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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Evaluation of several pasture grasses on Immokalee fine sand in south Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of several pasture grasses on Immokalee fine sand in south Florida
Alternate Title: Bulletin 658 ; University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 25 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kretschmer, Albert E. ( Albert Emil ), 1925 -
Hayslip, Norman C
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: June, 1963
Copyright Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pastures -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr., Norman C. Hayslip.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 24-25).
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026867
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN9804
oclc - 18353266
alephbibnum - 000929040

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Full Text
IUNE 1963 | ) BULLETIN 658


EVALUATION OF
SEVERAL PASTURE GRASSES
ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND
IN SOUTH FLORIDA

lbert E. Kretschmer, Jr.
lorman C. Hayslip

















AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
J R. Beckenbach, Director























CONTENTS
Page


INTRODUCTION .... ................... ................ 3

PROCEDURES .....---- ..--. ...............-.... ...... ...... 5
P lantin g .............. .............--............... ...........................---... 5
Fertilization ...-....... ..... -- --- ...-- ..... ........ ..- 5
Harvesting --....------- ---.. -..- -------------........- ....-..-----..------ 5
Laboratory ....--...... ...--.....------- --........-----.... --. -.------------ 6

RESULTS ..-..-..--.....--...------------- . ............... ..... .... ............ 7
Yields .-..................---- --- ...-..--.. 7
Dry M atter Contents --. ... ..... .. ...... . .... -- ..- ... ....-- .. 10
Crude Protein Contents .... --...... ------------..... ... ---------.........-- 10
Yields of Crude Protein ....... ----------------.. ... .......13
Potassium Fertility ......................... .... ... ........ ............ 16
Clipping Heights ........ .......... 18
W eed Competition .... -....-- ..... ....--.. . -. -- ..- - 18

D ISCUSSION ............ ......-...-- ..- ... .... .-......- 19
Grasses ................ ..... ................ ... ... ............ .......-- 19
General .---..................... ..--- ... .....--------- ------------ --------- 21

SUMMARY .... .. ............ ... 23

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ .- ..- ... .....- .. ... 24

LITERATURE CITED .-......-.........-..--...-...-.... ------------ --... .--.. --- ---------- 24









EVALUATION OF SEVERAL PASTURE
GRASSES ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND
IN SOUTH FLORIDA

ALBERT E. KRETSCHMER, JR., and NORMAN C. HAYSLIP 1

INTRODUCTION

A large part of the feed available to cattle in Florida comes
from pastures. Many changes have been made during the past
20 years to increase the productivity of pastures. New grasses,
such as pangolagrass, the bahiagrasses, and the improved ber-
mudagrasses, have been introduced. There has been a continued
increase in the quantities of fertilizers used. Many ranchers
have developed effective water control systems and have planted
improved varieties of grasses. These and other factors have
helped to increase the year-round yields of the grasses, permit-
ting later grazing in the fall and earlier grazing in the spring.
In addition, the large production of these improved grasses in
the summer has often been utilized by making hay or silage that
was later used as a winter feed, supplementing the regular graz-
ing program.
Although the dairy industry in south Florida has depended
almost entirely on bagged feed, there has been increasing inter-
est by dairymen in knowing the value of a permanent pasture in
their overall programs. This has been especially true in the past
several years with the advent of green-chop procedures. These
enable dairymen to supply the roughage needed by means of cut-
ting either permanent grasses or annually planted crops and
bringing the materials to the animals.
Considerable literature is available dealing with grazing and
clipping improved grasses in central and north Florida. In 1943,
Blazer and Stokes (2)2 showed that the growth of established
carpetgrass was stimulated primarily by nitrogen fertilization,
especially when applied in the spring. The chemical composi-
tions of carpetgrass, dallisgrass, Common bermudagrass, and
paragrass were also compared. In 1948, Bair and Kidder (1)
published data regarding the grazing qualities of many of the
common and improved grasses of Florida on the muck soils of
1 Associate Agronomist and Entomologist, Indian River Field Laboratory,
Ft. Pierce.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.







4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the Everglades. Promising selections of grasses were also es-
tablished for observational purposes on the sandy soils of south
Florida. In west Florida, Jeffers (11) compared the yields of
Pensacola and Argentine bahiagrasses and Coastal bermuda-
grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization. Pensacola
bahiagrass responded best to higher nitrogen levels. Similar
studies were conducted with pangolagrass and Pensacola bahia-
grass (15, 18, 19, 20), napiergrass (3), St. Augustinegrass (4),
and fescuegrass (16). Gammon and Blue (7) in 1952, and Gam-
mon (8) in 1953, studied the requirements of various grasses
for potassium. At the Range Cattle Experiment Station in
central Florida, a general description of the various grasses
commonly used in Florida was presented by Hodges, Jones, and
Kirk in 1951 (10). The same workers (5) and McCaleb (6)
have shown the pounds of beef per acre that might be obtained
by grazing various permanent pasture grasses. In Gainesville
(12), eight different pasture programs were compared for beef
production, forage yields, and quality. An economic analysis was
made of the various programs. Pangolagrass, Pensacola bahia-
grass, and Coastal bermudagrass were used as permanent im-
proved pasture grasses, while other programs included the use
of clovers. Henderson (9) summarized the results of most of
the grazing and clipping trials conducted by the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations with the various grasses commonly
used in central and north Florida. Included were the economics
involved in the production of beef from these pastures.
Information on the production capacities of the various im-
proved grasses now being used extensively in south Florida has
been very limited. This study was primarily undertaken to com-
pare yields, crude protein levels, dry matter contents, and crude
protein contained in harvested forage of several of the improved
pasture grasses now being used in south Florida and of two other
grasses.
Also, results were obtained on the effects of high rates of
nitrogen and low rates of potassium fertilization, clipping heights,
and weed competition. The experiment was conducted on Im-
mokalee fine sand, which is typical of a large acreage of land
now being used for grass production in south Florida.








Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 5

PROCEDURES

Planting
All of the grasses except Kentucky 31 fescuegrass were
planted on Immokalee fine sand on September 8, 1955, following
a spring crop of tomatoes. The latter was planted on October 19,
1955. A randomized block design was used that included eight
different grasses, replicated three times, on plots that were 17
by 22 feet. Pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens), "Giant" pan-
golagrass (Digitaria valida), and Coastal and Suwannee bermuda-
grasses (Cynodon dactylon) were planted vegetatively. Pensa-
cola and Argentine bahiagrasses (Paspalum notatum), carpet-
grass (Axonopus affinis), and Kentucky 31 fescuegrass (Festuca
elatior) were seeded at rates of 15, 30, 7, and 20 pounds per
acre, respectively.
Fertilization
All plots received a 4-8-8 fertilizer at the rate of 500 pounds
per acre at planting. Subsequent fertilization and harvesting
schedules, from November 29, 1955, until the end of the experi-
mental period in April 1959 are summarized in Table 1.
From November 29, 1955, until March 20, 1958, the grasses
were maintained under what will be designated as a low fertility
program because fertilizer was applied only once or twice an-
nually.
From March 1958 until the end of the experiment in April
1959, plots were maintained under what will be called a high
fertility program because they were fertilized with a 9-6-6 mix-
ture at a rate of 500 pounds per acre after each except the Oc-
tober harvest. Since the area had received sufficient phosphor-
ous in the preceding tomato crop, no phosphorus was applied
until May 1958. No lime was used during the experimental
period because soil analyses showed that there was sufficient
residual lime.
To test the effects of potash deficiency on grass growth, po-
tassium was left out of the fertilizer applied to one half of each
plot, randomized, from November 29, 1955, until May 13, 1958
(see Table 1). After this, plots were fertilized uniformly with
the 9-6-6 mixture.
Harvesting
Plots were harvested with a conventional sickle-bar mower
with an effective cutting swath of 30 inches. A clipping height








6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of about 21/2 inches was used until August 14, 1958, when each
plot was divided equally. Grass on one half was cut at the nor-
mal 21/-inch height, while grass on the other half was cut about
5 inches above ground level. Harvesting dates are summarized
in Table 1. Samples were obtained immediately after clipping
to obtain fresh weight and dry weight data.

TABLE 1.-FERTILIZATION AND CLIPPING SCHEDULES FOR GRASSES
GROWN FROM 1955 TO 1959 ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.

Pounds Per Acre *
Fertilization Date N P20s K20 Clipping Date

1955 1956
1. November 29 ....................... 40 0 40 1. April 15
2. August 8
1956 3. November 1
2. M arch 22 ..........-.................- 60 0 0
3. November 21 .....--................. 40 0 50** 1957
1957 4. February 27
5. August 5
4. September 19 ................--...... 60 0 60** 6. December 2
1958 1958
5. March 20 .-............-......------- ... 60 0 60** 7. May 9
6. May 13 ... --......................-..- ... 45 30 30 8. June 12
7. June 13 ..............................-... 45 30 30 9. July 14
8. July 15 ....--..--..... ..-.. .. ........... 45 30 30 10. August 14 t
9. August 15 .-.........-- .. --........... 45 30 30 11. September 15
10. September 17 -....-......-.......-- ... 45 30 30 12. October 15
11. December 22 ....--....--....-...--- ... 45 30 30 13. December 18
1959
14. April 9

Ammonium nitrate and muriate of potash were used to supply the N and K2O, re-
spectively, until May 1958, when a commercial 9-6-6 fertilizer was used.
** One half of each plot of grass did not receive KCO.
t From August until the termination of the experiment all grasses were clipped at 2
and 5 inches above the soil surface.

There was a gradual encroachment of grassy and broadleaf
weeds into the "Giant" pangolagrass and fescuegrass plots after
about a year from plantings, so that after the December harvest
in 1957, only information concerning weed encroachment was
obtained.
Laboratory

Representative samples of grasses were dried at 70 to 750
C in a forced-draft oven. Dry matter contents were determined;







Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 7

and dry weight yields were calculated and presented on an oven-
dry basis. The AOAC Method (13) was used to determine ni-
trogen in the grasses. Crude protein values were obtained by
multiplying the nitrogen contents by 6.25. A nitric-perchloric
acid wet digestion method was used for the determination of
potassium with a Beckman model DU flame emission spectro-
photometer (17).
Conventional statistical techniques as outlined by Patterson
(14) were used throughout.

RESULTS
Yields
Low Fertility-Dry weight yields of six cuttings made from
April 1956 until December 1957 are reported in Table 2. Yields
increased from spring through summer and began decreasing
as winter approached. In 1956, large yields were obtained from
pangolagrass, "Giant" pangolagrass, and the bermudagrasses
for the April and August harvests. Relative production from
the bahiagrasses was high for both August cuttings but much
lower for all other cuttings. Carpetgrass yielded least and was
followed closely by fescuegrass.
A comparison of the ability of the different grasses to grow
during cool weather under a minimum fertilizer program can be
made by an examination of temperature data and yields for
February 27 and December 2, 1957. Daily low fall temperatures
in 1956 did not drop below 600F until November; and, therefore,
rather warm temperatures were the general rule from August
until the harvest on November 1, 1956. From November until
the February 27, 1957, harvest, temperatures were much colder.
In 1957, minimum air temperatures of below 600F were noted
from the last of October through November, and these would
have adversely affected grass growth and yields of the harvest
in December 2, 1957. Therefore, the yields of February and
December 1957 can be used to reflect the ability of the grasses
to grow during cold weather. The yields on February 27, 1957,
showed that cold weather was particularly effective in reducing
bahiagrass and carpetgrass growth to about 25 percent of that
for pangolagrass. In December 1957, cold weather reduced yields
of other grasses to about one half the yields of pangolagrass and
the bermudagrass. Total yields for the December and February
harvests were between 4,400 and 5,400 pounds of dry matter per
acre for pangolagrass and the bermudagrasses, compared to ap-








TABLE 2.-DRY WEIGHT YIELDS, IN POUNDS PER ACRE, OF GRASSES GROWING AT LOW AND HIGH LEVELS OF FERTILITY ON IMMOKALEE
FINE SAND.
Low Fertility
Av.
Grass Varieties Per
4-15-56 8-8-56 11-1-56 2-27-57 8-5-57 12-2,57 Total Av. Year
Pensacola bahiagrass ................................ 1300 3750 1570 300 3720 1800 12440 2080 6220
Argentine bahiagrass ...------.......................---............ 1330 44,50 2000 400 3120 1270 12570 2100 6290
Pangolagrass ...........------..--....--..--------.......- 5220 3020 1470 1770 3460 3420 18360 3060 9180
Coastal bermudagrass .......-----............................ 4320 5520 2000 1130 2370 3320 18660 3110 9330
Suwannee bermudagrass ..................---............--.. 3460 4560 2000 2370 2860 3120 18370 3060 9190
Carpetgrass .................................................... 0 2030 930 270 730 1270 5230 870 2620
"Giant" pangolagrass ................----..............---........ 2300 6120 1970 1770 3520 1470 17150 2850 8580
Kentucky 31 fescuegrass .....---.................--... 1470 1130 1230 1470 700 770 6770 1130 3390
Average -----.....--. ---..........--- ............. 2430 3820 1650 1180 2560 2060
L.S.D. .05 .----- ...........- -------.......... ---- 1130 1230 N.S. 800 1200 455 3200 530


High Fertility
Av.
Grass Varieties Per Grand
5-9-58 6-12-58 7-14-58 8-14-58 9-15-58 10-15-58 12-18-58 4-9-59 Total Av. Year Total
Pensacola
bahiagrass ...... 1100 2840 1980 1130 1330 440 240 200 9260 1160 6860 21700
Argentine
bahiagrass ...... 340 2740 2940 1610 1810 620 30 0 10090 1260 7470 22660
Pangolagrass ...... 1770 3210 2220 1610 1610 990 510 790 12710 1590 9410 31070
Coastal
bermudagrass- 2360 2940 2150 1400 1160 580 580 890 12060 1510 8930 30720
Suwannee
bermudagrass.. 2970 2360 2590 1540 1610 1030 1200 950 14250 1780 10560 32620
Carpetgrass ........ 170 850 1300 750 1100 130 170 30 4500 560 3330 9730
Average .......... 1460 2490 2190 1340 1440 640 450 480
L.S.D. .05 ...... 650 740 875 205 N.S. 175 N.S. 325 2135 265








Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 9

proximately 2,000 pounds for the bahiagrasses and fescuegrass
and 1,500 pounds produced by carpetgrass.
Total and average yields of the various grasses indicated that
pangolagrass and the bermudagrasses were superior to the bahia-
grasses, which in turn were superior to carpetgrass and fescue-
grass. The "Giant" pangolagrass yielded extremely well, but
contained a large percentage of weeds.
High Fertility-Beginning in May 1958 the six grasses listed
in Table 2 were top-dressed with 500 pounds of 9-6-6 fertilizer
per acre after each except the October cutting. By April 1959,
eight clippings were made. Harvests were made each month
from May 9, 1958, until October 15, 1958, after which not enough
grass was produced to harvest again until December 18. Grass
growth continued to be slow, making it impossible to clip again
until April 9, 1959, when the experiment was terminated. In
Table 3 are presented the number of days having indicated min-
imum air temperatures during the period of August 14, 1958, to
April 9, 1959. An examination of these data shows there was a
decrease in minimum temperatures between September 15 and
October 15, and a more drastic decrease in the periods that fol-
lowed. Also, temperatures from October 15 to December 18 were
higher than from December 18 to April 9. During the summer
period between May 9, 1958, and September 15, the bahiagrasses
produced about 4 tons per acre, which compared favorably with
the yields from the other grasses except for carpetgrass, which
yielded only 2 tons. From October 15 through the last harvest
on April 9, the bahiagrasses, even though fertilized heavily, grew
very slowly compared to pangolagrass and the bermudagrasses.
Total dry matter production for this six-month period was about
700 pounds of dry matter per acre from the bahiagrasses, 2,000
to 3,000 pounds from pangolagrass and the bermudagrasses, and
300 pounds from carpetgrass.

TABLE 3.-NUMBER OF DAYS HAVING INDICATED MINIMUM AIR
TEMPERATURES FROM AUGUST 14, 1958, TO APRIL 9, 1958.

70F
and 60 to 50 to 40 to Below
Above 70F 60F 50F 40F

August 14 to September 15 ........ 30 2 0 0 0
September 15 to October 15 .... 22 8 0 0 0
October 15 to November 15 ........ 4 15 12 0 0
November 15 to December 18 .... 5 21 3 4 0
December 18 to April 9 .......:... 1 47 38 19 7







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

During the high fertility phase of the experiment, pangola-
grass and the bermudagrasses produced significantly more ton-
nage than the bahiagrasses, which, in turn, produced about twice
as much as carpetgrass.
When combined yields for both the low and high fertility
phases are compared, bahiagrasses produced about 11 tons and
pangolagrass and the bermudagrasses about 15 tons per acre.
Carpetgrass produced slightly less than 5 tons per acre.
When average annual yields for grasses grown under the high
and low fertility phases (see Table 2) are compared, there is
little difference. A comparison is inconclusive because of the two
harvesting schedules and temperature differences.

Dry Matter Contents
Low Fertility-The dry matter contents of the bermudagrass-
es, reported in Table 4, averaged about 45 percent. This is sig-
nificantly higher than the 35 percent for the bahiagrasses and
carpetgrass, which in turn contained significantly more dry mat-
ter than the 27 to 30 percent found in the pangolagrasses and
fescuegrass. However, during the summer the bahiagrasses and
pangolagrass contained about the same dry matter content. The
dry matter contents of the bermudagrasses always were higher
than the other grasses.
High Fertility-The bermudagrasses contained the highest
dry matter contents. Pensacola bahiagrass, Argentine bahia-
grass, carpetgrass, and pangolagrass contained lower contents
in that order. Average contents between dates of harvest from
June until October of about 26 to 28 percent were not signifi-
cantly different, although for individual harvest dates there were
usually some significant differences among the grasses. Dry
matter content was higher in December and April than in the
summer and fall months. Average dry matter contents under
the high fertility program were considerably less than those
obtained under low fertility.

Crude Protein Contents
Low Fertility-The crude protein contents of the grasses are
listed in Table 5. The low fertility program generally resulted
in low levels of crude protein. An exception, fescuegrass, had
an average of 9.1 percent for the four dates. The pangolagrass
generally contained less protein (average of 3.2 percent) than
the bahiagrasses (about 5.0 percent) or carpetgrass (average






TABLE 4.-PERCENT DRY MATTER CONTENTS OF GRASSES GROWING AT LOW AND HIGH LEVELS OF FERTILITY ON IMMOKALEE
FINE SAND.

Low Fertility
Grass Varieties
Grass Varieties 4-15-56 8-8-56 11-1-56 2-27-57 8-5-57 12-2-57 Av.

Pensacola bahiagrass .....................-....... .. 26.4 32.4 36.3 37.3 35.3 42.0 35.0
Argentine bahiagrass ................................... 24.0 31.1 33.6 38.4 37.4 39.5 34.0
Pangolagrass ........... ............... ............. 16.5 33.5 35.5 24.8 33.5 34.8 29.8
Coastal bermudagrass ....-......-.....- .......-- ...... 34.1 51.7 48.7 37.7 49.5 44.2 44.3 c
Suwannee bermudagrass ...........-............. 32.1 51.3 49.8 43.5 50.3 42.7 45.0
Carpetgrass .......... --......-- ... ---....-... ... 30.6 38.8 35.6 33.7 31.3 34.0
"Giant" pangolagrass .......-......-------............ 17.8 32.2 35.7 24.3 34.5 31.0 29.3
Kentucky 31 Fescuegrass .........-- -.......--....... 22.1 35.7 26.6 27.0 31.1 25.0 27.9

Average ......-..........--... ................... 21.6 37.3 38.1 33.6 30.5 36.3 -
L.S.D. .05 .............. ............... ...... .......... 2.6 3.4 4.4 10.0 9.8 7.0 3.9


High Fertility
Grass Varieties
5-9-58 6-12-58 7-14-58 8-13-58 9-15-58 10-15-58 12-18-58 4-9-59 Av. o

Pensacola bahiagrass ......................... 30.8 26.8 26.6 27.4 27.0 25.5 32.9 36.1 29.1
Argentine bahiagrass ......................--... 28.6 25.2 23.7 25.9 25.2 22.8 26.2 2,5.4
Pangolagrass ...........................-........- 23.9 22.6 19.9 20.6 21.6 18.7 22.6 29.9 22.5
Coastal bermudagrass .-.............-.......... 38.1 36.6 35.6 33.5 27.3 30.8 36.3 39.7 34.7
Suwannee bermudagrass ................... 38.3 33.5 33.1 29.3 31.0 28.4 36.5 39.0 33.6
Carpetgrass .........................-- ............... 28.4 24.8 25.4 24.7 25.3 24.4 25.8 29.2 26.0

Average* ...........--...------ ...----- -.... 31.3 28.3 27.4 26.9 26.2 25.1 30.1 34.8 -

L.S.D. .05 ........... -...... ...-...-...... 4.1 3.9 2.2 4.1 N.S. 2.9 6.6 5.2 2.7

*Differences between averages of 2.1% or greater are significant at the 5% level. I-










TABLE 5.-PERCENT CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENTS OF GRASSES GROWING AT LOW AND HIGH LEVELS OF FERTILITY ON IMMOKALEE
FINE SAND.

Low Fertility
Grass Varieties 8-8-56 11-1-56 8-5-57 12-2-57 Av.

Pensacola bahiagrass .--....-- ......--. .....- .... ...........-..........------ .... ---- 4.2 5.3 5.0 5.6 5.1
Argentine bahiagrass -...-...--........... ........ .... ....... ......-........ .....-- --- 5.5 5.9 4.2 4.3 5.0
Pangolagrass ....-- ......-- ..-..-----... ...-.. .-.............-. ---....-. .. .... 3.1 3.1 2.3 4.2 3.2
Coastal bermudagrass .--......................-...-........-......-- ....--- ..-... -- 3.2 4.5 4.2 5.0 4.5
Suwannee bermudagrass ...............-.......--- ....--- ....--- ...... ..........----- 4.2 3.8 3.8 4.7 4.2
Carpetgrass ---..----..--..-......... .........-......................................... 4.4 5.5 5.2 7.4 6.0
"Giant" pangolagrass ..............................--....--. .......-..-.-- ..... ..... 5.6 4.2 2.7 5.9 4.0
Kentucky 31 Fescuegrass ....--....--....-- ..-- ..............--....... 10.8 9.6 7.1 8.8 9.1 "

Average .......................................................................................... 5.1 5.2 4.3 5.8 5.1
Average------------------ ---- ---------------------. ----5.1 5.2 4.3 5.8 5.1

L.S.D. .05 ..-- .. ........ ........ ......--------- -......... ........ 2.4 1.2 2.0 2.1 1.2



High Fertility 2.
Grass Varieties
5-9-58 6-12-58 7-14-58 8-13-58 9-15-58 10-15-58 12-18-58 4-9-59 Av.
Pensacola bahiagrass ..........................- 10.4 7.3 8.7 9.4 9.1 14.7 13.0 12.7 10.7 "'
Argentine bahiagrass ---...............---.. 12.2 7.9 8.0 9.1 9.3 13.1 12.2 10.3 iQ
Pangolagrass ................-........................ 6.9 6.6 9.0 9.5 8.9 12.0 11.3 5.7 8.7 "
Coastal bermudagrass ..--.---......--.. 8.1 7.6 8.8 10.4 8.5 12.8 11.4 8.2 9.5 g.
Suwannee bermudagrass ..-................... 7.4 7.2 8.9 9.7 9.1 15.0 11.6 6.5 9.4 0
Carpetgrass ..........--............................ 11.1 10.7 7.6 9.1 9.2 13.5 13.2 10.9 10.7

Average* ....----............... ...........- 9.4 7.9 8.5 9.5 9.0 13.5 12.1 8.8 9.9

L.S.D. .05 ....--.............. ....-...-- .....-.. -0.9 1.2 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. 0.8 0.9

Differences between averages of 0.9% protein or more are significant at the 5% level.







Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 13

6.0 percent), while the bermudagrasses were intermediate (4.2
to 4.5 percent).
High Fertility-Only three of the eight harvests revealed
significant differences in protein contents among the various
grasses. The average protein content of the entire period of
high fertilization was higher in the bahiagrasses and carpetgrass
(10.3 to 10.7 percent) than in the bermudagrasses (9.4 to 9.5
percent) or pangolagrass (8.7 percent). There were no signifi-
cant differences between the protein contents of the bermuda-
grasses and pangolagrass.
Average protein level during May through September re-
mained nearly constant but increased markedly after the Sep-
tember fertilization until after December. These trends were
the reverse of those for yields, as grass production was much
greater in the summer than in the winter.

Yields of Crude Protein
Low Fertility-Pangolagrass, carpetgrass, and fescuegrass
removed less nitrogen per acre than the other grasses. Pangola-
grass yielded considerably more dry matter, contained less crude
protein, and removed significantly less total nitrogen than the
bahiagrasses. The bermudagrasses and bahiagrasses removed
approximately equal quantities of nitrogen, but the latter con-
tained more protein. The quantities of nitrogen contained in
the harvested portions of the grasses are reported as pounds of
crude protein per acre in Table 6.
High Fertility-Results from the high fertility program are
shown in Table 6. Crude protein content of carpetgrass was
approximately equal to or greater than the other grasses, but
the total nitrogen removed by this grass was significantly less
because of the low dry matter production. Pensacola bahiagrass
removed less nitrogen under the high fertility level than did the
other grasses except for carpetgrass. Suwannee bermudagrass
removed the most nitrogen. The amount of nitrogen removed
on any harvest date was regulated more by the dry weight yields
than by the percent crude protein for that date. For example,
even though the average crude protein content (see Table 5) in-
creased from a value of 9.0 to 13.5 percent for the September 15
and October 15 cuttings, respectively, the average number of
pounds of crude protein contained in the harvested grass de-
creased from 129 pounds on September 15 to 86 pounds per acre
on October 15 (Table 6). The average yields for those two dates










TABLE 6.-POUNDS OF CRUDE PROTEIN PER ACRE CONTAINED IN THE HARVESTED PORTIONS OF GRASSES GROWING AT Low AND
HIGH LEVELS OF FERTILITY ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.

Low Fertility
Grass Varieties 8-8-56 11-1-56 8-5-57 12-2-57 Total Av.

Pensacola bahiagrass ......................-.. ...............- 157* 81 185 103 526 132
Argentine bahiagrass .............. --................-.... ......-- 243 114 131 56 544 136 .
Pangolagrass ...............-- ---..... --.. .......... --.. -........--- 94 43 79 143 359 90
Coastal bermudagrass .......--.....-............................ 231 86 97 165 579 145
Suwannee bermudagrass ....................................... 199 75 107 144 525 131
Carpetgrass .....-...--.........-......-- ............ ........ ----115 51 39 93 298 74
"Giant" pangolagrass .----......----.....----..-----........... 200 82 94 86 462 115
Kentucky 31 Fescuegrass .....-.................-.....-- ....... 121 116 50 70 357 89

Average------------------------------------------------------------170 81 78 107
Average .....--.................. ..... .-....... .......... 170 81 78 107 "

L.S.D. .05----------------------------------------------------------71 23 54 36 88 22
L.S.D. .05 .............................. .. ................ 71 23 54 36 88 22


High Fertility .
Grass Varieties ------
5-9-58 6-12-58 7-14-58 8-13-58 9-15-58 10-15-58 12-18-58 4-9-59 Total Av.

Pensacola bahiagrass.. 114 206 172 108 121 65 30 26 842 105
Argentine bahiagrass .. 42 216 236 147 169 81 12 903 113 c
Pangolagrass ...--............. 122 212 199 153 142 120 58 45 1051 131 "*
Coastal bermudagrass .- 191 226 190 145 98 75 65 73 1063 133 3
Suwannee bermudagrass 217 168 231 148 144 154 141 62 1265 158 C
Carpetgrass ...........-........ 19 92 97 70 101 19 23 11 432 54 c

Average ...................... 118 187 188 128 129 86 54 38

L.S.D. .05 .................. 20 66 76 N.S. N.S. 58 61 27 197 25
Divide crude protein by 6.25 to obtain pounds of nitrogen removed per acre.








Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 15

decreased from 1,440 pounds on September 15 to 640 pounds per
acre on October 15 (Table 2). Even though the crude protein
contents increased when yields decreased, this increase was not
sufficiently high to maintain the same or increase the pounds
of nitrogen removed. For this reason the number of pounds of
protein decreased from November 1958 until April 1959. The
percent recovery of the nitrogen applied may be determined for
any period between clippings by dividing the pounds of nitrogen
per acre contained in the harvested portions of the grasses by
the pounds of nitrogen applied. The greatest average percent
nitrogen recovery for all grasses was 67 percent, occurring dur-
ing June and July, at which time an average of 30 pounds of
nitrogen per acre was removed in the harvested grasses. In
August and September 46 percent of the 45 pounds of nitrogen
applied was recovered in the tops of the grasses. However, ni-
trogen recovery decreased to 31 percent during October and to 14
percent during April.
The recoveries by some grasses were much greater than the
average values indicated because of the poor utilization by car-
petgrass. For example, 84.0 percent of the 45 pounds of nitrogen
applied on June 13 was recovered in the tops of Argentine bahia-
grass on July 14, 1958. The highest percent recoveries for the
other grasses between any two consecutive harvests were: Pen-
sacola bahiagrass, 73.3; pangolagrass, 75.3; Coastal bermuda-
grass, 80.4; Suwannee bermudagrass, 82.2; and carpetgrass,
36.0 percent. Table 7 shows the total number of pounds of ni-

TABLE 7.-POUNDS OF NITROGEN REMOVED IN HARVESTED GRASS AND THE
PERCENT OF NITROGEN RECOVERED OF THE 330 POUNDS APPLIED DURING
THE PERIOD MAY 9, 1958, TO APRIL 9, 1959.

Nitrogen Recovered in Harvested Grass
Grass Variety L A*
Lbs./A* %**

Pensacola bahiagrass .-...............-...... 135 40.9
Argentine bahiagrass ...................------. 144 43.6
Pangolagrass .............................-.....---168 50.9
Coastal bermudagrass .--........-- ......--- .... 170 51.5
Suwannee bermudagrass .----........--. 202 61.2
Carpetgrass .....-..............---........ ..... --69 20.9

Obtained by dividing the total crude protein removed by each grass in Table 5 by
6.25 (i.e., for Pensacola bahiagrass: 842/6.25 = 135).
** Only the total fertilizer nitrogen of 330 pounds applied per acre was considered in these
calculations, even though there undoubtedly was some nitrogen present in the soil on May 9,
1958, and some residual nitrogen present on April 9, 1959. These values were obtained by
dividing the total quantity of nitrogen removed by each grass by 330 pounds and multiplying
by 100 (i.e., for Pensacola bahiagrass: 135/330 x 100 = 40.9 percent).







16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

trogen recovered in the harvested grasses during the high fer-
tility phase, from May 9, 1958, to April 9, 1959, and the percent
recovery of the 330 pounds applied during this period.

Potassium Fertility
The effect of potassium on yields and dry matter, crude pro-
tein, and potassium contents are listed in Table 8. Besides the
data for the May 9 harvest, the effects of potassium on the total
yields from six harvests beginning February 28, 1957, and
ending July 14, 1958, are included. The cuttings made on June
12 and July 14, 1958, were included in the totals, even though all
plots received potassium fertilizer in May and June, because
there was still a slight but significant response. (Evidently in-
sufficient quantities of potassium were applied to effect a rapid
recovery in growth rate.)
Although total average yields were significantly larger where
potassium was applied, a much greater response to potassium was
noted for the May 9 cutting. Pangolagrass produced 10 times
more dry matter when potash was used in the fertilizer, and
the other grasses responded in a similar but less pronounced
manner.
There was no significant effect of potash on the dry matter
contents of the various grasses with the exception of the May
9, 1958, harvest.
There was no significant effect of potash on the crude pro-
tein contents until the cuttings of December 2, 1957, and May
9, 1958. In the December harvest pangolagrass fertilized with
potash contained significantly less crude protein (4.2 percent)
than the unfertilized grass (6.1 percent). There were no sig-
nificant differences in protein contents of the other grasses at-
tributed to potash. Generally, potassium deficiency resulted in
higher protein contents in the grasses only in instances where
the production of these grasses was limited. On May 9 crude
protein contents of pangolagrass were almost twice as large
where no potash was used in the fertilizer. The other grasses
responded in a similar but less pronounced manner. It should be
remembered that the total protein produced was generally much
greater where potassium was supplied, even though the percent-
age protein composition was less.











TABLE 8.-EFFECT OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON DRY WEIGHT YIELDS AND CRUDE PROTEIN, DRY MATTER, AND POTASSIUM M
CONTENTS OF GRASSES GROWING ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.


Yields, Lbs./A Crude Dry Potassium
Protein, % Matter, % Content, %
Grass Varieties Total* 5-9-58 5-9-58 5-9-58 5-9-58
-K +K -K +K -K +K -K +K -K +K
Pensacola bahiagrass .................... 8,670 11,600 720 1,060 10.5 10.4 33.6 30.8 0.55 1.17
Argentine bahiagrass .................... 9,500 10,900 130 330 11.5 12.2 33.3 28.6 0.55 1.37
Pangolagrass ..........--.................... 13,500 15,700 170 1,710 12.3 6.9 22.7 23.9 0.30 1.24 S
Coastal bermudagrass .................... 12,670 14,100 1,020 2,270 9.7 8.1 40.7 36.1 0.43 1.36
Suwannee bermudagrass ............ 13,970 16,100 1,750 2,870 8.6 7.4 38.0 38.3 0.29 1.65
Carpetgrass .....-...................... 5,430 4,530 30 170 10.8 11.1 37.1 28.3 0.47 1.61


Average** .................................. 10,620 12,180 630 1,400 10.6 9.4 34.2 31.3 0.43 1.35


No potassium was applied to -K plots from November 29, 1955, until May 13, 1958. Total yields for six harvests made on 2-28-57, 8-5-57, 12-2-57,
5-9-58, 6-12-58, and 7-14-58.
"** All differences due to potassium treatment are highly significant.



ss







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Clipping Heights
The yields of the various grasses as affected by height of cut-
ting are listed in Table 9. The results are totals obtained from
five clippings beginning August 1958 and terminating on April
9, 1959. Clipping at the height of 5 inches significantly increased
the dry weight yield of all grasses by about 20 percent above
the 21/2-inch height. The increase was more pronounced for pan-
golagrass and the bermudagrasses.

TABLE 9.-EFFECTS OF CUTTING HEIGHTS ON DRY WEIGHT YIELDS, IN
POUNDS PER ACRE, OF GRASSES GROWING ON IMMOKALEE FINE SAND.

Cutting Height*
Grass Varieties 2% In. 5 In.

Pensacola bahiagrass ...................................-- .......- .......-..... -- 3350 4070
Argentine bahiagrass .---...........................-...................- ----- 4070 4210
Pangolagrass --.. ----......... ......- ..........-.....--..---................. .----- 5510 6737
Coastal bermudagrass ..------............................ ...... ............. 4620 6290
Suwannee bermudagrass ........................................................... 6330 6980
Carpetgrass ..----........-...-....- ........------- ---........ .... ................ 2190 2570

Average ** .----................... .............- ................ 4340 5140

Values are totals for five harvests made on 8-13-58, 9-15-58, 10-15-58, 12-18-58, and 4-9-59.
** Differences due to cutting height are highly significant.

There was no pronounced effect of cutting height on dry mat-
ter or crude protein contents.

Weed Competition
Observations were made in the spring of 1958 to determine
the amount of weed encroachment. At this time pangolagrass
and the bahiagrasses were nearly weed-free, and carpetgrass was
almost as free of weeds. The bermudagrasses contained slightly
more weeds, while the fescuegrass and "Giant" pangolagrass
plots were becoming heavily infested with broadleaf weeds, grass
weeds, and bahiagrass. Sub-plots that had not received potash
contained considerably more broadleaf weeds and grassy weeds
than did those sub-plots which had received periodic applications
of potassium. Because of the encroachments of weeds in the
fescuegrass and "Giant" pangolagrass plots, results of clippings
after December 1957 are not reported. However, the plots were
mowed and cuttings removed at the same time as grasses in
the other plots.







Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 19

In the fall of 1959, weed competition ratings were again made
on the various plots. There were almost pure stands of the bahia-
grasses and pangolagrass, while there was a slight encroachment
of bahiagrass in the carpetgrass plots. The Coastal bermuda-
grass plots had carpetgrass, bahiagrasses, and sedge growing
in them, while the Suwannee bermudagrass had been invaded by
bahiagrass and carpetgrass. At this time there was no "Giant"
pangolagrass or fescuegrass to be found in their respective plots.

DISCUSSION

Grasses
Pensacola and Argentine Bahiagrasses-These grasses are
extremely competitive with weeds and other grasses but are
somewhat slower to establish than the bermudagrasses and pan-
golagrass. Once established, weed competition is practically
eliminated.
It is generally agreed that these grasses require less care
and will tolerate overgrazing better than will pangolagrass or
the bermudagrasses, but that, overgrazed bahiagrass pastures
will produce less beef gains than properly managed ones.
Both bahiagrasses appear to survive severe cold better than
pangolagrass even though practically no growth can be expected
during the winter and early spring. Under conditions of mod-
erate frosts, pangolagrass will outyield the bahiagrasses during
the winter months.
These grasses should not be allowed to grow to maturity be-
fore grazing and should not be undergrazed, because the mature
plants are very unpalatable.
Pangolagrass-This was one of the better grasses in the test.
It established fast, produced large summer yields, responded
well to fertilization, competed well with grass and broadleaf
weeds, and produced more forage in the winter and early spring
than the bahiagrasses.
Pangolagrass must be planted vegetatively; therefore, plant-
ing costs are somewhat greater than the costs for grass varieties
which are seeded. Pangolagrass is susceptible to aphid attacks
in the fall and spring. Chemical control is very effective.
Pangolagrass maintains its protein contents for only short
periods of time after fertilization during the spring and summer.
Soon after fertilization the protein content may be fairly high,
but the decrease in protein is much more rapid in pangolagrass







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

than in the other grasses tested. However, in the fall and win-
ter or under heavy fertilization and under frequent cuttings or
grazings, pangolagrass maintains satisfactory crude protein
levels.
Overgrazing of this grass is very detrimental to the overall
stand and leads to the encroachment of pest grasses and broad-
leaf weeds. Renovation by disking or chopping, followed by
heavy fertilization and a rest period during late spring and sum-
mer usually will result in a good re-establishment by fall.
There is a good opportunity in reserving this grass in the
fall for delayed grazing in the winter, or for a hay, soilage, or
silage crop.
Coastal and Suwannee Bermudagrasses-These grasses cov-
ered rapidly from vegetative plantings, and were vigorous and
high yielding. Production in early spring was equal to or slightly
better than that for pangolagrass, and superior to the bahia-
grasses. Overall production was about the same as pangola-
grass. Because of their consistently higher dry matter contents,
these bermudagrasses would be the most suitable of the grasses
tested for hay production.
Matting ability of the bermudagrasses is not equal to that of
pangolagrass, and, therefore, they are more subject to weed in-
vasion. However, through careful management, this problem
can be solved. These grasses are more adaptable to conditions
of good drainage, but they will grow satisfactorily on flatwoods
soils where drainage is fair. Coastal and Suwannee bermuda-
grasses are intermediate between the bahiagrasses and pangola-
grass in their ability to maintain high crude protein levels fol-
lowing fertilization.
Carpetgrass-There is probably more acreage of this grass in
Florida than the sum of all of the other grasses. It was an im-
portant grass in the evolution of the improved pasture program
of the state in that it was an intermediate between the native
wiregrass and scrub palmetto and the improved grasses.
It was by far the poorest grass in this experiment, producing
the smallest yields even under a relatively low fertility. The
percent utilization of the applied nitrogen was more than 50
percent less than the other grasses. Crude protein contents
were similar to the bahiagrasses and higher than those for the
other grasses. Carpetgrass competed reasonably well with weeds.
Established carpetgrass pastures should not be fertilized ex-
cept under extreme conditions of stress in the pasture manage-







Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 21

ment program. Fertilization should be limited to other improved
grasses.
"Giant" Pangolagrass-This grass has many of the character-
istics of pangolagrass. It is almost impossible to manage under
grazing without weed encroachment, because of the extra long
inter-nodes and weak anchorage of the stolons. However, it
yielded well in the summer and might be suitable in green-chop,
silage, or hay operations, where it would be cut 6 to 8 inches
above the ground after being permitted to reach a height of 18
to 24 inches. It is not suitable for grazing under current man-
agement programs.
Fescuegrass-Although fescuegrass has succeeded in a few
isolated areas in the state, it failed to perform satisfactorily in
these tests. Its only apparent good point was that it maintained
a higher level of protein than the other grasses. It failed to pro-
duce outstanding yields in the winter months when it was ex-
pected to outperform the other grasses. Possibly under a higher
fertilizer program, it would have grown better and been more
competitive.
General
During the winter and spring months grass production is at
a minimum in south Florida. During this time, beef gains made
during the summer may be lost. At the present time, no good
permanent winter pasture grass is available. Comparisons of
major permanent pasture grasses showed that a reduction in
growth begins to occur during September and October. Little
growth can be expected during a six-month period beginning in
November and extending until April or May, even under a heavy
fertilization program. For example, the total dry matter pro-
duction for the six grasses was 1,500 pounds of dry matter from
September 15, 1958, through April 9, 1959. Yet during the four
previous months, from May 9 until September 15, 1958, 7,500
pounds of dry matter were produced. Therefore, the cattle pop-
ulation on a given permanent pasture must be reduced during the
winter months, or supplementary feed from reserve grass pas-
tures, clover pastures, hay, or silage must be provided. Under
conditions of this experiment pangolagrass and the bermuda-
grasses produced significantly more dry matter during the win-
ter months than the bahiagrasses, although there was little differ-
ence in production during the summer. During a three-year
period the bahiagrasses yielded about 30 percent less than pan-
golagrass and the bermudagrasses, and most of this difference







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

resulted from the poor growth during the winter. In areas where
frosts are more frequent and pangolagrass is killed back to the
ground, results might be different, because regrowth of pangola-
grass would undoubtedly be slower than where only light frosts
occurred. However, the bermudagrasses can withstand colder
temperatures and should produce more dry matter than the ba-
hiagrasses during the winter months in south Florida even under
severe winter conditions.
Clipping test results generally agreed with grazing trials
conducted at the Range Cattle Experiment Station (9), where
pangolagrass produced the maximum beef gains. However,
Coastal bermudagrass did not generally produce greater yearly
beef gains than the bahiagrasses, while the clipping results re-
ported here showed a large difference in favor of the bermuda-
grasses. One explanation for this is that there may be a rela-
tively more efficient utilization of the bahiagrasses when grazed
than when clipped as compared to the bermudagrasses. Another
explanation may be that the soil moisture or other conditions
at the Range Cattle Experiment Station were not as conducive
to bermudagrass growth. The beef yield results comparing the
different grasses during the winter and early spring months are
not reported, so the ability of the bermudagrasses to outyield
the bahiagrasses during this period, as shown by the clipping
tests, can not be substantiated.
Protein is one of the most important quality factors in as-
sessing the value of a grass or feed. Certain factors that re-
duce the rate of grass growth will result in an increase in the
crude protein content and may affect the pounds of protein ab-
sorbed by the tops of the grass and the efficiency of nitrogen
utilization by the grass. There were three factors, not directly
associated with the rate of nitrogen or grass maturity during
this experiment, that were responsible for an increase in pro-
tein contents. At least two were associated with a decreased
growth rate. Cool weather in the fall of 1958 resulted in re-
duced grass growth and increased protein levels. From May 9
until October 15, 1958, grasses were harvested each month and
immediately fertilized with 45 pounds of nitrogen. The result-
ing average protein contents remained very constant, from 7.9
to 9.5 percent. Between September 15 and October 15, growth,
as presented by yields in Table 2, was reduced, and average crude
protein levels increased to 13.5 percent. Reduced grass growth
resulted in higher protein levels. However, in almost all in-








Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 23

stances, the pounds of nitrogen recovered per acre in the har-
vested grasses were less when yields were less.
A reduction of the available potassium supply to the point that
grass production was reduced resulted also in increased protein
contents. The degree depended upon the grass variety and the
severity of the deficiency. Pangolagrass yields were affected
most by a lack of potassium, but the bermudagrasses were also
affected to a large extent. Increases in protein values were not
sufficiently high to compensate for the reduced yields, and again
the pounds of nitrogen recovered in the harvested grasses per
acre were less where the potassium deficiency existed. Protein
values of bahiagrasses and carpetgrass were not affected.
The third factor affecting the amount of protein was the
grass variety. Generally speaking, the bahiagrasses and car-
petgrass produced less forage and contained higher protein con-
tents than pangolagrass and the bermudagrasses.
Under grazing conditions, because of the large quantities of
fertilizer materials returned to the soil by the animals, the per-
cent nitrogen recovered by the grass of that applied as fertilizer
would be greater, and protein contents would be expected to be
somewhat higher than those given in Table 5. Under a green-
chop program an application of 45 pounds of nitrogen per acre
would probably be satisfactory after each harvest if made a
month apart during the summer. If harvests were made every
five to six weeks, 60 to 75 pounds of nitrogen would be needed
during the summer to maintain crude protein contents of about
10 percent.
SUMMARY
An experiment was conducted on a flatwoods soil to compare
certain growth habits, yields, and quality of various grasses.
Under a fertilization program of once-a-year application or
fertilization after each cutting, pangolagrass and the bermuda-
grasses generally yielded more dry matter than Argentine and
Pensacola bahiagrasses, which in turn were better than carpet-
grass. Most of the yield advantage came during the winter
months, when the bahiagrasses and carpetgrass yields were
greatly reduced.
Even under heavy fertilization grass growth was greatly re-
duced after September or October and did not increase again
until late spring.
Summer growth of all grasses except carpetgrass was good.








24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Protein contents generally were greatest for the bahiagrasses
and carpetgrass and least for pangolagrass.
During the late spring and summer months, the protein con-
tent of pangolagrass dropped rapidly after reaching a maximum
following fertilization. Under heavy fertilization and frequent
cutting, however, protein levels remained consistently high. This
tendency to "lose" protein rapidly was evident with the bermuda-
grasses, but less apparent with the bahiagrasses and carpet-
grass.
Dry matter contents were highest for the bermudagrasses,
followed by the bahiagrasses and then pangolagrass.
Deficiency of potassium generally resulted in a reduction
of grass growth, increased percentage protein contents, reduced
total amount of protein contained in the tops, lower potassium
contents, and increased weed populations.
Clipping frequently at a height of about 5 inches resulted in
larger yields for all grasses than clipping at a 21/-inch cutting
height during a high fertilization program.
The bahiagrasses and pangolagrass more effectively pre-
vented grass and broadleaf weed encroachment, followed closely
by carpetgrass and then by the bermudagrasses. "Giant" pan-
golagrass and fescuegrass were poor weed competitors.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is expressed to Drs. Charles T. Ozaki, Howard
Ray, and Charles C. Hortenstine, formerly Assistant Soils Chem-
ists, Everglades Experiment Station, for their direction of the
protein analyses and other phases of the work. Special acknowl-
edgment is made to L. Hostetler, field assistant, who was re-
sponsible for a majority of the field work.


LITERATURE CITED

1. Bair, Roy A., and R. W. Kidder. Pasture investigations on the peat
and muck soils of the Everglades. Fla. Ann. Rpt. 1948. pp. 199-201.
2. Blaser, R. E., and W. E. Stokes. Effects of fertilizer on growth and
composition of carpet and other grasses. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul.
390. 1943.
3. Blaser, Roy E., et al. Experiments with napiergrass. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Tech. Bul. 568. 1955.








Several Pasture Grasses on Immokalee Fine Sand 25

4. Boyd, F. T. Nitrogen fertilization of St. Augustinegrass grown on
Davis fine sand. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 15: 82-85. 1955.

5. Field Day Outline. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Range Cattle Station Mimeo
Rpt. 58-1. 1958.

6. Field Day Outline. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Range Cattle Station Mimeo
Rpt. 60-3. 1960.

7. Gammon, Nathan, Jr., and William G. Blue. Potassium requirements
for pastures. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 12: 154-156. 1952.
8. Gammon, Nathan, Jr. Sodium and potassium requirements of pangola
and other pasture grasses. Soil. Sci. 76: 81-90. 1953.

9. Henderson, J. R. Results of research on pasture fertilization in terms
of costs, returns, and profits. Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. Mimeo. April 1959.

10. Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones, and W. G. Kirk. Grass pastures in central
Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484. 1951.
11. Jeffers, R. L. Response of warm-season permanent pasture grasses
to high levels of nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 15: 231-239. 1955.
12. Koger, M., et al. Beef production, soil and forage analyses, and eco-
nomic returns from eight pasture programs in north central Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 631. 1961.

13. Methods of Analyses of A.O.A.C. p. 25. A.O.A.C. Washington 4, D.C.
6th Ed. 1945.
14. Patterson, D. D. Statistical technique in agricultural research. Mc-
Graw-Hill Co. Inc. New York. 1939.

15. Reuss, L. A., N. K. Roberts, and R. E. L. Greene. Pangolagrass pas-
tures for beef production in central Florida-A method of determining
the economics of establishing and fertilizing them. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 585. 1952.

16. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Effect of fertilizers and lime on yield of clovers
and fescue in north Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. S-70. 1954.

17. Toth, S. J., et al. Rapid quantitive determination of eight mineral ele-
ments in plant tissue by a systematic procedure involving use of a
flame photometer. Soil Sci. 66: 459-466. 1948.
18. Volk, G. M. Maintenance of available nitrogen in Florida soils. Fla.
Ann. Rpt. 1953. pp. 143-145.

19. Wallace, A. T., et al. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the produc-
tion of pangolagrass and bahiagrass. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 15:
198-207. 1955.

20. Wallace, A. T., et al. Design, analysis, and results of an experiment
on response of pangolagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass to time, rate,
and source of nitrogen. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 581. 1957.





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