste as "excellent" or "very good". Texture and overall

satisfaction were rated "excellent" or "very good" by 73 and 76 percent of the restaurant patrons,

respectively. Value received the lowest evaluations, with only 58 percent rating it as "excellent" or

"very good" (Table 4).

The evaluations by the fund-raisers were not as favorable as those of the restaurant patrons.

Percentages of fund-raisers rating appearance, taste and texture as "excellent" or "very good" were

about 35 points below the comparable ratings given by restaurant patrons. Only 31 percent of the

fund-raiser sample rated overall satisfaction as "excellent" or "very good". In contrast, about 45

percent rated overall satisfaction as "fair" or "poor" (Table 5). Detailed evaluations by the fund-

raiser sample are found in the Appendix C.









Table 4. Attribute ratings for whole bay scallops by restaurant patrons.
Rating

Attribute Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Total No Response
no. % no. % no. % no. % no. % no. no.

Appearance 47 44.3 35 33.0 12 11.3 9 8.5 3 2.8 106 0
Taste 51 48.6 31 29.5 15 14.3 7 6.7 1 1.0 105 1
Texture 42 40.0 35 33.3 14 13.3 12 11.4 2 1.9 105 1
Value 34 35.4 22 22.9 26 27.1 13 13.5 1 1.0 96 10
Overall Satisfaction 48 45.3 33 31.1 14 13.2 8 7.5 3 2.8 106 0





Table 5. Attribute ratings for whole bay scallops by the fund-raiser respondents.
Rating

Attribute Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Total No Response
no. % no. % no. % no. % no. % no. no.

Appearance 12 27.3 6 13.6 13 29.5 6 13.6 7 15.9 44 0
Taste 8 18.2 11 25.0 12 27.3 10 22.7 3 6.8 44 1
Texture 10 22.7 6 13.6 14 31.8 12 27.3 2 4.5 44 1
Value n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Overall Satisfaction 9 21.4 4 9.5 10 23.8 11 26.2 8 19.0 42 0








There are several possible reasons for the markedly different product ratings by the restaurant

patrons and the fund-raisers. One obvious reason was the restaurant patrons represented a "self

selected" group of consumers that made a conscious decision to purchase the product because of

persuasion of the chef or wait staff, innate curiosity, or familiarity with the product. Thus, this group

would have contained individuals with a high propensity to like the product; those that may have had

a predisposition to dislike the product opted to not purchase it. On the other hand, the fund-raiser

respondents made no conscious purchase decision; they received a serving of the product for

evaluation whether or not they anticipated liking it, consequently the evaluations of this group were

lower. Because the fund-raisers represented a somewhat atypical group of consumers, detailed

analyses of their product ratings are relegated to the Appendix. The following sections focus on

product evaluations by various demographic subgroups of the restaurant patron sample. Sparse

numbers of observations in demographic and ratings categories precluded rigorous statistical

analyses. However, the five-point semantic differential scale was aggregated into "positive",

"neutral" and "negative" categories to facilitate use of the information statistics technique.

Appearance

The appearance of whole bay scallops was rated highly, with 44.3 percent of the 106

restaurant patrons rating appearance "excellent" and 33 percent rating appearance "very good"

(Table 6). Roughly 20 percent rated appearance "good" or "fair" and only 2.8 percent (three

respondents) said the appearance was "poor". More women rated appearance as "excellent" (50

percent of women, 40 percent of men). The under age 35 and the over age 65 categories seemed

slightly more critical of appearance than the 35-64 groups. Respondents that dined out most

frequently rated appearance slightly lower than other diners, while those that consume shellfish most

often were slightly more impressed with the product's appearance.








Table 6. Appearance of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale
restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


Gender
male
female

Age category
under 35
35-49
50 64
65+


no. % no. % no. % no.


25 40.3 21 33.9 7 11.3 6
22 50.0 14 31.8 5 11.4 3


6 42.9 3 21.4 2 14.3 2
19 51.4 13 35.1 4 10.8 1
13 36.1 12 33.3 4 11.1 5
6 50.0 4 33.3 1 8.3 1


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less) 17 47.2 12 33.3 4 11.1 2
moderate (more than once per month, 22 44.0 16 32.0 6 12.0 6


% no. %


9.7 3
6.8 0


14.3
2.7
13.9
8.3


5.6 1
12.0 0


4.8 2.0
0.0 1.8


7.1 2.2
0.0 1.6
5.6 2.2
0.0 1.8


2.8 1.8
0.0 1.9


less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)


8 42.1


7 36.8 1


5.3 1


5.3 2 10.5 2.1


Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less) 16 40.0 17 42.5 6 15.0 1
moderate (more than once per month, 16 42.1 9 23.7 5 13.2 6
less than once per week)


frequent (at least once per week)

All characteristics


14 53.8 9 34.6 1


3.8 1


47 44.3 35 33.0 12 11.3 9


2.5
15.8


0.0 1.8
5.3 2.2


3.8 1 3.8 1.7 26

8.5 3 2.8 1.9 106








The positive, neutral and negative ratings provide the relative information measure for the

total characteristic contribution and for each level of the given characteristic. The highest

informational content was found in the "frequency of shellfish consumption" characteristic. Age was

the second greatest contributing characteristic, while gender and "frequency of dining out" provided

relatively smaller amounts of information (Table 7).

Taste

Taste was rated "excellent" by 48.6 percent of the restaurant patrons and almost 30 percent

rated taste as "very good" (Table 8). Slightly over 14 percent rated taste as "good." Seven

respondents (6.7 percent) rated taste as "fair" and only one rated taste as "poor." Ratings for taste

by male and female respondents were very similar. Respondents between 50 and 64 years of age

rated taste lowest, while the other three age categories rated taste higher. Respondents that consume

shellfish moderately were slightly less impressed with taste than either the light or heavy shellfish

consumers.

The highest informational statistic referring to restaurant patrons' evaluation of taste was

found for the age variable (Table 9). Note that the under age 35 and the 35-49 age categories were

combined to eliminate zeroes from analysis. Moderate and frequent diners, and moderate and

frequent shellfish consumers were also combined to eliminate zeroes. The resulting relative

information measures showed that frequency of shellfish consumption, gender of the respondent, and

the frequency of dining out each contributed relative information totaling about .02, compared to .07

for the age characteristic.









Table 7. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant patrons in regard to their evaluation of the
appearance of whole bay scallops.

Response Relative
Information
Characteristic Positive Neutral Negative Total Measure'

no. % no. % no. % no. %


Gender
male
female
Total characteristic contribution


74.2
81.8


58.5 0.002617
41.5 0.005651
0.008268


Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64


64.3
86.5
69.4
83.3


Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution


All characteristics


80.6
76.0


15 78.9


1 5.3 3 15.8


15.0
13.2


23 88.5


82 77.4


14.1
37.4
36.4
12.1


0.006311
0.030307
0.008861
0.001432
0.046911


34.3 0.001876
47.6 0.000244


19 18.1 0.006028
0.008149


38.5 0.034364
36.5 0.013905


1 3.8 2 7.7 26 25.0 0.015552
0.063821


12 11.3


12 11.3 106 100.0


'A relative information measure is a positive value. It is not predictive. The larger the value, the more information that particular demographic
characteristic contributes to the response. See Appendix B for further explanation.








Table 8. Taste of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant,
and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


Gender
male
female


Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

All characteristics


no. %


29 46.8
22 51.2


7 50.0
20 55.6
14 38.9
8 66.7


15 42.9
27 54.0

9 47.4


18 45.0
19 51.4


no. % no. %


20 32.3 9
11 25.6 6


4 28.6 3
11 30.6 4
10 27.8 6
2 16.7 1


13 37.1 5
10 20.0 7

7 36.8 3


14 35.0 6
7 18.9 6


13 50.0 10 38.5 3

51 48.6 31 29.5 15


no. %


14.5
14.0


21.4
11.1
16.7
8.3


14.3
14.0


4.8 1
9.3 0


0.0
2.8
13.9
8.3


5.7
10.0


no. %


1.6 1.8
0.0 1.8


0.0 1.8
2.0 1.9


15.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 1.7


15.0
16.2


5.0
13.5


0.0 1.8
0.0 2.2


11.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 1.7 26

14.3 7 6.7 1 1.0 1.8 105









Table 9. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant patrons in regard to their evaluation of the taste of
whole bay scallops.

Response

Characteristic Positive Neutral Negative Total

Relative
Information
no. % no. % no. % no. % Measure'


Gender
male
female
Total characteristic contribution

Age category
under 50
50-64
65+
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of dining outb
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week) and
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of shellfish consumptionb
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week) and
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution


79.0
76.7



84.0
66.7
83.3



80.0
76.8





80.0
77.8


14.5
14.0



14.0
16.7
8.3



14.3
14.5





15.0
14.3


6.5
9.3



2.0
16.7
8.3



5.7
8.7





5.0
7.9


59.0 0.017195
41.0 0.007298
0.024493


51.0 0.061766
36.7 0.005797
12.2 0.009481
0.077044


33.7 0.012484
66.3 0.011160


0.023644


38.8 0.016172
61.2 0.012843


0.029015


All characteristics 51 68.9 15 20.3 8 10.8 74 100.0
'A relative information measure is a positive value. It is not predictive. The larger the value, the more information that particular demographic
characteristic contributes to the response. See Appendix B for further explanation.
bThe under age 35 and the 35-49 age categories were combined into the "under 50" category to eliminate zeroes. Frequent and moderate diners were
combined to eliminate zeroes. Frequent and moderate shellfish consumers were combined to eliminate zeroes.







Texture

Overall, restaurant patrons rated texture of the whole bay scallops as "excellent" (40 percent),

"very good" (33.3 percent) and "good" (13.3 percent) (Table 10). Another 12 restaurant patrons

rated the product's texture "fair" (11.4 percent) and two patrons rated texture as "poor" (1.9 percent).

Females were slightly more positive in their overall ratings of texture. Respondents over age 65 and

those aged 35-49 rated texture more highly than those in the under 35 and the 50-64 categories.

Those dining out a moderate number of times rated texture only slightly lower than the others.

Those eating shellfish at least once per week were most favorable in regard to texture. Light and

moderate diners rated texture slightly lower.

Age and gender contributed more relative information regarding restaurant patrons'

evaluations of the texture of whole bay scallops (Table 11). The information measures were all very

small, but could be ranked in order of importance as age, gender, frequency of dining out and

frequency of shellfish consumption.

Value

Restaurant patrons were asked to rate the value of whole bay scallops in the context of

product received at the menu price paid. Value was rated "excellent" by 34 (35.4 percent), less often

than appearance, taste, texture or overall satisfaction (Table 12). A rating of "very good" was given

by 22 restaurant patrons and "good" by 26. Value was rated "fair" by 13 and "poor" by one. Men

rated the value of the whole bay scallops slightly higher than the women. Respondents ages 35-49

rated the value the lowest with those in the other age categories rating value slightly better or roughly

the same. Those dining out most often rated the value of the whole bay scallops slightly higher than

those eating out less often. Those consuming shellfish at least once a week rated value higher than

those that consumed shellfish less often. Many respondents provide written comments which









Table 10. Texture of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale
restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.

Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor rating responding

no. % no. % no. % no. % no. %


Gende
male
female


Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64


23 37.7
19 43.2


4 28.6
16 43.2
15 41.7
6 50.0


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less) 12 33.3
moderate (more than once per month, 21 42.9


less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)


All characteristics


8 42.1


17 42.5
13 34.2


21 34.4 6
14 31.8 8


7 50.0 2
13 35.1 5
9 25.0 4
3 25.0 2


15 41.7 6
13 26.5 7


9.8 9
18.2 3


14.3
13.5
11.1
16.7


16.7 3
14.3 7


7 36.8 1 5.3


13 32.5 6
12 31.6 4


11 44.0 10 40.0 4

42 40.0 35 33.3 14


14.8
6.8


7.1
5.4
19.4
8.3


8.3 0
14.3 1


3.3 2.1
0.0 1.9


0.0 2.0
2.7 1.9
2.8 2.2
0.0 1.8


0.0 2.0
2.0 2.1


2 10.5 1 5.3 2.0


15.0
10.5


7.5
23.7


2.5 2.0
0.0 2.2


16.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1.7

13.3 12 11.4 2 1.9 2.0








Table 11. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant patrons regarding the texture of whole bay
scallops.

Response

Characteristic Positive Neutral Negative Total


no. % no. % no. %


Gender
male
female
Total characteristic contribution

Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of shellfish consumptionb
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week) and
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution


72.1
75.0


7.1
8.1
22.2
8.3


78.6
78.4
66.7
75.0


75.0
69.4


15 78.9


1 5.3 3 15.8


75.0
73.0


Relative
Information
no. % Measure"


61 58.1 0.007219
44 41.9 0.013237
0.020457


14 14.1 0.003313
37 37.4 0.005883
36 36.4 0.009489
12 12.1 0.020676


36 34.6 0.005689
49 47.1 0.002052

19 18.3 0.008641
0.016382


40 38.8 0.002397
63 61.2 0.000298


0.002696


All characteristics 77 73.3 14 13.3 14 13.3 105 100.0
'A relative information measure is a positive value. It is not predictive. The larger the value the more information that particular demographic
characteristic contributes to the response. See Appendix B for further explanation.
bModerate and frequent shellfish consumers were combined to eliminate zeroes.








Table 12. Value of whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale
restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


no. % no. % no. % no.


15 27.3 17 30.9 15 27.3 7
19 46.3 5 12.2 11 26.8 6


7 50.0 2 14.3 2 14.3 3
10 29.4 13 38.2 8 23.5 3
10 30.3 5 15.2 10 30.3 7
4 50.0 0 0.0 4 50.0 0


Age category
under 35
35-49
50 64
65+


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less) 11 33.3 8 24.2 9 27.3 5
moderate (more than once per month, 15 34.1 10 22.7 13 29.5 5
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week) 8 44.4 4 22.2 4 22.2 2


% no. % no.


12.7 1
14.6 0


21.4 0
8.8 0
21.2 1
0.0 0


15.2 0
11.4 1


1.8 2.1
0.0 2.3


0.0 2.2
2.3 2.3


11.1 0 0.0 2.0


Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)


12 31.6 10 26.3 14 36.8 2
7 22.6 8 25.8 7 22.6 9

14 56.0 4 16.0 5 20.0 2

34 35.4 22 22.9 26 27.1 13


5.3 0
29.0 0


0.0 2.2
0.0 2.6


8.0 0 0.0 1.8


All characteristics 13.5 1 1.0 2.2


Gender
male
female


All characteristics


13.5 1


1.0 2.2







provide insights on their product evaluations. The small size of the scallops was a recurring

comment which undoubtedly (and negatively) affected their perceptions of value.

Information measures pointed to frequency of shellfish consumption as the most explanatory

demographic variable regarding the rating of the value of whole bay scallops (Table 13). Age was

the second most explanatory variable. Gender and frequency of dining out provided much smaller

measures of relative information.

Overall Satisfaction

Overall satisfaction with the whole bay scallops was rated "excellent" by 48 (45.3 percent)

of the restaurant patrons and "very good" by 33 (33.1 percent). Only 14 respondents (13.2 percent)

rated overall satisfaction as "good", and eight (7.5 percent) rated overall satisfaction as "fair" and

three (2.8 percent) rated overall satisfaction with the purchase as "poor." Thus, it appears that the

overwhelming majority of the restaurant patrons were very satisfied with the whole bay scallops

(Table 14). Thus, nearly 80 percent of the respondents appeared to be very satisfied with the

product. Females indicated slightly more overall satisfaction than men. The age categories' mean

ratings of overall satisfaction were similar for the under 35, 35-49, and over 65 age groups and

slightly less satisfaction was indicated by the 50-64 age group. The respondents eating out

moderately often were slightly less satisfied than the infrequent diners and the frequent diners were

slightly more satisfied with their purchase than the others. Light and heavy shellfish consumers

indicated equivalent overall satisfaction with the moderate shellfish consumers indicating slightly

less overall satisfaction (Table 14).

Frequency of shellfish consumption contributed the most information relative to restaurant

patrons' overall satisfaction with whole bay scallops (Table 15). The second most relevant

demographic variable was age, followed by frequency of dining out and then gender.








Table 13. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant patrons regarding the value of whole bay scallops.
Response

Characteristic Positive Neutral Negative Total
Relative
Information
no. % no. % no. % no. % Measure'


Gender
male
female
Total characteristic contribution


Age category'
under 35
35-49


64.3
67.6
46.3


Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution


All characteristics


57.6
56.8


12 66.7


57.9
48.4


18 72.0


56 58.9


14.3
23.5
34.1


21.4
8.8
19.5


27.3
29.5


4 22.2


36.8
22.6


5 20.0


26 27.4


2 11.1


59.1 0.000185
40.9 0.004721
0.004905


15.7 0.010296
38.2 0.007742
46.1 0.015075
0.033114


34.7 0.000312
46.3 0.000564


18 18.9 0.002458
0.003334


40.4 0.024264
33.0 0.021789


2 8.0 25 26.6 0.011009
0.057062


13 13.7


95 100.0


'A relative information measure is a positive value. It is not predictive. The larger the value, the more information that particular demographic
characteristic contributes to the response. See Appendix B for further explanation.
bThe 50-64 and 65+ age categories were combined to eliminate zeroes.







Table 14. Overall satisfaction with whole bay scallops rated by restaurant patrons, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an
upscale restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


Gender
male
female

Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+


no. %


27 43.5
21 47.7


6 42.9
19 51.4
13 36.1
7 58.3


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less) 14 38.9
moderate (more than once per month, 25 50.0
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week) 9 47.4


Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)


All characteristics


18 45.0
16 42.1


no. % no. % no. % no. % no.


21 33.9
12 27.3


5 35.7
12 32.4
10 27.8
3 25.0


15 41.7
11 22.0


11.3
15.9


7.1
10.8
19.4
8.3


11.1 3
16.0 3


6.5 3
9.1 0


14.3
5.4
11.1
0.0


8.3 0
6.0 3


4.8 2.0
0.0 1.9


0.0 1.9
0.0 1.7
5.6 2.2
8.3 1.8


0.0 1.9
6.0 2.0


7 36.8 1 5.3 2 10.5 0 0.0 1.8


16 40.0
8 21.1


12.5
13.2


2.5 0
18.4 2


0.0 1.7
5.3 2.2


13 50.0 9 34.6 4 15.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 1.7

48 45.3 33 31.1 14 13.2 8 7.5 3 2.8 1.9








Table 15. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant patrons on overall satisfaction with whole bay
scallops.

Response

Characteristic Positive Neutral Negative Total

Relative
Information
no. % no. % no. % no. % Measure'


Gender
male
female
Total characteristic contribution


Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64


77.4
75.0


78.6
83.8
63.9
83.3


Total characteristic contribution


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of shellfish consumptionb
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution


80.6
72.0


16 84.2


11.1
16.0


1 5.3 2 10.5


85.0
71.9


62 58.5 0.001163
44 41.5 0.001427
0.002590


14 14.1 0.003783
37 37.4 0.008889
36 36.4 0.013295
12 12.1 0.002104
0.028070


36 34.3 0.001807
50 47.6 0.002414

19 18.1 0.008289
0.012510


40 38.5 0.028314
64 61.5 0.004299


0.032613


All characteristics 81 76.4 14 13.2 11 10.4 106 100.0
'A relative information measure is a positive value. It is not predictive. The larger the value, the more information that particular demographic
characteristic contributes to the response. See Appendix B for further explanation.
bModerate and frequent shellfish consumers were combined to eliminate zeroes.







Willingness to Order Whole Bay Scallops in the Future at the Same Price

When asked whether or not they would buy whole bay scallops again, most restaurant

patrons responded favorably (Table 16). Eighty-seven (84.5 percent) said they were willing to buy

whole bay scallops in the future at the same price. A logistic analysis of the data indicated that no

demographic characteristics were significant for predicting a given restaurant patron's willingness

to buy whole bay scallops, although slightly larger percentage of women were willing to order whole

bay scallops in the future at the same price. The percentage of respondents 65 or older willing to

order the scallops again was also higher than younger age categories. All but one of the heaviest

shellfish consumers (96.2 percent) indicated a willingness to order whole bay scallops in the future,

while 10 (27 percent) of the more moderate shellfish consumers would not order them again. Only

four (10.5 percent) of the infrequent shellfish consumers indicated that they would not purchase

whole bay scallops again (Table 16).

The frequency of shellfish consumption provided by far the most information regarding

restaurant patrons' willingness to buy whole bay scallops again in the future relative to the other

demographic and behavioral variables (Table 17). The age category provided a moderate amount

of information, but the gender of the respondent and the frequency of dining out added little

information regarding willingness to buy whole bay scallops again.








Table 16. Restaurant patrons' willingness to order whole bay scallops in the future at the
same price, by gender, age category, frequency of dining out and frequency of shellfish
consumption.
Response
Yes No Total

Characteristic Number Percent Number Percent Number

Gender
male 50 83.3 10 16.7 60
female 37 86.0 6 14.0 43

Age category
under 35 12 85.7 2 14.3 14
35-49 30 83.3 6 16.7 36
50-64 28 80.0 7 20.0 35
65+ 10 90.9 1 9.1 11

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less) 30 83.3 6 16.7 36
moderate (more than once per month, 40 85.1 7 14.9 47
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week) 16 84.2 3 15.8 19

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less) 34 89.5 4 10.5 38
moderate (more than once per month, 27 73.0 10 27.0 37
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week) 25 96.2 1 3.8 26

All characteristics 87 84.5 16 15.5 103







Table 17. Measure of information content of socio-demographic characteristics of restaurant patrons on the willingness to order whole bay
scallops in the future.
Response

Characteristic Yes No Total


no. %


Gender
male
female
Total characteristic contribution

Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Total characteristic contribution


All characteristics


83.3
86.0



85.7
83.3
80.0
90.9


16 84.2


89.5
73.0


25 96.2


87 84.5


16.7
14.0



14.3
16.7
20.0
9.1


16.7
14.9

15.8



10.5
27.0


% no.


Relative
Information
% Measure'


58.3 0.0002741
41.7 0.0004213
0.0006954


0.0000906
0.0001765
0.002417
0.0024214
0.0051055


35.3 0.0001661
46.1 0.0000737

18.6 0.0000046
0.0002443


37.6 0.0044405
36.6 0.0137419


3.8 26 25.7 0.0276422
0.0458247


16 15.5


"A relative information measure is a positive value. It is not predictive. The larger the value,
characteristic contributes to the response. See Appendix B for further explanation.


103 100.0


the more information that particular demographic







Reaction of Chefs in the Florida Experiment

Overall, the chefs in the participating restaurants were very pleased with the whole bay

scallops and were willing to include them on their menus in the future. Chefs cited the appeal of a

"local" product that was "farm-raised." The chefs indicated that aquacultured products are easy to

promote because they combat the perception of over-fishing in the area. They also suggested that

table tents would be an acceptable and effective means of promoting the product.

The chefs noted that those ordering the new menu item tended to be middle-aged, 40-55

years old, and probably upper-middle class. Scallop dishes were not of interest to children. It was

also noted that "old timers" and "locals" who were not accustomed to eating whole scallops were

not inclined to order them. The chefs had the perception that visitors from other geographic areas

were more accepting of the idea of eating whole scallops.

Although the whole scallops had a non-traditional appearance, the chefs welcomed another

type of shellfish to add diversity to their menus. Slight fouling, such as the barnacles encountered

in the 1997 season, was acceptable to chefs and patrons alike. The chefs observed that the slight

fouling gave the product a "natural" look. However, the heavier fouling that was common during

the 1998 season detracted from the products's appearance, especially in pasta dishes. When served

on the half-shell, the fouling posed no serious problems because the top half of the shell was

removed. The chefs also suggested that a wholesale price of about 25 cents each would be

acceptable, "like clams, but maybe a little higher." They observed that at a wholesale cost of 25

cents each, the ingredient cost of scallops would be about $1.50 per dish, in line with other

appetizers that retailed for $4.95 to $5.95.







While scallops that were received on Friday were usually sold out by Monday, the chefs

estimated that shelf life may be from three to five days. However, the chefs stressed that the shell

stock should be "tempered" to maximize shelf life. Cooling shellfish harvested in 80 F waters to

refrigeration temperatures too quickly results in damage and short shelf life. Comments regarding

packaging indicated that damp excelsior would be both effective and acceptable.







CONCLUSIONS


This study showed that whole bay scallops, when professionally prepared and presented, can

be a successful part of full-service, white table cloth restaurant menus. Restaurant patrons ordering

whole bay scallops rated the attributes of appearance, taste, texture, value and overall satisfaction

quite highly. Further, many restaurant patrons were curious and few were apprehensive about whole

bay scallops, even though eating the whole animal is not the common practice in the U.S. Taste was

rated more highly than the other attributes which bodes well for future success in marketing the

product. Value was rated a bit lower than the other characteristics, and based on written comments

from the respondents, this may have been a result of the product size. The small size was the most

prevalent negative comment from the survey respondents (Appendix D). The perception of value

could be enhanced by including more scallops per serving, lowering the retail price, or doing both.

Informational statistics showed that frequency of consuming shellfish provides the greatest

relative amount of information regarding restaurant patrons' evaluation of product characteristics and

willingness to order whole bay scallops in the future; frequent consumers of shellfish appear to be

the most favorably impressed with whole bay scallops. In addition, the participating chefs indicated

that middle-aged patrons were most likely to order the product. The chefs also observed that locals

and older patrons familiar with traditional scallop dishes (adductor muscle only) were not as likely

to order whole scallops. On a positive note, although a small number of whole bay scallops were

delivered to the participating local restaurants, the demand outstripped supply quickly, with all the

product delivered on Friday being sold before Monday morning. Thus, it appears that markets could

be readily developed if adequate supplies of reasonably-sized whole bay scallops were forthcoming.

Successful marketing efforts will require careful professional preparation. Satisfaction with







whole bay scallops is probably most dependent on preparation and presentation. Chef or serving

staff recommendations appear effective in directing restaurant patrons' interest in dishes which

includes whole bay scallops, but their efforts could be enhanced through the use of table tents. These

marketing materials could include information promoting the product as a locally grown,

aquacultured species. This message would appeal to those concerned with overfishing and

environmental preservation issues. The whole bay scallop can also be promoted as a "local" novelty

dish to tourists. In addition, the local population may become more accustomed to the whole bay

scallop product as opposed to the traditional muscle-only product given time and educational efforts.



















APPENDIX A

Survey Materials






1i UNIVERSITY OF
I FLORIDA


A (on

Who


a market research project

of


Questions or concerns regarding this
research may be also directed to
The University of Florida
UFIRB Office
Box 112250
Gainesville, FL 32611-2250


The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center

Dr. R. L. Degner, Director
Dr. C. M. Adams, Professor
1-800-4UF-POLL
(1-800-483-7655)







The bay scallops you just ate were grown under controlled conditions near
Crystal River by the University of South Florida. The University of Florida is
researching the marketability of whole bay scallops.

We'd like to know what you thought about them. This questionnaire will take
about two minutes to complete. We can't compensate you for your time, but
you'll have the satisfaction of knowing that your opinion counts!

You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. Your
responses will be confidential to the extent provided by law.

1. Why did you select whole bay scallops? (check all that apply).

SFamiliar with product Menu special Curiosity
Suggested by staff or chef Price

2. How would you rate
the scallops on: (Place an "X" in the boxes to indicate your ratings)

Excellent Very Good Fair Poor
Good

Appearance

Taste

Texture

Value

Overall
satisfaction


3. Please indicate your initial reaction to the thought of eating a whole scallop.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


Not hesitant
at all


Extremely
hesitant


4. Would you order this product again at the same price? Yes No

5. How many times per month or per year do you dine at a moderately
upscale/upscale restaurant? Times per month OR
Times per year

6. How many times per month do you eat shellfish such as oysters, clams or
scallops? Times per month OR Times per year

7. Are you......... Male Female

8. In what year were you born?

Comments:


[For survey validation only About 10 percent of all participants will be
called to verify personal completion of this questionnaires


Last Name


Phone( )


Thank You!







University of Florida
SCALLOP STUDY

A Note TO The Wait Staff

we appreciate all your help in getting your customers to try
the whole bay scallops and to complete the brief questionnaire. As
you probably know, reaction to the whole bay scallops has been very
positive.
we plan to conduct this consumer research a few more weeks,
but our supplies of scallops are very limited. Please make every
serving count bly doing the following:
Continue to promote them -- let's sell' em,
not smell' em!
Check questionnaires for completeness
while the customer is present, if
possible. If they have overlooked a question,
please get them to answer it. Try hard to get
phone numbers!
Please list the menu item, the price, and
your initials on the back of the form.
Some people have been leaving the rating
for "value" blank. Value simply means "at
the Drice you were charged, were the whole
bay scalloDs a good deal?"
On question 3, a few customers are placing a
check or "x" between the numbers. If you spot
one marked in this manner, please get them to
circle a single number.

Overall, we are very pleased with the way the study is going.
Thank you very much for your help!
Bob Degner Chuck Adams
1-800-4UF-POLL

















APPENDIX B

Information Statistics








Technical Note on Information Statistics


Most statistical applications examine the relationship between two normally

distributed variables. Statistical causality is inferred if when the independent variable is

higher than average, the dependent variable is also higher than its average. The statistical

significance of this relationship can be tested using statistical inference based on the normal

distribution function. In the current study, if statistical deviations of demographic

characteristics are correlated with higher levels of a given response such as willingness to

buy whole bay scallops, we conclude that the demographic characteristics determine the

willingness to buy. The test statistics based on the normal distribution function are then t-

tests or Chi-square statistics.

However, the traditional mechanics of analysis under normality represent a subset of

statistical measures of inference. A more basic notion of statistical inference can be derived

from the concepts of statistical information. Theil (1967) develops one such measure of

information based on the relative probability of a given event. Let pi be the probability of

event i and q, be the probability of the same event given some other piece of information.

For example, let p, be the probability of buying whole bay scallops and P2 be the probability

of not buying whole bay scallops. These probabilities represent the proportion of the total

population that would be willing or unwilling to buy scallops. Next assume that we observe

the share of people who are willing to buy scallops who enjoy frequently eating shellfish.

Let these relative probabilities be q, and q,, respectively. The question typically asked of the








analyst is: What is the effect of frequent shellfish consumption on the probability of buying

whole bay scallops again in the future? To answer this question, we examine the relative

difference in probabilities using Theil's information measure


IV Pi
I= Zp,ln




If the probability of buying whole bay scallops when one is a frequent shellfish consumer is

close to the general probability of buying whole bay scallops, the ratio of the probabilities

is close to one and the information index approaches zero. If the probability of buying whole

bay scallops is different (either higher or lower) then the ratio becomes different than one and

the information index becomes larger.


















APPENDIX C

The Fund-raiser Sample








FINDINGS: THE FUND-RAISER SAMPLE

The questionnaire used for the fund-raiser sample was identical to that used for the

restaurant sample. Thus, discussions of fund-raisers' attributes and their evaluations of

whole bay scallops follow the same general outline as used for the restaurant patrons.

Respondent Attributes

Of the 44 participants from the fund-raiser group, half were male and half female (Appendix

Table 1). Five were under 35 years of age, 14 were 35-49, 12 were 50-64 and nine were over 65.

Thirteen (30 percent) dined at upscale restaurants infrequently, 19 (43 percent) moderately often,

while 10 (23 percent) patronized upscale restaurants at least once per week. Eleven (25 percent)

consumed shellfish at least once per week, 23 (52 percent) ate shellfish moderately often, and six

ate shellfish infrequently.

Fund-raisers' Reasons for Trying

Respondents were asked why they selected whole bay scallops. Multiple answers were

allowed, with possible responses being 1) Familiarity with product, 2) Suggested by staff or chef,

3) Menu special, and 4) Curiosity. Note that price did not apply to participants from the fund-raiser

group because these respondents had been provided scallops as part of a fund-raiser/dinner at a fixed

price instead of as an a la carte menu item.

Suggestion by wait staff or the chef influenced 18 (43.9 percent) participants of the fund-

raiser group to try the whole bay scallops. Fifteen (37 percent) tried them because they were listed

as a menu special, and 10 (24 percent) because of curiosity. Four respondents, about 10 percent, said

they tried the whole bay scallops because they were familiar with them (Appendix Table 2).









Appendix Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the fund-raiser sample.


Fund-raiser
Sample


Characteristic


Gender
male
female
Totals

Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+
Totals

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
Totals

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)
-Totals


Number Percent


20.8
20.8
41.5


5.1
14.1
12.1
9.1
40.4


12.4
18.1

9.5
40.0


5.8
22.1

10.6
38.5


Appendix Table 2. Fund-raisers' reasons for trying whole bay scallops.

Reasons Fund-raisers
Number Percenta

Suggested by staff or chef 18 43.9
Menu special 15 36.6
Curiosity 10 24.4
Familiar with product 4 9.8
Price n.a. n.a.
a Percentages are based on 41 responses and do not add to 100 since each respondent was
permitted to cite more than one reason.








Initial Reaction to the Thought of Eating a Whole Bay Scallop


Fund-raisers indicated more hesitancy than the restaurant patrons with an average rating of

3.5 on the one to nine scale where "one" indicated "not hesitant at all" and "nine" represented

"extremely hesitant" (Appendix Table 3). Six out of the 43 (14 percent) fund-raisers rated their

hesitation a nine. However, 21, nearly half, indicated no hesitation at all. Females rated their

hesitation higher than males, and respondents 65 years old or more rated their hesitancy higher than

any other age group. The most frequent diners and the most frequent shellfish consumers indicated

more hesitation than the others. These results are consistent with the perceptions voiced by the

chefs, i.e, that local residents that typically eat the adductor muscle only, would be more averse to

eating the whole animal.

Attributes of Whole Bay Scallops Rated by Survey Participants

Fund-raisers were asked to rate the whole bay scallops with regard to appearance, taste,

texture, value and overall satisfaction using a five-point semantic differential scale. Respondents

assigned a value of excellent, very good, good, fair or poor to each attribute. Since members of the

fund-raiser group did not purchase whole bay scallops as a separately priced menu item, their ratings

of value were not analyzed.








Appendix Table 3. Initial reaction to the thought of eating a whole bay scallop, rated by fund-raisers, by gender, age
category, frequency of dining at an upscale restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.

Rating

Characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mean Total
(Not hesitant at all ------------Extremely hesitant) Rating Responding
(Not hesitant at all.......--------.......Extremely hesitant)


Gender
male
female


Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

All characteristics


13 2
8 2


2 0
9 0
7 1
2 2


8 1
10 1


0 1
2 3


1 1
0 2
0 1
0 0


1 1
0 2


3 2 0 0 1


5 0
11 4


0 1
0 1


0 0
2 0


0 0
0 0
0 0
2 0


1 0
0 0


1 3
2 3


1 0
0 2
2 1
0 3


0 1
3 2


1 0 0 2 4.0


0 0
2 0


0 0
1 2


3 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 3 5.5

21 4 1 2 4 2 0 3 6 3.5







Appearance

Of the 44 fund-raisers, 27.3 percent rated appearance of the whole bay scallops "excellent"

and 13.6 percent "very good" (Appendix Table 4). About 30 percent rated appearance "good," but

13.6 percent rated appearance "fair" and 16 percent rated appearance as "poor." An even number

of men and women (six of each) rated appearance as "excellent" but men rated appearance slightly

lower overall. The 35-49 age category rated appearance higher than the other categories and the over

65 age category averaged the lowest rating on appearance. The infrequent diners at upscale

restaurants rated appearance highest and the more frequent diners lowest. Those respondents eating

shellfish at least once a week rated appearance slightly higher than the infrequent and moderately

frequent shellfish consumers.

Taste

Only eight (18.2 percent) of the fund-raisers rated taste as "excellent" (Appendix Table 5).

Ratings of "very good," "good" and "fair" were reported by 11 (25 percent), 12 (27.3 percent) and

10 (22.7 percent), respectively. Three rated taste as "poor."Equal numbers of men and women rated

taste as "excellent." Overall, women rated taste slightly higher than men. Those respondents under

age 35 and over age 65 rated taste lower overall than those in the middle age groups. Those dining

out most often in upscale restaurants rated taste lowest and those dining out once per month or less

rated taste the highest. Respondents eating shellfish once per month or less rated taste higher than

those consuming shellfish moderately or often or frequently.








Appendix Table 4. Appearance of whole bay scallops rated by fund-raisers, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale
restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating

Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


Gender
male
female


Age category
under 35
35-49
50 64
65+

Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

All characteristics


no. %


6 27.3
6 27.3


1 20.0
5 35.7
3 25.0
2 22.2


5 38.5
4 21.1


no. % no. % no.


1 4.5 9 40.9 2
5 22.7 4 18.2 4


0 0.0 3 60.0 1
2 14.3 4 28.6 1
1 8.3 5 41.7 2
2 22.2 0 0.0 1


2 15.4 3 23.1 2
4 21.1 7 36.8 2


3 30.0 0 0.0 3 30.0 0


2 33.3
6 26.1


1 16.7 1 16.7 1
4 17.4 6 26.1 2


3 27.3 1 9.1 5 45.5 1

12 27.3 6 13.6 13 29.5 6


% no. %


9.1 4
18.2 3


18.2
13.6


20.0 0 0.0
7.1 2 14.3
16.7 1 8.3
11.1 4 44.4


15.4 1 7.7
10.5 2 10.5

0.0 4 40.0


16.7 1 16.7
8.7 5 21.7


9.1 1


9.1 2.6


13.6 7 15.9 2.8








Appendix Table 5. Taste of whole bay scallops rated by fund-raisers, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale
restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


Gender
male
female

Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)


All characteristics


no. % no. % no. %


4 18.2 4 18.2 7 31.8
4 18.2 7 31.8 5 22.7


0 0.0 2 40.0 1 20.0
3 21.4 4 28.6 3 21.4
1 8.3 5 41.7 5 41.7
3 33.3 0 0.0 1 11.1


5 38.5 2 15.4 5 38.5
1 5.3 8 42.1 5 26.3

2 20.0 1 10.0 2 20.0


2 33.3 3 50.0 0 0.0
4 17.4 3 13.0 9 39.1

1 9.1 4 36.4 3 27.3

8 18.2 11 25.0 12 27.3


no. % no. % no.


22.7 2
22.7 1


40.0 0
21.4 1
8.3 0
33.3 2


7.7 0
21.1 1


9.1 2.9
4.5 2.6


0.0 3.0
7.1 2.6
0.0 2.5
22.2 3.1


0.0 2.2
5.3 2.8


3 30.0 2 20.0 3.2


16.7 0
17.4 3


3 27.3 0


22.7 3


0.0 2.0
13.0 3.0

0.0 2.7

6.8 2.8








Texture

Nearly one-fourth of the fund-raisers rated texture as "excellent" (22.7 percent). Other

texture ratings were "very good" (13.6 percent), "good" (31 percent), "fair" (27.3 percent) and

"poor" (4.5 percent) (Appendix Table 6). Equal numbers of number of men and women rated

texture as "excellent" or "very good". Overall, females were just slightly more positive

regarding the scallop texture than males. Respondents over 65 rated texture the lowest and those

50-64 rated more positively than the those in other age categories. The more frequent diners

rated texture slightly lower than either infrequent or moderate diners. Those consuming shellfish

at least once a week rated texture the highest (Appendix Table 6).

Overall Satisfaction

Fund-raisers were also asked to rate overall satisfaction, but results should be regarded in

light of the fact that these respondents did not purchase the product and may have had a pre-

existing aversion to whole bay scallops.

Out of 42 respondents providing from fund-raiser group, nine (21.4 percent) rated their

overall satisfaction with the product as "excellent" (Appendix Table 7). An additional four (9.5

percent) rated overall satisfaction as "very good" and ten (23.8 percent) rated it "good." Overall

satisfaction ratings of "fair" or "poor" were indicated by 11 (26.2 percent) and eight (19 percent)

of the fund-raisers, respectively. Women rated overall satisfaction higher than men. The average

rating of overall satisfaction was around three, with the over 65 age group slightly less satisfied

with a mean rating of satisfaction of 3.5. Respondents eating out least often were more satisfied

with the product.







Appendix Table 6. Texture of whole bay scallops rated by fund-raisers, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale
restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating

Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


no. % no.


% no. % no.


Gender
male
female


Age category
under 35
35 49
50-64
65+


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)


5 22.7 3 13.6 6 27.3 7
5 22.7 3 13.6 8 36.4 5


1 20.0 0 0.0 3 60.0 1
2 14.3 3 21.4 4 28.6 5
3 25.0 3 25.0 3 25.0 3
3 33.3 0 0.0 2 22.2 2


5 38.5 2 15.4 4 30.8 2
2 10.5 4 21.1 7 36.8 6


3 30.0 0


0.0 2 20.0 3


2 33.3 2 33.3 1 16.7 1
5 21.7 2 8.7 6 26.1 8


2 18.2 1


9.1 6 54.5 2


31.8 1
22.7 1


20.0 0
35.7 0
25.0 0
22.2 2


15.4 0
31.6 0


4.5 2.8
4.5 2.7


0.0
0.0
0.0
22.2


0.0 1.2
0.0 1.0


30.0 2 20.0 1.6


16.7 0
34.8 2

18.2 0


0.0 1.2
8.7 1.3

0.0 1.0


All characteristics 10 22.7 6 13.6 14 31.8 12 27.3 2 4.5 2.8


no. %


10 22.7 6 13.6 14 31.8 12


27.3 2 4.5 2.8


All characteristics








Appendix Table 7. Overall satisfaction with whole bay scallops rated by, by gender, age category, frequency of dining at an upscale
restaurant, and frequency of shellfish consumption.
Rating
Mean Total
Characteristic Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Rating Responding


no. % no. % no.


% no. % no. %


Gender
male
female


Age category
under 35
35-49
50-64
65+


Frequency of dining out
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

Frequency of shellfish consumption
infrequent (once per month or less)
moderate (more than once per month,
less than once per week)
frequent (at least once per week)

All characteristics


4 18.2 2 9.1 5 22.7 7
5 25.0 2 10.0 5 25.0 4


1 20.0 0 0.0 2 40.0 2
3 23.1 1 7.7 4 30.8 4
2 16.7 2 16.7 3 25.0 3
2 25.0 1 12.5 0 0.0 1


3 25.0 3 25.0 3 25.0 2
4 22.2 0 0.0 6 33.3 6

2 20.0 1 10.0 1 10.0 2


0 0.0 2 33.0 2 33.3 2
4 18.2 2 9.1 5 22.7 6


3 30.0 0

9 21.4 4


0.0 3 30.0 2

9.5 10 23.8 11


31.8 4
20.0 4


40.0 0
30.8 1
25.0 2
12.5 4


16.7 1
33.3 2


18.2
20.0


0.0
7.7
16.7
50.0


8.3
11.1


20.0 4 40.0 3.5


33.3 0
27.3 5


0.0
22.7


20.0 2 20.0 3.0

26.2 8 19.0 3.1


















APPENDIX D

Restaurant Patrons' and Fund-raisers' Comments








Comments from Restaurant Patrons


1. Nothing exceptional, very bland. Tastes more like an oyster than a scallop. Naturally
raised scallops are better.

2. The cook did an outstanding job. It was not fishy. Appearance was great, taste
excellent. Keep up the great work!

3. Familiar with bay & sea scallops. Compares favorably with Long Island scallops.

4. Well prepared by Decembers'.

5. Fantastic product. Very familiar with farm raised clams. I am happy to see scallops
being done. Scallops were tender and succulent.

6. The stew these scallops were served in was extremely complimentary to the scallop
meat. Very tasty. Exceptional quality.

7. The scallops were wonderful. They would taste great over rice.

8. Great idea; but....

9. Excellent sauce.

10. I thought they were excellent. The size of the portion (8) was appropriate. The sauce
they're served in is superb.

11. They were very tasteful! I could hardly tell the difference between these and natural
ones.

12. Very good!

13. A pleasant change from the original version.

14. Preparation and presentation were well above average. Quality of the product was
excellent.

15. Hopefully, as production increases they well become a better value.

16. Wonderful!

17. Surprisingly excellent, since I have always eaten bay scallops "cleaned" but I really
enjoyed it and would definitely order it again!

18. Scallops are Great! Next to stone crab they are my favorite seafood.









19. Surprised at the appearance. I thought they would look like sea scallops which I've
eaten and seen in the past. The first bite a little "too fishy." Sauce was excellent.
I wonder how I would like it without sauce. When I think of sea scallops, I think of
a "sweet taste".

20. They were so tiny we all laughed.

21. The were smaller than I expected. Eight scallops for $5.95 is a tad bit pricey. They
did have good texture and flavor. Good idea to raise instead of harvest "native."

22. The scallops were smaller than I expected. The preparation was excellent. Garlic,
butter and parsley I expect.

23. Good taste.

24. Let the scallops grow bigger.

25. Delicious dish!

26. The scallops had a rather "fishy" taste.

27. Somewhat gritty.

28. Need a little more time to purge- some grit.

29. Garlic and butter sauce were great with the scallops.

30. There was more "fish" flavor than bay scallops I have purchased in the past. This
appealed to me. I would definitely order again. Are they safer health wise?
Environmentally? I would be even more interested if I knew ordering these reduced
over-harvesting of natural sources. Do you control the water quality?

31. Glad to see this type of research!

32. Very good!

33. Somewhat gritty, but very tasty!

34. We gather scallops in the Keaton Del area each July.

35. Great.

36. The concept is there, but "cleaned" scallops even if consumers didn't know they
were cleaned, have a natural sweet taste that was missed in whole scallops.









37. Very pleasant. I don't know why, but scallops have never been served to me in their
shells. Why not? I suspect the large ones I have been served before were not
scallops?

38. Delicious.

39. Very good texture (not stringy). Good flavor.

40. A bit undersized. A large scallop would make a better presentation. Crackers take
away the taste. Perhaps bread instead. In addition, garnish the plate for a better
presentation. Especially in upscale restaurants.

41. They were great.

42. They looked small. Taste wasn't excellent.

43. Without the barnacles they would be perfect.

44. Just great, but a little small.

45. A dozen for the price would be a better deal. Good stuff though.

46. Too small!!

47. I thought it was wonderful. It looked very appealing and tasted great.








Fund-raiser Comments


1. Scallops were very small!!

2. The scallops were too small but very good. I am a scallop nut.

3. Love scallop muscle but not whole scallop!

4. I love raw oysters but eating anything but the muscle of the clam is not too pleasing.

5. Fishy.

6. Small.

7. Too small.

8. Too small.

9. Scallops were very small very difficult to eat let them get bigger.

10. They need to be bigger.

11. These scallops were great, they just need to grow up. Too small.

12. Super grub.

13. Great food.

14. Excellent.

15. The scallops were way too small but the flavor and presentation were excellent.

16. Beautiful but small.

17. Scallops were harvested too small!

18. Excellent.

19. Scallops are delicious, but the whole animal is pretty disgusting before it is separated
from its shell.

20. Samples were very small.

21. Too small.








22. Product was too small physically and quantitatively to evaluate...but as is obvious, the
wine had a good effect!!!

23. I love the taste of all shellfish.

24. They were too small and I prefer the white meat only. Larger wild scallops are much
sweeter. Of course that may be due to the way they were prepared. I do however
hope this project is successful and has commercial success. No comparison to farm
raised clams.

25. I'd rather eat clams! They were too small to evaluate. They might be good, but too
small. We needed more to eat.

26. Wonderful.







LITERATURE CITED


Cover, Thomas M. and Joy A. Thomas, (1991), Elements of Information Theory, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., New York, New York.

Degner, Robert L. and Charles M. Adams, "Marketing Whole Bay Scallops Through
Upscale Restaurants in Virginia" (1997), unpublished staff paper, Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Snedecor, George W. and William G. Cochran, (1967), Statistical Methods, The Iowa State
University Press, Ames, Iowa.

Thacker, Sayra G. and Michael J. Oesterling, "Marketing Bay Scallops" (1994), unpublished
staff paper, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary,
Gloucester Point, Virginia.

Theil, Henri, (1967), Economics and Information Theory, Studies in Mathematical and
Managerial Economics, Vol. 7, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam,
Holland.




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