• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Title Page
 Center information
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Acknowledgement
 Summary
 Introduction
 Objectives
 Procedure
 Findings
 Conclusion
 Appendix
 Reference






Group Title: Industry report - University of Florida. Florida Agricultural Market Research Center ; no. 80-2
Title: An analysis of food retailers' newspaper advertising for fresh limes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026872/00001
 Material Information
Title: An analysis of food retailers' newspaper advertising for fresh limes a report
Series Title: Industry report Agricultural Market Research Center
Physical Description: ix, 53 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Degner, Robert L
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, a part of the Food and Resource Economics Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Limes -- United States   ( lcsh )
Advertising -- Farm produce -- Analysis   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 53.
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert L. Degner.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026872
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000409976
oclc - 07317538
notis - ACF6727

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Title Page
        Page i
    Center information
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of Figures
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vii
    Summary
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Objectives
        Page 2
    Procedure
        Page 2
    Findings
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Conclusion
        Page 38
    Appendix
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Reference
        Page 53
Full Text



INDUSTRY REPORT 80-2


AN ANAL
FOOD RETAILERS'
NEWSPAPER
ADVERTISING
FOR FRESH LIMES


JULY 1980


amik





















ABSTRACT


The basic objective of this study was to determine the nature and

extent of food retailer's newspaper advertising for fresh limes. A

national newspaper clipping service obtained all newspaper advertising

in the United States for fresh limes for a 14-week period during the

peak production period for fresh limes. Approximately 6,000 retail

ads containing 13,000 square inches of space were collected during the

audit period in 49 of the 50 states.




Key words: Limes, retail advertising, newspaper advertising.
























An Analysis of Food Retailers' Newspaper Advertising
for Fresh Limes











A report by


Robert L. Degner












June 1980



The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of
The Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida















The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center

A Service of
the Food and Resource Economics Department
of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


The purpose of this Center is to provide timely, applied research

on current and emerging marketing problems affecting Florida's agri-

cultural and marine industries. The Center seeks to provide research

and information to production, marketing, and processing firms, groups

and organizations concerned with improving and expanding markets for

Florida agricultural and marine products.

The Center is staffed by a basic group of economists trained in

agriculture and marketing. In addition, cooperating personnel from

other IFAS units provide a wide range of expertise which can be applied

as determined by the requirements of individual projects.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

LIST OF TABLES .................................................... i

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES ... ..........................................

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................... vi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................. vii

SUMMARY ...................................................... viii

INTRODUCTION ............................................. .........

OBJECTIVES .............................................. .... 2

PROCEDURE ............................................................ 2

FINDINGS ........................................................... 3
Seasonal Distribution of Retail Ads ............................. 3
Geographic Distribution ......................................... 9
General Media Characteristics ................................... 13
Frequency of Publications ............................. 13
Publication of Ads by Day of Week ......................... 15
Duration of Food Ads ....................... ........... 5
Use of Color in Retail Ads ................................. 20
Fresh Lime Ad Characteristics ................. ............... 21
Size ................................................... 21
Lime Ad intent ......................................... 28
Pricing ....................................... ......... 32
Factors Affecting Fresh Lime Advertising ................... 34

CONCLUSIONS ....................................................... 38

APPENDIX ....................................................... .. 39

REFERENCES ....................................................... 53














iii















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Frequency of newspaper ads for fresh limes by week .............. 5

2 Total circulation of retail ads for fresh limes by week .......... 8

3 Number and proportion of fresh lime newspaper ads for the 10 lead-
ing states, June 11 through September 16, 1978 ................. 9

4 Number of newspaper ads for fresh limes by region, June 11 through
September 16, 1978 ........................................ 11

5 Advertising intensity for fresh limes, by region ................ 14

6 Fresh lime newspaper advertising by type of paper ............... 14

7 Day of the week fresh lime ads appeared, by region .............. 16

8 Duration of food ads containing fresh lime advertising, by region. 18

9 Use of color in retail ads for fresh limes ...................... 20

10 Average ad area for limes by week ............................... 21

11 Average ad area for limes by region ............................ 23

12 Total ad area for limes, all regions, by week ................... 24

13 Total ad space for fresh limes, all produce, and all by region,
over all weeks ............................................... 25

14 Lime ad space as a percentage of all produce ad space and all food
ad space over all weeks, by region ............................... 27

15 Number and percent of fresh lime newspaper ads in which source of
limes appeared .............................................. 29

16 Use of ad slicks provided by the Florida Lime Administrative
Committee ..................................................... 29

17 Selling words or adjectives used for fresh limes ................. 31

18 Pictures or illustrations of limes and tie-in items appearing in
fresh lime newspaper dds ......................................... 31

19 Multiple unit pricing and pricing by weight for fresh limes and
lemons ........... ............ ............................... 33

















LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES

Table Page

1 Proportion of commercial fresh lime shipments shipped by week,
1978-79 ...................................................... 40

2 Number and percent of newspaper ads for fresh limes by state,
June 11 through September 16, 1978 ............................. 42

3 Regions used for analysis of newspaper advertising for fresh
limes ........................................................ 44

4 Advertising intensity ratios by state .......................... 46

5 Pricing of fresh limes: Prices for multiple units and prices per
pound ...................................................... .. 48

6 Pricing of lemons: Prices for multiple units and prices per
pound .......................................................... 51

7 F.O.B. prices for fresh limes and lemons by week ................. 52















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

1 Percent of annual fresh lime shipments by week, 1978-79 season
and the 14-week advertising audit period ....................... 4

2 Number of fresh lime ads by week ............................... 6

3 Proportion of fresh lime ads by week ........................... 7

4 Number of ads by state .......................................... 10

5 Regions used for analysis of newspaper advertising for fresh
limes ...................................................... 12

6 Percentage of ads by day of week ............................... 17

7 Duration of newspaper advertising for food, all regions .......... 19

8 Average advertising area for fresh limes by week ................ 22

9 Percentage of total advertising area for limes by week ........... 26

10 Number retail ads for fresh limes associated with various F.O.B.
prices .............................................. ........ 36

11 Advertising space associated with various F.O.B. prices .......... 37
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


We appreciate very much the efforts expended by the Florida Lime

Administrative Committee professional and clerical staff in compiling,

editing and coding the vast amounts of data. The Florida Lime Admin-

istrative Committee's financial support for the data analysis is also

appreciated.

Appreciation is also expressed to Scott Woolley, former FAMRC

statistician, and Judy King, current FAMRC statistician, and to Cyndy

Cooper and Patricia Beville for typing and editing the manuscript.

Special thanks is due J. Scott Shonkwiler for his assistance with

the analysis of the factors affecting fresh lime advertising and to Kary
Mathis for reviewing the manuscript.














SUMMARY


The basic objective of this study was to determine the nature and
extent of food retailers' newspaper advertising for fresh limes.

A national newspaper clipping service obtained all newspaper
advertising in the United States for fresh limes from June 11 through
September 16, 1978. This 14-week period encompassed the usual peak
production period for Florida limes, a time when retail advertising is
needed to stimulate consumer demand.

Approximately 6,000 retail ads were collected during the 14-week
advertising audit period.

Most ads appeared in July and August. The peak advertising occurred
the third week in July, when over 1,300 ads were placed by retailers. A
secondary peak occurred the third week in August, when slightly over 700
ads were placed.

Newspaper ads appeared in all of the 48 contiguous states; three
states had only one ad each, but others had hundreds of ads. New York,
the leading state, had almost 1,100 ads during the 14 weeks. With the
exception of the Pacific Coast, those states east of the Mississippi
River had the most ads.

An advertising intensity ratio, defined as the ratio of the total
circulation of the newspapers containing fresh limes to the respective
area's population, reveals that the most intensive advertising of fresh
limes occurred in Washington, D.C., New York and New Jersey, where there
were 10, 8 and 7 potential ad exposures per person during the 14-week
period. In contrast, Oklahoma had only one potential ad exposure for
every 500 inhabitants.

Seventy percent of the ads appeared in daily papers and 25 percent
appeared in weeklies. The remaining 5 percent appeared in papers pub-
lished from two to four times per week.

Approximately 48 percent of the ads appeared on Wednesdays and 18
percent on Thursdays. About 12, 9 and 10 percent were published on
Sunday, Mondays and Tuesdays, respectively. Less than 1 percent
appeared on Friday and slightly over 2 percent on Saturday.

Almost half of the ads remained in effect for an entire business
week, and nearly all of the remaining half for 3-5 days. Few ads are in
effect for less than three or more than seven days.












Almost 89 percent of the ads were printed using black ink only. Ten
percent were printed using some color other than black, and only 1.5
percent were multi-colored.

The average size of lime ads collected was approximately 2.2 square
inches; ads ranged from 0.3 to 18.6 square inches.

Approximately 13,000 square inches of advertising space were allocat-
ed'to fresh limes over the 14-week period. This amounted to 5.20 percent
of all produce advertising and U.63 percent of all food advertising.

The 13,000 square inches of lime advertising represents approximately
46 full pages; at an estimated $2,100 per page, the approximate value of
advertising received for fresh limes was $96,600.

Fifty-six percent of the ads identified Florida as the source of
limes advertised. California and Mexico were identified as the origin
in approximately I and 0.5 percent, respectively. Forty-three percent
did not identify the origin of the limes.

It is not known how many retailers had ad slicks provided by FLAC,
but less than 0.5 percent of the ads utilized FLAC ad slicks.

The most commonly used selling words were "fresh", "seedless",
"juicy", and "tangy", appearing in 48, 24, 23 and 10 percent, respective-
ly. "Cooling", "tropical", and "vitamin C" were used in few ads.

About 10 percent of the lime ads utilized pictures or illustrations.
Limes appeared in 78 percent of the pictures and beverages in 10 percent.

Almost 19 percent of the fresh lime ads priced limes individually,
compared with 23 percent for lemons. Limes and lemons were priced by
the pound in about 7 and 17 percent of the ads, respectively.

The number of lime ads and the total amount of advertising space
allocated to limes was found to be inversely related to lime F.O.B.
prices. A 1 percent change in the F.O.B. price of limes results in an
opposite change of slightly over 5 percent in the number of lime ads and
an opposite change of about 5.5 percent in the amount of advertising
space devoted to limes.

















An Analysis of Food Retailers' Newspaper Advertising
for Fresh Limes

Robert L. Degner

INTRODUCTION


The annual advertising budget of the Florida Lime Administrative
Committee (FLAC) is not large enough to permit extensive paid media

advertising. Instead, the Committee allocates a major proportion of its

funds to various promotional activities aimed primarily at produce

buyers and merchandisers of food retailers. The promotional activities

are varied, but the overall objective is to induce food retailers to

advertise and promote fresh Florida limes.

The professional staff of the FLAC distributes promotional kits

which encourage food retailers to feature Florida limes in their food

ads. Among other items the kits contain ad slicks and various pro-

motional ideas which retailers can use in designing their own newspaper

advertising. Other activities by the professional staff of FLAC include

personal visits, telephone contacts, preparation and distribution of

newsletters, and participation in trade shows and professional meetings.

All of these activities are designed to create a greater awareness

in the retail trade of fresh Florida limes, resulting in a greater



Robert L. Degner is Assistant Professor in Food and Resource Eco-
nomics, University of Florida, Gainesville.












incidence of induced advertising and promotion on the part of re-

tailers. Retail ads, paid for by retailers, represent an important,

tangible measure of the effectiveness of the FLAC's efforts.

OBJECTIVES


The basic objective of this study was to determine the nature and

extent of food retailers' newspaper advertising for fresh limes during
the peak production period, mid-June to mid-September. Specific objectives

were to determine advertising frequency during the period, geographic

dispersion, total circulation of the ads and the quantity of advertising

space allocated to fresh limes relative to other produce items and all
other food.

Other goals were to ascertain food retailers' use of ad slicks and

supporting material supplied by the FLAC and also to identify prevailing

media practices so that subsequent promotional activities by FLAC could

be tailored to meet media needs.

The results of this study will assist the FLAC in developing and

implementing future promotional programs. The findings will also provide

a benchmark against which future efforts may be evaluated.

PROCEDURE

The FLAC contracted with a national newspaper clipping service to

collect all newspaper advertising in the United States for fresh limes

from June 11 through September 16, 1978. This 14-week period was selected

because it encompassed the usual peak production period for Florida limes.

Fresh lime shipments during this period accounted for almost half of the












incidence of induced advertising and promotion on the part of re-

tailers. Retail ads, paid for by retailers, represent an important,

tangible measure of the effectiveness of the FLAC's efforts.

OBJECTIVES


The basic objective of this study was to determine the nature and

extent of food retailers' newspaper advertising for fresh limes during
the peak production period, mid-June to mid-September. Specific objectives

were to determine advertising frequency during the period, geographic

dispersion, total circulation of the ads and the quantity of advertising

space allocated to fresh limes relative to other produce items and all
other food.

Other goals were to ascertain food retailers' use of ad slicks and

supporting material supplied by the FLAC and also to identify prevailing

media practices so that subsequent promotional activities by FLAC could

be tailored to meet media needs.

The results of this study will assist the FLAC in developing and

implementing future promotional programs. The findings will also provide

a benchmark against which future efforts may be evaluated.

PROCEDURE

The FLAC contracted with a national newspaper clipping service to

collect all newspaper advertising in the United States for fresh limes

from June 11 through September 16, 1978. This 14-week period was selected

because it encompassed the usual peak production period for Florida limes.

Fresh lime shipments during this period accounted for almost half of the












entire annual production during the 1978-79 season. Shipments during

the first week of the audit period were slightly over 11,000 bushels or

1.5 percent of the season's total. By the sixth week, shipments approached

37,000 bushels, which was nearly 5 percent of the season's total (Figure

1, Appendix Table 1). The seasonal glut usually reduces grower prices

to very low levels. It is during this period that retail advertising is

essential for stimulating consumer demand.

The newspaper clipping service monitored virtually every newspaper

published in the contiguous United States and Alaska. During the 14-

week advertising audit period approximately 6,000 retail ads containing

advertising for fresh limes were collected. The professional and clerical

staff of FLAC compiled, edited, and coded the data for the computer

analysis which was done by the Florida Agricultural Market Research Center.

FINDINGS


In addition to the findings reported here, the Florida Agricultural

Market Research Center (FAMRC) provided the FLAC detailed tabulations of

the basic advertising information by state, city, and firm. These data,

although too voluminous to report here, constitute an important part of

the overall effort because they enable the FLAC to examine the individual

firm's advertising. The findings below are more general in nature, pro-

viding an overview of retail advertising for fresh limes.

Seasonal Distribution of Retail Ads


Although fresh limes are available in retail stores on a year-round

basis, retailers do very little advertising except during the peak product-

ion period when prices are low. A later section explores the relationships

between F.O.B. prices and the frequency and amount of retail advertising























4 4.0

..c


E- 3.0
r--



-- 2.0




1.0 Advertisinoa
Audit 1
Period




April June September March
2-8 11-17 10-16 25-31
1978 1979

Figure 1.--Percent of annual fresh lime shipments by week, 1978-79 season
and the 14-week advertising audit period.












During the 14-week advertising audit period, June 11 through

September 16, approximately 6,000 retail ads were placed by retailers.

Two peaks occurred in advertising activity during this period. The

first occurred during week six, the third week in July, when over

1,300 ads were obtained. The second occurred in week 10, the third

week in August, when over 700 ads were placed (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3).


Table 1.--Frequency of


newspaper ads for fresh limes by week.


Week number Week Frequency Percent of total

Number

1 June 11-17 2 0.03
2 June 18-24 31 0.52
3 June 25-July 1 83 1.39
4 July 2-8 360 6.01
5 July 9-15 1052 17.57
6 July 16-22 1322 22.08
7 July 23-29 1028 17.17
8 July 30-August 5 294 4.91
9 August 6-12 525 8.77
10 August 13-19 715 11.94
11 August 20-26 451 7.53
12 August 27-September 2 115 1.92
13 September 3-9 9 0.15
14 September 10-16 1 0.02

All weeks 955' IT00.a


a
Does not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.


Combined circulation of all the newspapers in which ads appeared

was also examined. Circulation figures were obtained from the clipping

service or from Newspaper Circulation Analysis, 1978. In a few instances

where circulation figures were not obtainable from either of these sources,





















1322


1052


2 31 83
2 31


1028


9 1


I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14
Week

Figure 2 .--Number of fresh lime ads by week.


b- 1I
O (


























22.1


17.6


17.2


F 11.9

8.8



0.5 1.4 1.9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Week

Figure 3 .--Proportion of fresh lime ads by week.













the circulation was estimated to be equivalent to the mean for the type

of paper (daily, weekly, etc.) from which other ads were obtained.

The combined circulation figures can be viewed as an estimate of

the potential number of reader exposures to fresh lime ads. During

three of the four complete weeks in the month of July, total circulation

associated with the fresh lime ads exceeded 85 million. In August the

total circulation was considerably less, approximately 26 to 32 million

per week. As the total numbers of ads dwindled in September so did

circulation. Over the course of the 14-week audit period, circulation

figures revealed that readers could have been exposed to fresh lime ads

on approximately 426 million occasions (Table 2).


Table 2.--Total circulation of retail ads for fresh limes by week.


Week number Week Total circulation

1,000

1 June 11-17 39.4
2 June 18-24 743.4
3 June 25-July 1 3,553.7
4 July 2-8 35,678.4
5 July 9-15 86,959.3
6 July 16-22 85,107.7
7 July 23-29 87,110.2
8 July 30-August 5 26,440.0
9 August 6-12 27,179.8
10 August 13-19 28,977.2
11 August 20-26 31,981.4
12 August 27-September 2 11,052.1
13 September 3-9 1,580.2
14 September 10-16 32.8


All weeks 426,435.6












Geographic Distribution


Newspaper ads for fresh limes appeared in all of the 48 contiguous

states and Alaska as well. While three states only had one ad each, some

of the others had hundreds of ads during the 14-week period (Figure 4,

Appendix Table 2). The ads were relatively concentrated in a few states,

however. Over two-thirds of the ads appeared in only 10 states. The

state of New York had almost 1,100 ads alone, slightly over 18 percent of

the total. Other leading states included Pennsylvania with 723 ads or
12 percent of the total, and New Jersey with 664 ads, slightly over 11

percent of the ads. Florida ranked fourth with 323 ads, slightly over

5 percent of the total. Other states in the top 10 with respect to ad

numbers were Texas, Illinois, Massachussets, Connecticut, Virginia and

California. The 10 leading states accounted for 4,126 of the approxi-

mately 6,000 ads, about 68.5 percent of the total (Table 3).


Table 3.--Number and proportion of fresh lime newspaper ads for the 10
leading states, June 11 through September 16, 1978.


State Number Percent

New York 1,092 18.13
Pennsylvania 723 12.00
New Jersey 664 11.02
Florida 323 5.36
Texas 297 4.93
Illinois 264 4.38
Massachusetts 232 3.85
Connecticut 188 3.12
Virginia 183 3.04
California 160 2.66

Total 4,126 68.49





























STES-"- .. !T" N-- SSEE .3 /
I 21 "7 145 .R.-:-- *' ^ ; .
i i 3 i ^"^ 51-
-. .I I .....- 99 84 \ 116
S-..----- 297
\105 !._s.-

i\ '. .323

\ ALASKA = I







Figure 4.--Number of ads by state.













Ihe ads from the various states were also analyzed on a regional

basis. Insofar as possible the states were aggregated into regions

corresponding with "Neilsen Territories". These territories or regions

are defined by the A. C. Neilsen Company and commonly used in their food

store reports for various food industry clients (Figure 5, Appendix

Table 3). These regional figures are provided so that comparisons

with other Neilsen data may be made in the event the FLAG decides to

subscribe to the Neilsen reports.

On a regional basis the largest number of ads was observed in the

Mid Atlantic area (Table 4). This region accounted for nearly 2,600

ads, or 43 percent of the total. The Southeast provided the next largest

number of ads, 1,064, nearly 18 percent. In general, the largest

numbers of ads were obtained east of the Mississippi River.


Table 4.--Number of newspaper ads for fresh limes by region, June 11
through September 16, 1978.


Number of Percent of
P gion ads, all weeks total


East Central 437 7.26
Mid Atlantic 2,599 43.15
New England 644 10.69
Pacific 407 6.76
Southwest 415 6.89
Southeast 1,064 17.67
West Central 457 7.59


All areas 6,023 100.00a


a
Does not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.

The combined newspaper circulations or "potential ad exposures"

associated with the fresh lime ads were also examined by state and region
























\i" O---, L OLAHOMA -..

/ r V ./
\oARKA4SAS IE,,NFSE
SOUTHWiEST-I.-. I
.. SOUTHEAST "


Fn





Figure 5.--Regions used for analysis of newspaper advertising for fresh limes.












and used to analyze advertising intensity. "Advertising intensity"

was defined as the ratio of the total circulation of the newspapers con-

taining fresh limes to the total state or regional population.

An advertising intensity ratio (AIR) of 1.0 Indicates that there

was one potential ad exposure per person in the specified geographic area

during the 14-week advertising audit period. The intensity ratio reveals

considerable variation among geographic areas. For example, the District

of Columbia and the states of New York and New Jersey had AIR's of 9.53,
8.14 and 7.22 respectively, indicating that there were approximately 10,

8 and 7 ad exposures per person during the 14-week period. However, the

AIR for Oklahoma was only 0.002, a potential ad exposure of only one in

500 persons during the 14-week period (Appendix Table 4).

On a regional basis, the advertising intensity ratios varied

dramatically as well. The Mid Atlantic, New England, and Southeast

regions had the highest AIR's which were 6.28, 1.53, and 1.25, respective-

ly. The remaining regions all had AIR's below 1.0; the West Central region
was .e very lowest with a ratio of only 0.55, which indicates that one

potential ad exposure ias recorded for approximately every two residents

during the 14 weeks (Table 5).


General Media Characteristics

Frequency of Publications

Most of the newspapers in which retail ads were placed were publish-

ed daily. Over 70 percent of the approximately 6,000 ads obtained during

the audit period appeared in daily papers, and one-fourth appeared in

weekly newspapers. Thus, over 95 percent of all the ads were published

in either daily or weekly newspapers. A small proportion of the ads, less











than 4 percent, appeared in semi-weekly papers, while less than 1 percent

appeared in papers published three or four times per week (Table 6).


Table 5.--Advertising intensity for fresh limes, by region.



Number of Potential Intensity
Region ads, all weeks Population ad exposuresa ratios


East Central 430 30,738.4 29,248.9 0.95

Mid Atlantic 2,581 42,549.2 267,117.0 6.28

New England 634 12,343.6 18,848.5 1.53

Pacific 405 34,447.8 26,798.6 0.78

Southwest 414 23,508.3 16,134.1 0.69

Southeast 1,061 38,218.2 47,871.3 1.25

West Central 442 37,051.5 20,306.2 0.55

All areas 5,967 218,857.0 426,324.6 1.95


a
Potential ad exposures are based on aggregate newspaper circulation.



Table 6.--Fresh lime newspaper advertising by type of paper.



Type Number Percent


Daily

Four times per week

Three times per week

Two times per week

Weekly

Total


4,215

2

30

230

1,504

5,981


70.47

0.03

0.50

3.85

25.15

100.00











Publication of Ads by Day of Week


Most ads appeared on Wednesdays or Thursdays. This was especially

true in the New England, Pacific, Southwest and West Central regions

where the proportion of ads appearing on Wednesday or Thursday ranged

up to 86 percent (Table 7). The notable exceptions were the East Central

and Mid Atlantic regions where approximately 60 percent of the ads appear-

ed on these two days. In these regions, larger proportions of their re-

tail food ads appeared in the early portion of the week, i.e., Sunday

through Tuesday. Very few ads appeared on Fridays or Saturdays in any

of the regions.

When all regions are combined, approximately 48 percent of the ads

appeared on Wednesday and 18 percent on Thursday. Approximately 12, 9,

and 10 percent were published on Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday, respectively.

Less than 1 percent appeared on Friday and slightly over 2 percent on

Saturday (Table 7, Figure 6). These findings may be helpful in coordinating

the placement of radio and television spots, should FLAC elect to use these

media.

Duration of Food Ais


A very high proportion of food ads remain in effect for an entire

business week, either six or seven days. In the aggregate, approximately

40 percent of the ads were in effect seven days and an additional 7

percent for -ix days (Table 8, Figure 7). Approximately 31 percent of

the ads were in effect for four days and approximately 13 percent were in

effect for only three days. Very few ads, only about 1 percent, are in

effect for one or two days and only about 1.5 percent are in effect for

a period longer than one week.
















Table 7.--Day of the week fresh lime ads appeared, by region.


Day
Region Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Total

--------------------------------------- Percent ----------------------------------------


East Central 8.59 18.79 9.75 51.04 9.75 0.93 1.16 100.00

Mid Atlantic 15.60 7.05 14.44 49.01 10.14 0.47 3.29 100.00

New England 5.05 9.62 7.10 58.68 15.14 0.47 3.94 100.00

Pacific 2.70 0.98 9.09 60.93 25.80 --- 0.49 100.00

Southwest 12.77 11.33 0.96 23.86 47.47 2.17 1.45 100.00

Southeast 13.94 11.30 5.84 38.23 28.34 1.13 1.22 100.00

West Central 3.84 4.29 7.68 62.98 20.32 0.23 0.68 100.00


All areas 11.72 8.58 10.00 48.37 18.28 0.69 2.35 100.00


aMay not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.



























48.4


11.7 10.0
10.0


18.3


Figure 6 .--Percentage of ads by day of week.


Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thur. Fri. Sat.

Day

















Table 8.--Duration of food ads containing fresh lime advertising, by region.


Duration in days

Region 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Totalsa

--------------------------------- Percent ------------------------------------

East Central --- 0.47 7.67 32.79 9.54 9.77 39.77 --- --- 100.00
Mid Atlantic 0.47 0.78 10.28 37.43 8.50 8.42 31.73 2.37 0.04 100.00

New England --- 0.15 11.51 31.86 4.26 2.99 47.95 0.16 1.10 100.00

Pacific --- --- 3.44 5.90 1.47 10.32 74.94 3.93 --- 100.00

Southwest 0.73 2.42 28.50 19.08 2.42 12.56 34.06 0.24 --- 100.00

Southeast 0.09 1.22 17.50 16.72 4.70 5.08 43.84 0.75 0.09 100.00

West Central --- 0.23 16.03 30.47 6.32 5.42 40.86 0.68 --- 100.00

All Areas 0.27 0.79 12.75 30.59 6.37 7.54 40.05 1.50 0.15 100.00


Totals may not sum to 00 percent due to rounding.
Totals may not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.




















40.1


30.6


12.8


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Day

Figure 7.--Duration of newspaper advertising for food, all regions.
















Because of the predominance of week-long advertising, it may be

feasible to develop a viable promotional activity which lasts a week as
well. For example, a "Florida Lime Week" or a "Tropical Fruit Week" tie-

in activity may be adopted by firms with a six or seven day ad duration

format, whereas firms whose ads run for shorter periods may be reluctant

to accept such a promotion.

Use of Color in Retail Ads

Almost 89 percent of the food retail ads collected during the 14

weeks were printed using black ink only. Approximately 10 percent were

printed using some color other than black, and only 1.5 percent of the
ads were classified as multi-colored. Multi-colored ads were those

that were printed using two or more colors of ink (Table 9). The high
incidence of monochrome ads is an indication that the prevailing practice

providing ad slick designed to utilize one color adequately serves the

needs of retailers. At present, advertising materials designed for multi-
color reproduction would apparently be used by very few firms.

Table 9.--Use of color in retail ads for fresh limes.


Color Number Percent

Black & white 5,322 88.85

Colored ink 578 9.65

Multi-colored 90 1.50


Totals 5,990 100.00














Fresh Lime Ad Characteristics


Size


The average size or area of lime ads collected during the 14-week

period was approximately 2.2 square inches. The ads ranged in size from

0.3 square inches to 18.6 square inches (Table 10). The average ad size

increased slightly during the first six weeks of the advertising audit

period. During the first five weeks, the average ad size was less than

two inches, but the average increased to 2.5 square inches during week

six, the peak advertising week. During the remaining eight weeks of the

advertising audit period the average ad area was quite variable ranging

from 2.7 square inches in week 12 to 1.3 square inches in week 13 (Table

10, Figure 8).

Table 10.--Average ad area for limes by week.



Week Ad area for limes
number Week Average Low High


1 June 11-17
2 June 18-24
3 June 25-July 1
4 July 2-8
5 July 9-15
6 July 16-22
7 July 23-29
8 July 30-August 5
9 August 6-12
10 August 13-19
11 August 20-26
12 August 27-September 2
13 September 3-9
14 September 10-16

All weeks


1.55
1.28
1.76
1.86
1.92
2.53
2.24
2.10
2.21
1.89
2.25
2.73
1.31
2.10

TTT7


Square inches -----------

1.8 1.3
4.5 0.4
10.0 0.5
9.5 0.4
18.6 0.4
15.8 0.3
13.5 0.3
11.3 0.3
15.8 0.3
10.5 0.3
9.6 0.4
14.1 0.6
2.1 0.3
2.1 2.1

18.6 0.3



























0





E
_-J


Week


Figure 8.--Average advertising area for fresh limes by week.












The Mid Atlantic and New Ergland regions had the smallest average

lime area of approximately two square inches. Ads in the Southwest

region averaged 2.84 square inches and the East Central region 2.64

square inches. Ads in the West Central, Pacific and the South averaged

2.11, 2.17 and 2.22 square inches, respectively. The minimum ad sizes

in the regions were very similar, approximately 0.3 or 0.4 square inches.

The very smallest ads were usually only one column wide in very small

type, and about one-fifth or one-sixth of an inch in height. The maximum

ad areas in most of the regions were approximately 15 1/2 to 16 inches

in size (Table 11).

Table ll.--Average ad area for limes by region.


Average lime Range
Region ad area Low High

--------------- Square inches -------------

East Central 2.64 0.40 12.40
Mid Atlantic 2.00 0.30 15.80
New England 2.02 0.30 15.40
Pacific 2.17 0.30 18.60
Southwest 2.84 0.40 15.80
Southeast 2.22 0.30 15.40
West Central 2.11 0.40 9.60

All areas 17 0.30 18.60


Total advertising space allocated to fresh limes was only 3.1 square

inches in the first week of the audit period. However, by the first

full week in July, audit week number four, the total had increased to

approximately 670 square inches (Table 12). By the following week, ad

space for limes had increased to over 2,000 square inches and in week

six, the peak advertising week, the total amounted to almost 3,350












square inches. The total space declined to approximately 2,300 square

inches in week seven and even further to 617 square inches in week

eight. However, the amount of space exceeded 1,000 square inches during

each of the first three weeks in August. The total amount of advertis-

ing space declined dramatically during the last three weeks of the audit

period (Table 12).


Table 12.--Total ad


area for limes, all regions, by week.


Week
number Week Total lime ad area

Square inches

1 June 11-17 3.1
2 June 18-24 39.7
3 June 25-July 1 149.1
4 July 2-8 669.5
5 July 9-15 2,016.2
6 July 16-22 3,345.1
7 July 23-29 2,297.7
8 July 30-August 5 616.9
9 August 6-12 1,155.8
10 August 13-19 1,353.1
11 August 20-26 1,016.1
12 August 27-September 2 314.5
13 September 3-9 11.8
14 September 10-16 2.1

All weeks 13,019.7a


a
The total advertising area for limes reported here does not
correspond with that reported in Table 12 because a few ads were not
identified as to state and thus, could not be included in Table 12.


When the amount of space is analyzed on a percentage basis by week,

it is found that negligible proportions of space were obtained during

June and September. The bulk of the space was allocated to limes in












July, approximately 64 percent of the total. Over 25 percent of the

total space observed in the 14-week period occurred in week six and

about 35 percent of the total space was recorded in August (Figure 9).

In total, approximately 13,000 square inches of advertising space

were allocated to fresh limes over the 14-week period in all regions.

The Mid Atlantic region, with almost 5,200 square inches of lime ads,
represented 40 percent of the total. The South with almost 2,400 square

inches accounted for slightly over 18 percent and the New England region

with approximately 1,400 square inches of advertising for fresh limes,
accounted for 10 percent. The remaining regions had total lime advertis-

spaces ranging from approximately 900 to 1,200 square inches or 7 to 9

percent of the total (Table 13).

Table 13.--Total ad space for fresh limes, all produce, and all by region,
over all weeks.



Ad space,
Region Limes all produce All food

---------------- Square inches --------------

East Central 1,136.8 26,192.6 178,720.0
Mid Atlantic 5,180.1 93,522.0 852,270.2
New England 1,281.7 18,487.0 164,165.6
Pacific 884.3 19,799.0 123,622.7
Southwest 1,179.2 18,472.7 160,768.7
Southeast 2,362.8 44,881.5 391,858.2
West Central 935.3 25,044.2 189,493.1

All areas 12,990.8 247,023.6 2,064,859.2































25.6


17.8


15.5


10.9


5.4

0.8 4


1 2 3 4


5 6 7 8 9 10 11


12 13 14


Week

Figure 9.--Percentage of total advertising area for limes by week.


30-

25-

20-

15-

10-

5-












As mentioned above, the total amount of advertising space devoted

to fresh limes was approximately 13,000 square inches. The space allocat-

ed to all produce was approximately 247,000 square inches and to all

food over two million square inches (Table 13). On a proportionate

basis fresh lime advertising accounted for 5.26 percent of all produce,

and 0.63 percent of all food advertising (Table 14). Lime advertising

as a percent of all produce ranged from a low of 3.73 percent in the

West Central region to a high of 6.93 percent in the New England region.

As a percent of all food, lime advertising ranged from 0.49 percent in

the West Central region to 0.78 percent in the New England region (Table

14).


Table 14.--Lime ad space as a percentage of all produce ad space and
all food ad space over all weeks, by region.


Region Percent of all produce Percent of all food


East Central 4.34 0.64
Mid Atlantic 5.54 0.61
New England 6.93 0.78
Pacific 4.47 0.72
Southwest 6.38 0.73
Southeast 5.26 0.60
West Central 3.73 0.49

All areas 5.26 0.63


The value of the lime advertising is extremely difficult to appraise

because nf thp extreme variability in advertising rates. Obviously, the

greater the circulation, the greater the per page charge for advertising.

However, as circulation increases, the cost per reader generally de-

creases. A random sample of newspapers in the 50,000-100,000 circulation











category reveals a per reader page cost of approximately three cents.

Since the average circulation of the lime ads collected for this study

was approximately 71,000, an ad value of $2,100 per page was assumed.

The 13,000 square inches of advertising area for fresh limes amounted to

approximately 46 full pages of advertising. Thus, the estimated total

value of advertising received for fresh limes was approximately $96,600.


Lime Ad Content

Approximately 56 percent of the ads collected during the 14-week

advertising period identified Florida as the source of the limes ad-
vertised. Only 46 ads, less than 1 per cent, specified California us

the source and only 24 ads, less than Q.5 percent, specified Mexico as

the origin. However, 43 percent of the ads did not specify the source

of limes (Table 15). During the advertising audit period an estimated

60 percent of the limes advertised and sold in the United States were

probably produced in Florida (Federal-State Market News Service). Thus,

it appears that most retailers are identifying Florida limes. Many

retailers prefer not to identify the origin of their produce when supply

uncertainties occur due to truth-in-advertising regulations. However,

with assurance that Florida's lime supplies are sufficient for retailers'

needs, it may be possible to strengthen the Florida lime industry's

image through continued efforts which encourage retailers to use the

name "Florida" in conjunction with their lime advertising during this

time of the year.

Providing ad slicks to retailers is a means of encouraging retailers
to place retail ads and also a means of influencing the content of the

ad. Unfortunately, even though hundreds of ad slicks were distributed













Table 15.--Number and percent of
of limes appeared.


fresh lime newspaper ads in which source


Source Number Percent


Florida 3,342 55.81
California 46 0.77
Mexico 24 0.40
Not specified 2,575 43.00


Total 5,987 100.00a


a
May not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.


to retailers throughout the U.S., very few were used. Slightly less

than one-half of 1 percent of the ads utilized ad slicks provided by the

FLAC (Table 16). Further, the 28 ads in which ad slicks were utilized

were placed by only six firms.


Table 16.--Use of ad slicks provided by the Florida Lime Administrative
Committee.


Used
ad slick


Region


Did not use
ad slick


Total


East Central
Mid Atlantic
New England
Pacific
Southwest
Southeast
West Central

All regions


-------------------- Percent ----------------

0.93 99.07 100.00
---- 100.00 100.00
-- 100.00 100.00
---- 100.00 100.00
---- 100.00 100.00
1.13 98.87 100.00
2.48 97.?5 100.00

0.45 99.55 100.00














The ad slicks provided by FLAC range in size from one column by

two inches to three columns by three inches (approximately 3.0 to 13.5

square inches). Many retailers feel that fresh limes arevery minor

items in their produce departments. Thus, they may view the ad slicks

provided by FLAC as too large for their use. Development of even smaller

ad slicks in addition to the larger sizes may encourage retailers to use

them. This could result in greater ad space devoted to limes. Further,

it could provide the FLAC with an opportunity to influence the ad content

with the source of limes, product attributes, and suggested uses, although

on a very limited basis.

The promotional materials provided by FLAC suggest key selling

words or adjectives which can be used to promote fresh limes. Some of

the ads used only one selling word in conjunction with the word limes,

but others used several. The most commonly used word was "fresh" mention-

ed in nearly 2,900 ads, or 48 percent. Over 1,450 ads, almost one-

fourth, used the word "seedless" and almost the same number used the

word "juicy" (Table 17). Slightly over 10 percent of the ads used the

word "tangy", and nearly 7.0 percent used the term "refreshing". "Cooling"

and "tropical" were each used in slightly over 1 percent of the ads. In

about 10 percent of the ads, no adjectives were used in conjunction with

the word limes. A diverse assortment of selling words was used in 28
percent of the ads, but no attempt was made to classify and code them

for analysis.

In addition to the selling words described above, almost 10 percent

of the ads utilized pictures or illustrations. Of the 595 lime ads which

contained pictures or illustrations, 465 depicted limes, slightly over

78 percent. Fifty-nine, or 10 percent, showed beverages. Approximately












Table 17.--Selling words or adjectives used for fresh limes.



Selling words Number Percent

"Fresh" 2,897 48.1
"Seedless" 1,456 24.2
"Juicy" 1,414 23.5
"Tangy" 608 10.1
"Refreshing" 414 6.9
"Cooling" 90 1.5
"Tropical" 64 1.1
"Vitamin C" 4 0.1
Miscellaneous 1,701 28.2
No adjectives used 625 10.4


4 percent pictured or illustrated assorted food or produce, 2.5 percent

salads, and 1 percent cantaloupes. The remaining 4 percent was comprised

of miscellaneous subjects primarily associated with various promotional

themes such as ethnic food festivals, carnival days, etc. The number of

lime ads that contained pictures of limes constituted nearly 8 percent

of the total number of ads, and beverages another 1 percent. Only 1 per-

cent of the total number of lime ads contained pictures or illustrations

of items other than limes or beverages (Table 18).

Table 18.--Pictures or illustrations of limes and tie-in items appearing
in fresh lime newspaper ads.


Picture Percent of pictures Percent of
subject Number in lime ads all ads


Limes 465 78.2 7.72
Beverages 59 9.9 0.98
Frozen foods 25 4.2 0.42
Salads 15 2.5 0.25
Cantaloupes 6 1.0 0.10
Miscellaneous 25 4.2 0.42

Total, all pictures 55 100.0 9.89











Pricing

Retail prices of fresh limes and lemons appearing in the ads were

analyzed to determine retail price levels and the pricing method used,

i.e., multiple unit pricing or pricing by weight. It should be noted

that the analysis of pricing methods is based on nearly 6,000 observa-
tions for limes but only 309 observations for lemons. This is because

lemons appeared in only about 5 percent of the ads that were collected.

Almost 19 percent of the fresh lime ads priced limes individually,
compared with almost 23 percent for lemons (Table 19). The individual

or "each" price for limes ranged from 2 cents to 59 cents. The most

prevalent price was 10 cents each, although a large number of ads

priced them at 5 cents each. Individual prices for lemons ranged from 8

to 19 cents. The next most popular multiple for limes was five which

appeared in over 12 percent of the ads, followed by multiples of 10

which appeared in practically the same number of ads. The next most

prevalent multiple was three, offered by nearly 10 percent of the ads.

Multiples for limes ranged all the way up to 54, an entire carton, for

$6.75. The largest multiple offered in lemon ads was 13. Limes were

sold by the pound in approximately 6.7 percent of the ads, compared with

slightly over 17 percent for lemons (Table 19, Appendix Table 5 and 6).

Multiple unit pricing has been shown to be effective in increasing

sales of many products. The promotional program of the FLAC has stress-

ed the importance of multiple unit pricing to retailers in improving

fresh lime sales. These results indicate that many retailers have

adopted this pricing strategy for limes.













Table 19--Multiple unit pricing and pricing by weight for fresh limes
and lemons.



Multiple Limes Lemons
Units Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


1 (Each) 1133 18.93 72 22.71

2 62 1.04 2 0.63

3 584 9.76 11 3.50

4 250 4.18 4 1.26

5 734 12.26 94 29.65

6 1219 20.37 15 4.73

7 2 0.03 1 0.32

8 299 5.00 7 2.21

9 43 0.72 -

10 728 12.16 27 8.52

11 48 0.80 14 4.42

12 374 6.25 7 2.21

13 1 0.02 1 0.32

18 29 0.49 --

20 73 1.22 --

25 1 0.02 -

54 1 0.02 -

Priced by weight
(pound) 402 6.72 54 17.04

Totals 5983 100.00a 309 100.00a


a
Totals may not


sum to 100 percent due to rounding.












Factors Affecting Fresh Lime Advertising


It was hypothesized that the primary factors affecting the number

of lime ads and the total advertising space allocated to them were lime

F.O.B. prices, lemon F.O.B. prices, and a time trend or seasonal effect.

Many regression models (Ordinary Least Squares) were formulated and

tested in which the number of lime ads and total advertising space

allocated to lime ads were expressed as a function of lime and lemon

F.O.B. prices (or respective F.O.B. price changes) and several time

variables. Analyses were made using raw data and log transformations.

Lime and lemon F.O.B. prices were also lagged from one to three periods

(weeks) in some models. In other models, one week and two week changes

in lime and lemon F.O.B. prices were used as independent variables.

The two models which yield the most satisfactory results are simple

double log models which specify that the total number of ads and the

total advertising space in a given week depends on the week's F.O.B.

lime price. The models were estimated as follows:


Model (1) LnY = 17.8589 5.1489 LnX
(-5.76)

where

Y = Number of lime ads

X = F.O.B. price of fresh limes, dollars per bushel


Model (2) LnY = 21.7145 5.5004 LnX
(-6.16)


where
Y = Square inches of lime advertising

X = F.U.B. price of fresh limes, dollars per bushel













The numbers in parentheses below the coefficients are t statistics. Both

were statistically significant at the 0.0001 probability level. The R2

values were 0.73 and 0.76 for models 1 and 2, respectively. Both models

have 12 degrees of freedom.

The models indicate that the number of ads and the total amount

of advertising space is very responsive to changes in F.O.B. prices of
limes (Figures 10 and 11). A 1 percent change in the F.O.B. price

results in an opposite change of slightly over a 5 percent change in

the number of lime ads and an opposite change of approximately 5.5 per-

cent in the amount of advertising space devoted to limes. The data

indicate very little advertising activity occurs when F.O.B. prices are

above $12.00 per bushel. An interesting phenomenon occurred when prices

dropped below $10.00 per bushel. During the first week of prices in
the $8.00-$9.00 range, week 7, there was a great deal of advertising.

However, the next week there was very little. In weeks 9 and 10 at

virtually unchanged prices, the number of ads and the amount of space

incrpaqpd substantially (Appendix Table 7, Figures 10 and 11).

Examination of models not reported indicated that lemon F.O.B.

prices had no significant effect on lime advertising. The models also

failed to discover any seasonal trends over the 14-week audit period.












1,400 (Numbers refer to audit week)

1,300 6

1,200 -

1,100 -
5
So.7
S 1,000 -

0 LnY = 17.8589 5.1489 LnX
S 900 -

L 800
10
n 700 -

S 600 -
0 9
500 -
E \ 11
z 400 -
*4
300- *8

200-

100- 12

1 14 -- 1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Lime F.0.B. price,dollars per bushel
Figure 10.--Number retail ads for fresh limes associated with various F.O.B. prices.
















(Numbers refer to audit week)
*6














*5


LnY = 21.7145 5.5004 LnX







* 11



*4



*12
*3


5 10 15 20 25
Lime F.O.B. price, dollars per bushel


Advertising space associated with various F.O.B. prices.


Figure 11.













CONCLUSIONS


The 6,000 ads for fresh limes which occupied nearly 13,000 square

inches of space during the 14-week audit period attest to the fact that

many retail produce merchandisers across the United States are promoting

fresh limes during the period of the year when promotion is needed most.

The many ads and the ad content provide evidence that the FLAC is reaching

the retail food industry with information about the seasonal nature of

fresh limes and their promotability.

The information compiled for this study will enable the FLAC to

identify retailers who are doing an excellent job of advertising and

promoting fresh limes. Adequate recognition of their advertising efforts

through personal contacts may encourage continuation. Perhaps more

importantly, the data will help to identify those that are not advertis-

ing limes, enabling the FLAC professional staff to focus their efforts

on these retail firms.




































APPENDIX













Appendix Table 1.--Proportion of commercial fresh lime shipments shipped by
week, 1978-79



Cumulative
Week Shipments Percent percent


50 lb. bushels

April 2-8 7,199 1.0 1.0
9-15 7,887 1.1 2.1
16-22 7,977 1.1 3.2
23-29 8,299 1.1 4.3
30-May 6 12,019 1.6 5.9
May 7-13 14,125 1.9 7.8
14-20 15,177 2.0 9.8
21-27 14,036 1.9 11.7
28-June 3 13,688 1.8 13.5
June 4-10 14,754 2.0 15.5
11-17 11,286 1.5 17.0
18-24 18,581 2.5 19.5
25-July 1 26,611 3.5 23.0
July 2-8 23,686 3.2 26.2
9-15 34,390 4.6 30.8
16-22 36,862 4.9 35.7
23-29 35,360 4.7 40.4
30-August 5 32,276 4.3 44.7
August 6-12 31,128 4.2 48.9
13-19 27,849 3.7 52.6
20-26 25,230 3.4 56.0
27-September 2 25,961 3.5 59.5
Sept. 3-9 16,999 2.3 61.8
10-16 18,354 2.4 64.2
17-23 18,322 2.4 66.6
24-30 12,054 1.6 68.2
October 1-7 10,626 1.4 69.6
8-14 9,602 1.3 70.9
15-21 13,591 1.8 72.7
22-28 7,889 1.1 73.8
29-November 4 10,652 1.4 75.2
Nov. 5-11 7,323 1.0 76.2
12-18 8,311 1.1 77.3
19-25 6,989 0.9 78.2
26-December 2 10,526 1.4 79.6
Dec. 3-9 10,345 1.4 81.0
10-16 13,068 1.7 82.7
17-23 14,749 2.0 84.7
24-30 8,552 1.1 85.8
31-January 6 9,439 1.3 87.1
Jan. 7-13 7,825 1.0 88.1












Appendix Table 1.--Proportion of commercial fresh lime shipments shipped by
week, 1978-79--Continued.



Cumulative
Week Shipments Percent percent

50 lb. bushels

Jan. 14-20 8,386 1.1 89.2
21-27 7,646 1.0 90.2
28-February 3 6,821 0.9 91.1
Feb. 4-10 7,216 1.0 92.1
11-17 9,559 1.3 93.4
18-24 9,732 1.3 94.7
25-March 3 9,794 1.3 96.0
March 4-10 6,853 0.9 96.9
11-17 9,433 1.3 98.3
18-24 8,471 1.1 99.3
25-31 6,557 0.9 100.0


Source: Calculated from data provided by the Florida Lime Administrative
Committee.













Appendix Table 2.--Number and percent of newspaper ads for fresh limes
by state, June 11 through September 16, 1978.



State Number Percent of total ads


Alabama 84 1,40
Alaska 1 0.02
Arizona 21 0.35
Arkansas 3 0.05
California 160 2.66
Colorado 6 0.10
Connecticut 188 3.12
Delaware 31 0.52
District of Columbia 14 0.23
Florida 323 5.36
Georgia 116 1.93
Idaho 13 0.22
Illinois 264 4.38
Indiana 114 1.89
Iowa 19 0.32
Kansas 3 0.05
Kentucky 38 0.63
Louisiana 105 1.74
Maine 52 0.86
Maryland 75 1.25
Massachusetts 232 3.85
Michigan 106 1.76
Minnesota 30 0.50
Mississippi 99 1.64
Missouri 82 1.36
Montana 6 0.10
Neb' iska 9 0.15
Nevada 3 1.05
Ntc ;'I mpshire 73 1.21
Ne. Jersey 664 11.02
New Mexico 11 0.18
New York 1,092 18.13
North Carolina 63 1.05
North Dakota 1 0.02
Ohio 131 2.18
Oklahoma 1 0.02
Oregon 153 2.54
Pennsylvania 723 12.00
Rhode Island 36 0.60
South Car)lina 51 0.85
South Dakota 14 0.23
Tennessee 145 2.41
Texas 297 4.93
Utah 4 0.07













Appendix Table 2.--Number and percent of newspaper ads for fresh limes
by state, June 11 through September 16, 1978, Cont.


State Number Percent of total ads


Vermont 63 1.05
Virginia 183 3.04
Washington 50 0.83
West Virginia 48 0.80
Wisconsin 19 0.32
Wyoming 4 0.07

All states 6,023 100.00












Appendix Table


3.--Regions used for analysis of newspaper advertising for
fresh limes.


Region


States


Pacific


West Central


California
Nevada
Arizona
Utah
Idaho
Oregon
Washington
Alaska

Montana
Wyoming
Colorado
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
Wisconsin
Illinois

New Mexico
Texas
Oklahoma.
Arkansas
Louisiana

Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Kentucky
West Virginia

Mississippi
Tennessee
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia


Southwest


.ast Central


Southeast












Appendix Table 3.--Regions used for analysis of newspaper advertising for
fresh limes.Continued.


States


Mid Atlantic


New York
Pennsylvania
Maryland
Delaware
New Jersey
District of Columbia


New England


Connecticut
Maine
Rhode Island
New Hampshire
Massachusetts
Vermont


Regions













Appendix Table 4.--Advertising intensity ratios by state.



Potential Ad Intensipy
State Populationa Exposures Ratio


--------- Thousands---------


Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Cornecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryl and
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada


3,770.1
427.8
2,418.2
2,194.5
22,482.0
2,710.3
3,137.9
587.3
677.5
8,766.4
5,110.6
892.0
11,289.4
5,361.4
2,917.2
2,366.0
3,524.2
3,986.2
1,100.0
4,165.2
5,802.1
9,201.3
4,040.7
2,418.2
" 859.8
783.8
1,583.0
668.0


3,936.8
1.6
601.2
157.0
11,971.1
1,364.6
6,308.5
2,061.0
6,457.9
22,856.1
4,010.1
227.2
11,498.9
4,208.1
304.3
32.1
513.2
4.004.2
1 .325.5
5,755.4
7,920.3
14,800.9
1,298.5
2,166.5
4,54? 5
142.8
404.7
57.4


1.04
0.004
0.25
0.07
0.53
0.50
2.01
3.51
9.53
2.61
0.78
0.25
1.02
0.78
0.10
0.01
0.15
1.00
1.21
1.38
1.37
1.61
0.32
0.90
0.93
0.18
0.26
0.09












Appendix Table 4.--Advertising intensity ratios by state.--Continued.



Potential Ad Intensity
State Population Exposures Ratiob

---------- Thousands ---------

New Hampshire 875.7 1,288.5 1.47
New Jersey 7,343.2 53,016.4 7.22
New Mexico 1,229.7 184.8 0.15
New York 17,938.7 146,079.7 8.14
North Carolina 5,627.1 2,197.4 0.39
North Dakota 660.9 3.4 0.005
Ohio 10,769.0 8,494.7 0.79
Oklahoma 2,926.7 7.0 0.002
Oregon 2,462.3 10,626.8 4.32
Pennsylvania 11,817.3 53,746.7 4.55
Rhode Island 935.7 841.3 0.90
South Carolina 2,934.8 1,734.5 0.59
South Dakota 702.8 155.5 0.22
Tennessee 4,380.7 5,397.1 1.23
Texas 13,171.2 11,936.6 0.91
Utah 1,321.3 104.7 0.08
Vermont 492.2 1,164.4 2.40
Virginia 5,210.3 5,572.8 1.07
Washington 3,776.2 3,053.5 0.81
West Virginia 1,882.5 1,233.1 0.66
Wisconsin 4,700.0 690.0 0.15
Wyoming 437.6 24.4 0.06
All states 213,857.0 426,481.7 1.95


a
Source: 1979 Survey of Buying Power

bhe intensity ratio is potential ad exposures divided by population.
The intensity ratio is potential ad exposures divided by population.













Appendix Table 5.--Pricing of fresh limes: Prices for multiple units
and prices per pound.



Units Price Number Percent


1 (Each)















2






3







4





5


Cents

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
15
19
25
29
49
59
15
19
25
29
35
49
59
19
25
29
33
35
39
49
59
69
25
2C
39
49
59
99
29
38
39


16
40
8
320
49
3
131
91
414
20
23

2
1
2
1
1
2
12
4
41
1
1
1
13
85
302
15
2
114
38
5
10
29
2
171
42
5
1
9
1
186


0.27
0.67
0.13
5.35
0.82
0.05
2.19
1.52
6.92
0.33
0.38
0.18
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.20
0.07
0.69
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.22
1.42
5.05
0.25
0.03
1.90
0.63
0.08
0.17
0.48
0.03
2.86
0.70
0.08
0.02
0.15
0.02
3.11












Appendix Table 5.--Pricing of fresh limes: Prices for
prices per pound.--Continued.


multiple units and


Units Price Number Percent


5 (Each)







6














7
8





9

10


Cents

47
48
49
59
69
79
99
100
19
25
28
29
33
35
39
48
49
59
68
69
79
89
99
100
100
49
79
88
89
99
100
99
100
39
49
58
59
68
69
79
88
89
99
100


49
1
292
105
37
36
3
15
1
1
6
43
1
1
425
3
269
354
1
66
2
2
21
23
2
51
18
9
111
5
105
17
26
13
26
2
80
9
22
159
29
76
205
107


0.82
0.02
4.88
1.75
0.62
0.60
0.05
0.25
0.02
0.02
0.10
0.72
0.02
0.02
7.10
0.05
4.49
5.91
0.02
1.10
0.03
0.03
0.35
0.38
0.03
0.85
0.30
0.15
1.85
0.08
1.75
0.28
0.43
0.22
0.43
0.03
1.34
0.15
0.37
2.66
0.48
1 .?7
3.43
1.79













Appendix Table 5.--Pricing of fresh limes: Prices for multiple units and
prices per pound.--Continued.


Units


11 (Each)


12












13
18


(Per pound)


Price


Number


Cents

69
78
99
39
49
58
59
65
68
69
77
79
89
99
100
109
99
79
100
100
100
675
6
12
14
19
25
27
29
33
3';
38
39
45
49
50
55
59
69
79
99
100


Percent


11
2
5
3
28
2
81
1
2
89
10
59
25
42
31
1
1
16
13
73
1
1
1

14
2
10
1
23
1
23

14
95
1
181
14
1
41
5
2
3
3


0.18
0.03
0.08
0.05
0.47
0.03
1.35
0.02
0.03
1.49
0.17
0.99
0.42
0.70
0.52
0.02
0.02
0.27
0.22
1.22
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.17
0.02
0.38
0.23
0.03
0.02
1.59
0.02
3.02
0.23
0.02
0.69
0.08
0.03
0.05
0.05


__ __1_













Appendix Table 6.--Pricing of lemons: Prices for multiple units and prices
per pound.



Units Price Number Percent


Cents

1 (Each) 8 2 0.63
10 18 5.68
11 18 5.68
12 19 5.99
15 5 1.58
19 10 3.15
2 35 2 0.63
3 39 5 1.58
49 1 0.32
59 5 1.58
4 49 1 0.32
59 1 0.32
99 2 0.63
5 49 3 0.95
59 62 19.56
69 8 2.52
79 8 2.52
89 11 3.47
100 2 0.63
6 39 2 0.63
69 3 0.95
79 2 0.63
89 1 0.32
99 1 0.32
100 6 1.89
7 100 1 0.32
8 99 3 0.95
100 4 1.26
10 89 16 5.05
99 10 3.15
100 1 0.32
11 79 10 3.15
99 4 1.26
12 79 4 1.26
99 1 0.32
100 1 0.32
149 1 0.32
13 99 1 0.32
(Per pound) 49 54 17.03












prices for fresh limes and lemons by week.


Week number Week Limes Lemons


-- Dollars per bushel --

1 June 11-17 25.60 13.36
2 June 18-24 24.40 14.23
3 June 25-July 1 15.80 14.84
4 July 2-8 11.25 14.63
5 July 9-15 10.60 16.41
6 July 16-22 10.00 17.51
7 July 23-29 8.40 18.35
8 July 30-August 5 8.60 18.13
9 August 6-12 10.40 18.77
10 August 13-19 8.40 17.00
11 August 20-26 10.30 15.96
12 August 27-September 2 14.05 13.67
13 September 3-9 16.55 12.58
14 September 10-16 18.75 14.24


Source: Florida Lime Administrative Committee.


Appendix Table 7.--F.O.B.


















REFERENCES


Federal-State Market News Service (USDA-AMS and Florida Department of
Agriculture) Marketing Florida Sub-Tropical Fruits and Vegetables.
1978-79 Season Summary, June 1979.

Sales and Survey Marketing Management, Survey of Buying Power, 1979.
Vol. 123, No. 2, Part I, New York, July 1979.

Standard Rate and Data Service, Inc., Newspaper Circulation Analysis,
Vol. 60, No. 8, Part 2, August 1978.




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