Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Equine glanders and its eradication
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026862/00001
 Material Information
Title: Equine glanders and its eradication
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 241-283 : ill., 1 map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dawson, Charles F ( Charles Francis ), 1860-1928
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1905
Copyright Date: 1905
Subject: Glanders   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Diseases -- Treatment -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by C.F. Dawson.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026862
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN2247
oclc - 18156844
alephbibnum - 000921779

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Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

QU*Ni.*' S.... r, sT I





Equine landers and Its Eradication.

A Victim of Glanders and Farcy.

By C. F. DAWSON, Station Veterinarian.

The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon appli-
cation to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.

St. Augustine, Fla.:


GEo. W. WILSON, President .................. Jacksonvil.1
C. A. CARSON, Vice-President. ................... Kissimmee
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary .. ................... Brooksville
F. E. HARRIS .. .... ... ............................ Ocala
E. D. BEGGS .. .................. ............. Pensacola
J. R. PARROTT. ......................... ..... Jacksonville
F. M SIMONTON ............................ ....... Tampa


ANDREW SLEDD, A. M., Ph. D ......... ........ ... Director
"*C. M. CONNER, B. S........ Vice-Director and Agriculturist
EDWARD R. FLINT, B. S., Ph. D., M. D............. Chemist
E. H. SELLARDS, M. A., Ph. D.................. Entomologist
F. M. RoLFS, M. S........ ....... Botanist and Horticulturist
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S. ............ Veterinarian
A. W. BLAIR, A. M. ........... .......... .Assistant Chemist
R. A. LICHTENTHAELER, M. S.............. Assistant Chemist
F. C. REIMER, B. S................... Assistant Horticulturist
W. P. JERNIGAN ....... .......... .Auditor and Bookkeeper
A. TYLER....................... Stenographer and Librarian
JOHN F. MITCHELL ....... ........... Foreman Station Farm
JOHN H. JEFFERIES ...... Gardener, Horticultural Department
S. A. ROBERT, B. S............ Assistant in Field Experiments
*Superintendent Farmers' Institutes,


History.......... ........... ............ ........ .......... 245
the Microbes of Glanders. .............. ................... . .246
Its Occurrence and Statistics. ............................ .. . . .247
Its Transmission. ........ ........... .. .............. ....... 248
Pathogenesis ........... ........................................... 249
Varieties of Glanders ................................ .. .... ... . 250
Pathological Anatomy in Chronic Form ................... .......... 251
Acute .................. .......... 254
Symptoms of Chronic Glanders. ................... ................ 254
A cute .... ... .......... ............ ........ 255
The Diagnosis of Glanders ............ .................. ... ... .256
Special Methods of Diagnosis ............... .. ......... .......... 257
Diagnosis by Mallein ........ . ......... ........... . . 258
Differential Diagnosis ................. ................. .. ........ 259
Glanders in Florida ..................... .... ........................ 261
The First Outbreak at Tampa..... .. . ... ...... .. ... .... 262
The Lady Lake-Conant Outbreak. ............ ................. .... 263
The Leesburg Outbreak ..... .. ................................ 265
A Case at Sanford...... ............... ....................... 266
The Monticello Case ................ ........................... 267
The Second Outbreak at Tampa ................................. 267
The Winter Park Outbreak.....................................268
The Narcoosse-Peghorn and Lake Gentry Outbreaks. ................269
Should the State Protect its Live-Stock Interests? ..... ............... .271
Some Legal Aspects of Glanders in some of the States. ................ 272
In Alabama.............. ................. ... ......... 273
Arizona.................................................. .273
A rkansas ...................... ....................... ..... .... 273
Colorado .................. .......................... ... . 274
Florida ............ ... . ............... ......... ......... 274
Illinois .................. ...............................275
Kentucky........ ................... ... .....................275
M aine............................... .......... ........... 276
Maryland.................................... ................ 276
Massachusetts ............................................... 276
Mississippi............... ............................... 277
N ew Jersey ....... .......................... ....... .... 277
North Dakota.................................................. 277
Ohio ................ ................ .............. .....277
Oklahoma ................ .............. ... ................ 279
Oregon .... ............................................. .279
Pennsylvania... .................................. ....... 279
Texas ........... .... ................... ............. ...280
W isconsin ...... ........................... .............. 280
Cuba ........ ............................. ....... ........... 281
Indemnity in Other States .................. ........................ 283

PLATE NO. I, Fig. No. 1-Note the discharge from the left nostril; the farcy
buds on the outside of the left front limb, on the neck and along the left
side of the chest and abdomen. The white streak across the root of the
neck is a collar mark.
Fig. No. 2-Same case showing farcy buds on outside of left hind limb and
on inside of right hind limb.
PLATE N. II---Map of Florida, showing locations of outbreaks of glanders
described in this bulletin. Note the proximity of Orlando, in Orange
county, to the points where glandered animals were found. Orlando is the
horse-market for this region, and, with the exception of the Monticello and
Tampa cases, was probably the original source of infection. -There were
nine cases at Zolfo, three at Tampa, five at Lady Lake and Conant, seven
at Leesburg, one at Sanford, one at Monticello, five at Winter Park, and
ten at Narcoossee, Peghorn and Gentry; forty-one in all, the money-loss
aggregating probably six thousand dollars.


History.-Glanders, or farcy, is one of the oldest and most
dangerous diseases of the horse. The disease was known to
such early medical writers as Aristotle and Hippocrates. Also
the Roman authors, Apsyrtus and Vegetius described the disease,
the latter recognizing the nasal and skin forms as being identical.
It is an infectious disease, and was so recognized in the seventeenth
century. In the Middle Ages the German law considered it con-
stituted an unsoundness, and a sale of a glandered animal thus
became null and void. Toward the end of the eighteenth cen-
tury, two Danish scientists, Abildgaard and Viborg, proved by
experiment that glanders could be transmitted from an affected
animal to a healthy one; that the cause of the disease is a fisced
virus, which leaves the body in the secretions or pus from the
ulcerated surfaces; that the blood of the infected animal is far
less potent to infect than are the discharges from the nose and
ulcerated skin. Experiments made about the same period in
England confirmed those made in Denmark, it being, at the same
time, recognized that the nasal discharge is the principal carrier
of the virus.
Notwithstanding these conclusive experiments in Denmark
and England, the theory of the contagiousness of glanders was
doubted, at the beginning of the nineteenth century even, by
such eminent veterinarians as the professors in the famous Alfort
Veterinary College, in France. They held that glanders arose
from a previous attack of strangles, or distemper. The French
government, accepting the Alfort doctrine, removed its restric-
tions against the disease, and glanders spread to an alarming
extent in France. When, in 1837, Rayer proved the transmissi-
bility of glanders to man, and when Chauveau, in 1868, demon-
strated that the infecting principle was contained in the diseased
tissues, it was again generally accepted that glanders is a trans-
missible disease. Scientists now made use of the new science of
bacteriology to discover the microbe which everyone believed
causes the disease. In 1868 a fungus was named as the cause, by
Zuern and Hallier. Other workers attributed the disease to new
microbes which they encountered in their search; but it was not

246 Bulletin No. 77

until the advent of new and improved methods of isolating mi-
crobes from infected matter were invented, that progress was
made in the right direction. In 1882 two German bacteriologists,
Loeffler and Schuetz discovered a microbe which all now recog-
nize as the cause of glanders.
The Microbe.-The cause of the disease is a rod-shaped bac-
terium from one to three micromillimeters long (25o0 to .o0 inch)
and about one-fifth of these measurements in thickness. The
rods are straight with rounded ends, or they may be slightly
curved, and are frequently found lying in couples, side by side.
They easily stain in the dyes, especially in methylene blue, fuch-
sine, or gentian-violet. New growths of the organism on gelatin
nutrient medium at first appear as yellowish, translucent drops,
which later assume a milky-white color. On the media generally
there is nothing in the appearance of the growths which is remark-
able. On potato, however, we find a growth which may be said
to be typical of the glanders microbe. The growth, at first amber-
colored, changes, in a week, to a copper color, and the neighbor-
ing parts of the potato take on a greenish hue. The microbe
grows luxuriantly on all the ordinary media, but best on blood
serum of horses and sheep; on beef-broth, and on sliced potato.
While it can vegetate at the ordinary room temperature, its devel-
opment is favored by the body temperature. It does not multiply
in the filth of stables. It is killed in a week by drying, and ex-
periment has shown that the microbe will remain active in the
filth of stables for about three or four months. It will live in
putrefying material for from two to three weeks, and retains its
virulence in water for fifteen to twenty days. Some authors claim
the microbe forms spores, others deny this property. The rods
frequently show light spaces when subjected to stains, and it may
have been these vacuoles which were mistaken for spores. The
writer has never observed any spores. This microbe is fairly re-
sistant to germicides, but its resistance would be many times in-
creased if it possessed the spore-formation property. It is killed
by a 5-minute exposure to a 3 per-cent. solution of carbolic acid,
or a i-1oo0 solution of corrosive sublimate. For all practical pur-
poses, a 5 per-cent. solution of creolin, or carbolic acid, or a 1-10oo
solution of corrosive sublimate, is sufficient for its destruction.
Its Occurrence and Statistics.-Glanders is an infectious dis-
ease of horses, mules, jennets, field-mice, guinea-pigs, cats, lions,

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 247

tigers, dogs, goats, rabbits and sheep, the comparative suscepti-
bility being in the order named. Cattle, pigs, house-mice, white
rats, pigeons and chickens are immune. Horses vary greatly in
their individual susceptibility to the disease. Some take it read-
ily, while others kept in the same stable with a glandered horse
fail, for some reason, to take it. This is, of course, true of most
diseases. If it were not, it is obvious there would be very few
animals. There are, however, certain conditions to which an
animal may be exposed, which predispose to its development, the
chief of these being: Over-work, underfeeding, cold, damp,
draughty stables, poor ventilation, chill and debilitating diseases.
The disease spreads fastest in times of war. It occurs in all coun-
tries, regardless of climate. It is said, that owing to the strict
sanitary regulations in Australia the disease has not gained a foot-
hold there. Although glanders is by no means as common as form-
erly, it is still considered the most dangerous horse disease. Man
sometimes takes the disease, and it is regarded as a uniformly
fatal malady. In one outbreak on the Polish-Russian frontier,
twenty cases in man were reported. Equine glanders is, naturally,
most prevalent in those countries having the densest horse pop-
ulation. In Austria during the years 1877-87, there were 3,317
cases reported. In Hungary in the years 1891-2, 1,6oo horses
were glandered. France and Germany each had reported 5,623
cases in four years. Great Britain had 8,000 cases in the same
period. London, alone, had nearly 8oo cases in 1890. As there
is no Federal law in the United States requiring a report of cases,
no exact statement can be made as to the number which occur.
Glanders was very common here just after the Civil War; but
owing to the great increase in the number of professional veter-
inarians, and the adoption of veterinary sanitary laws by various
states, there can be little doubt the disease is on the decrease.
Its Transmission.-Glanders may be transmitted directly
from an infected animal, or it may be transmitted indirectly by
infected food, feeding and drinking-troughs, harness, clothing,
stable utensils, bedding and attendants, when any of these be-
come contaminated with the discharges from the ulcers on the
skin or in the nostrils. The vast majority of horses become in-
fected by the microbes entering the respiratory tract. The mi-
crobe or virus of glanders will remain alive under natural con-
ditions of the stables for four months; hence a stable in which

248 Bulletin No. 77

a glandered animal has discharged virus will retain its infectious-
ness for four months after the glandered animal has been removed,
provided it has not been disinfected. While the discharges from
the nose and skin ulcers contain the virus in the most infectious
form, it has been shown that the microbes may occur in any of
the organs. When the disease becomes generalized the bacilli
may be demonstrated in the blood by inoculating susceptible an-
imals. Glanders cannot be said to be a disease which moves from
place to place very rapidly It will not jump from one stable to
another of itself. It must be carried by an infected animal or by
some of the means enumerated above. There are numerous in-
stances where its spread through a stable was by slow degrees;
spreading from a stall to adjacent ones. Naturally, in stables
where horses do not have their regular stalls, or where they feed
from a common trough, the disease may be expected to spread
with great rapidity. In one outbreak in the experience of the
writer, there was an unusually high percentage of cases co-exist-
ing by reason of the fact that the owner allowed the first case to
wander into the other stalls. The result was that five of his six
healthy horses all contracted the disease at about the same time.
While, as a rule, there are many animals which escape the con-
tagium, it is doubtful if any horse or mule is naturally immune
from the disease. Those which fail to contract the disease, escape
by virtue of conditions probably unknown to us at present. When
this can be explained for glanders, we shall also have an explana-
tion why people escape certain diseases. Natural immunity, no
doubt, is the chief protector; or it may be that there are very mild
attacks of this, as well as of other diseases in both animals and
people which are clinically unnoticeable, but which confer suf-
ficient immunity to repel mild infections which happen along dur-
ing conditions of the economy when every organ is performing its
functions in a normal manner. There may be no such condition
as that which we understand by the term natural immunity. It
may be that immunities against all diseases must be acquired.
When one deals with such infinitesimally-small objects as the
pathogenic bacteria, and realizes the inconceivable number of ways
in which they may be transported, it is difficult to get a clear under-
standing of what they may or may not do, and of how many ways
they may perform their work. The science of modern bacteriology
is only about forty years old, and the age of the improved mod-

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 249

ern bacteriological methods of research is a little over twenty
years. Who would say that so intricate a science could be fully
developed in so short a time? Even at this stage of the subject;
we are studying diseases which we have every reason to believe
are caused by bacteria or protozoa that are too small to be seen
by the best microscopes at our command to-day. Radical changes
in the ordinary methods of nutrition and incubation have been
made for investigating these new forms of disease-producers, and,
no doubt, we are just on the threshold of our most important dis-
coveries, and that all the discoveries of the last forty years will
pale into comparative insignificance, in the future.
Pathogenesis.-In 90 per cent. of cases the point of entrance
of the virus of the disease is the respiratory tract. The microbes
probably gain entrance into the nasal chambers and finally the
lungs by being inhaled with the dust which arises from infected
feeding troughs, or by the animal's smelling at the nose of its in-
fected neighbor. Experiment shows that the more probable vehicle
of infection is the virus-laden dust; because it has been found
impossible to infect animals by having a susceptible horse breathe
the expired air from a glandered one. It is supposed by some that
a diseased or catarrhal condition of the lining of the nasal cham-
bers or bronchi predisposes to, or aids in the production of the
disease in exposed animals. Others allow the claim, but hold also
that the bacilli of glanders may, like those of tuberculosis, actually
penetrate the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and start
up the disease process The disease may have its origin either in
the nasal chambers, or in the lungs; but actual observations prove
that in many cases, even where both lungs and nasal chambers
were found affected, that the lesions in the lungs were the older.
In some cases, the bacilli are discharged from the lungs into the
nasal cavities, and these parts became diseased. In other cases,
the lungs only may be affected, and hence the appearance of the
characteristic nasal ulcers are not present to aid in the diagnosis.
The skin is a second organ through which the microbes may
enter. When the skin is affected the ulcers formed are known
as farcy buds or the name farcy is applied. This form was form-
erly not recognized as glanders, and even to-day many horsemen
deny their identity. As the microbe can only gain entrance into
the skin through abrasions, it is not a common thing to see gland-
ers start primarily in the skin. The skin is generally secondarily

250 Bulletin No. 77

affected, when the disease is generalized, or when the bacilli are
absorbed into the circulating blood from a lesion in the lungs or
elsewhere. They are then arrested at various points, some of
which may be in the extremities or ventral aspect of the body,
and here we find the formation of the characteristic farcy buds, or
ulcers. Experiment has shown that it is impossible to cause the
bacilli to enter the unbroken skin by friction. In some cases where
it was possible to thus inoculate the disease, it is to be assumed
that the skin was abraded.
That infection takes place rarely through the digestive canal,
in the horse, has been proven by feeding them with glanderous
matter. While a few cases became infected by this channel, the
majority escaped. It is possible that those which became infected
had abrasions of the lining of the mouth or other parts of the
digestive canal. Man also is immune from infection through the
alimentary canal, as has been demonstrated in besieged cities,
notably during the siege of Paris. On the other hand, the car-
nivora, dogs, cats, lions, tigers, panthers and bears are frequently
infected by feeding on the carcasses of glandered animals, It is
also known that a glandered stallion may infect a mare during
coition, and that a glandered mare may give birth to a glandered
colt, in which case, the microbes of the disease infect by passing
from the mother to the fetus in utero.
Glanders as a rule first invades the lungs. Here the disease
spreads, finally invading the bronchial tubes. From these the
virus is discharged into the trachea and thence into the larynx,
pharynx and nasal chambers, where a secondary infection is set
up. From these foci the bacilli may be rapidly absorbed into the
blood stream and the disease become general and acute. In a
large proportion of cases in the horse, the disease begins in a
chronic form and becomes acute in the manner described. In the
majority of cases in mules, the disease is acute from the onset.
The same is true of infections in man.
Varieties of Glanders.-We distinguish glanders of the nos-
trils, glanders of the lungs and glanders of the skin according to
the location of the disease in nostrils, lungs or skin. Formerly true
glanders was admitted as existing when the lungs and nostrils,
or either of these organs was affected. When the skin alone was.
affected, it was called farcy, and when nostrils, lungs and skin

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 251

were simultaneously affected, the disease was known by the name
glanders and farcy.
There are two forms of glanders, one the chronic and the
other the acute form. These names are applied according to its
progress. Chronic glanders is more common and affects horses
mostly. Acute glanders occurs in about o1 per cent. of the cases
in horses, and is the most common form in the mule. Acute gland-
ers is rapidly fatal and never becomes chronic; but chronic gland-
ers becomes acute and kills by doing so. The chronic form be-
comes acute when the circulating blood absorbs the bacilli from
pre-existing disease centers, and deposits them throughout the
Pathological Anatomy in the Chronic Form.-The ana-
tomical changes which occur in this form are essentially specific
inflammatory processes which cause suppuration, ulceration,
granulation and scarring. These occur in the nostrils, pharynx,
larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, lymphatic glands, and the skin;
sometimes other organs are diseased also.
The nostrils is the usual seat of the disease. It exists here
either as discrete nodules, forming ulcers and scars; or as diffused
patches of ulcerations; the former form being that ordinarily seen.
The nodules are found situated on the lining membrane of the
nasal chambers chiefly in the upper portion of the cavity on the
nasal septum and on the surfaces of the scroll-like or turbinated
bones. The nodules first appear and vary in size from a grain of
sand to a millet seed, and are glassy, translucent, round or oval
in shape and of a dirty-grey or greyish-red color. They project
above the surface and never get larger than a pea. They may
appear singly or in groups. They are composed of lymphoid cells
which later disintegrate into purulent matter at their summits,
and the nodule becomes yellowish in color. The nodules thus
become hollowed leaving a hard, prominent ridge, and resemble
a crater. These ulcers sometimes run together or become con-
fluent and surrounded by a hard, prominent ridge or wall and
have a yellowish or whitish base. Sometimes they are covered by
a brownish crust, which when removed show the above-described
characters. These ulcers may increase in breadth and depth, and
may finally entirely perforate the bones on which they lie; or they
may cause an enlargement of the maxillary bones and cause the
face to appear swollen. The shallow ulcers heal without leaving


Fig. No. 1.

Fig. No. 2.

Equine Glandcrs and Its Eradication 253

any trace of their former existence, but the deeper ones heal by
a scarring which is characteristic of the disease. These scars are
star-shaped, smooth or horny, and may be of an irregular, oblong
form. They are most easily seen on the nasal septum, or on t'
inside surface of the wings of the nostrils. These ulcers may
too high up to be seen and still, at the same time, thcy nm,-
found, on post-mortem, existing in the posterior nares, "
and maxillary sinuses, the pharynx, the larynx and track
where they cause thickening of the parts and the discharge
glanderous virus from the catarrh which accompanies them ,,
When the disease in the nasal cavities takes the form of :(
fuse patches, there is a catarrhal thickening of the mucous mem-
brane, and hardening of the structures underneath it. The veins
of the parts become plugged and the parts heal with the forma-
tion of peculiar radiating scars.
The disease in the lungs takes on both the nodular and dif-
fuse forms. The nodules here have about the same characters as
in nasal chambers. In some cases the suppurating nodules become
enveloped in a capsule and in others they burst and form cavities.
Accompanying these nodular formations, which give the impres-
sion that they are embedded shot when the hand is passed over
the lungs, are chronic bronchitis, collapse of part of the lungs,
and in some cases, pleuritis.
In the diffuse form of the lungs, tumors varying in size from
a walnut to a child's head, occur. These tumors are formed by
the filling up of the expanded endings of the bronchi with gland-
erous matter. They are of a dirty-white color, gelatinous in con-
sistence and of irregular shape. They may either become hard-
ened or gangrenous. In both the nodular and diffuse lung forms,
the lymphatic glands at the root of the trachea become hardened
and enlarged from the disease.
In skin glanders or farcy the nodules are found in the super-
ficial layers of the true skin, in the tissue beneath the skin and in
the inter-muscular tissues. These nodules in the skin, which vary
in size from a small seed to that of a pea, soon suppurate and
form small ulcers. Those which form under the skin are larger,
sometimes reaching the size of a hen's egg. They form large
abscesses, and open outwards. We then find long, sinuous ulcers
from which escapes a yellowish, sticky discharge. Radiating from
these ulcers we find the lymphatics which are swollen and knotted

254 Bulletin No. 77

into cords, the popular name for them. Along these cords ulcers
often develop. At first these lymphatic glands are soft, swollen
and painful; but later they become hard and painless. In some
rare cases the secondary farcy may take on the condition of gen-
eral thickening of the skin of the limbs and head.
Of the other organs, the spleen suffers oftenest. The nodules
vary in size and generally become calcareous; or they may sup-
purate. Of other organs affected we may find the liver, kidneys,
testicles, brain, muscles, heart and bones. It rarely affects the
eyes and stomach. The bacilli also enter the circulating blood,
and when this occurs, we have an acute general infection.
Pathological Anatomy of the Acute Forms.-The pathology
of acute glanders is found chiefly in the mucous membrane of the
respiratory tract; in dropsical swellings in skin; and in suppura-
tion of the lymphatic vessels and glands of the skin and lungs.
The membranes in the nose are studded with rapidly-spreading
ulcers and the tissues beneath the membrane are much thickened.
The larynx and pharynx are similarly affected. The lungs are
studded with abscesses and fresh nodules. The skin is swollen
and corded.
The following statistics show the relative distribution of the
disease process in the various organs, as given by one author: In
3,317 glandered horses, 1,529 had the disease in the nostrils only;
294 only in the lungs; and 218 only in the skin. In 846 cases,
both nostrils and lungs were affected; in 217 cases, nostrils, lungs
and skin; in 164, nostrils and skin; and in 49, lungs and skin.
In 216 post mortem examinations, the lungs were found to be free
from the changes of glanders only in io cases; and in 173 other
autopsies, only in 28 instances. It thus appears that the lungs are
affected in the large majority of cases, in this disease.
S..ymptoms of Chronic Glanders.-Most cases are said to start
"'0 chronic form because the early stages escape notice. These
"ages may cover a period of several months or as many
although it would thus seem that the stage of incubation
"ine in most cases, experiment has shown that it is really
three to five days.
first noticeable symptom is a nasal discharge from one
nostril of a dirty white mucus. Sometimes the discharge is from
both nostrils. Later on the discharge becomes grey or greenish-
yellow, sometimes streaked with blood, and is sticky. The amount

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 255

of blood depends entirely upon the size of the blood-vessels which
have been eaten through by the ulcerative process. Sometimes the
bleeding is profuse, and the animal may bleed to death.
Nodules and ulcers may be found on the nasal septum, near
the nostrils, or they may be situated too high up to be discovered
by an ordinary examination; or they may not appear till late in
the disease. The ulcers have hard, elevated, precipitous borders,
and the base is yellowish white in color. When they heal, a char-
acteristic, long scarring is seen.
With these symptoms is associated swellings of the submax-
illary lymphatic glands. The swelling is at first doughy and pain-
ful. Later on the glands become nodular, hard, painless, and ad-
herent to the jaw bone as well as the skin; so that it is not easy
to move them. These glands rarely suppurate. In cases where
the membranes of the nose are not infected, and sometimes early
in the disease, the glands of the jaw are not affected. They will,
however, always be found enlarged where a glanderous ulceration
of the nostrils has existed for some time.
The condition of the animal is an important symptom. The
animal loses "condition"; is quickly fatigued; the coat is dry and
harsh; there is cough and labored breathing as in "broken wind."
There may be fever and slight or severe bleeding at the nose,
when the animal is at work. Late in the disease there are swell-
ings of the limbs, belly, chest and joints.
In the chronic form of the disease, the skin is not so often
affected, as in the acute form. Its favorite location is on the
limbs, shoulders, breast and belly. The nodules or boils vary in
size from a pea to a walnut. They frequently heal, leaving evi-
dence of their former presence. They almost always ulcerate,
however, forming sinuous ulcers which discharge a sticky, dis-
colored liquid. The lymphatic ducts leading from these ulcers
are swollen and corded, and these often ulcerate. The
frequently shows a periodical lameness in the affected lin-
The progress of the chronic form is extremely slow.
weeks or months must elapse before the first visible symp
sent themselves. The time required for a chronic case
depends largely upon conditions. In animals that are over, I
and underfed, or those that suffer from any devitalizing inf
or disease, the disease would manifest its presence much sooi
Well pronounced cases often apparently heal up under good care

256 Bulletin No. 77

and absolute rest. These are the cases which persons who are
ignorant of the disease claim get well. By the use of the diag-
nostic agent mallein it has been shown that a large percentage
of cases show no external evidence of the existence of the disease.
Symptoms of Acute Glanders.-Acute glanders may be said
to be rare in the horse, inasmuch as only about o1 per cent. take
this form. In the ass and the mule, the acute form is the r'le. It
may begin as acute glanders, or a chronic case may become acute.
When inoculated into the skin either by accident or design it
starts in as the acute form. This form is very rapid in its progress,
the process being septic and accompanied with gangrene of the
mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, and by spreading to
the skin and lungs by metastasis.
The first symptom is a chill followed by a fever which may
rise to 104 or 50 F., and the commencement of a thick nasal dis-
charge which soon becomes thick and reddish from the admixture
of blood and serum. Owing to the throat being affected the food
is sometimes seen mixed with the nasal discharge. The course of
the disease is so rapid that gangrene of the parts affected may
take place in two or three days. The breathing is difficult and
noisy. There is snorting, rattling, groaning, and when the larynx
is invaded, there is roaring.
The following symptoms also appear in the skin: dropsical
swellings; the formation of nodules and ulcers; the development
of a cord-like condition of the lymph channels, and the swelling
and suppuration of the lymphatic glands, particularly those in
between the bones of the lower jaw. There is loss of appetite,
difficult swallowing, diarrhea and rapid loss of flesh. In acute
glanders death occurs in from three to fourteen days.
The Diagnosis of Glanders.--The early diagnosis of gland-
ers is, perhaps, more important and, withal, more difficult and
uncertain than any other disease of the horse.
In a well-developed case, no mistake would be likely to be
made by any one who had had a previous experience with the
disease. In a well-marked case, the chief clinical symptoms are
as follows: a purulent, tenacious and rather clear nasal discharge
from one nostril; nodules and ulcers in the nostrils with a dirty-
yellow base, and raised, thickened edges; hard, uneven swelling
of the glands between the jaws which are firmly adherent to the
skin and bone; farcy buds and boils on the skin, with ulcers and

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 257

a corded, knotted condition of the lymphatic glands; doughy
swellings of the skin of a leg, on the belly and under-surface
of the chest; rough coat; loss of condition; fever; short wind;
cough; bleeding from the nose; dejection. These symptoms are
not always present in their entirety. Sometimes only one or two
of them may be present, and then a diagnosis is difficult, or im-
possible. Although a discharge from one nostril is always to be
regarded as suspicious, it is by no means proof of the existence
of glanders. There is frequently a discharge from both nostrils.
When the disease strangles becomes chronic we find hard,
enlarged, painless swelling of the glands lying near the wind-
pipe and, in this, simulating the same condition found in gland-
ers. Again, the swollen glands between the jaws in glanders
rarely if ever suppurate. While this symptom was, at one time,
regarded as one of great value, in doubtful cases, we have other
diseases in which this may occur. The one exact symptom of the
disease may be said to be the appearance of the characteristic
ulcers in the nostrils, with their eroded, raised edges and peculiar
base. These ulcers may be present independent of a nasal dis-
charge, so it is of great importance to make a thorough inspection,
paying particular attention to the under side of the wings of the
Special Methods of Diagnosis.-In addition to the ordinary
methods of diagnosis there are special methods which may be em-
ployed in cases where the ordinary symptoms are not developed.
These cases are called occult glanders. It is well known that de-
vitalizing conditions may stimulate the disease to renewed activity
by removing the natural resistance of the animal. One of these
conditions is fever. Fever may be artificially produced by hard
work and underfeeding in such cases. The injection of the oil of
turpentine under the skin has also been used to make manifest the
symptoms, by changing a chronic, occult case into an acute case
in which one or more of the well-known symptoms will appear.
Another method, consisting of the inoculation of other sus-
ceptible animals with the discharge from a suspected case. This
is really the most valuable and reliable of all the methods. The
animals to be chosen are asses, horses, mules and guinea-pigs.
The expense, under ordinary conditions, places the method be-
yond the ordinary practitioner; hence it largely remains for those
institutions supporting pathological laboratories to utilize this

258 Bulletin No. 77

method. In laboratories the guinea-pig is the animal used. Sev-
eral male guinea-pigs are inoculated intra-abdominally with vary-
ing quantities, each small in amount, say from one-tenth to five-
tenths of a cubic centimeter of diluted nasal discharge. In case
there be no nasal discharge, which often happens, a cotton swab
is passed into the nostrils through their whole length, and is
washed out in a test-tube containing sterile water or bouillon.
Varying quantities of this suspension are injected intra-abdom-
inally as stated above. If the material injected contain glanders
bacilli, the guinea-pig will show, in from 24 to 48 hours, a violent
inflammation of the scrotum. If the experiment be prolonged,
other symptoms of glanders will appear, viz.: ulceration of the
testicles, of the nasal septum, of the lips and toes, and the in-
vasion of the internal organs. It sometimes happens that a
guinea-pig receiving a large dose of the virus will die in a day or
two. The death will not be due to glanders, but to presence of
septic germs in the injected material. For this reason, it is best
to inoculate, as stated, with varying amounts of the virus. The
microbe of the disease can be demonstrated by means of the micro-
scope and the employment of stains, in the affected tissues of such
Diagnosis by Mallein.- -Mallein is an extract of old glycerine-
bouillon cultures of the glanders microbe. The material is made
by first sterilizing the cultures by heat. The dead microbes are
then filtered out by means of clay filters, and the liquid filtrate is
then evaporated down to one-tenth of its original volume. These
procedures produce a syrupy, dark-brown liquid, concentrated
mallein, which is practically a solution or suspension of the gland-
ers toxin in glycerine, As such, it will not decompose. When
the mallein is to be used, it is brought up to its original volume
by the addition of 0.5 per cent carbolic acid solution.
Although the utility of mallein as a diagnostic agent has been
questioned by some authors, it is being used by the various gov-
ernments, including National, State and municipal.
In carrying out the mallein test, the following method should
be employed: The temperatures for the preceding day taken every
two hours should, if possible, be at hand for reference. If this
is impracticable, begin taking the temperature at six o'clock in the
morning and repeat at eight, and ten o'clock. At eleven o'clock
inject the dose of mallein under the skin of the lower third of the

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 259

right side of the neck. The large extent of flat surface existing
in this location renders it more easy to judge the effects of the in-
jection. Horses with fever from any cause are unsuitable for this
test. About six hours after the injection of the mallein, take the
temperature, and repeat taking it every two hours up to the
twenty-first hour. If the animal has glanders three well-marked
deviations from the normal condition will be noted and maintained
for at least 24 hours after the injection, as follows:
i. A hot, painful tumor which may attain a size of nine
inches in diameter, at the point of injection, and radiating from
it swollen lymphatic ducts and glands similar to the cords in like
situations in well-marked cases of the disease.
2. A well-marked rise of the temperature of two degrees or
more, which is maintained for at least 24 hours.
3. A well-marked constitutional disturbance, manifested by
depression, debility, loss of appetite, stiffness of the muscles of
the fore-legs and embarrassed respiration.
While some regard a rise of temperature of i Y degrees and
tumor-formation as indicating latent glanders, my experience has
been, that we should not condemn unless the fever remains up,
over 24 hours, and the tumor attains a size of at least five or six
inches and remains hot and painful. When these two signs pre-
vail, the third, that of dejection, will always be present. My
practice has been to release all animals that do not present these
symptoms, and my experience, so far, proves that the practice is
In a case of well-marked, acute glanders, I injected with mal-
lein for the sake of experiment. The result was that, instead of
a rise in the temperature, as in latent cases, there was an
actual fall in the temperature of two degrees, and there was little
or no reaction at the point of inoculation. This argues a tolera-
tion for slight increase of the toxin in animals where the system
is already saturated with the poison.
Differential Diagnosis.- Glanders may be mistaken for a
number of affections, of which the following are the most im-
i. Chronic nasal catarrh most, of all, closely resembles gland-
ers. In this disease we find the nasal discharge, swollen inter-
maxillary glands and sometimes skin ulcerations. As points
against a mistake, we find no scarring of the nasal chambers. The

260 Bulletin No. 77

disease is easily checked by local applications to the nasal mucous
membranes and the internal administration of a tonic. The dis-
ease does not spread to other animals, and inoculations of guinea-
pigs would not cause glanders in them. There would not be that
loss of condition which we find in a case of glanders which had
progress so far as to attract attention by the appearance of a nasal
discharge, etc.
2. In strangles or distemper we observe inflamed lymphatic
glands with ulcerations about the head and throat. The rapid
healing of these, and recovery of the animal make the diagnosis
certain. Even in cases of strangles where the disease spreads to
other parts of the body by metastasis, there can be little cause
for mistakes. In strangles there is a decided tendency to abscess-
formation, while in glanders we find ulceration. Strangles is
usually found in young stock, especially after shipment, while
glanders attacks horses of all ages. Strangles is more rapid in
its development and course, and the nasal discharge is bilateral,
and whitish in color.
3. Parasites in the nasal chambers sometimes cause a dis-
charge resembling that in glanders.
4. Lymfhangitis may be mistaken for glanders of the skin or
farcy. This is usually a local affection, ie., it is confined to a
limited area, such as a single limb. It progresses rapidly and
there is a tendency to abscess-formations, while farcy progresses
slowly and without, generally, abscess-formation. The abscess
and resulting ulcer of lymphangitis has smooth edges and heals
rapidly by granulation, while the ulcers of farcy heal slowly, have
thickened, raised borders, and heal leaving scars. In farcy the
lymphatic channels are thickened forming cords, while in lymph-
angitis the adjacent tissues are also swollen.
5. In petechialfever or purpura haemarrhagica, there is not as
much fever present as in glanders, and the swellings in the former
disease are much more extensive and never nodular. This disease
is, moreover, the sequel of a pre-existing debilitating affection.
Treatment.-That an occasional spontaneous recovery from
glanders may take place, is accepted. No medicinal measures
yet known to the profession can be wholly accepted as curative.
While it is true that some reliable practitioners claim that repeated
injections of mallein will cure the disease permanently, it is not
yet satisfactorily settled. Enough is promised, however, in this

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 261

line, to warrant those in a position to do such work, to give the
method an extensive trial. Such an experiment would have to be
extended over a long series of years to test its efficacy.
At present the only safe method of dealing with glanders, is
to apply the strictest sanitary measures. This consists in the im-
mediate destruction and deep burial, in lime, of all visibly-affected
animals; the testing with mallein of all animals that have come
in contact with those sick, and the destruction of those that re-
act to the test; the thorough cleaning and disinfection of all
harness, stable utensils, wagon poles and shafts with a bi-chloride
of mercury solution; the removal and burning of feed and drink-
ing troughs, stall partitions, brushes and pads, and thorough ap-
plication to all remaining interior wood-work of white-wash con-
taining three ounces of the bi-chloride of mercury to twenty-five
gallons. Where the animals have had the run of a yard, this
should be thoroughly scraped, and sprinkled with lime, and the
fence given a coat of the disinfectant white-wash. In cases where
a stable can be burned, it is better to do so. In any case, if the
stable can be abandoned for six months, it is advisable. Cattle
may be placed in an infected stable without danger. In all the
outbreaks I have had to deal with, I have put the above measures
into effect, and have not had the disease reappear. In one in-
stance, where it was impractical to disinfect, owing to there hav-
ing been three badly-diseased animals penned in a small lot, the
town, on my advice, quarantined the lot and built another fence
around it eight feet distant from the old fence, thus preventing
animals from becoming infected by contact with the old fence.
Glanders in Florida.-Although there can be little doubt that
Florida has had her proportionate share of glanders in the past,
this report deals only with those outbreaks which have occurred
from the latter part of September, 1903, to the present time, Jan-
uary, 1905. During the Spanish-American war, when large num-
bers of army horses were brought into Florida, awaiting shipment
to Cuba, glanders was prevalent in the army posts, and large
numbers of the army horses were destroyed. So far as is known
the disease did not spread from these infected centers, and it is
probable, with the exception of the Tampa cases, that the disease
was brought into the State by horse dealers. The first outbreak
which came to the attention of the University authorities occurred
at Zolfo, in De Soto county, in September, 1903. At the be-

262 Bulletin No. 77

ginning of the outbreak, the State Board of Health undertook to
eradicate the disease, and employed Dr. N. B. Rhodes, of Tampa,
to take charge of the work. At about the same time, I was di-
rected to go to Zolfo to undertake the work under the authority
vested in the Board of Trustees of the University by recent Act
of the Legislature. Finding Dr. Rhodes already on the ground
and that he had destroyed all visibly-affected animals and had
tested a large number of suspects with mallein, I returned to the
University believing the outbreak was under control.
On September 5th, the following telegram to the President of
the Board of Trustees of the University was forwarded to the
President of the University by Mr. J. R. Parrott, a member of
the Board:
"Governor Jennings sends following wire to Mr. Wilson: 'Epidemic of
glanders among horses threatened at Zolfo. Board of Health sent Dr. Rhodes,
of Tampa, there some days ago, who has experienced complications which de-
mand attention. Has advised that Chapter 5261 repeals Board of Health author-
ity. Places responsibility on University. Kindly give matter attention, and
oblige me. Mr. Wilson not expected back until early next week. Would ad-
vise you send our veterinarian to Zolfo at once. Have animals segregated where
necessary, co-operating fully with State Board of Health, asking them to re-
port facts back to you. Meeting should be called for organization under Act
5261 passed by last Legislature early in week as possible.' "
On September 9th I received the following telegram from
Mr. Wilson relative to the same outbreak:
Am informed that glanders appearing elsewhere. Governor thinks very
important to adopt measures at any cost to stamp it out. He thinks it well to
join Rhodes at Lakeland and co-operate at once, and after conference to order
one hundred doses of mallein."
THE FIRST OUTBREAK AT TAMPA.-En route to the scene of
the outbreak, I received a telegram from Dr. Rhodes to come on
in to Tampa, as there was an outbreak at that point. As an out-
break of glanders in a city is of much more economic importance
than one in a small settlement, I remained on the train till it
reached Tampa at about midnight. The next day we visited a
wood and lumber yard in the city, and discovered two cases of
acute glanders. Both animals were immediately destroyed and
buried in the city garbage trench. The remaining horses and
mules, five in number, were tested with mallein and found free of
the disease. The premises were thoroughly cleaned and disin-
fected and no new cases have since developed in that stable. Ow-

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 263

ing to a severe storm, I was delayed in leaving Tampa for several
days. By the time I reached Zolfo the excitement of the people
had abated, and, after testing all the animals in the vicinity that
were exposed to the disease, I found no cases, showing Dr.
Rhodes' work had been thoroughly performed. The news-paper
accounts of the outbreak caused considerable excitement among
stock owners in central Florida, and reports of suspicious cases
came in in quick succession. In response to these, I visited Ox-
ford, Anthony, Miami and Welborn, but found no trace of the
disease. At Miami, however, there was reason to believe that a
case had occurred.
ing letters from Lady Lake, under dates October 5th, 9th and
14th, 1903, are copied as being typical of those written by a close-
observing layman and are presented with a view to instruction.
They are as follows:
"I have been called to Mr. M.'s mill, near Conant, to some sick mules. Mr.
M. bought a mule some time ago, at Leesburg, with some discharge from the nose.
Since he bought the mule two more have taken it. They come in lumps as long
as your hand, and legs swell. I have had them away from the rest of the mules
since September 28th. Two have died and another one, I think, will get over
it. If it is serious enough for the State to take hold of, please see about it, as
we are very uneasy about the matter; or notify me what is best to do as soon as
possible. Have them in a lot a quarter of a mile from the other stock. Don't
know just what it is. Would be glad to hear from you. The discharge is a
bloody mucus."
The same man wrote on October 9th:
The mules that died broke out in sores on body, were swollen between
the jaws, eyes sunken, sides drawn, breathing hard. The live one is eating
better, discharges at nose smaller, breathing hard, but eats hearty and looks
bright. I think it will get well. There are no more new cases. Did the State
send a veterinarian to Leesburg some two months ago to examine cases similar
to those that I have written about? If you decide to come, call at my house and
I will give you all the information I can about the matter. If there are any
more new cases I will notify you at once."
Under date of October 14th, he writes:
"There were two more new cases came in yesterday from the same stalls.
There are now new stalls built. Your letter to me was very satisfactory, and
we are now satisfied that it is glanders, according to your description. Your
presence here would settle the matter, or a letter from you advising me what to
do. If they get over it will it come back, or will they be all right? Appar-
ently, one of the first ones will get over it."


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Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 265

On arriving at Lady Lake I found three badly affected
mules. Fortunately for the mill owner, his veterinarian, though
not a graduate, was a man of good judgment, and exercised it
"by building a new stable for the sick mules half a mile away from
the mill, and placed the animals in it as soon as they showed signs
of the (to him) new disease. I advised the immediate destruction
and burial of the glandered animals. The infected run and
shelter were to remain quarantined for six months. One of these
mules, the first one which came down with the disease, was bought
in Leesburg, where, subsequent events showed, he had infected
the three livery stables in the town and caused the Leesburg out-
break. The loss at the Conant mills was five mules. The re-
mainder, about twenty head, were all tested with mallein, but all
proved themselves free of the disease. At the time of my visit
the owner had, on the advice of the local veterinarian, discarded
and closed up the old stable and had erected a new one.
THE LEESBURG OUTBREAK.--While at Conant I received a
message from Leesburg to come to that town and investigate a
disease in horses of the livery stables from which the mule that
started the disease at Conant had been bought. I hired a team
at Lady Lake and drove to Leesburg on October 2oth. I found
-considerable uneasiness among the business men, as each of the
three livery stables had lost an animal from the disease, and one
of the stables still had four sick ones. One of these was kept in
the yard at the owner's residence, while the other three were in
a small lot at the edge of the town. Inspection showed them
all suffering with acute glanders, all well-marked cases. As, by
this time, news of the disease had spread into the surrounding
-country, the effect upon business was being felt, as persons from
the country were afraid to drive their animals to the market. A
meeting of the city council was called to discuss the matter, and,
upon invitation, I addressed the body upon the subject of gland-
-ers. As a result, it was decided to double-fence the infected lot,
which was practically in the center of the city, disinfect all drink-
ing troughs, and to paint or white-wash all hitching posts and
trees that had been used as hitching posts. Two of the stables
had already been thoroughly cleaned and white-washed by the
-owners before my visit, and were in thorough sanitary condition.
In the one where the disease had started, nothing had been done
along the line of cleaning up. I condemned the four visibly-

266 Bulletin No. 77

diseased animals and tested four others, one of which reacted to
mallein. The owner was informed that the reacting animal should
also be destroyed. He seemed now to believe that I had de-
termined to "put him out of business," and was prone to listen
to the advice of a local physician who seemed to look upon me
as an interloper invading his realm. The owner finally doubted
that the disease was glanders, and even that I was the person I
represented myself to be. It began to look as though the so-far
peaceful prosecution of the work was to be interrupted. As I
was not satisfied that the Legislature had given the University
sufficient authority to compel owners to destroy animals, I in-
formed the city officials that I considered my duty at an end and
made preparations to depart. Public opinion at once crystalized
powerfully against the stand taken by the owner of the animals,
and he wisely had the four animals destroyed and his place dis-
infected according to my directions. The loss at Leesburg was
three animals before my arrival, and four by condemnation. The
original Leesburg case infected the mule that afterwards was sold
to Conant, where he caused the death of four others, making the
losses at Conant and Leesburg twelve head of horses and mules.
A CASE AT SANFORD.-On March I8th, 1904, I received two
letters from Sanford pertaining to a diseased horse. One of these
letters, written by Deputy-Sheriff Hand, stated he believed the
disease to be glanders, and that it should be investigated, "in
order that the people may know what to do." Upon arrival at
Sanford, I found that Sheriff Hand had already quarantined the
animal in a vacant lot at the edge of the town. I pronounced it
a plain case of glanders, and advised its destruction at once. As
the animal had always been regarded with suspicion since its ar-
rival from Orlando, there had not been much chance of others
becoming infected. However, I made a close physical inspection
of all the animals it could have infected, but found no further
evidence of the disease. I regard this horse as possibly being
the original case in these outbreaks in central Florida. The animal
came originally from Nebraska and was bought out of a drove at
public sale in Orlando.
On June 3, 1903, the Governor of Florida approved "An Act
to Provide for the Investigation of Diseases Among Domestic
Animals, and to Prevent the Spread of Contagious Diseases
Among Such." As this Act was not mandatory upon the part of

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 267

Board of Trustees of the University, but only authorized and
empowered the Board to do certain things, it did not seem wise
to involve the University in useless litigation. The University
Board, also recognizing that the investigation and eradication of
pestilential diseases more properly comes under the Board of
Health, entered into an agreement with the State Board of
Health, in May, 1904, through which the latter body assumes
charge of the work, and pays all expenses incident to the same.
Therefore, my authority to investigate and eradicate the follow-
ing outbreaks, came from the Florida State Board of Health, of
which I became the official veterinarian, by agreement between
the two Boards.
My first detail to investigate an outbreak of glanders under
the Public Health Laws of Florida," is dated May 20th, 1904.
It directs me to visit Monticello and vicinity, and to take such
action as will effectively and speedily eradicate the disease, and
to make a report thereon in writing to the office of the State Board
of Health.
THE MONTICELLO CASE.-Upon arriving at Monticello, I
found the public had become so interested in the matter that
several leading citizens had, at their own expense, employed a
competent veterinarian from a near-by town to visit the suspected
animal. He had condemned it as being glandered, and advised
burning the small stable and the carcass all at one time. This
was done, and, of course, the disease was, so far as that animal
and stable were concerned, completely checked. The history of
the animal showed that there had not been much chance for the
disease to spread, so I deemed it unnecessary to make mallein tests
for other cases. There have been no other cases since, at that
THE SECOND TAMPA OUTBREAK.-On May 30th, the second
detail directed me to proceed to Tampa to investigate a case of
glanders in a horse on Taliaferro street, Ybor City, a suburb of
Tampa. On reaching the place indicated I found a small horse,
the property of a widow, which had been used for several years
to deliver lunches to the cigar factories. The horse had been
nursed by the cook, who had for some time cleaned the nostrils
and farcy buds with her unprotected hands. The stall was in
the back yard, about forty feet from the kitchen, and the animal
had had the unrestricted range of the yard, which contained all

268 Bulletin No. 77

sorts of rubbish. The stall was small and filthy. The wood-
work was liberally besmeared with the nasal discharges. The
horse was immediately condemned and arrangements were made
with the city sanitary officials for its destruction and burial in the
city garbage trench. A sack was tied about the head to prevent
the discharge from dropping on the streets, and the animal was
led away and disposed of in the manner indicated above. Only
one horse was known to have been in the yard, an animal which
had been hired to replace the sick one. It was tested with mal-
lein, but failed to react. The yard was thoroughly scraped with
a hoe and all boxes and old lumber, etc., were burned. The har-
ness was soaked in a bi-chloride solution, and the wagon shafts,
etc., were washed down. The stall was thoroughly drenched first
with 125 gallons of disinfectant, and later given a coat of white-
wash with a brush, and by dashing it on from a cup into the
corners and other inaccessible places. The disinfected manure
was then hauled out to the garbage trench and buried.
THE WINTER PARK CASES.-On June 25th, Sheriff Vick, of
Orange county, wired me that glanders was reported from Winter
Park. On the same day I received a telegraphic detail to investi-
gate the report from Winter Park.
I arrived at Winter Park in due time, and found that the
sick animals were the property of the local liveryman. He had
already lost one. The remaining visibly-affected one was found
having the free range of the yard and all other stalls. There
were four other animals in the yard. They all, sick and well,
drank from a common tub, and no effort had been made to pre-
vent the sick ones from visiting the stalls of the supposedly-
healthy ones. The animal was condemned on sight, taken out,
shot and buried outside of town. The stable and yard were dis-
infected after the plan already described. The four remaining
animals were tested with mallein and three of the four reacted
perfectly as the following statement shows: Their names were
Barney, Frank, Charlie and Maud. Their normal temperatures
were 99.9, 990, 101.20 and 100o, in the order named above.
These temperatures were taken at 2 I. M. on June 28th. They
were injected with Parke, Davis & Co.'s malleiu. at 4 P. mr. the
same day. At 8 A. M. the following day "' -r temperatures were
as follows: Barney's, 1O2.80; Frank's, io-? -' Charlie's, 104.60;
Maud's, 99.60. The first three named also had hard, hot and

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 269

painful tumors at the point of injection. The lymphatic chan-
nels were plainly visible, radiating from the tumors. They were
off their feed, and were dejected. Maud showed little or no tender-
ness and seemed in good spirits. She was removed from the
bunch. At II A. M. their temperatures were again taken and were
as follows, in the same order: Barney's, 103.60; Frank's; ro30;
Charlie's, 104. As Maud showed absolutely no ill-effects of the
injection, she was released to the owner for use. At 5 P. M.,
twenty-five hours after injection, the tumefactions had not de-
creased, nor had the animals' condition improved. Their temper-
tures were: Barney's, 103.60: Frank's, o102; Charlie's, 104.2.
The diagnosis was, therefore, glanders, and they were ordered
destroyed, much to the regret of all concerned, as these horses
and a few carriages represented the results of years of hard labor
on the part of the unfortunate owner. A visit to the bunch at
midnight, seven hours later, showed the horses still blowing and
dejected, with little or no decrease in size of the swellings at the
seat of the injection, nor any diminution in the tenderness in that
region. The next day they were led out into the country, shot
and buried; thus closing the most distressing incident which had
thus far occurred.
In tracing up the outbreak, it appeared that the owner had
bought the original case at a public sale of horses in or from Or-
lando about three months previously, or at about the same time
the Nebraska horse was sold to parties in Sanford. My later in-
formation showed that the Winter Park horse was bought from
a local dealer who purchased ten head of the Western horses at
Orlando, and lost the other nine from glanders, which outbreaks
are the next ones recorded.
BREAKS.-On July ?3rd, a detail to investigate an outbreak of
glanders in the vicinity of Kissimmee reached me, and I started
at once for that point.,
With the assistance and co-operation of Dr. E. G. Vans
Agnew, of Kissimmee, I was enabled to locate the places where
report said .the;disease -existed. We located the first case, after
a drive of fifteen mif -- near Narcoossee. The owner was notified
to destroy the-atiiri-l .,nd did so in a day or two, with reluctance.
His other horse was tested, but failed to react to mallein. This

Bulletin No. 77

"of the ten head bought by the local dealer from the
Irove at Orlando.
Peghorn we found another case, in possession of a man
undertaken its cure for the local dealer. This was
ZI the ten head purchased at Orlando. According to
,nDe of the nostrils, this case was the oldest-standing
seen. The nasal septum was perforated, sufficiently
"ore-finger of the gloved hand through it, and thus
iial. The "doctor" who had undertaken his "cure,"
was surprised when this was done, as he had not discovered the
perforation. The animal was destroyed and buried. As no ani-
mals had come in contact with this one, we spent no more time
at Peghorn, and drove to Lake Gentry where we had heard the
remaining ones, now seven in number, were. The dealer, whose
settlement was in the woods, was glad to see us, but said our trip
was useless, as all the horses had died. Owing to the remote-
ness of the place, there was little or no chance of the disease
being spread, so we gave up further investigation of these out-
breaks. Here ends the report of outbreaks that have occurred
up to the present time.
There is no doubt in my mind that all the cases mentioned
here had their origin in the bunch of horses brought from Ne-
braska to Orlando, excepting the Tampa cases and the case at
Monticello. A glance.at the accompanying map shows the prox-
imity of the places where the outbreaks occurred, and the evi-
dence gathered from various persons leaves no room for doubt.
Even the Zolfo outbreak can be pretty clearly connected with the
others, as the owner of the originally-affected Zolfo horse was at
that time engaged in buying orange crops, and told me that his
horse had been fed in the livery stables of every town of import-
ance in central Florida.
Summing up the losses from the disease, including those de-
stroyed by Dr. Rhodes, at Zolfo, we find that forty-one animals
died as a result of being glandered, and that seven of these ani-
mals were destroyed upon the evidence of the mallein test. At a
liberal estimate these animals were worth between five and six
thousand dollars. Dr. Rhodes destroyed nine head at Zolfo, five
of which were visibly glandered; the others reacted to mallein.

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication .

As none of the parties who lost animals could be sai e
responsible for the deaths, the .question arises as.to who-
sponsible party. If the man who shipped the disease-i t-
did so knowingly, he should be held responsible. 'If
in the disease, in ignorance of its existence,' he was c.
morally responsible. In all probability, it could not
that he knew he was shipping in giandered animals, hence he
could not be held legally responsible and punished for it.: A
State has the right to protect its citizens against such impositions.
It can do it in several ways; one of which is the reimbursement
for the losses thus incurred by its citizens, and another is the
supervision of the entry of animals within her borders. Ordina-
rily, the former method of protection would be the cheaper, as
the inspection of animals at the State line would require the em-
ployment of two or more competent veterinarians at a fair salary.
In such serious outbreaks as those which have occurred in the
last year and a half, the losses would more than equal the ex-
pense of state-line inspection. A law which would make the ship-
per and dealer responsible, and revoke their license to do busi-
ness in Florida, would soon put an end to the practice.
The complete eradication of the outbreaks cited in this re-
port has been a source of gratification to the writer, because this
result is not always attainable. I attribute the successful out-
come of the work largely to the stand that the public has taken
in favor of the extreme measures adopted, more than to our laws,
which have not yet been tested in court. Just how long owners
will give their consent for animals that react to mallein, but which,
to them, seem healthy and able to work, to be destroyed, I am
unable to predict. I know that in several cases my directions
would not have been complied with had not public opinion come
to the rescue. It was difficult in some cases to get the owner to
destroy animals that were plainly glandered, until public opinion
forced action on his part.
In discussing the eradication of glanders by methods similar
to those employed in the work in Florida, and the question of
indemnity for animals so destroyed, Professor James Law, of Cor-
nell University, says, in part:

272 Bulletin No. 77

"A law providing for the prompt destruction of every glandered soliped,
and the safe disinfection of carcasses, stables, harness, vehicles, utensils, fodder,
litter and manure that has been exposed to contamination, if enforced, would
soon eradicate the disease. But this law should provide sufficient machinery
for its enforcement, and, under suitable safeguards, an appropriate indemnity
for the owner. With the use of mallein in all infected studs, as a diagnostic
agent, the campaign can be made short, sharp and effective, instead of waiting,
as in the past, for the slow development of occult cases.
"The greatest and most fundamental error in veterinary sanitary legisla-
tion is the lack of a guarded indemnity for the animals killed. I strongly urged
this fact on the committee of the New York Legislature in 1898, but to no pur-
pose. A bill was passed forbidding all indemnity for glandered horses, and an
impetus thus given to the spread of the disease is daily bearing fruit, in our
great cities especially, disastrous to the health of horses, and a constant menace
to that of humanity as well. The law makes it the duty of veterinarians to re-
port all cases of glanders, but in great horse establishments such a report would
stop the use of the whole stable, at a loss of thousands of dollars per diem, and
put a sudden end to the employment of the reporting practitioner by the firm
or corporation in question. The owner of one or two horses can afford to report,
as the loss of these, and their work, does not mean absolute ruin; but the owner
of hundreds can not safely report. For owner and practitioner alike, the alterna-
tives are presented of obedience to the law with personal ruin on the one hand,
and the surreptitious dealing with cases of glanders and the preservation of their
livelihood on the other. Whatever may be said as to the constitutionality of the
law which destroys private property without compensation under the right of
eminent domain, this is certain, that, as applied to animal plagues, this course
is unjust, oppressive, and not only useless, but positively injurious, in that it
drives the owners of animals to such courses as favor the spread of the plague in
place of restricting it. To-day, in New York City, glanders is extensively preva-
lent, but large horse owners dare not adopt the legal measures for its extinction,
with the certainty of great loss or ruin staring them in the face as the result. It
should be further considered that any law is at once bad and vicious in its tend-
ency which places before the citizen the alternatives of disobedience with profit,
and obedience with loss or ruin. Such a law is the worst possible economy, be-
cause, in preserving the infection, it not only perpetuates the disease and its at-
tendant losses for all time, but perpetuates forever the official expenses of keep-
ing it in check, when a prompt extinction of the infection would once for all
time abolish all loss and all outlay for its surveillance."

In reply to my request sent to every State Veterinarian or
other Veterinary Sanitary Official of the various States of the
Union, I have received a number of copies of live-stock laws

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 273

from which the following information relative to glanders is ex-

The following letter from Dr. C. A. Cary explains itself:
"We have no law beyond a very indefinite one giving power to quarantine
animals with dangerous infectious diseases, and making owners of such animals
responsible for all damages resulting from or coming from their quarantined
"I do believe it wise for each State to make some provision for paying an
appraised value for horses and mules with glanders, when such disease has been
unknowingly and accidentally contracted."

Paragraph from a letter received from Dr. J. C. Norton:
"Horses and mules condemned on account of glanders are not paid for by
the Territory. In one case money was appropriated to pay for condemned stock,
by special act of Legislature,"
" Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas:
son or persons shall wilfully and knowingly drive or bring into this State any
diseased horse, mule, jack, or jennet affected by the disease known as 'nasal
gleet,' glanders or farcy or any other contagious or infectious disease, or shall
drive or ship from one part of this State to another, unless it be to remove from
one piece of land or ground to another piece of land of the same owner, or if
any person shall knowingly sell any diseased horse, mule, jack, or jennet they
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.
"PROHIBITED TERRITORY. Sec. 2. If any person shall bring into this
State any Missouri or Western horses, mules, jacks, or jennets which have not
been kept at least twelve months north of the northern boundary line of the
State of Missouri and twelve months east of the west boundary line of the State
of Iowa, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor: Provided, That nothing
herein contained shall be construed to prevent or make unlawful the transporta-
tion of such horses, mules, jacks, and jennets through the State on railways, or
prohibit driving through any part of this State or being in possession of said
horses, mules, jacks, and jennets between the first day of April and the tenth
day of July following: Provided, further, That this Act shall not apply to actual
bona-fide persons moving into this State and bringing their horses, mules, jacks,
and jennets with them.
MISDEMEANOR, PENALTY. Sec. 3. Any person or persons, railroad com-
pany or owner of steamboats who shall violate any of the provisions of this Act
shall be fined in any sum not to exceed three hundred nor less than one hundred

274 Bulletin No. 77

"SEC. 13. The said Board of Stock Inspection Commissioners may con-
demn diseased stock and cause the same to be killed, for which no compensation
shall be paid."
My correspondent's opinion of the Colorado law is as follows:
"In marked portion you will see this Board has power to kill diseased
stock without payment to owner. This, in my opinion, is a bad feature of our
law, and tends toward the concealment and disposition of suspected animals
without reporting to this Board, whereas, if owners were allowed a certain per-
centage of the actual value of the animal, they would be far more inclined to
report such disease and thus help to stamp it out."
Flo ida:
"CHAPTER 4346.
,"An Act to define and declare what shall be deemed nuisances injurious to health
and to provide for the removal thereof and punishment therefore.
"Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
"SECTION 1. A sanitary nuisance is hereby declared to be the commission
of any act, by any individual, municipality, organization or corporation, or the
keeping, maintaining, propagation, existence or permission of anything by an
individual, municipality, organization or corporation, by which the health or
life of an individual, or the health or lives of individuals, may be threatened
or impaired, or by which, or through which, directly or indirectly, disease may
be caused.
"SEC. 8. That any animal affected by glanders or other contagious or pesti-
lential disease, kept in any part of the State of Florida, is hereby declared a
nuisance injurious to health; and any person keeping or maintaining such nui-
sance who shall fail, after due notice from the State health officer, to abate the
same, shall upon conviction be fined not less than five nor more than twenty-
five dollars for every such offense.
"SEC. 15. This act shall take effect from its passage and approval by the
"Approved June 1, 1895.
"CHA&PTER 4351.
"An Act to prohibit the introduction into this State and the sale therein of horses,
mules, cattle, hogs, or other domestic animals which may be or are at the
time of their introduction or sale suffering from diseases known as gland-
ers, farcy, cholera, Texas fever or other virulent infectious or contagious
diseases, or which were known at the time of such introduction or sale to
have been in contact with any of such animals having had any of such dis-
eases, and prescribing penalties for the violation of this act.
"Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
"SECTION 1. That hereafter it shall be unlawful for any person to bring
into this State or to offer for sale therein any horses, mules, cattle, hogs, or other

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 275

domestic animals, knowing at the time of such introduction or offering for sale
of any such animals that they are suffering from diseases known as glanders,
farcy, cholera, Texas fever or other virulent, contagious or infectious diseases.
"SEC. 2. That any person who shall knowingly violate the first section of
this act shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be im-
prisoned in the State penitentiary for a term of not less than two years or more
than four years, or shall be fined in a sum of not less than five hundred dollars
or more than one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
"Approved May 25th, 1895.':
The Board of Live Stock Commissioners pays, upon the cer-
tificate of the State Veterinarian, one-third of the appraised value,
which may not be more than $roo.oo on each horse affected with
glanders, provided the owner kills and disposes of the carcass
according to law.
"SECTION 7437. Pay for Animals. When any animal or animals are killed
under the provision of this act by order of the Commission, the owner thereof
shall be paid therefore the appraised value as fixed by the appraisement herein-
before provided for: Provided, the right of indemnity on account of animals
killed by order of the Commission under the provisions of this act shall not
extend to the owner of animals which have been brought into the State in a
diseased condition, or from a State, country, territory or district in which the
disease with which the animal is infected, or to which it has been exposed, ex-
ists. Nor shall any animal be paid for by the State which may be brought into
the State in violation of any law or quarantine regulation thereof, or the owner
of which shall have violated any of the provisions of this act or disregarded any
rule, regulation or order of the Live Stock Sanitary Commission or any member
thereof. Nor shall any animal be paid for by the State which came into the pos-
session of the claimant with the claimant's knowledge that such animal was dis-
eased or was suspected of being diseased. Nor shall any animal belonging to
the United States be paid for by the State."
"SECTION 47. Glandered Animal to be Killed-Liability of Owner. The
owner of any horse, mule, jack, or jennet affected with glanders shall kill and
cause such animal to be burned or buried, and failing to do so, shall be liable
by civil action for all damages that may occur by the spreading of said disease.
"SEC. 47A. Glandered Animal-Duty of Magistrate and Owner-Penalty.
When it is made to appear to the satisfaction of the county judge or any justice
of the peace of any county in this Commonwealth that any animal within his
county is diseased with glanders, it shall be the duty of the county judge or
justice of the peace to notify the owner and require him to kill and bury it; and
before the animal or animals are killed, the county judge, with a justice of the
peace, or two justices of the peace, shall cause the animal to be valued, the val-
uation not to exceed fifty dollars for any one animal, and the valuation of said

276 Bulletin No. 77

animal or animals, together with the fact of its destruction, shall be certified by
the two justices or the county judge to the county court, together with the name
of the owner, and spread upon the records of the court. A certified copy of said
order, under the seal of the county, shall be delivered to the owner, and upon
its presentation to the county court, the county judge may order the amount certi-
fied to be paid out of the county funds in which county said disease appears;
provided, further, That if the animal is diseased with glanders and the owner
should refuse to destroy the animal on the demand of the county judge, or any
justice, he shall be subject to a fine of not less than one hundred dollars nor
more than five hundred dollars, to be enforced by indictment, etc.
All acts and parts of acts in conflict with this section are hereby repealed.
(This section is an act of April 29, 1897.)
"SEc. 1332. Stock Affected with Glanders to be Killed. It shall be the duty
of any person owning a horse, mule, jack, or jennet affected with glanders to kill
such animal, and cause the same to be either burned or buried; and if he fail
to do so he shall be fined not less than twenty nor more than one hundred dollars.
"SEC. 1333. Permitting Glandered Stock to run at Large. If any person
owning or having charge of a horse, mule, jack, or jennet affected with glanders
shall knowingly permit such animal to run at large on his own premises, so as
to come in contact with animals belonging to others, and thereby spread the dis-
ease, or suffer such diseased animal to go upon the public highway, or shall sell
or trade, convey or transfer, by gift or otherwise, an animal so diseased, he shall
be fined not less than twenty nor more than five hundred dollars."
Pays one-half the appraised value up to $ioo.oo appraise-
ment on registered animals, and up to $50.00 appraisement on
common stock, for animals that have been in the State three years.
Pays $10.oo for the animal and $0o.oo are allowed the owner
for burying the carcass and cleaning up and disinfecting the
The following was received from the Chief of Cattle Bureau:
I send you under separate cover a copy of the laws of Massachusetts re-
lating to contagious diseases among domestic animals. You will see under sec-
tion 6, of chapter 90, that animals suffering with a contagious disease may be
ordered killed without appraisal or payment, if the public good seems to require
it, the only exception being that cattle killed because of tuberculosis are paid
for by the State, not over forty dollars to be paid for any one animal.
The State does not allow anything for horses and mules that are killed
because they have glanders or farcy, for the reason that the Legislature has
always taken the ground that an animal so diseased was of no value, as no one
would care to own such an animal, and no one would knowingly purchase such
an animal for his own use. Therefore, the property being valueless, it is de-
stroyed without the State allowing anything for it."

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 277

Requires the destruction of glandered animals, but pays no
stated indemnity. In one case the Legislature, by special enact-
ment, paid for a lot of glandered animals that had been destroyed
by the State authorities.
The county court appraises value of the animal after it has
been quarantined. It is killed by the sheriff, and burned or buried
by the owner, who can then appear before the court and ask for
New Jersey:
The following was received from the Secretary of the State
Board of Health:
"In accordance with the request contained in your letter of July 13th, we
forward to you a copy of Circular 94, containing the laws of New Jersey relating
to infectious diseases of animals.
You will observe that no compensation is allowed in this State to owners
of animals affected with glanders, anthrax, etc., in cases where the diseased ani-
mal is destroyed. One of the legal advisers of this Board has taken the position
that animals affected with incurable diseases, which are liable to be transmitted
to human beings, should be dealt with in the same manner that other nuisances,
endangering the lives and health of human beings, are dealt with, that is to
say, they should be destroyed without compensation to the owner. This rule
holds good with reference to houses which are pulled down to prevent the spread
of a great conflagration, and seems to be justified on the score of public necessity.
A departure from this principal has been made in the case of bovine tuberculosis,
an allowance being made to the owners of cattle found to be affected with this
disease and slaughtered by order from an authorized officer of the State."
North Dakota:
The following was received from the State Veterinarian:
"In reply to your favor of the 20th inst., I wish to say that our State laws
bearing upon glanders are not available in pamphlet form. As a matter of in-
formation, however, I wish to say that all horses affected with glanders are de-
stroyed by order of our district veterinarians, but the owners are not reimbursed
for their loss. I will, however, venture the opinion that a reimbursement, how-
ever small, would facilitate eradication of glanders very greatly, as under its
operation owners will not be as apt to conceal the disease as they are at the pres-
ent time. In a bill which I propose to bring before our Legislature next winter,
I propose to make some provision for reimbursement."
"SEc. 4211-16 (of the Revised Statutes). Appraisement and Killing of
Diseased Animals. When in the opinion of the Commissioners it shall be neces-
sary to prevent the further spread of any dangerous, contagious or infectious dis-

278 Bulletin No. 77

ease among the live stock of the State, to destroy animals affected with or which
have been exposed to any such disease, it shall determine what animals shall be
killed, and shall appraise or cause the same to be appraised, by disinterested citi-
zens, as hereinafter provided, and cause such animals to be killed, and their
carcasses to be disposed of as in the judgment of the Commission will best pro-
tect the health of the domestic animals of the locality; provided, that no animal
shall be slaughtered under the provisions of this act unless first
examined by competent veterinarian in the employ of the Commission, and the
disease with which it is affected or to which it has been exposed adjudged tor be
a dangerous and contagious malady."
From the Second Annual Report of the Ohio State Board
of Live Stock Commissioners, for 1903, the following regarding
glanders is copied:
"Glanders is the most dangerous and fatal disease of the horse and, at the
same time, it occurs in all other domesticated animals, with the possible exception
of the ox, and is not infrequently the cause of a horrible death in human beings.
"For these reasons the control of this disease among horses, with a view
to its ultimate extirpation, is a very important duty of the Board.
"Although the direct cause of the disease is a specific germ, it is a marked
fact that poor hygienic conditions are important factors in the development, as
well as in the spread of glanders. Such conditions are naturally found chiefly
among such owners of horses as can ill afford to lose them, when the destruction
of animals, in the incipient stage of the disease becomes necessary for the pro-
tection of the community in general.
"The compulsory destruction of animals, in these cases, is a hardship on
some people that may, in some cases, considerably affect the efficiency of the
work of the Board where voluntary information from the public constitutes the
basis of the investigations that are made.
"As required by law, and in view of the above explanations, the State
Board of Live Stock Commissioners hereby reports for your favorable considera-
tion, the claim of three thousand and twenty dollars ($3,020.00) against the State
of Ohio, as compensation for horses affected with glanders and destroyed by order
of the Board; this being the appraised value of thirty-three horses as itemized
While writing this report, an investigation of an outbreak of glanders is
being conducted in the vicinity of Feesburg and other points in Brown county.
From present indications it is safe to assume that a number of affected animals
will be found; in fact, the horse that belonged to J. W. Trout, and which is
included in the above list, is one of a group of suspected animals that were ex-
posed to three horses affected with acute glanders, and which were destroyed by
their owners when advised to do so, by a local veterinarian. These facts make
it seem desirable that the Board have at its disposal a limited fund for the pur-
pose of paying to the unfortunate owners of horses afflicted with glanders, at least
a partial compensation for their loss. This would, in many ways, facilitate the
work of the Board and thus increase its usefulness.
"It is respectfully recommended that the sum of three thousand dollars
(3,000.00) be appropriated for this purpose, by the Legislature."

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 279

The following was received from the Secretary of the Okla-
homa Live Stock Sanitary Commission:
Your communication of the 15th inst. has been referred to this office for
reply, and in answer I will quote section 14, chapter 31, of the Statutes of Okla-
homa for 1897, governing inspection and disposition of equine stock. I also en-
close copy of our Quarantine proclamation governing the movement of stock to
and within the Territory of Oklahoma. I will further add that as the law re-
quires the Sanitary Board to audit all claims for diseased stock killed, we have
taken this stand: that a horse affected with glanders, or maladie du coit, is prac-
tically worthless, and do not allow to exceed $10.00 for anysuch horse destroyed.
"Section 14 is as follows:
"' SECTION 14. Whenever any live stock within this Territory shall be
found by the Live Stock Inspectors to be affected with rinderpest, foot-and-mouth
disease, glanders, naldie ,iu coit, or contagious pleuro-pneumonia, he shall sum-
mon three disinterested householders and cause said stock so affected to be ap-
praised, which appraisement shall be upon the value of the stock at that time.
He shall then kill said stock, and dispose of the carcasses thereof in such man-
ner as will, in his judgment, best protect the health of the domestic animals of
that locality. The Inspector shall forward his report of animals killed, dis-
ease with which affected, name of owner, and the appraiser's certificate to the
secretary of the Live Stock Sanitary Commission. The said Commission shall
audit the account, if correct, and forward the voucher to the Auditor of the Ter-
ritory, who shall draw his warrant upon the Territorial Treasurer for the amount,
and who shall pay the same out of the general funds of said Territory. Pro-
vided, however, That if said stock contracted the disease from without the Terri-
tory, or if the owner thereof has violated any quarantine regulations of the Terri-
tory, or of the United States Government, or if he became the owner thereof
with the knowledge that said stock was affected with said disease, the Territory
shall not be liable for the value thereof.' "
The State Veterinarian of Oregon sent the following reply:
"Our law reads, that in case of a supposed contagious or infectious disease
arising in any locality, the Stock Inspector of that county shall- be sent for, and,
if he is not satisfied with the case, he shall send for the State Veterinarian,
who shall go at once, and, if he finds a contagious or infectious disease present,
he shall quarantine the same and report to the Board of Oregon Domestic Ani-
mal Commissioners, who, in turn, will have the animal killed and a warrant
drawn upon the State Treasurer for the appraisal amount and the owner paid."
The section of the law under which the Pennsylvania State
Live Stock Sanitary Board operates, in part says, when dealing
with glanders:
"SECTION 3. That when it shall be deemed necessary to condemn and kill
any animal or animals to prevent the further spread of disease, and an agree-
ment cannot be made with the owners for the value thereof, three appraisers
shall be appointed, one by the owner, one by the Commission or its authorized
agent, and the third by the two so appointed, who shall, under oath or affrma-

280 Bulletin No. 77

tion, appraise the animal or animals, taking into consideration their actual value
and condition at the time of appraisement, and such appraised price shall be
paid in the same manner as other expenses under this act are provided for; Pro-
vided, That under such appraisement not more than twenty-five dollars shall be
paid for any infected animal of grade or common stock, and not more than fifty
dollars for any infected animal of registered stock, nor more than forty dollars
for any horse or mule of common or grade stock and not to exceed fifty per
cent. of the appraised value of any standard bred, registered or imported horses."
A member of the Texas Live Stock Sanitary Commission
writes as follows:
"Replying to your inquiry regarding the reimbursing of owners of infected
domestic stock that are killed by reason of such infection, will say: Under our
law the owner or person in charge of horses, who suspects or believes or is in-
formed that such horse or horses are affected with glanders, shall report same
to the sheriff of his county, and the county judge shall thereupon appoint three
persons to examine such animals, and, if found with glanders, the same shall be
killed and the County Commissioners' Court shall allow as compensation for such
animal the value as appraised by the said committee appointed by the county
judge as aforesaid. Since this Commission was organized we generally send the
veterinarian of our Commission to examine and determine disease, and, if found
with glanders, he orders it killed, and the owner can then file his claim with
the Commissioners' Court of his county for allowance, and if the court is not
satisfied with the same they allow what they think is right.
"It is my opinion, based on experience and observation, that each county
should pay a just and fair sum for the animals killed (by authority). Where
this is not done the parties will hide the matter from the officers and neighbors
until they can sell or trade the animal off to some traveler, who then scatters
the disease."
The following is copied from "The Veterinary Laws" of
"In case of an infectious or contagious disease of a malignant or fatal
nature, such as rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, pleuro-pneumonia, anthrax
and Texas fever among bovines, glanders among equines, anthrax in sheep, and
other diseases of a like nature or fatal tendency shall become or there is good
reason to believe that either of them will become prevalent in the community
in which any such disease exists the State Veterinarion may, if in his judgment
it shall be necessary, order any diseased animal or animals or any which have
been exposed to an infectious or contagious disease to be slaughtered. In mak-
ing appraisement of a diseased animal the appraisers shall determine its value
in the condition in which it is at that time; but the appraised value of a horse
afflicted with glanders shall in no case exceed fifty dollars. The slaughter of
animals which have been so appraised shall be made under the direction of the
local health officer or chairman of the board.

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 281

"All claims against the State arising from the slaughter of animals as
above provided shall be made by filing with the Secretary of State a copy of the
State Veterinarian's notice to the justice of the peace and the return of the ap-
praisers to the justice, which notice and return shall be certified by him. The
Secretary of State shall examine these, and if satisfied that the amount awarded
is just and that the owner of the animals slaughtered is entitled to indemnity,
shall issue his warrant for two-thirds of the sum named in such return; but if
he shall have reason to believe that the appraised value is greater than the real
value of such animals he shall pay such owner such less sum as he shall deem
just; provided, that the right to indemnity shall not exist nor shall payment be
made in either of the following cases:
"1. For animals owned by the United States, this State, or any county,
city, town or village in this State.
"2. For animals brought into this State contrary to the provisions of sec-
tion 1491 or the preceding section, or where the owner of the animal or person
claiming compensation has failed to comply with the provisions of section 1492b
or of the preceding section.
"3. When the owner or claimant, at the time of coming into possession of
the animal, knew it to be afflicted with a contagious or infectious disease.
"4. When the animal slaughtered was diseased at the time of its arrival
in this State.
5. When the owner shall have been guilty of negligence or has wilfully
exposed such animal to the influence of a contagious or infectious disease."
The following, though dated March, 19ol, may yet be in
force, as it was received in September, 1904:

"HAVANA, March 6, 1901.
"The Military Governor of Cuba, upon the recommendation of the Secre-
tary of State and Government, directs the publication of the following regula-
tions for the information and guidance of all concerned.
"Assistant Adjutant General.

"First-From the publication of these Regulations in the Official Gazette,
the Commission appointed by Order No. 52, from these Headquarters, dated
February 11th, of the present year, shall be the competent authority to finally
decide without appeal, all cases and questions relating to glanders and tubercu-
losis in cattle, and the Boards of Health, sanitary employees and organizations
of Havana, municipal as well as provincial, shall be under the direction of the
aforementioned Special Commission.
"Second-The inspection of the stables for all kind of cattle existing in
the city of Havana and of the ranches situated in the province of the same name,
shall be made by order and under the direction of the Commission; said Com-

282 Bulletin No. 77

mission shall name the necessary personnel for the strict compliance with these
". Third-Stables for all kinds of cattle and industrial establishments using
horses or mules, shall be obliged to employ a veterinary surgeon who shall be
accountable for the sanitary condition of the cattle.
"Fourth-All horses having nasal discharges or cutaneous ulcers, shall be
considered as being glanders suspects, and shall be placed at the disposal of the
Commission or its delegates, until the disease is properly diagnosed.
"Fifth-The same methods shall be observed with the milch cows which
may be suspected to be suffering from tuberculosis.
"Sixth-On the confirmation of the diagnosis made by the veterinary sur-
geons appointed by the Commission of existence of glanders or tuberculosis in
an animal, the same shall be immediately killed and cremated.
"Seventh-In the case mentioned in the preceding article, the owners shall
be paid one-half of the amount at which the Commission or its delegates may have
valued the animal killed; it being understood that only those willingly pre-
senting animals which may be suspects or are actually suffering from those dis-
eases, shall be entitled to said indemnity.
Eighth-Those persons having in their stables, industrial establishments,
rural properties or private residences, animals suspected or actually suffering
from the said diseases shall be fined from $10 to $100 United States currency,
at the discretion of the Commission. These fines shall be paid by the owners
of animals and the veterinary surgeons professionally in charge of said animals,
each paying one-half of the amount of the fine.
"Ninth-A period of eight days, from the publication of these rules and
regulations, will be granted to those owning or having horses, mules or neat
cattle of any kind, or goats, in the city of Havana, within which to report the san-
itary condition of their animals, said report to be certified to by a veterinary sur-
geon. At the end of said period a register will be opened at the offices of the
Commission, where such animals as may be considered to be in good healthy con-
dition shall be registered.
"Tenth-The owners of stables of all kinds shall not bring into their
places any new animal without first announcing the fact to the Commission for
the purpose of the proper inscription of such animal, under a penalty of from
$10 to $100, at the discretion of the Commission, the owners also being obliged,
under the same penalty, to report the deaths and removal of the animals.
Eleventh-The owners of stables of all kinds shall also be obliged to
report the number of animals they may have at pasture, as well as to state the
causes of their being pastured, giving the name of the property at which the
animals may be found.
"Twelfth-The same penalty specified in the tenth rule shall be imposed
upon the owners of country property, who may take to pasture therein, horses
suffering from glanders and cows suffering from tuberculosis; unless, within eight
days from the publication of this rule, they give notice to the Commission of
animals suspected of, and actually suffering from said diseases; and within twenty-
four hours of diseases or suspected eases that may occur thereafter.

Equine Glanders and Its Eradication 283

"Thirteenth-It shall be the duty of the rural guards to demand the san-
itary certificate of any animal whatsoever that may be sent to pasture, which
certificate shall be issued by the Commission.
"Fourteenth-All persons giving notice to this board of the existenceof
an animal suffering from glanders, or of any cow suffering from tuberculosis,
shall receive a compensation of $5, United States currency, provided that said
cases be confirmed.
"Fifteenth-All expenses whatsoever incurred by this Commission shell
be charged to the State, and the services thereof shall be absolutely free to the
owners of animals.
"Sixteenth-The maximum price to be paid for such animals as may be
killed shall be $200, United States currency, for each horse, and $75 for each cow.
"Seventeenth-All owners of stables having horses or cows shall con-
spicuously post these rules in their establishment."

The matter of indemnity for condemned animals is, in many
States, left to the discretion of the Live Stock Sanitary Boards.
In many States the law only provides paying for cattle destroyed
because of their being afflicted with tuberculosis, or consumption.
In several States it is specifically stated in the Live-Stock Laws
that no indemnity will be paid for glandered animals destroyed
by sanitary officials. The views held by many in regard tdin-"- '
demnities for glandered animals are expressed in the following:
"This State does not indemnify owners for animals destroyed because of
communicable diseases.
"It is not good policy to indemnify owners in one State, unless the sur-
rounding States do the same; for the reason that diseased animals are brought
into the State paying the indemnity from the States that pay no indemnity.
When a Territory, Dakota (this was before division) indemnified the owners
of animals destroyed because of communicable diseases, the Territory became
the 'dumping ground of glandered horses from the surrounding States."

The following publications of the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion are available for free distribution, and may be secured by
addressing the director of the Experiment Station, University of
Florida, Lake City, Fla.:
22 Fertilizers..... .................pp. p48 55 Feeding With Florida Feed
24 Annual Report .................. 32 Stuffs............... ....... pp. 95
25 Leeches and Leeching......... 17 56 The Cottony Cushion Scale..... 48
26 Big Head....................... 19 57 Top-working of Pecans........ 124
27 Pineapple........................ 14 58 Pomelos.......................... 43
28 Liver Fluke-Southern Cattle 59 Cauliflower....................... 20
Fever........................... 15 60 Velvet Beans................... 24
29 The San Jose Scale.............. 28 61 Two Peach Scales............. 32
30 The Culture of Tobacco........ 28 62 Peen-to Peach Group.......... 22
32 Cotton and Its Cultivation.... 4 63 Packing Citrus Fruits........... Folio
33 Orange Groves................... 33 64 Texas Fever and Salt Sick..... pp. 31
34 Insect Enemies................. 96 65 The Kumquats................... 14
36 Insects Injurious to Grain...... 31 66 The Mandarin Orange Group.. 32
37 Pineapple.......................... 15 67 The White Fly................... 94
38 Tobacco in Florida.............. 63 68 Pineapple Culture. I. Soils... 35
39 Strawberries..................... 48 69 Cultivation of Citrus Groves.. 30
40 The Fall Army Worm............... 8 70 Pineapple Culture. II. Va-
41 The San Jose Scale............. 30 rieties......................... 32
42 Some Strawberry Insects....... 55 71 Japanese Persimmons........... 48
43 A Chemical Study of Some 72 Feeding Horses and Mules on
Typical Florida Soils........ "128 Home-Grown Feed-Stuffs.... 16
51 Some Common Florida Scales.. 24 73 The Honey Peach Group....... 20
52 Baking Powders................. 15 74 Anthracnose of the Pomelo... 20
53 Some Citrus Troubles.......... 35 75 Potato Diseases................. 16
54 Pecan Culture.................. 31 76 Insecticides and Fungicides... 44

1 Directions for Preparation of Bor- 26 Lunpy Jaw.
deaux Mixture. 27 Cover Crops.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Agriculture. 28 Mooi Blindness.
3 Seed Testing. 29 Food Adulteration.
4 'Ith.' t l;.. Fly. 30 Dehorning Cattle.
5 Ba;;c s g. 31 Coffee.
6 Nar-ery Inspection (part I). 32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
7 Nursery Inspection (part II). 33 Red Soldier Bug or Cotton Stainer.
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Harvested in 34 Ox Warbles.
the Spring and Held for Fall Plant- 35 Butter.
ing. 36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
9 Sore Head. 37 Velvet Bean.
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot. 38 Practical Results of Texas Fever Inoc-
11 Vinegar. ulations.
12 Seed Beds and Their Management. 39 Lung Worms in Swine.
13 Treatment for San Jose Scale. 40 and 41 Glanders.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava. 42 Food Adulterations-Spices and Con-
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests. diments.
17 Preservatives in Canned Goods. 43 How to Feed a Horse.
18 Can* Jupe Blight. 44 Tree Planting.
19 Cut Worms. 45 The Sugar Cane Borer.
20 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. 46 Selecting Seed Corn.
21 Parturient Paralysis. 47 The Rabid Dog.
22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer. 48 Adulterated Drugs and Chemicals.
23 Protection Against Drought. 49 Saw Palmetto Ashes.
24 Orange Mites. 50 Insect Pests to Live Stock.
25 Roup.

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