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Title: Effect of various factors upon the ascorbic acid content of some Florida-grown mangos
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026847/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of various factors upon the ascorbic acid content of some Florida-grown mangos
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 12 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mustard, Margaret J
Lynch, S. J ( S. John )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1945
 Subjects
Subject: Mango -- Composition   ( lcsh )
Mango -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vitamin C   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 12.
Statement of Responsibility: by Margaret J. Mustard and S.J. Lynch.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026847
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925215
oclc - 18235749
notis - AEN5863

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Staff and board members
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Historic note
        Page 13
Full Text



Bulletin 406 January, 1945

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
HAROLD MOWRY, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA





EFFECT OF VARIOUS FACTORS UPON

THE ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF

SOME FLORIDA-GROWN MANGOS


By MARGARET J. MUSTARD and S. J. LYNCH


Fig. 1.-Haden mango.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


* i-
2,


*p'

I N -* .m







EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agri.
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper. M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Jefferson Thomas. Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Managers
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.. Associates
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S.. Associate
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist'1
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist'
D. A, Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel. D.V.M., Veterinarian'
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist'
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr.. Poultry Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
T. R. Freeman. Ph.D.. Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.'
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
0. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.'
J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Husb.'
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutr.
Ruth Faulds, A.B., Asst. Biochem.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 8
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Associate
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Hom ,Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associates
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon,- M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
Byron E. Janes. Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
R. J. Wilmot. M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.4
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.I., Microbiologist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk. M.S., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist4
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist4
G. T. Sims, M.S.A., Associate Chemist
J. N. Howard, B.S., Asst. Chemist
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologists
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor4
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor4


BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
M. L. Mershon, Miami
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallasassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.'
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S.. Asso. Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
CITRUS STATION. LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Chemist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist5
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S.. Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane Phys.
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S.. Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Jr.. Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.'
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
C. L. Serrano, B.S.A., Asst. Chem.
E. L. Felix, B.S.A., Asst. Plant Path.
SUB-TROPICAL STA.. HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
H. I. Borden, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
W. CENT. FLA. STA.. BROOKSVILLE
Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2
RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charges
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Hort. in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.I., Plant Pathologist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist5
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 5
Harry Armstrong, Meteorologist2

1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 In Military Service. 6 On leave.









EFFECT OF VARIOUS FACTORS UPON THE
ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF SOME
FLORIDA-GROWN MANGOS
MARGARET J. MUSTARD 1 and S. J. LYNCH 2

During recent years considerable attention has been given to
the study of the vitamin content of fruits and vegetables and to
the factors limiting and influencing the occurrence of vitamins.
The recent increased interest in vitamins A and C can partly
be attributed to the development of chemical methods of analysis
and partly to the increased emphasis on proper nutrition that
has resulted from the present national emergency. Vitamin A
is a derivative of a class of yellow-orange pigments known as
carotenoids. A moderate deficiency of vitamin A may result
in night blindness; a more serious deficiency may cause changes
in the epithelial cells, thus interfering with the proper fuction-
ing of the body. Ascorbic acid or vitamin C aids in the pre-
vention of scurvy, builds up the body's resistance to infection,
and accelerates the healing of wounds (8).3
Some of the tropical fruits, less well known in this country,
are becoming recognized as valuable sources of ascorbic acid.
In fact, a few have been found to contain considerably more
ascorbic acid than do some of the more universally recommended
fruits. The common guava (Psidium guajava L.) has been
found to contain an average of 564 mg. per 100 gms. of fruit
(10); the Ceylon-gooseberry (Dovyalis hebecarpa Warb.), 194
mg. per 100 gms. (2); and the mango (Mangifera indica L.),
as high as 114 mg. per 100 gms. (5).
The fine dessert quality of the mango recognized for some time
by the inhabitants of southern Florida is now also bringing the
fruit into favor in other sections of the country. The future of
this fruit as a commercial crop is assured by the steadily in-
creasing demands of our Northern and Eastern markets. The
principal varieties reaching the market are the highly colored
Haden of good dessert quality, which must be propagated by
vegetative means, and the small rather unattractive Apple mango
of indifferent dessert quality propagated from seed. However,
1 Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station.
2 Formerly Associate Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station.
Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited in the back of
this bulletin.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


at present over 100 named varieties are grown in 3 principal
areas of southern Florida, i.e., in Dade County on the Rockdale
Series soil; in Palm Beach and Broward counties on light sandy
soil; and in Lee and Manatee counties on heavier sands and sandy
loams. Much work remains to be done, not only in finding and
establishing the commercially profitable varieties but also in
investigating other problems related to the culture and utiliza-
tion of the fruit.
The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect
of the following factors on the ascorbic acid content of Florida-
grown mangos: (1) distribution in individual fruits; (2) degree
of maturity when picked; (3) variety; (4) seedling variation;
(5) geographical location; and (6) 2 fungicidal sprays.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The mangos used in this study were collected during the 1944
season. With the exception of those few designated otherwsie,
all fruits were picked when they were fully mature but before
they had begun to soften, which is the stage at which this fruit
is ordinarily harvested for commercial shipping. All fruits,
including those used in the maturity studies, were allowed to
ripen to the stage of edible softness at room temperature before
being sampled.
The ascorbic acid was determined by a method essentially
the same as that outlined by Heinze (3). A 25-gram sample
consisting of 2 longitudinal sections, 1 taken from each side of
the fruit, was found to give a fairly representative sample of
the edible pulp. The sample was extracted with 200 ml. of 1
percent metaphosphoric acid for 2 to 5 minutes in a Waring
Blendor. After centrifuging a portion of the extracted sample
for 5 minutes at 2,000 r.p.m., a 0.5 ml. aliquot was added to an
absorption cell containing 9 ml. of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
(16 mg. per liter), it was mixed, and then a reading was taken in
a Cenco Photolometer within 30 seconds. A small crystal of
ascorbic acid was added to complete the reduction of the dye
and a second reading was taken. The blanks consisted of 0.5
ml. of the metaphosphoric acid and 9 ml. of the dye. Corrected
readings were obtained by adding the reading for the blank to
the difference between the first reading with the sample and
the reading with the sample after the addition of the crystal of
ascorbic acid. The corrected readings were converted into milli-
grams per 100 grams of fresh fruit by reference to a calibration
curve.







Effect of Various Factors Upon Some Florida Mangos


RESULTS
Effect of Part Sampled.-Various workers have shown that
ascorbic acid is not uniformly distributed throughout an individ-
ual fruit or vegetable. Adams and Smith (1) attributed this
unequal distribution to 2 factors, namely, "selective distribu-
tion" and failure of the fruit or vegetable to mature evenly.
In selecting representative samples of the mango flesh for
analysis, it was necessary to determine the manner of distribu-
tion within the individual fruits. This problem was approached
in 2 ways. First, the flesh of each fruit of a group of 5 fruits
was divided into 3 equal transverse sections: stem end, center
and stylar end. The flesh of each fruit of another group of 5
fruits was divided into 3 equal layers: an outer layer just under
the skin, an intermediate layer and an inner layer next to the
seed. The results of these analyses are given in Table 1.
TABLE 1.-DISTRIBUTION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN THE FLESH OF THE
CAMBODIANA MANGO.

Sections of Flesh Analyzed No. of Mean S. E.
Analyses Mg./100 gm.
Stem end ............................................... 5 34.4 1.37
Center .................................................. 5 33.7 1.43
Stylar end ___ .......... ............. .... 5 34.8 2.32
Outer layer .......... .... ..... ............. 5 44.3 3.64
Intermediate layer ............................. 5 40.0 2.68
Inner layer ......... .......... .......... .............. 5 35.9 2.22

When analyzed statistically at odds of 19:1 no significant
differences were found. However, this may be due in part to the
wide variation in ascorbic acid content of the fruits selected for
this series of analyses. The flesh of each individual fruit
analyzed showed a decrease in ascorbic acid concentration with
increased distance from the skin. It was decided that the selec-
tion of a 25-gram sample consisting of 2 longitudinal sections,
1 taken from each side of the fruit, would compensate for any
differences in distribution which might occur in subsequent
fruit analyzed.
Effect of Maturity.-The effect of maturity on ascorbic acid
content has been studied by various workers. Murphy (6) has
found a decrease of ascorbic acid in onions, apples and cabbage
as they mature; in tomatoes she records a gradual increase with
increasing maturity. All the peppers analyzed by Lantz (4)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


showed an increase in ascorbic acid as they matured. Hawaiian-
grown mangos were found by Miller, Louis and Yanazawa (5)
to decrease in ascorbic acid with an increase in maturity.
Since mangos for shipping must be picked before they have
completely ripened, it seemed of value to determine the effect
of stage of maturity at time of picking upon the final ascorbic
acid content of the ripened fruit. The fruit of 1 group, desig-
nated as "ripe," were allowed to reach full color and to begin
to soften before picking; those of another group, designated as
"breaking color", were picked when they were just beginning
to break color and had not yet softened; and those of a third
group, designated as "green," were of full size but showed no
sign of breaking color. All of the fruit were allowed to ripen
to the stage of edible- ripeness before being analyzed. These
results are given in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-AscoRBIC ACID CONTENT OF HADEN MANGOS SOFTENED TO
EDIBLE RIPENESS BUT PICKED AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MATURITY.

Stage of Maturity at Picking No. of Mean S. E.
SAnalyses Mg./100 gm.
Ripe ......... ........ .............-. .......- 10 22.66 2.09
"Breaking" color ............................- .... 9 19.66 0.44
Green ...................... ................... 9 26.96 1.76


Significantly more ascorbic acid was found in fruit which was
picked green than in that picked when partly ripe, since the dif-
ference between the means (7.3) is more than twice the standard
error of difference (1.81). Although the fruit picked when
"breaking" color, the stage recommended for commercial ship-
ping, contained the least ascorbic acid, other desirable features
of fruit picked at this stage of maturity, such as better keeping
qualities and superior flavor, more than compensate for the
slightly lower vitamin content.
Effect of Variety.-As mentioned previously in this paper,
there are better than 100 named varieties of mango grown in
Florida. An attempt has been made to determine the ascorbic
acid content of some of the more common of these varieties.
Five mature fruits of each variety were picked before they
began to soften and were allowed to ripen in the laboratory
before testing. The results are shown in Table 3.








Effect of Various Factors Upon Some Florida Mangos


TABLE 3.-ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF SOME FLORIDA-GROWN MANGOS.


No. of Ascorbic Acid Content
Variety Source Analyses (mg./100 gm.)
SAverage | Range


Samini ...................
Edward ..................
A m ini ......................
Itamaraca ..............
Julie .......................
Simmonds ..............
Fascell ...................
Zill ................... ...
Cecil ......................
Sumatra ...........-...
Mulgoba ................
No. 11 ...................
No. 11 ...................
Red Cecil .............
Apple ....................
S Apple ....................
Buena Vista ..........
Fragrance ..............
Adams No. 1 ........
Harris ...............
Springfels ..............
Lambha Bhadra ....
Langra Benarse ....
Bennett .................
Ameeri .................
Gibbons .................
White Langra ......
Borsha ..................
Seedling 4-1 (Sub-
Trop. Exp. Sta.)
Sandersha .............
Lathrop ..................
Kent ......................


West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
Homestead ............
Homestead --.......
Coconut Grove ....
West Palm Beach
Homestead ............
Delray Beach ......
Homestead ............
Homestead ...........
Homestead ............
Homestead ............
Bradenton ............
Homestead ............
Homestead ............
Pine Island ..........
Homestead .........
Naples ..............
Pine Island .........
Coconut Grove ....
West Palm Beach
Coconut Grove ....
Homestead ..........
Homestead ............
Homestead ...........
Homestead .--..--....
Homestead ............
Homestead ...........-

Homestead ............
Homestead ............
Homestead ..........
Coconut Grove ...


25.6 23.1 26.5
57.4 50.9 61.9
24.2 22.5 24.7
*64.9 54.5 76.0
*52.0 48.0 58.2
28.5 25.0 31.0
36.4 31.0 41.5
14.8 12.3 16.4
44.3 39.4 48.4
25.4 20.0 31.1
27.9 24.6 31.8
'107.4 102.5 -114.2
.87.1 68.0 99.5
20.5 18.0 21.9
8.8 6.5 11.4
9.0 7.6 10.5
29.0 25.5 33.5
9.0 5.4 11.0
12.7 10.6 14.9
38.2 31.9 43.8
22.7 14.0 35.1
16.9 14.5 19.0
14.3 13.6 16.0
.50.9 46.5 61.0
36.5 32.0 39.5
72.2 63.5 79.8
,103.8 81.7 -119.7
21.6 17.5 28.5

22.3 20.4 27.0
13.4 11.8 15.1
30.6 27.0 33.4
21.0 15.0 23.0


Judging from all available literature on mango varieties, it is
quite probable that the common mango of Hawaii, referred to by
Miller and.his associates (5) as the "Manini," is the same seed-
ling type as is referred to in Florida as Number 11 and in Cuba
as "mango macho" (9). The Manini of Hawaii and the Number
11 of Dade County contain the highest recorded concentration
of ascorbic acid of any of the mango varieties analyzed to date.
The range of ascorbic acid content for the different varieties
of Florida-grown mangos is approximately the same as that for
Hawaiian-grown varieties. It is interesting to note that Hawaiian
and Florida-grown Hadens have approximately the same ascorbic
acid content.
From results in Table 3 it is evident that some of our more







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


popular dessert mangos are not among the mangos having the
highest ascorbic acid content.
Differences Among Seedlings of the Cecil Type.-It seems ad-
visable before proceeding with this discussion to differentiate
between polyembryonic seedlings and seedlings resulting from
sexual reproduction. So far as is known, all seedling races are
polyembryonic (7); that is, the seedlings produced are of vege-
tative origin arising from nucellar tissue. On the other hand,
most of the Indian varieties produce monembryonic seeds as a
result of sexual reproduction (7). The sexually produced seed-
lings are subject to all the variation associated with this type
of reproduction; polyembryonic seedlings have essentially the
same characteristics as the parent tree.
In an attempt to determine the constancy of ascorbic acid
content among poly-
embryonic seedlings,
fruit of 5 Cecil seed-
s lings (Fig. 2) grown
-(' in the same grove in
Dade County were
collected for analyses.
These fruit were all
picked before they
1' softened and allowed
to ripen in the labora-
tory before testing.
The results of these
analyses are given in
Table 4.
SThe difference in
Sascorbic acid content
among the seedlings
is not significant and
is less than is often
found among mangos
Fig. 2.-Cecil mango. from grafted trees of
-the same variety. Thus' it would seem that ascorbic acid content
is not a variable among polyembryonic seedlings.
Effect of Geographical Location.-The influence of geographi-
cal location upon the ascorbic acid content of the mango was
studied for Haden, Cambodiana and turpentine seedlings
(Figs. 1, 3, and 4). The fruit were collected from trees grown in








Effect of Various Factors Upon Some Florida Mangos 9


TABLE 4.-ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF 5 CECIL MANGO SEEDLINGS.


Seedling No. No. of Mean S. E.
Samples Mg./100 gm.

9 ............. .. ....... ............. 5 44.6 1.26
12 .................... .. ....... ...................... 5 48.4 2.08
5N ............................ .......... -- 5 48.5 1.80
1 ...... ........... ............... ..... ............ 5 46.0 2.73
3 ..................... .............................. 5 46.0 1.61



the Rockdale Series soil of Dade County; the light sandy soil of
Palm Beach and Broward counties; and the heavy sands and
sandy loams of Lee and Manatee counties. In addition to the
environmental differences, such as soil, moisture, temperature and
so forth, another factor, that of differences in degree of ma-
turity, should be considered in interpreting these results. Al-
though an attempt was made to secure fruit of the same degree
of maturity, some differences in this respect were apparent in
the fruit when it arrived for testing. The results of the analyses
are given in Table 5.


.,:


Fig. 3.-Cambodiana mango.


1



a:
t;


I
i
1

~








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION UPON THE ASCORBIC ACID
CONTENT OF MANGOS OF 3 VARIETIES.


Name



Haden .....................

Cambodiana ............
Turpentine seedlings


No. of
Analyses



10

10
10


Dade County
mg./100 gm.


19.66 0.44

32.26 1.87

55.00 2.33


Mean -e S. E.
Palm Beach Lee and
and Broward Manatee
Counties Counties
mg./100 gm. mg./100 gm.

19.48 0.41 18.58 1.09

49.59 3.95 37.01 1.28

41.50 1.18 46.40 1.86


The variation in ascorbic acid content between the different
Cambodiana and turpentine mangos was significant, since the
difference between any 2 of the means is greater than twice the
standard error of difference. These differences in Cambodiana
and turpentine mangos may have been due in part to differences
in degree of maturity. No significant differences were found
in the Hadens collected from the 3 areas.
Effect of Fungicidal Sprays.-The use of fungicidal sprays
for control of anthracnose on the fruit has now become an
established practice in the successful production of mangos. The


Fig. 4.-Turpentine mango.


i..
r I~
'


;i

r




"'







Effect of Various Factors Upon Some Florida Mangos 11

following series of analyses was undertaken in an attempt to
determine the effect of 2 of these sprays upon the ascorbic acid
content of the fruit.
Haden fruits were collected for analysis from plots receiving
the following different spray treatments: bordeaux mixture,
Fermate, and no spray. Each group of 10 fruits was collected
at approximately the "breaking" color stage of maturity and
allowed to ripen. The results of these analyses are shown in
Table 6.

TABLE 6.-THE EFFECT OF FUNGICIDAL SPRAYS UPON ASCORBIC ACID
CONTENT OF HADEN MANGOS.

Spray Treatment No. of Mean S. E.
_Analyses Mg/100 gms.
Bordeaux ..... .......... ....... 10 19.80 1.38
Fermate ....................... .......... 10 22.48 1.05
None .. ...........- .............. 10 17.67 0.98


Significantly more ascorbic acid was found in fruits sprayed
with Fermate than in fruits which received no spray treatment,
since the difference between the 2 means (4.81) is more than
twice the standard error of difference.

SUMMARY
This investigation was undertaken to study some of the factors
affecting the ascorbic acid content of Florida-grown mangos.
Each individual fruit tested showed a decrease in ascorbic
acid content with increased distance from the skin but no sig-
nificant difference in the longitudinal distribution of ascorbic acid
was found.
Analyses of fruits picked at different stages of maturity and
allowed to ripen showed that the fruits picked green had more
ascorbic acid than those picked when more mature. However,
from a practical viewpoint, other desirable features of mangos
picked when more mature compensate for this difference in
ascorbic acid content.
The ascorbic acid values of mangos of southern Florida cover
a wide range. Among the higher variety averages obtained
were 107.4 mg. per 100 gm. of fruit for Number 11 and 103.8
for White Langra; among the lower values obtained were 8.8







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


for Apple and 9.0 for Fragrance. The average ascorbic acid
content of 30 Haden mangos was 19.2 mg. per 100 gms. of fruit.
From the results it is evident that good dessert quality is not
necessarily associated with high ascorbic acid content in mangos.
Five Cecil seedlings of polyembryonic origin showed no sig-
nificant differences in ascorbic acid content.
The ascorbic acid content was determined for Hadens, Cam-
bodianas and turpentine seedlings collected from the 3 principal
mango growing areas of southern Florida. Several environ-
mental factors and variations in degree of maturity at time of
picking may have been jointly responsible for the differences
in ascorbic acid content.
Fruits sprayed with Fermate contained significantly more
ascorbic acid than did those left unsprayed.

REFERENCES

1. ADAMS, GEORGIAN, and SYBIL L. SMITH. The vitamin content and the
preservation of foods. U. S. D. A. Misc. Pub. 536: 1-10. 1944.
2. FRENCH, R. B. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1942, p. 77.
3. HEINZE, P. H., et al. Ascorbic acid content of 39 varieties of snap
beans. Food Research 9: 1, 19-26. 1944.
4. LANTZ, EDITH M. The carotene and ascorbic acid contents of peppers.
New Mexico Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 306: 9. 1943.
5. MILLER, CAREY D., et al. Vitamin values of Hawaiian-grown fruits
and vegetables. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta. Progress Notes 36. Re-
vised 1944.
6. MURPHY, ELIZABETH F. The ascorbic acid content of different varieties
of Maine-grown tomatoes and cabbages as influenced by locality,
season and stage of maturity. Jour. Agr. Res. 64: 483-502. 1942.
7. POPENOE, WILSON. Manual of tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Pp.
79-146. The Macmillan Company. 1920.
8. SMITH, SYBIL L. Vitamin C. Yearbook of Agriculture 1939. Pp.
236-239.
9. STURROCK, DAVID. Notes on the mango, p. 91. Stuart Daily News.
1944.
10. WADDINGTON, GUY, and FRANKLIN M. CIST. The vitamin content of
Psidium guajava. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 56: 110-112. 1942.









HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






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