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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Evaluation of several combinations of grasses and white clover on Immokalee fine sand in south Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026871/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of several combinations of grasses and white clover on Immokalee fine sand in south Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 16 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kretschmer, Albert E ( Albert Emil ), 1925-
Hayslip, Norman C
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1964
Copyright Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: White clover -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 15-16).
Statement of Responsibility: Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr., Norman C. Hayslip.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026871
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN9842
oclc - 18353886
alephbibnum - 000929074

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Full Text
BULLETIN 676 JUNE 1964


8
) 7






















Evaluation of Several Combinations of

GRASSES AND WHITE CLOVER

on Immokalee Fine Sand in South Florida

Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr.
Norman C. Hayslip


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
University of Florida, Gainesville
J. R. Beckenbach, Director
~;'~_~I~E~ 'B 4i~iY;A























J. R.Beckenbach, Director












CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ..........-...... -- -... .. ...-...- .... ... .. ..... ..... .. 3
PROCEDURES
Planting ....- ..- ..-..-- ........-- ----------------.---.--.--....--- 3
Fertilization -..- ... ------.-.- --. -- ---- ------.........-----.. --.......--. 4
Harvesting .-..---........----------------........--..-..--...---... --. 4
Laboratory ................ ----------- ------------------------..... .. .... --.....-.. 5
RESULTS
Yields --...- ....-..- ----.. ...........---------- .. ---- ... ......-- 5
Dry Matter Contents ..-......----...-..-..-------- -----------........ .. 8
Crude Protein Contents ......---- ........--- ....-....--- ------- .....- -........- 8
Yields of Crude Protein ...........-.......--- ---- ......-- ... .....-...... 8
DISCUSSION ..........--- ----.... .------... -............... --...--- ---................. 13
SUMMARY .-.-------.......--------------- ..-.-------- -..-.....-- --........... 15
LITERATURE CITED --...........-.....-..- -- --------------...... --..... ...-..... 15























ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is expressed to Drs. Charles T. Ozaki, Howard
Ray, and Charles C. Hortenstine, formerly Assistant Soils Chem-
ists, Everglades Experiment Station, for their direction of the
protein analyses and for help in other phases of the work.








Evaluation of Several Combinations of
GRASSES AND WHITE CLOVER
on Immokalee Fine Sand in

South Florida

ALBERT E. KRETSCHMER, JR., AND NORMAN C. HAYSLIP 1

INTRODUCTION
It was about 50 years from the time white clover was first
tried as a pasture legume in Florida (15)2 until it proved to be
successful (1, 2, 3, 7). While white clover plantings were becom-
ing widespread in north and south Florida, many publications
have dealt with varieties (7, 9, 14), fertilization and liming (4,
6, 7, 10, 11, 18), planting dates (9), grazing trials (6, 8, 14), and
economics (6). The majority of the publications pertain to
north and central Florida. Although Kretschmer and Hayslip
(13) recently reported data comparing various grass varieties
over a period of three years, there is little published informa-
tion on the production capacities of various grass-white clover
mixtures grown in south Florida.
Thus, a study was undertaken to compare yields, crude protein
levels, dry matter contents, and protein yields from mixtures of
Louisiana white clover and each of six permanent pasture grasses
adaptable to south Florida mineral soils.

PROCEDURES
Planting
Three plots each of pangolagrass and Coastal and Suwannee
bermudagrasses were planted vegetatively, and carpetgrass and
Argentine and Pensacola bahiagrasses were seeded at rates of 7,
30, and 15 pounds per acre, respectively, on September 8, 1955.
These grasses were planted on Immokalee fine sand in plots 17
by 22 feet which had been limed, fertilized, and planted in to-
matoes the previous spring. A vigorous commercial strain of
Louisiana white clover was seeded to all plots on October 10,
1955, at a rate of 5 pounds per acre. Adequate soil moisture
was maintained by surface or overhead irrigation.
1Associate Agronomist and Entomologist, Indian River Field Laboratory,
Ft. Pierce, Florida.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fertilization

All plots received a 4-8-8 fertilizer at the rate of 500 pounds
per acre when the grasses were planted. No additional nitrogen
was used. Subsequent fertilizations from 1955 until April 1959
are presented in Table 1. Because of the lime applied to toma-
toes, the soil pH was about 6.1; the calcium and magnesium con-
tents were 550 and 150 pounds per acre, respectively, when deter-
mined by the 0.5 N acetic acid method of Forsee and Ozaki (5).

Harvesting

Plots were clipped about 2.5 inches above the soil surface
with a conventional sicklebar mower with a 30-inch cutting width.
Harvest dates are reported in Table 1 and include a period of 32
months.

TABLE 1.-FERTILIZATION AND CLIPPING SCHEDULES FOR GRASS-WHITE
CLOVER MIXTURES GROWN ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.

Pounds Per Acre*
Fertilization Date Pounds Per Acre* Clipping Date
N P,05 K20

1955 1956
1. October 10 0 40 120 1. August 8t
2. November 1
1956 1957
2. January 25 0 0 108
3. November 4 0 40 120 3. March 11
1957 4. April 16
4. January 14 0 40 120 5. June 21
5. April 26** 0 40 120 6. September 9
6. November 8 0 40 80 7. November 26
1958
8. March 10
9. April 1
10. May 9
1958 11. June 12
7. February 7 0 20 40 12. July 14
8. March 25 0 50 100 13. August 13
9. July 17 0 50 100 14. September 15
10. September 17 0 50 100 15. October 15
11. October 17 0 50 100
1959
16. January 30
17. April 9

Twenty percent superphosphate and 60 percent muriate of potash were used to sup-
ply phosphorus and potassium, respectively.
** Copper, manganese and zinc sulfates, and borax were applied at rates of 15, 15, 11,
and 13 pounds per acre, respectively.
t All plots were mowed and clippings removed, but no yields were obtained.








Combinations of Grasses and White Clover 5

Laboratory
Representative samples of the grass-clover mixtures were
weighed immediately upon clipping, dried at 70 to 750C in a
forced draft oven, and subsequently analyzed for nitrogen by the
AOAC method (16). Dry matter yields and moisture contents
were calculated from the harvest data.
Conventional analysis of variance techniques were used for
statistical tests (19).

RESULTS

Yields
Dry weight yields from the 16 cuttings are presented in
Table 2. Average yields were lower from November to April
or May than during the summer and fall. The total dry matter
production for the 32-month period ranged from about 8 tons
for carpetgrass-clover to 12 tons for bermudagrass-clover. This
difference was not statistically significant, although yields of
the bermudagrasses-clover mixtures appeared to be larger. In 10
out of 16 harvests, however, there were significant differences
among yields of varieties.
To evaluate the effects of the white clover component, yields
during the winter and spring of 1957-58 and 1958-59 were com-
piled and are reported in Table 3. Although there was some
grass present a; these harvests, clover predominated in the mix-
tures. Data of October 15, 1958, were included because of the
predominance of summer live-over white clover present. The
Argentine bahiagrass-clover mixture yielded the least for the
total of seven harvests, followed by Pensacola bahiagrass-clover.
There was no significant difference in total yields where white
clover was growing with pangolagrass, carpetgrass, or the ber-
mudagrasses. From yield results and observations, early white
clover growth was less in bahiagrass plots than in others. Be-
cause the bermudagrasses grow more rapidly than other grasses
in the early spring (13), yields from these plots generally were
greater because of the added grass growth. Even with the
added yields produced by white clover in the winter and spring,
average dry matter production from the grass-clover combina-
tions was from two to three times less than that obtained in the
summer.












TABLE 2.-DRY WEIGHT YIELDS, IN POUNDS PER ACRE, OF GRASS-WHITE CLOVER MIXTURES
ON IMMOKALE3 FINE SAND.

1956 1957 1958 1959
Grass Varieties 11-1 3-11 4-16 6-21 9-9 11-26 3-10 4-1 5-9 6-12 7-14 8-13 9-15 10-15 1-30 4-9 Total

1. Pensacola
bahiagrass 1370 300 1000 2770 2930 530 330 430 970 2770 2000 1130 670 200 0 270 17770 .
2. Argentine
bahiagrass 1770 230 670 3130 3230 370 170 300 600 2100 2470 1730 600 130 0 30 17530
3. Pangolagrass 2000 1130 730 3030 3470 830 400 500 300 2070 1570 1300 170 70 670 930 19170
4. Coastal
bermudagrass 2730 1600 1630 2400 4470 900 870 470 830 2230 1430 1230 470 270 130 600 22270
5. Suwannee
bermudagrass 2570 1700 1430 2930 4330 1170 900 570 1470 2770 1470 1530 530 300 400 830 24900 3.
6. Carpetgrass 1830 630 900 1830 2200 300 1330 370 600 1330 1400 1370 330 100 500 1100 16130 I

Average* 2044 950 1060 2680 3440 680 670 440 790 2210 1720 1380 460 180 280 630 19630

L.S.D. .05 1020 1025 610 N.S. 960 380 490 N.S. 620 340 N.S. N.S. 170 100 N.S. N.S. N.S.

A difference of more than 330 pounds per acre between any two date averages is significant at the 5 percent level.












TABLE 3.-DRY WEIGHT YIELDS IN POUNDS PER ACRE OF GRASS-WHITE CLOVER MIXTURES
GROWN DURING PERIODS WHEN WHITE CLOVER PREDOMINATED.


Grass Varieties 3-11-57 4-16-57 3-10-58 4-1-58 10-15-58 1-30-59 4-9-59 Total a


1. Pensacola bahiagrass 300 1000 330 430 200 0 270 2630
2. Argentine bahiagrass 230 670 170 300 130 0 30 1530
3. Pangolagrass 1130 730 400 500 70 670 930 4430 S
4. Coastal bermudagrass 1600 1630 870 470 270 130 600 5570
5. Suwannee bermudagrass 1700 1430 900 570 300 400 830 6130
6. Carpetgrass 630 900 1330 370 100 500 1100 4930


Average* 950 1060 670 440 180 280 630 4200


L.S.D. .05 1025 610 490 N.S. 100 N.S. N.S. 2660

A difference between any two date averages of 220 pounds per acre or more is significant at the 5 percent level.




-I1







8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Dry Matter Contents
The dry matter contents of the forage mixtures are given in
Table 4. Average contents varied from about 16 percent in the
spring to 40 percent in late summer and fall when the grasses
predominated. Bermudagrass mixtures were higher in dry
matter than others. Pangolagrass-clover and carpetgrass-clover
mixtures contained the most moisture. However, in the spring,
when the clover predominated, dry matter differences among
grass-clover mixtures were small.

Crude Protein Contents
Crude protein contents are presented in Table 5. The aver-
age content for the carpetgrass-clover mixture (14.5 percent)
was statistically greater than that for any other mixture except
Coastal bermudagrass-clover (13.7 percent). The average crude
protein content of the grass-clover mixtures ranged from 12.5
to 14.5 percent.
Average protein contents for different harvest dates varied
from about 20 to 28 percent when clover predominated, and from
5 to 8 percent in the summer and fall when grasses predominated.
In the summer of 1957 a decrease in protein occurred least rapid-
ly in plots containing the slower growing carpetgrass. During
the summer of 1958, when white clover live-over was good, there
was no difference attributable to grass variety.

Yields of Crude Protein
The pounds of crude protein obtained in the harvested grass-
clover mixtures are presented in Table 6. There was no signifi-
cant difference in the total protein yields during the 32-month
period among grass varieties, although values ranged from about
1,550 to 2,400 pounds per acre. Differences among varieties gen-
erally were more evident in the fall months although crude
protein yields normally were least during late fall and winter.
Data for heavily fertilized grass growing alone showed that
crude protein yields were influenced primarily by dry weight
yields (13). With grass-clover combinations, however, protein
yields were affected by dry weight yields and crude protein con-
tents depending on the composition of the forage. For example,
more crude protein was produced when dry matter yields were
high (generally when production from the grass component was
greatest). Average yields in July and August 1958 were 1,700










TABLE 4.-PERCENT DRY MATTER CONTENTS OF GRASS-WHITE CLOVER MIXTURES
GROWN ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.

1956 1957 1958 1959 a
Grass Varieties 11-1 3-11 4-16 6-21 9-9 11-26 3-10 4-1 5-9 6-12 7-14 8-13 9-15 10-15 1-30** 4-9 Av. 5

1. Pensacola S
bahiagrass 38.5 15.4 20.2 26.4 28.1 35.4 17.1 18.0 32.1 27.2 28.1 21.1 28.0 29.1 29.2 26.3
2. Argentine
bahiagrass 35.1 16.3 21.9 26.1 25.8 33.8 18.3 18.6 31.6 28.1 26.6 30.4 27.1 26.3 27.9 26.3 -
3. Pangolagrass 34.4 16.7 17.5 28.6 33.2 35.4 15.7 15.8 29.5 21.8 22.5 20.1 24.5 23.1 26.5 23.8 24.2
4. Coastal
bermudagrass 50.7 17.1 18.8 35.7 44.5 36.0 16.5 17.1 34.7 40.7 39.6 28.0 31.7 31.1 30.1 27.9 31.3
co
5. Suwannee
bermudagrass 46.1 16.6 20.1 38.1 45.0 36.6 15.3 16.2 31.6 33.7 35.7 31.6 31.2 30.7 26.1 27.6 30.4
6. Carpetgrass 32.1 13.8 17.5 26.7 27.3 29.0 14.7 15.7 28.3 24.0 24.7 25.8 28.4 26.9 22.9 25.7 24.0

Average* 39.5 16.0 19.4 30.2 34.0 34.4 16.3 16.9 31.3 29.3 29.5 26.2 28.5 27.9 26.4 27.0 27.1


L.S.D. .05 5.2 N.S. N.S. 8.0 2.7 N.S. N.S. 1.5 N.S. 3.4 2.4 7.9 2.3 3.2 N.S. 1.2 Q


A difference of more than 0.5 percent between date averages is significant at the 5 percent level.
Not included in the overall statistical analyses or in the grass averages.


ca













TABLE 5.-PERCENT CRUDE PROTEIN OF GRASS-WHITE CLOVER MIXTURES
GROWN ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.

1956 1957 1958 1959
Grass Varieties 11-1 4-16 6-21 9-9 11-26 3-10 4-1 5-9 6-12 7-14 8-13 9-15 10-15 1-30** 4-9 Av.

1. Pensacola bahiagrass 6.1 19.4 8.9 4.8 7.8 25.6 25.7 15.7 8.7 8.9 9.3 7.5 9.7 21.2 12.8
2. Argentine bahiagrass 4.8 20.4 8.1 4.6 6.2 25.8 25.4 16.7 10.8 8.5 9.1 7.5 10.9 22.0 12.9
3. Pangolagrass 3.1 17.8 5.5 3.0 4.5 29.4 27.9 20.0 10.5 8.4 8.7 8.6 10.2 18.9 17.9 12.5
4. Coastal bermudagrass 3.9 21.7 9.6 4.4 7.4 27.2 29.5 17.2 10.7 9.6 9.0 9.5 10.9 17.3 20.8 13.7
5. Suwannee bermudagrass 4.5 19.6 7.9 4.8 6.1 27.4 30.0 15.8 8.7 7.6 10.0 9.4 9.8 18.7 18.0 12.8
6. Carpetgrass 6.5 23.7 13.1 7.3 7.9 24.3 30.3 21.3 12.6 8.4 8.8 7.8 9.7 25.1 21.8 14.5


Average* 4.8 20.4 8.8 4.8 6.7 26.6 28.1 17.8 10.3 8.6 9.2 8.4 10.2 20.1 20.3 13.2


L.S.D. .05 1.6 2.2 2.2 2.8 1.1 3.1 1.9 2.3 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. 3.0 0.9

A difference between any two date averages of 0.8 percent or more is significant at the 5 percent level.
** Not included in statistical analyses because several replicates did not produce enough forage to harvest.













TABLE 6.-POUNDS PER ACRE OF CRUDE PROTEIN OBTAINED BY HARVESTING DIFFERENT GRASS-WHITE CLOVER MIXTURES
GROWN ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.

1956 1957 1958 1959
Grass Varieties 11-1 4-16 6-21 9-9 11-26 3-10 4-1 5-9 6-12 7-14 8-13 9-15 10-15 1-30 4-9 Total S.

1. Pensacola bahiagrass 90 197 246 140 42 86 110 153 239 178 105 51 19 0 65 1721
2. Argentine bahiagrass 83 136 258 149 24 44 77 103 225 209 159 45 15 0 22 1549 '
3. Pangolagrass 62 134 168 103 38 117 140 65 214 132 114 17 10 95 172 1581
4. Coastal bermudagrass 107 354 227 196 68 236 138 151 238 137 110 45 29 29 125 2190 S
5. Suwannee bermudagrass 116 281 229 205 72 242 171 232 240 111 153 52 29 116 154 2403
6. Carpetgrass 120 210 237 160 24 325 111 103 167 119 121 26 10 128 235 2096

Average" 96 218 228 159 44 175 125 135 221 148 127 39 19 61 129 1995


L.S.D. .05 N.S. 137 N.S. 31 30 128 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. 17 11 N.S. N.S. N.S.


A difference between any two date averages of 42 pounds or more is significant at the 5 percent level.




1-
1-








12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

and 1,400 pounds per acre, crude protein contents were 8.6 and
9.2 percent, and protein yields were 148 and 127 pounds per acre,
respectively. The values for September and October, when crude
protein contents were similar to those for July and August, were:
yields-460 and 180 pounds per acre, protein-8.4 and 10.2 per-
cent, and protein yields-39 and 19 pounds per acre, respectively.
These data show the marked influence that dry weight yields
had on protein yields.
The influence of the crude protein content is evident when
comparing those harvests containing predominantly clover
(spring) versus those containing mostly grasses (fall). In Janu-
ary 1959, for example, yields were 280 pounds per acre, crude
protein was 20 percent, and protein recovered was 61 pounds
per acre. In this instance, even though yields were. about the
same as those for the September-October period, yields of protein
were about two to three times higher because of the increased
protein content of the predominately white clover forage.
In Table 7 are presented the crude protein yields obtained
when white clover dominated the mixtures. During the spring
the pounds of protein obtained were least for the bahiagrass plots.
Carpetgrass-clover mixtures were equal to those of clover and
pangolagrass or bermudagrass.

TABLE 7.-POUNDS PER ACRE OF CRUDE PROTEIN OBTAINED BY HARVESTING
DIFFERENT GRASS-WHITE CLOVER MIXTURES DURING PERIODS WHEN
WHITE CLOVER PREDOMINATED.

Grass Varieties 4-16-57 3-10-58 4-1-58 10-15-58 1-30-59 4-9-59 Total

1. Pensacola
bahiagrass 197 86 110 19 0 65 480
2. Argentine
bahiagrass 136 44 77 15 0 22 294
3. Pangolagrass 134 117 140 10 95 172 664
4. Coastal
bermudagrass 354 236 138 29 29 125 921
5. Suwannee
bermudagrass 281 242 171 29 116 154 989
6. Carpetgrass 210 325 111 10 128 235 1015

Average* 218 175 125 19 61 129 727

L.S.D. .05 137 128 N.S. 11 N.S. N.S. 408

A difference between any two date averages of 36 or more is significant at the 6 percent
level.







Combinations of Grasses and White Clover 13

The number of pounds of nitrogen found in the different mix-
tures was calculated from the data of April 16, 1957, to April 9,
1959, a period of about 24 months. Pensacola and Argentine ba-
hiagrasses, pangolagrass, Coastal and Suwannee bermudagrasses,
and carpetgrass in combinations with white clover contained 125,
112, 117, 160, 176, and 152 pounds of nitrogen per acre per
year, respectively. These values compare favorable with those
obtained from grasses that received heavy nitrogen applica-
tions (13).
DISCUSSION
White clover should be utilized in a permanent pasture pro-
gram wherever possible because of the nitrogen that is added
to the pasture through fixation and because clover is a high
quality feed. Heavily fertilized grass has produced more dry
matter than grass-clover mixtures during mild winters and
springs in south Florida (12, 13). An exception was heavily
fertilized carpetgrass, which yielded less when grown alone than
in combination with white clover (12, 13). During extremely
cold winters, the yield benefits from white clover are significant
because the major grasses are frost susceptible. Even so, clover
growth rates from late fall through early spring are limited be-
cause of low temperatures and possibly short day-lengths. The
best white clover growth rates were found by Mitchell (17) to
occur when air temperatures were about 75F. Ten-year aver-
age daily lows for the months of September through June at
the Indian River Field Laboratory were 72, 67, 60, 53, 50, 54, 56,
61, 66, 700F. Average monthly highs were 90, 85, 81, 75, 74,
77, 79, 82, 86, 890F, respectively. Therefore, the most favorable
temperatures for white clover growth should occur from Septem-
be through November and March through June. Generally this
was found to be true during the experiment, although the rapid
fall growth was notably visible only when summer live-over
stands were good. In many instances, however, poor clover
growth occurs in commercial pastures during these periods.
Extreme soil moisture conditions, improper soil fertility, and/or
grass competition probably are the main responsible factors.
Crude protein contents of the forages, except in late sum-
mer and fall, were generally high enough for all classes of cattle
to preclude the use of protein supplements, assuming dry matter
intake was not limited by the high moisture contents. When
summer live-over clover stands are good, protein levels in grass-







14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

clover pastures in the late summer and fall probably are suffi-
cient, but when almost no clover survives, protein contents of
4 to 6 percent can be expected.
In established grass-clover pastures, except for summer live-
over, there is seldom sufficient white clover before March. Live-
over clover will produce considerably more forage because of
the relatively rapid growth of mature plants compared to seed-
lings from late September to December. Although proper fertil-
ity and lime (10) aid white clover to live through the summer,
management of the associated grass plays a major part in live-
over and early fall germination of seeds produced in previous
years. Bermudagrasses and carpetgrass were observed to be less
competitive with clover than pangolagrass and old stands of the
bahiagrasses. Earlier clover growth during the fall and winter
can be expected if pangolagrass is grazed moderately or mowed
for hay or silage in the fall. If pangolagrass is permitted to
form a thick, high mat, live-over clover will be kept at a mini-
mum, and fall germination of seeds will be delayed until the tall
grass has been removed. Old bahiagrass sods, because of their
rapid growth in late summer and the large, thick, intermeshed
runners, compete more for soil space and water than do newly
established sods. Normally, however, clover growth is good in
these pastures beginning in late March or April.
During the experiment, plots were mowed in the fall, permit-
ting clover seedling growth to occur early. If the plots had been
mowed in the winter, clover seedling growth would have been
delayed. Carpetgrass does not compete with clover as severely
as the others tested even when allowed to grow to a height
of 1 foot or more. Under normal conditions, when the carpet-
grass growth is permitted to exceed grazing in the summer,
sufficient areas in a carpetgrass-clover pasture will be grazed to
a height of 2 to 3 inches, while others will be 8 to 12 inches high.
This is true for the management of the other grasses to a lesser
degree because of the more vigorous grass growth during the
summer. This type of management with carpetgrass has been
observed to permit 1) a large population of live-over clover, 2)
good conditions for germination from seeds laying on the soil
surface, and 3) a build-up of carpetgrass that provides roughage
for the winter. Although carpetgrass growing alone, even when
heavily fertilized, does not produce a vigorous permanent pas-
ture compared to other commercial improved grasses (13), car-
petgrass-clover mixtures during the winter and spring can be







Combinations of Grasses and White Clover 15

as good as other grass-clover mixtures when managed properly
and when there is no need for large grass yields in the summer.
When grasses are grazed closely in the fall to permit clover
seed germination, short grass remains through the winter and
spring. The daily dry matter and carbohydrate intake of grazing
animals, therefore, may be seriously reduced, even though there
appears to be a large quantity of feed in the form of white clover.
The lack of roughage can be overcome by utilizing unimproved
pasture, hay or silage, or reserve permanent grasses during
winter grazing. Regardless of what the overall nutrition of the
pasture may be in the winter, the production of forage, even when
white clover is used, will be two to three times less than that in
the summer.
SUMMARY
An experiment was conducted on an Immokalee fine sand in
south Florida to compare yields, dry matter, protein levels, and
protein yields of various grass-white clover mixtures.
1. Yields for the total of 16 clippings were not statistically
different, but the bahiagrass-white clover mixtures produced
the least forage during spring. Mixtures of pangolagrass, ber-
mudagrass, or carpetgrass with white clover produced equal
yields.
2. Dry matter contents varied from about 16 percent in the
spring when clover was predominant to 40 percent when the
grass component predominated.
3. Crude protein percent varied from a low of 5 when no
clover was present to 28 when almost no grass was present in
the clippings. The average crude protein contents ranged from
12.5 to 14.5 percent for grass varieties.
4. The yields of crude protein were greatest in the spring
and early summer and lowest in the late fall and winter. During
the spring, the crude protein yields for the bahiagrasses-clover
mixtures were less than for the other mixtures. Nitrogen re-
covered in the harvested portions of the mixtures ranged from
112 to 176 pounds per acre per year.

LITERATURE CITED
1. Blaser, Roy E. Preliminary pasture clover studies. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 325. 1938.
2. Blaser, R. E., and F. T. Boyd. Winter clover pastures for Peninsular
Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 351. 1940.








16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

3. Blaser, R. E. et al. Carpetgrass and legume pastures in Florida. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 453. 1952.
4. Blue, William G., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Rates and ratios of nitrogen,
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fine sand. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 15:208-218. 1955.
5. Forsee, W. T., Jr., and Charles T. Ozaki. Rapid laboratory rpethods for
the analysis of -soil and plant tissue samples. Everglades Station
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6. Henderson, J. R. Results of research on pasture fertilization in terms
of costs, returns, and profits. Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. Mimeo. April,
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7. Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones, and W. G. Kirk. Winter clovers in Central
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combination of native and improved pasture. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
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9. Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr. White clover varieties and planting dates in
south Florida-a progress report. Indian River Field Lab. Mimeo
Rpt. 59-1. 1958.
10. Growth of Louisiana S1 white clover seedlings as
influenced by soil additions of lime and phosphate. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 18:136-149. 1958.
11. Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr., Norman C. Hayslip, and Charles T. Ozaki.
Liming experiments and observations with white dutch clover on
Immokalee fine sand. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 17:274-286.
1957.
12. Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr., Norman C. Hayslip, and Charles C. Hor-
tenstine. One year's results comparing yield and quality of six
grasses grown alone and with white clover in south Florida. Soil
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13. Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr. and Norman C. Hayslip. Evaluation of sev-
eral pasture grasses on Immokalee fine sand in south Florida. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 658. 1963.
14. Marshall, Sidney P. Whiteclover-pangolagrass and white clover-Coastal
bermudagrass pastures for dairy heifers. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul.
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15. McCloud, D. E. Forage and cover plant introduction by the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 13:32-38.
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16. Methods of analyses of A. O. A. C. p. 25. A. O. A. C. Washington 4,
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18. Neller, J. R., et al. Fertilizer should contain a source of sulfur for
clover pastures in many areas of Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ.
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19. Patterson, D. D. Statistical technique in agricultural research. Mc-
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