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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Effects of size and spacing of whole and cut seed on yields and returns from sebago potatoes at Hastings, Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Effects of size and spacing of whole and cut seed on yields and returns from sebago potatoes at Hastings, Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 24 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCubbin, E. N
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1955
Copyright Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Potatoes -- Spacing -- Florida -- Hastings   ( lcsh )
Potatoes -- Seeds -- Florida -- Hastings.   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 22-23).
Statement of Responsibility: E.N. McCubbin.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "A contribution from the Potatoes Investigations Laboratory."
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN7453
oclc - 18277470
alephbibnum - 000926753

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Bulletin 556 January 1955



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(A Contribution from the Potato Investigations Laboratory)










Effects of Size and Spacing of Whole and

Cut Seed on Yields and Returns from

Sebago Potatoes at Hastings, Florida



E. N. McCUBBIN
Horticulturist, Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings












Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


















CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION ............------ ........... -.....-............... 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS ----...........--.......---...----.........-....-- ...-- 3

RESULTS OF TESTS WITH CUT SEED FROM 1943 TO 1946 ......................-........ 4

Yields -------- --....-......... .......-----.------.-....-----......-- 4

Percentage of U. S. 1A Potatoes ......... .......--------..----.......... 5

Returns .......-- ..-----.--..----- .......-..--..--------------------- ......... 8

RESULTS OF TESTS WITH WHOLE AND CUT SEED FROM 1949 TO 1953 ........ 10

Yields ... ..--.---.... .....--------------------- --...------------- ..--....-- 10

Percentage of U. S. 1A Potatoes ...------- -.......-- ---- ...-- ........... 13

Number and Weight of Tubers per Plot ............. ....---..--------...... 13

Returns ....---......---.....-.--. -....-...-... --....-- .....------..--.--..---.... 18

SIZE AND SPACING OF CUT SEED IN RELATION TO TOTAL YIELDS
AND RETURNS FROM 1943 To 1953 .........---.......-- ---.-------...--.... 18

DISCUSSION ...............--.-- ... ........------------ ...------ .....---.. .. ....... 19

SUMMARY .-----------.......-.....-----..---------...-......-................ ---... --...---..----......... 21

RECOMMENDATIONS ........ ---------.....-- .. ----......... -- --..................--- ........ 22

LITERATURE CITED ...........----- ..... -- ......- ---------- ......---..---...-- ---- ...--.-- ..... 22

APPENDIX ........------... --......------ ....---- ---- ---------...... ---.. .. -...--- ..... 23










EFFECTS OF SIZE AND SPACING OF WHOLE AND CUT
SEED ON YIELDS AND RETURNS FROM SEBAGO
POTATOES AT HASTINGS, FLORIDA

E. N. MCCUBBIN 1

INTRODUCTION
Effects of size and spacing of whole seed tubers and cut seed
pieces on yields of potatoes has been studied by numerous work-
ers (10)2. These studies show that potato yields from whole
and cut seed are approximately the same when both types of
seed are equal in size and planted at the same spacing (5, 8).
Experiments on size of seed indicate that the potato plant is
more vigorous, has more stems and tubers per hill and produces
a larger total yield as size of the seed is increased (1, 4, 5).
Data for different seed spacings show that the number of tubers
and total yield per unit area of land increases as seed of a
given size are spaced closer in the row, but the tubers of the
new crop are smaller. However, yields of U. S: 1 potatoes from
seed of different sizes or from planting seed of a given size at
different spacings appear to be dependent on season, locality,
variety, soil fertility and other factors.
Tests were conducted at the Potato Investigations Laboratory,
Hastings, Florida, from 1943 to 1953 to determine the best size
and spacing of whole and cut seed for the production of Sebago
potatoes. Results are reported in this bulletin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cut seed pieces weighing 1, 11/3 and 2 ounces each were
planted 14, 12, 10, 8 and 6 inches apart in the row from 1943
to 1946. Whole and cut seed of these sizes were planted 12,
10 and 8 inches apart in 1949, 1950, 1952 and 1953. Certified
Sebago seed potatoes were used in all tests. They were grown
in Bladen fine sand and loamy fine sand in single-row plots 25

1 The author wishes to thank R. H. Sharpe, assistant horticulturist, Main
Station, for assistance in the statistical analysis of the average yield data
in Tables 1 and 2 and Stanley M. Burrell, formerly laboratory assistant,
Potato Investigations Laboratory, for assistance in conducting the tests.
2 Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.







4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

feet in length and 40 inches apart. Each treatment was repli-
cated 5 to 8 times during the different years. The plots were
fertilized with a ton of 5-7-5 fertilizer per acre in tests made
from 1943 to 1946 and with 2,200 to 2,400 pounds per acre of a
5-7-5, 5-7-6 or 6-8-8 fertilizer during the other years. The fer-
tilizer was applied in bands approximately 6.5 inches apart in
the row immediately before planting. The seed were planted
by hand in a furrow between the fertilizer bands and covered
with 3 to 4 inches of soil.
The potatoes were planted in January, cultivated and dusted
or sprayed in accordance with current recommended practices
for commercial production, irrigated when necessary and dug
in April or May each year. The weights of U. S. 1A and 1B
tubers,3 graded for size only, were recorded each of the 8 years.
The number of tubers produced per plot also was recorded 3
years.
Freezes in February and March 1943 killed the tops and stems
of potato plants to 2 inches below the soil surface. New sprouts
grew from uninjured parts of the stems and seed pieces and
the new plants produced average yields. Excessive rainfall in
March and April-1944 killed the plants two to three weeks be-
fore the end of the growing season and reduced yields. Yields
of potatoes were normal or above in the other years.

RESULTS OF TESTS WITH CUT SEED FROM
1943 TO 1946
Yields.-Total yields of U. S. 1A and 1B size potatoes ob-
tained from 1943 to 1946 with 3 sizes of cut seed at 5 spacing
distances in the row are shown in Table 1. The yield generally
increased each year with size of the cut seed planted and as
seed of a given size were spaced closer together in the row to
8 inches. The rate of increase resulting from the use of larger
seed and closer spacing was highest in 1945 and 1946 when
growing conditions were very favorable and lowest in 1944
when excessive rainfall killed the plants before the end of
the growing season. In 1943 and 1944 the 1-ounce seed piece

Current USDA grade standard for sizes of potatoes, June 1, 1942,
are as follows: In U. S. 1A size round type potatoes, 60% of the lot shall
have a minimum diameter of 21 inches or larger and 40% of the lot may
have a minimum diameter of 1% inches; there being a tolerance of 3% for
undersize tubers. U. S. 1B size potatoes shall have a diameter of 11% to 2
inches with a tolerance of 15% for over size tubers; undersize tubers shall
not exceed 3% of the lot.







Effects of Whole and CuL Seed Potatoes on Yield 5

spaced 8 inches yielded as much or more than the 1-ounce
seed piece spaced at 6 inches. In 1945 the 11/2-ounce seed pieces
spaced 8 inches yielded slightly more than this seed size at
the 6-inch spacing. Likewise in 1943 the 2-ounce seed spaced
8 inches apart yielded more than the same size seed piece
spaced only 6 inches apart. None of these yearly differences
in yield, however, was statistically significant, which indicates
that spacing either of the sizes of cut seed 8 inches apart in
the row would result in a yield as good as spacing them 6 inches.
For the four-year period average total yields for all three sizes
of cut seed at spacings of 14, 12, 10, 8 and 6 inches in the row
were 126, 132, 141, 157 and 163 100-pound sacks per acre, re-
spectively, as shown in Table 1. The yield from the 6-inch
spacing would generally be only a small average (6 sacks per
acre) increase over the 8-inch spacing.
Total yields for the 4-year period in which the 5 spacing dis-
tances were averaged were 123, 145 and 164 sacks per acre
for the 1, 11/2 and 2 ounce seed sizes, respectively, as shown in
Table 1. These differences indicate that the yields increased
significantly as size of the seed was increased from 1 to 2 ounces.
Increases in yield of U. S. 1A potatoes were obtained by
planting larger cut seed and spacing the cut seed of a given
size to 8 inches in the row, as shown in Table 2. Chucka et al
(5) reported increased yields of U. S. 1 potatoes 4 from using
larger seed; and Smith, Hommel and Kelley (9) obtained in-
creased yields of U. S. 1 potatoes by planting larger seed and
spacing seed of a given size closer in the row, particularly with
the Sebago.
Percentage of U. S. 1A Potatoes.-The percentage of the crop
which graded U. S. 1A size was lower in 1944, when growing
conditions were unfavorable, than in 1945 and 1946, when grow-
ing conditions were favorable, Table 3. However, each year the
percentage of the crop which graded U. S. 1A size generally
decreased as size of cut seed was increased and as seed of a
given size were spaced closer in the row. The portion of the
4-year average yield which graded U. S. 1A from cut seed
weighing 1, 11/2 and 2 ounces each at 5 spacing distances in the
row averaged 87, 86 and 85 percent, respectively. In the same
tests the portion of total yield which graded U. S. 1A for all
SCurrent USDA grade standard for sizes of potatoes, June 1, 1942, are
as follows: U. S. 1 size round type potatoes shall consist of tubers with a
minimum diameter of not less than 1%/ inches; there being a tolerance of
3% for undersize tubers.
N







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

three sizes of cut seed at spacings of 14, 12, 10, 8 and 6 inches
averaged 89, 87, 87, 85 and 83 percent, respectively.

TABLE 1.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF CUT SEED ON TOTAL YIELDS
OF POTATOES FROM 1943 TO 1946.*

Seed Seed 100-pound Sacks U. S. 1A and 1B Potatoes per Acre
Size Spacing I
Ounces Inches 1943 1944 1945 1946 Average

6 168 97 136 177 145
8 168 111 129 163 143
1.0 10 143 83 117 143 122
12 130 79 108 109 107
14 120 76 96 105 99

6 172 113 152 204 161
8 156 101 155 195 152
1.5 10 155 97 135 185 143
12 158 95 121 166 135
14 145 93 126 166 132

6 211 122 165 238 184
8 219 110 157 219 176
2.0 10 189 97 147 203 159
12 168 100 154 193 154
14 160 94 152 182 147

LSD at .05 level 22 15 14 17 10

6 184 111 151 206 163
Average 8 181 107 147 192 157
of 10 162 92 133 177 141
3 sizes 12 152 91 128 156 132
14 142 88 125 151 126

LSD at .05 level 13 9 8 10 6

1.0 Average 146 89 117 139 123
1.5 of 5 157 100 138 183 145
2.0 spacings [ 189 105 155 207 164

LSD at .05 level 10 7 6 8 4
Eight replicates of each grown in 25-foot single-row plots 40 inches apart.

As shown in Tables 1 and 2, total yield and yield of U. S. 1A
potatoes increased as size of the cut seed increased and as cut
seed of a given size were spaced closer in the row to 8 inches.
The percentage of the crop which graded U. S. 1A size, how-
ever, decreased with larger seed and closer spacing, Table 3.








Effects of Whole and Cut Seed Potatoes on Yield 7

Average size of the potatoes grown from large seed or from
seed spaced closer in the row was lower than for potatoes grown
from small seed or from seed spaced farther apart in the row.
Thus, part of the increased yield obtained by planting larger
seed and by spacing the seed closer in the row was in potatoes
smaller than U. S. 1A size. Bates (1), Chucka et al (5) and
Wakankar (12) have reported similar results.

TABLE 2.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF CUT SEED ON YIELDS OF U. S.
1A POTATOES FROM 1943 TO 1946.*

Seed Seed I 100-pound Sacks U. S. 1A Potatoes per Acre
Size Spacing I
Ounces Inches' 1943 1944 1945 1946 Average

6 144 64 123 159 123
8 148 80 118 148 124
1.0 10 128 61 109 130 107
12 116 57 101 98 93
14 107 57 92 97 88

6 143 74 133 177 132
8 129 68 138 173 127
1.5 10 135 69 123 170 124
12 142 68 111 150 118
14 129 70 118 154 117

6 170 80 141 204 149
8 186 75 139 189 147
2.0 10 163 65 133 178 135
12 143 72 143 173 133
14 142 70 141 167 130

LSD at .05 level 21 13 15 16 8

6 152 73 132 180 135
Average 8 154 74 132 170 133
of 10 142 1 65 122 159 122
3 sizes 12 134 66 118 140 115
14 126 66 117 139 112

LSD at .05 level 12 7 8 9 5

1.0 Average 129 64 109 126 107
1.5 of 5 136 70 124 165 124
2.0 spacings 161 72 139 182 139

LSD at .05 level 9 6 7 7 4

Eight replicates of each grown in 25-foot single-row plots 40 inches apart.








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 3.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF CUT SEED ON PERCENTAGE OF
U. S. 1A POTATOES FROM 1943 TO 1946.

Seed Seed Percentage of U. S. 1A Size Tubers
Size Spacing
Ounces Inches 1943 1944 1945 1946 Average

6 86 66 90 90 85
8 88 72 92 91 87
1.0 10 90 74 93 91 88
12 89 72 94 90 87
14 89 75 96 92 89

6 83 66 88 87 82
8 83 67 89 89 84
1.5 10 87 71 91 92 87
12 90 72 92 90 87
14 89 75 94 93 89

6 81 66 86 86 81
8 85 68 89 86 84
2.0 10 86 67 91 88 85
12 85 72 93 90 86
14 89 75 93 92 88

6 83 66 88 88 83
Average 8 85 69 90 89 85
of 10 88 71 92 90 87
3 sizes 12 88 1 72 93 90 87
14 89 75 94 92 89

1.0 Average 88 72 93 91 87
1.5 of 5 86 70 91 90 86
2.0 spacings 85 70 90 88 85

Returns.-Use of larger seed and planting seed of a given size
closer in the row requires more seed per acre, and a larger crop
requires additional harvesting and marketing costs. Therefore,
the question arises as to whether or not increased yields ob-
tained by using this method are profitable. Data on amount of
seed used per acre and returns on the potatoes produced per
acre less costs of the seed and cutting the seed, harvesting
and marketing the crop are presented in Table 4. Seed costs
and the harvesting and marketing cost figures used in these
calculations were reported for the Hastings area by Brooke
and Spurlock (2, 3). An average F.O.B. selling price of U. S.
1A and 1B potatoes at Hastings from 1944 to 1953, inclusive,
was determined from summary sheets of the Federal-State
Marketing News Service (see appendix).
The increased yields secured by planting larger seed usually
offset the increased seed, harvesting and marketing costs. Re-
turns above specified expenses on total yields produced from





TABLE 4.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF CUT SEED ON YIELDS AND RETURNS FROM POTATOES GROWN FROM 1943 TO 1946.

Seed Seed Seed Average Yield Costs per Acre Returns per Acre
Size Spacing per per Acre Seed & Digging, I Above
Ounces Inches Acre Cutting Handling & Gross t Specified
100-lbs. U. S. 1A U. S. 1B Seed Selling ** 1I Expenses f
100-lbs. 100-lbs. Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars

6 16.4 123 22 73.05 133.98 515.42 308
8 12.3 124 19 54.78 132.13 511.64 325
1.0 10 9.8 107 15 43.65 112.73 437.98 282
12 8.2 93 14 36.52 98.87 383.10 248
14 7.0 88 11 31.18 91.48 356.84 234


6 24.6 132 29 109.57 148.76 566.76 308
8 18.5 127 25 82.40 140.45 537.98 315
1.5 10 14.7 124 19 65.47 132.13 511.64 314 M
12 12.3 118 17 54.78 124.74 484.16 305
14 10.5 117 15 46.77 121.97 475.38 307


6 32.8 149 35 146.09 170.02 645.46 329
8 24.6 147 29 109.57 162.62 622.86 351
2.0 10 19.6 135 24 87.30 146.92 565.38 331
12 16.4 133 21 73.05 142.30 550.34 335
14 14.0 130 17 62.36 135.83 529.04 331


6 24.6 135 28 109.57 150.61 575.46 315
Average 8 18.5 133 24 82.40 145.07 557.90 330
of 10 14.7 122 19 65.47 130.28 504.16 308
3 sizes 12 12.3 115 17 54.78- 121.97 472.94 296
14 10.5 112 14 46.77 116.42 454.16 291


1.0 Average 10.74 107 16 47.84 113.65 440.48 279
1.5 of 5 16.12 124 21 71.80 133.98 516.68 311
2.0 spacings 21.48 3 139 25 95.67 151.54 582.86 336

$4.454 per hundred-pound sack, estimated average cost of seed including $0.244 for cutting, 1947-1952.
** $0.924 per hundred-pound pack, average cost of picking-up, hauling, grading, packaging and selling potatoes, 1947-1952.
S$3.74 and $2.52 per hundred-pound sack, average F.O.B. price for U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes at Hastings, 1944 to 1953 inclusive (see appendix).
t Returns after substracting seed, picking-up, hauling, grading, packaging and selling costs.
Cost figures and ** supplied by D. L. Brooke and A. H. Spurlock, Department of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

seed weighing 1, 11/2 and 2 ounces each at five spacing distances
in the row averaged $279, $311 and $336 an acre, respectively.
Increased yields obtained by Chucka et al (5) in Maine from
larger seed at a constant spacing of 9 inches in the row also
more than paid the extra seed and harvesting costs.
Increases in yield obtained by planting cut seed weighing 1,
1 and 2 ounces closer in the row from 14 to 8 inches also
proved profitable, as indicated in Table 4. Increased yields pro-
duced by planting these sizes of cut seed as close as 6 inches in
the row were not as profitable as planting them 8 inches. Re-
turns above specified expenses on total yields secured at spac-
ings of 14, 12, 10, 8 and 6 inches in the row for all 3 sizes of
cut seed averaged $291, $296, $308, $330 and $315 an acre, re-
spectively. Houghland and Parker (6) found that increased
yields of prime Irish Cobbler potatoes from planting 1-ounce seed
closer in the row from 18 to 10 inches were not always profitable
after deducting the extra seed costs.
On the basis of the 4-year average total yields and the cost-
price figures in Table 4, lowest returns were obtained from use
of the smallest (1-ounce) cut seed at the widest (14-inch) spac-
ing. Largest returns were secured from use of the largest
(2-ounce) cut seed at the 8-inch spacing. Spacing 2-ounce seed
6 inches in the row proved less profitable than spacing it 8
inches.

RESULTS OF TESTS WITH WHOLE AND CUT SEED
FROM 1949 TO 1953
Tests made in 1949, 1950, 1952 and 1953 included whole and
cut seed weighing 1, 11 and 2 ounces each at spacings of 12, 10
and 8 inches in the row.
Yields.-Total yields of potatoes increased consistently each
year, except in 1952, with size of the whole and cut seed used
and as the whole and cut seed of a given size were spaced closer
in the row. However, increases in yield were not always sig-
nificant, Table 5. The 11/-ounce whole and cut seed tended to
outyield the 2-ounce whole and cut seed in 1952, but differ-
ences in yields were not significant.
Total yields for the two types of seed weighing 1, 11/ and
2 ounces each at all three distances in the row averaged 161,
221 and 228 hundred-pound sacks per acre, respectively. Total
yields for 2 sizes and 2 types of seed average 211, 221 and 241








Efects of Whole and Cut Seed Potatoes on Yield 11

TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF WHOLE AND CUT SEED ON TOTAL
YIELDS OF POTATOES FROM 1949 TO 1953.*

Seed I Seed Hundred-pound Sacks of U. S. 1A and 1B
Size Spacing _Potatoes per Acre
Ounces j Inches i
S___1949 1950 1952 1953 Average

8 .-... 176 .. .. I 176 (1)**
1.0 whole 10 ..... -.... .... .....
12 .-... 159 ..... .... 159 (1)

8 -----. | 179 1 .. .. 179 (1)
1.0 cut 10 ......--- .... ---- ...... ...
12 | ...... 128 ...... 128 (1)

8 ...... ..... 282 223 253 (2)
1.5 whole 10 ....-.. ...... 232 219 226 (2)
12 I .. ...... 212 182 197 (2)

8 199 ...... 260 221 227 (3)
1.5 cut 10 187 ...... 243 206 212 (3)
12 185 ...... 244 208 212 (3)

8 231 218 266 244 240 (4)
2.0 whole 10 218 ...... 221 210 216 (3)
S 12 204 202 249 226 220 (4)

8 215 241 258 261 244 (4)
2.0 cut 10 202 ...... 246 242 230 (3)
12 198 218 225 217 215 (4)

LSD at .05 Level 24 23 43 30

Average 8 ... .... ...... ...... 241t
2 sizes & 10 ....-- ...... 221t
2 types seed 1 12 ... ... -- 211t

1.0 i Average 3 ...... ...... ..... ...... 1611
1.5 spacings & I ..... | ...... .- 221
2.0 2 types seed ...... ...... ...... .. 228
I I
Whole Average 3 ...... ..- ..... .... 211
Cut spacings & ------ ---- ..-.... --...-- .----- 206
3 sizes seed I

Based on yields of 25-foot single-row plots of each treatment replicated 5 times in
1949, 8 times in 1950 and 6 times in 1952 and 1953.
** Number of years tested.
t 1%- and 2-ounce seed only.
: Eight- and twelve-inch spacing only.








12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 6.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF WHOLE AND CUT SEED ON
YIELDS OF U. S. 1A POTATOES FROM 1949 TO 1953.*

Seed Seed Hundred-pound Sacks of U. S. 1A Potatoes
Size Spacing per Acre
Ounces Inches
1949 1950 1952 1953 Average

8 ..... 162 .... ...... 162 (1)**
1.0 whole 10 .... -
12 150 .--- -. 150 (1)


8 ...... 167 ..-.. ...... 167 (1)
1.0 cut 10
12 .... 119 ..- -- ---- 119 (1)


8 ...... ..... 269 205 237 (2)
1.5 whole 10 .... ..... 220 203 212 (2)
12 ... ...... 203 170 187 (2)


8 184 ...... 245 206 212 (3)
1.5 cut 10 175 ...... 230 195 200 (3)
12 175 ...... 232 200 202 (3)


8 210 202 249 220 220 (4)
2.0 whole 10 204 ...... 207 189 200 (3)
12 192 192 236 210 208 (4)


8 197 223 241 247 227 (4)
2.0 cut 10 186 ...... 232 227 215 (3)
i 12 187 202 214 203 202 (4)

LSD at .05 Level 26 23 42 32

Average 8 ...... ...... .. .. ...... 224t
2 sizes & 10 .-... ...... .... 207t
2 types seed 12 ...... I -- ..- 200t


1.0 Average 3 ---.. ... - ...... 1 150
1.5 spacings & ...... .... 208
2.0 2 types seed .... .... .... 212


Whole Average 3 ...... ..... ...... ..... 197
Cut spacings & .... ..... ...... ... 193
3 sizes seed

Based on yields of 25-foot single-row plots of each treatment replicated 5 times in
1949, 8 times in 1950 and 6 times in 1952 and 1953.
** Number of years tested.
t lY- and 2-ounce seed only.
t Eight- and 'twelve-inch spacing only.








Effects of Whole and Cut Seed Potatoes on Yield 13

hundred-pound sacks per acre, respectively, at spacings of 12,
10 and 8 inches in the row.
Two-ounce whole seed produced slightly larger yields in 1949
than 2-ounce cut seed at the same spacing, but differences in
yields were not significant. In other years cut seed outyielded
whole seed of the same size and spacing as frequently as whole
seed outyielded cut seed. These results agree with those of
Chucka et al (5) and LeClerg (8).
Yields of U. S. 1A size potatoes in these tests were similar
to the total yields-U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes combined, as shown'
in Table 6.
Percentage of U. S. 1A Potatoes.-As whole and cut seed of
a given size were planted closer in the row, the percent of the
resultant tubers which graded U. S. 1A size tended to decrease,
Table 7. A similar tendency occurred as size of the whole and
cut seed used was increased from 1 ounce to 2 ounces, but it
was less in these tests than in those made with cut seed from
1943 to 1946.
As shown in Table 7, the percentage of tubers from the whole
and cut seed which graded U. S. 1A size was the same when
taken as an average for all 3 sizes of seed at 3 spacing distances
in the row.
Number and Weight of Tubers per Plot.-The average num-
ber of tubers produced per plot increased each year as size of
the whole and cut seed was increased and as whole and cut seed
of a given size were spaced closer in the row. However, average
weight of the tubers decreased, Table 8.
The average number and weight of tubers produced per
plot was not affected by planting whole or cut seed of equal
size at the same spacing. As an average for the different tests
and all 3 sizes of seed at 3 spacings, the average number of
tubers produced per plot was 145 for the whole seed and 143
for the cut seed. Average weight of tubers produced per plot
on the same basis was 0.27 pounds both for whole and cut seed.
Since the number of tubers per plot increased with the use
of larger seed and closer spacing, while average weight of these
tubers decreased, it is evident that part of the increased yield
was due to the production of tubers smaller than U. S. 1A size.
Bates (1) obtained similar results and concluded that size of
the seed controls the number of stems and tubers produced per
hill and intensity of competition within hills; while seed-spacing








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF WHOLE AND CUT SEED ON
PERCENTAGE OF U. S. 1A POTATOES FROM 1949 TO 1953.*

Seed Seed Percentages of U. S. 1A Size
Size Spacing _Tubers
Ounces Inches
_1949 1950 1952 1953 Average

8 .... 92 .... ... 92 (1)**
1.0 whole 10 ..
12 .. 95 ... 94 (1)

8 .... 93 .... 93 (1)
1.0 cut 10 -.. | .. ..
12 ... 93 .... .... 93 (1)


8 .... ..- 95 92 94 (2)
1.5 whole 10 .. .... 95 93 94 (2)
12 .... .... 96 93 95 (2)

8 93 .... 94 93 93 (3)
1.5 cut 10 93 ... 95 95 94 (3)
12 95 ... 95 96 95 (3)

8 1 91 93 94 90 92 (4)
2.0 whole 10 94 .... 94 90 93 (3)
12 94 95 95 93 94 (4)
[ I _I_
8 92 92 93 95 93 (4)
2.0 cut 10 i 92 .... 94 94 93 (3)
12 95 93 95 94 95 (4)

Average 8 .... 93t
2 sizes & 10 |...... 94t
2 types seed 12 .. | 95t


1.0 Average 3 ... I .... .... .... 93$
1.5 spacings & .... .... 94
2.0 2 types seed I .. .... -.- 93

Whole Average 3 -..- .. .... 94
Cut Ispacings & .. --- 94
S3 sizes seed I

Based on yields of 25-foot single-row plots of each treatment replicated 5 times in
1949, 8 times in 1950 and 6 times in 1952 and 1958.
** Number of years tested.
? 1%- and 2-ounce seed only.
: Eight- and twelve-inch spacing only.





T r EFFECT OF ZE AND SPACjNG 0F W OLE AD CT SED ON AVERAGE UMJE AND JTEI HT POTATOES TER PLDT
"" ROn 1949 TO 1953.*

Seed Seed I
Size Spacing 1949 1950 1953 Average
Ounces Inches No. Wt. No. Wt. No. Wt. No. Wt.
SPounds I Pounds Pounds Pounds

8 .... .... 125 .28 .... ... 125 (1)" .28 (1)**
10 ... ......... ..
1.0 whole 12 ... .... 104 .30 .... .. 104 (1) .30 (1)

8 -.. .... 126 .25 ....... 126 (1) .25 (1)
1.0 cut 10 ... .......... .... .--
__12 .... .... 78 .29 .... .... 78 (1) .29 (1)

8 .... .... .... .... 166 .26 166 (1) .26 (1)
1.5 whole 10 .... .... 151 .28 151 (1) .28 (1)
__o_ 12.. .123 .28 123 (1) .28 (1)

8 166 .23 .... .... 161 .26 164 (2) .25 (2)
1.5 cut 10 145 .25 .... .... 132 .30 139 (2) .28 (2)
12 134 .26 .... .... 131 .30 133 (2) .28 (2)

8 193 .23 162 .26 192 .24 183 (3) .24 (3)
2.0 whole 10 164 .25 .... .... 166 .24 165 (2) .25 (2)
12 1144 .27 132 .30 162 .27 146 (3) .28 (3)
8 196 .21 189 .25 177 .28 187 (3) .25 (3)
2.0 cut 10 168 .23 .... .... 165 .28 167 (2) .26 (2)
12 142 .27 154 .28 146 .28 147 (3) .28 (3)

Average 8 .. ........175 .25?
2 sizes & 10 .... ... ... .. 156 .27t
2 types seed 12 .. .. __ 137t .28 ,

1.0 Average 3 ........ ...... 108 I .28t
1.5 spacings & ....... .... 146 .27
2.0 2 types seed .... .... .... ........ .... 166 .26

Whole Average 3 I .... ... .... .. I ..... 145 .27
Cut spacings & ... .... ......... 143 .27
3 sizes seed
.* Based on yields from 25-foot single-row plots of each treatment replicated 5 times in 1949, 4 times in 1950 and 6 times in 1953.
"** Number of years tested,
t 11- and 2-ounce seed only.
S Eight- and twelve-inch spacing only.





TABLE 9.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF WHOLE AND CUT SEED ON YIELDS AND RETURNS FROM POTATOES FROM 1949 TO 1953.

Seed Seed Seed Average Yield Costs per Acre Returns per Acre
Size, Spacing, per j per Acre Seed & Digging, Above
Ounces Inches Acre Cutting Handling Gross Specified
SU. S. 1A U. S. 1B Seed 1 & Selling 2Expenses
100-lbs. 100-lbs. 100-lbs. Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
8 12.3 162 (1)" 14 (1)' 54.78 162.62 641.16 424
1.0 whole 10 9.8 .... .... 43.65
12 8.2 150 (1) 9 (1) 36.52 146.92 583.68 400
8 12.3 167 (1) 12 (1) 54.78 165.40 654.82 435
1.0 cut 10 9.8 ..43.65
12 8.2 119 (1) 9 (1) 36.52 118.27 467.74 313
8 18.5 237 (2) 16 (2) 82.40 233.77 926.70 611
1.5 whole 10 14.7 212 (2) 14 (2) 65.47 208.82 828.16 554
12 12.3 187 (2) 10 (2) 54.78 182.03 724.58 488
8 18.5 212 (3) 15 (3) 82.40 209.75 830.68 539
1.5 cut 10 14.7 200 (3) 12 (3) 65.47 195.89 778.24 517
12 12.3 202 (3) 10 (3) 54.78 195.89 780.68 530
8 24.6 220 (4) 20 (4) 109.57 221.76 873.20 542
2.0 whole 10 19.6 200 (3) 16 (3) 87.30 199.58 788.32 501
12 16.4 208 (4) 12 (4) 73.05 203.28 808.16 536
8 24.6 227 (4) 17 (4) 109.57 225.46 891.82 557
2.0 cut 10 19.6 215 (3) 15 (3) 87.30 212.52 841.90 542
12 16.4 202 (4) 13 (4) 73.05 198.66 I 788.24 517
Average 2 8 18.5 224' 17" 82.40 222.68 880.60 5766
sizes & 10 14.7 2070 14' 65.47 204.20 809.46 540'
2 types 12 12.3 200' j 11" 54.78 194.96 775.72 526'
1.0 Average 3 10.1 150' 11 44.99 148.76 1 588.72 395'
1.5 Spacings 15.2 208 13 67.70 204.20 1 810.68 539
2.0 & 2 types 20.2 212 16 89.97 210.67 i 833.20 533
Whole Average 3 15.2 197 14 67.70 194.96 772.06 509
Cut Spacings 15.2 193 13 67.70 190.34 754.58 497
&_ 3 sizes _
1 $4.454 per hundred-pound sack, estimated average cost of seed including $0.244 for cutting, 1947-1952. Note: A small premium is generally
charged for small whole seed tubers (U. S. 1B) and they must be sorted to remove stones before they can be planted. Thus, the price for small whole
seed tubers was considered to be the same as that paid for U. S. 1 seed cut into seed pieces for planting.
"$0.924 per hundred-pound sack, average cost of picking-up, hauling, grading, packaging and selling potatoes, 1947-1952.
S$3.74 and $2.52 per hundred-pound sack, average F.O.B. prices for U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes at Hastings. 1943 to 1953, inclusive (see appendix).
4 Returns after subtracting seed, picking-up, hauling, grading, packaging and selling costs.
5 Number of years tested.
S 1%- and 2-ounce seed only.
SEight- and twelve-inch spaced seed only.
Cost figures 1 and 2 supplied by D. L. Brooke and A. H. Spurlock, Department of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
*r






TABLE 10.-EFFECT OF SIZE AND SPACING OF CUT SEED ON YIELDS AND RETURNS FROM POTATOES GROWN FROM 1943 TO 1953.

Seed Seed Seed Average Yield j Costs per Acre Returns per Acre
Size, Spacing, per per Acre I Seed & Digging, Above
Ounces Inches Acre Cutting Handling & Gross t Specified
U. S. 1A U. S. 1B Seed Selling ** I Expenses iz
100-lbs. 100-lbs. 100-lbs. Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
8 12.3 132 (5) 18 (5) 54.78 138.60 539.04 346
1.0 10 9.8 107 (4) 15 (4) 43.65 112.73 437.98 282
12 8.2 98 (5) 13 (5) 36.52 102.56 399.28 260

8 18.5 163 (7) 21 (7) 82.40 170.02 662.54 410
1.5 10 14.7 157 (7) 16 (7) 65.47 159.95 627.50 402
12 12.3 154 (7) 14 (7) 54.78 155.23 611.24 401

8 24.6 187 (8) 23 (8) 109.57 194.04 757.34 454
2.0 10 19.6 169 (7) 20 (7) 87.30 174.64 682.46 421 '
12 16.4 167 (8) 17 (8) 73.05 170.02 667.42 424

Average 8 18.5 161 21 82.40 167.24 655.06 405
of 3 10. 14.7 144 17 65.47 148.76 581.40 367
sizes 12 12.3 140 15 54.78 142.30 561.40 364 o
I

1.0 Average 10.1 112 15 44.99 118.27 456.68 293
1.5 of 3 15.2 158 17 67.70 161.70 633.76 404
2.0 spacings 20.2 174 20 89.97 179.26 701.16 432

$4.454 per hundred-pound sack, estimated average cost of seed including $0.244 for cutting, 1947-1952.
** $0.924 per hundred-pound sack, average cost of picking-up, hauling, -rading, packaging and selling potatoes, 1947-1952.
t $3.74 and $2.52 per hundred-pound sack, average F.O.B. price for U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes at Hastings, 1944 to 1953 inclusive (see appendix).
1 Re'urns after subtracting seed, picking-up, hauling, grading, packaging and selling costs.
SNumber of years tested.
Cost figures and ** supplied by D. L. Brooke and A. H. Spurlock, Department of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricutural Experiment Station.







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

controls the number of tubers produced per unit length of row
and intensity of competition between hills.
Returns.-Calculations in Table 9 show returns, above cost
of seed, harvesting and marketing, on the average total yields
of potatoes produced by planting 3 sizes of whole and cut seed
at 3 spacing distances in the row. Returns per acre, above
these expenses, on potatoes grown from whole and cut seed
weighing 1, 11/ and 2 ounces each at all 3 spacing distances in
the row averaged $395, $539 and $533 an acre, respectively. On
the basis of the cost-price figures used in these calculations the
11-ounce seed proved slightly more profitable than 2-ounce seed.
This was due to the fact that the former seed tended to out-
yield the latter in 1952, Table 5.
Increased yields secured by planting 3 sizes of whole and cut
seed closer in the row generally proved profitable, as indicated
in Table 9. Per-acre returns above specified expenses from
average yields of 2 sizes of whole and cut seed atrspacings of
12, 10, and 8 inches in the row averaged $526, $540 and $576,
respectively.
Returns per acre were not affected materially by planting
whole or cut seed of the same size at the same spacing. Returns
over specified expenses on total yields of all three sizes of
seed at three spacing distances in the row averaged $509 an
acre for use of the whole seed and $497 an acre for use of the
cut seed. Thus, it appears that whole seed tubers could be
used as profitably as cut seed in the production of Sebago po-
tatoes at Hastings, when both types of seed are of equal size
and planted at the same spacing.

SIZE AND SPACING OF CUT SEED IN RELATION TO
YIELDS AND RETURNS FROM 1943 TO 1953
Returns on average total yields over the seed, harvesting and
marketing costs, obtained by planting cut seed weighing, 1, 11Y
and 2 ounces each at spacings of 12, 10 and 8 inches in the row
during 4 to 8 years are shown in Table 10. The increased yield
secured by planting larger cut seed more than paid the increased
seed, harvesting and marketing costs. Returns above these
expenses on total yields produced by cut seed weighing 1, 11/
and 2 ounces each at all 3 spacing distances in the row averaged
$293, $404 and $432 an acre, respectively.
Increased yields resulting from planting 3 sizes of cut seed
closer in the row from 12 to 8 inches also proved profitable,







Effects of Whole and Cut Seed Potatoes on Yield 19

Table 10. Returns over specified expenses on total yields se-
cured at spacings of 12, 10 and 8 inches for all 3 sizes of cut
seed averaged $364, $367 and $405 an acre, respectively. On
the basis of the cost-price figures used in these calculations,
growers can realize more profit per acre by planting 2-ounce
seed than 1- or 11/-ounce seed, and by spacing the seed 8 inches
apart in the row rather than 10 or 12 inches.

DISCUSSION
Yields and returns over specified expenses which can be ex-
pected from the use of large (2-ounce) seed at an 8-inch spac-
ing are much lower in a year of unfavorable growing conditions
than in a year of more favorable conditions, Table 1. This is
due to the fact that under favorable growing conditions more
of the tubers will develop to marketable size and the yield will
be high; whereas under unfavorable growing conditions fewer
tubers will grow to marketable size and the yield will be low
(5). In 1944 excessive rainfall killed potato plants 2 to 3
weeks before the end of the growing season. This resulted in a
low yield. Thus, if Hastings growers should adopt the use of
large (2-ounce) seed and plant them 8 inches apart in the row,
good water control would be highly important.
After freezes in February and March 1943, plants from the
2-ounce seed recovered quicker from freezing injury and devel-
oped to full size earlier than those originating from smaller
seed. Kimbrough and Costa (7) have shown that potato plants
recover from simulated freezing injury and yield more when
grown from large seed than when grown from smaller seed.
Potato plants are severely damaged by freezes about once every
4 years at Hastings. Consequently, better recovery of plants
from freezing injury would be another advantage to be obtained
by the use of 2-ounce seed.
In these tests no attempt was made to control soil reaction.
It is probable that the soil pH was 5.0 or lower in some of the
experimental plots and in the light of more recent information
(11), yields may have been decreased by this factor. Likewise,
the fertilizer rate was constant for all seeding rates in any
given year and rate variations between years were relatively
small. The data presented cover only the effects of different
seeding rates on a relatively constant level of fertility. A
recognized trend in the Hastings area to applications of addi-







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tional nitrogen as side-dressing and the use of more fertilizer
of higher analyses could conceivably influence the effects of
seeding rate. However, Chucka et al (5) obtained some re-
sponse to increased amounts of fertilizer, but the effect of
season and seed spacing was more important than the quantity of
applied fertilizer. Similar results were reported by Smith,
Hommel and Kelley (9) and Houghland and Parker (6).
Whole seed yielded as much as cut seed when both were of
equal size and planted at the same spacing. Thus, it appears
that certified U. S. 1B whole seed would be as satisfactory
as cut seed when the cost of such seed and preparing it for
planting does not exceed that of U. S. 1 seed potatoes cut into
seed pieces for planting. Samples of certified U. S. 1B seed
collected at Hastings averaged about 2 ounces in size, but
some of the tubers were considerably larger. These larger
tubers should be sorted and split for planting. Small stones
have been found in sacks of U. S. 1B seed potatoes. These should
be removed before the seed are placed in the planter or they
will damage "pickers" in the planting operation. Consequently,
the cost of U. S. 1B seed may equal or exceed that of U. S. 1
seed potatoes cut into pieces for planting. LeClerg (8) found
that the stand of plants was better from whole seed than from
cut seed, particularly in wet soils. The use of whole rather
than cut seed in the Hastings area should be advantageous
when the soil is wet at planting time or when rain follows
soon thereafter.
Although some growers in the Hastings area plant 18 to
20 hundred-pound sacks of seed per acre, the average amount
of seed used is 14 to 15 sacks an acre. It is cut into pieces
weighing approximately 11/2 ounces each and spaced 10 to 12
inches apart in rows 40 inches apart. The use of 2-ounce seed
at an 8-inch spacing in rows 40 inches apart will require 24.6
sacks of seed per acre. This is approximately 60 percent more
seed than the average amount used in the area. However, in
the present tests on the basis of yields and cost-price figures
in Table 4, largest per acre returns, above the seed, harvest-
ing and marketing costs, were obtained from use of the 2-ounce
seed at the 8-inch spacing. It is recognized, of course, that if
the seed, harvesting and marketing costs were higher and the
selling price of potatoes lower than the figures used in these
calculations, use of the large (2-ounce) seed at the 8-inch spac-
ing might prove unprofitable.







Effects of Whole and Cut Seed Potatoes on Yield 21

SUMMARY
Tests were conducted from 1943 to 1953 to determine effects
of size and spacing of whole and cut seed on yields and financial
returns from Sebago potatoes at Hastings. Tests from 1943
to 1946 included replicated plantings of cut seed weighing 1,
11/2 and 2 ounces each at spacings of 14, 12, 10, 8 and 6 inches
in rows 40 inches apart. During 1949, 1950, 1952 and 1953
replicated plantings were made with whole and cut seed of
these sizes at spacings of 12, 10 and 8 inches in the row. Data
were taken each year on the yield of U. S. 1A and 1B pota-
toes, graded for size only, from the different sizes of seed
at the various spacings. Data also were obtained during 1949,
1950 and 1953 on number of tubers produced per plot from the
different sizes of whole and cut seed at the different spacings.
Results were evaluated on the basis of yields of U. S. 1A and
1B potatoes and returns for these potatoes above the seed,
harvesting and marketing costs.
Increases in yields of U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes were ob-
tained in most tests as size of the seed used was increased
from 1 to 2 ounces and as the seed of a given size were spaced
closer in the row from 14 to 8 inches. Increases in yield re-
sulting from use of the large (2-ounce) seed at the 8-inch spac-
ing more than paid the extra seed costs and the extra harvesting
and marketing costs associated with the larger yield. On the
basis of yields and cost-price figures in Table 4, the larger (2-
ounce) seed used at the 8-inch spacing showed the highest
returns per acre.
Data were obtained which indicated that as size of the seed
was increased, or as the seed of a given size were spaced closer
in the row, the number of tubers produced per plot increased;
but average weight of the tubers decreased. Thus, part of the
increased yield resulting from the use of larger seed and closer
spacing was in the production of tubers smaller in size than
U. S. 1A. This was substantiated by the fact that the percen-
tage of the crop which graded U. S. 1A size decreased as size
of the seed used was increased and as seed of a given size were
spaced closer in the row. Actual yields of U. S. 1A potatoes,
however, increased with the use of larger seed and as the seed
of a given size were spaced closer in the row to 8 inches.
Yields and returns secured from the use of whole and cut
seed were approximately the same when both types of seed
were of equal size and planted at the same spacing.







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

RECOMMENDATIONS
The quantity of seed required per acre to produce the most
profitable yields of potatoes in the Hastings area depends on
many factors and conditions, including type of soil, its natural
fertility, period of time under cultivation, pH reaction, adequacy
of drainage, timeliness and effectiveness of irrigation, mainte-
nance of organic matter through use of cover crops, kind and
amount of fertilizer used in growing the potatoes and control
of diseases and insects.
On soils which combine the best characteristics and conditions
for high potato production, it is recommended that 2-ounce seed
be planted on an 8-inch spacing in rows 40 inches apart. This
will require 24.6 hundred-pound sacks of seed per acre. Soils
more acid than pH 5.0 should be limed to pH 5.3 to 5.5 prior
to planting (11). Growers have found that the crop should
receive 2,200 to 2,500 pounds of a 6-8-8 fertilizer per acre or
its equivalent at planting time. They have found also that
enough canals, field ditches and water furrows should be pro-
vided to remove water rapidly after excessive rainfall. Potatoes
must be sprayed as needed to control early blight, late blight
and insects; and irrigated when necessary in periods of dry
weather.
On soils which are less productive because of inherent fac-
tors that render them below average in the production of
potatoes, it is recommended that the present seeding rate of
14 to 15 hundred-pound sacks of seed per acre be continued.
This will require the use of seed weighing approximately 11/3
ounces each spaced 10 to 12 inches apart in rows 40 inches apart.
Liming, fertilization, irrigation, drainage and disease and insect
control practices should be the same as those used in growing
potatoes on the better soils.
Whole U. S. 1B seed tubers may be used in place of U. S. 1
seed potatoes cut into seed pieces, when the cost of such seed
and preparing it for planting does not exceed that of the latter.

LITERATURE CITED
1. BATES, G. H. A study of the factors influencing size of potato tubers.
Jour. Agr. Sci. 25: 297-313. 1935.
2. BROOKE, D. L., and A. H. SPURLOCK. Labor and material requirements,
costs of production and returns on Florida Irish potatoes. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 472. 1950.








Effects of Whole and Cut Seed Potatoes on Yield 23

3. BROOKE, D. L. Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Agr. Econ. Mimeo-Series No. 51-8, 52-2 and
53-3.
4. BUSHNELL, JOHN. Effect of number of plants per hill on yield of
potatoes in Ohio. Amer. Potato Jour. 19(6) : 119-123. 1942.
5. CHUCKA, J. A., A. HAWKINS, B. E. BROWN and F. H. STEINMETZ. Size
of whole and cut seed and spacing in relation to potato yields.
Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 439. 1945.
6. HOUGHLAND, G. V. C., and M. M. PARKER. A study of three factors in
potato production: Row spacing, seed spacing and fertilizer rate.
Amer. Potato Jour. 25(11): 393-406. 1948.
7. KIMBROUGH, W. D., and DAVID COSTA. Effect of size of seed piece
of Irish potatoes on recovery from freezing injury. La. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 254. 1934.
8. LECLERG, E. L. Effect of whole and cut seed on stand and yield of
Irish potatoes. La. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 371. 1943.
9. SMITH, ORA, R. F. HOMMEL and W. C. KELLEY. Relation of rate and
placement of fertilizer, variety, seed spacing, and size of seed piece
to yields of potatoes. Amer. Potato Jour. 20(10): 267-277. 1943.
10. STUART, WILLIAM, P. M. LOMBARD, M. C. VOSBURY, G. CORDER, W. C.
EDMUNDSON, C. F. CLARK and G. W. DEWEY. Size of potato sets:
Comparisons of whole and cut seed. USDA Bul. 1248. 1924.
11. VOLK, G. M., and NATHAN GAMMON, JR. Effect of liming and fertiliza-
tion on yield and the correction of nutritional leaf roll of Irish po-
tatoes. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 504. 1952.
12. WAKANKAR, S. M. Influence of size of seed pieces upon the yield of
potatoes. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 36: 32-36. 1944.

APPENDIX

Daily F.O.B. prices for U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes at Hastings
for each of the potato marketing seasons 1944 to 1953, in-
clusive, were obtained from summary sheets of the Federal-
State Marketing News Service (U. S. Department of Agriculture
Production and Marketing Administration, Fruit and Vegetable
Branch, Washington, D. C.; and Florida State Marketing Bureau,
Jacksonville, Florida, cooperating). The tabulations below give
length of the marketing seasons, the seasonal range and average
F.O.B. Hastings prices for U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes, as well
as the number of days F.O.B. prices were listed for these po-
tatoes. A simple average price for each season was calculated
for the U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes. These seasonal average prices
were then averaged to obtain a 10-year average selling price for
the U. S. 1A and 1B potatoes.
















F.O.B. Hastings Prices F.O.B. Hastings Prices Q
for U. S. 1A Potatoes For U. S. lB Potatoes
Marketing Length of Marketing Season No. I No.
Season Days Range in Season Days Range in Season
Listed Price Average Listed Price Average

1944 April 6-May 10 (32 days) 27 $2.50-6.25 $3.85 12 $1.50-4.00 $2.45
1945 April 5-May 8 (30 days) 30 3.85-4.15 3.94 30 3.45-3.75 3.54
1946 April 1-May 13 (43 days) 30 3.00-4.25 3.81 27 1.20-3.50 1.98
1947 April 25-May 27 (33 days) 20 3.25-4.00 3.38 19 1.35-3.00 1.85
1948 April 5-May 19 (45 days) 28 4.00-6.25 5.02 28 2.00-4.50 2.85
1949 April 2-May 5 (34 days) 22 4.25-4.50 3.99 21 3.25-4.25 3.53
1950 April 3-May 18 (46 days) 34 2.75-3.50 3.25 25 1.50-2.75 2.24
1951 April 17-May 29 (43 days) 31 2.75-4.50 3.18 29 1.50-3.50 2.07
1952 April -May .... 3.70-4.40 4.05* 3.35-4.05 3.07*
1953 April 4-June 1 (44 days) 42 2.00-4.00 2.96 31 0.65-3.00 1.66

II ci
Total $37.43 Total $25.24 C
Ave. $ 3.74 Ave. $ 2.52

"Average of ceiling price in April and May.





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