• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Board of control and staff
 Table of Contents
 Experimental
 Discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Effect of minor elements, particularly copper, on peanuts
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026840/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of minor elements, particularly copper, on peanuts
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 20 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harris, Henry C ( Henry Clayton ), 1898-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1952
Copyright Date: 1952
 Subjects
Subject: Plants -- Effect of copper on   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of minerals on   ( lcsh )
Peanuts -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 20).
Statement of Responsibility: by Henry C. Harris.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026840
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN6415
oclc - 18266604
alephbibnum - 000925759

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Board of control and staff
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Experimental
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Discussion
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 19
    Literature cited
        Page 20
Full Text



Bulletin 494 May 1952

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



Effect of Minor Elements, Particularly

Copper, on Peanuts

By HENRY C. HARRIS
Agronomist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

-c












S--





rERTILIZER FERTILIZER
+ALL MINORS PLUS ;.
-COPPER ALL MINOR
V ,, -. .. ". -.- : :.. ,'. '" ,.


Fig. 1.-Dixie Runner peanuts. Left, complete fertilizer, including the
minor elements, except copper; right, the same but with copper.



Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










BOARD OF CONTROL P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.'
Leon Mull. Ph D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
Hollis Rinehart, Miami James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Hush.
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White. Sr., Mount Dora EDITORIAL
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Laulerdale Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor *
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editor
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor "

EXECUTIVE STAFF ENTOMOLOGY
J. Hills Miller, Ph.D., Presidents A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist '
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.' L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
W;llard M. Fifield, M.S., Director H. E. Bra ley, M.S.A., Assistant
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director F. A. Robinson M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS HORTICULTURE
H. G. Hamil'on, Ph.D., Agr. Economist G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist I
K. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturists
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A.. Associate R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
D. E.Alleger, M.S., Associate R H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D.. Associate F. S. Lagasse,Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant4 R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant L. II. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist C. B. Hall, Ph.D., As;t. Horticulturist
Eric Thor, M.S., Agr. Economist Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
J. L. Tennant, Ph.D., Agr. Economist S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
H. W. Little, M.S., t. Ast r. Economist C. H. VanMiddelem Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Buford Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)RARY
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist LIBRARY
J, C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Statistician 2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2 PLANT PATHOLOGY
J. K. Lankford, B.S., Agr. Statistician W. I. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist 1 a
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 1 Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Ena.1" Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer Lill:an E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng. C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
AGRONOMY POULTRY HUSBANDRY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist' N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hush.'
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist' J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Hush.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist SOILS
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.., Agronomist F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist
Darre D. Carver, Ph.D., Associate Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Darred A. MoClark, M.S.A., Associstant J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologists
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
E. S. Horer, Ph.D., Assistant Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant Ialph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. MicrobiologistA
D E. Mcloud, Ph.D., Assistant Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
E,. E. Buckley, B.S.A., Assistant biologist I
E. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist"'
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb. 3 James H. Walker, M.S.A., Ass Soil
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist s Surveyor
S. John Folks, Jr., M.S., Asst. An. Hush. S S. N. Edson, M.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 3
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem. William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3 0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri. W. G. Blue. Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.3 J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3 H. F. Ross, B.S., Soils Microbiologist
G. E. Combs, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Animal L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist a
Husbandman
E. F. Johnston, M.S., Asst. Animal Husband- VETERINARY SCIENCE
man D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
DAIRY SCIENCE C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech. s L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.s Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M.. Asso. Poultry
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3 Pathologist
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech. W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist










BRANCH STATIONS SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. C. Rhoades, Jr., M.S., Entomologist Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
L. R. inimsn, Ph.D., P.lant, S Chemist John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Sois Chemist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist R.W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist R Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb. J C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
T. E. Webb, U.S.A., Asst. Agronomist M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist

MoLile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Mobile Unit, Marianna William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist man in Charge

-Mobile Unit, Pensacola
Mobile Unit, Pensacola RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
Mobile Unit, Chipley E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist U. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
R. F, Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
Franeine fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist LIVE OAK
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist'
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-Path. E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
I. Stewart, M.S., Asst. Biochemist J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
P. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort. W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D.. Asst. Hort.
E. J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Hort. Amegda Jack, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
I. H. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist-
Pathologist FIELD LABORATORIES
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist-
Pathologist Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
J. B. Weeks, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
E. C. Lundbert, B.S.A., Asst. Biochemist C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
N. F. Shimp, M.S., Asst. Chem. L. H. Stover, Asst. in Hort.
R. B. Johnson, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE Strawberry-Plant City
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr. Vegetables-Hastings
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Hush. E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
N. C. Hayslip. B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist Pecans-Monticello
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist A .
W. N. Stoner. Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path. A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist'
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path. Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Robert J. Allen. Ph.D.. Asst. Agronomist Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2
V. E. Green. Ph.D.. Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, Jr.. M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb. 1Head of Department
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort. 2 In cooperation with U. S.
Thos. G. Bowery. Ph.D.. Asst. Entomologist 3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F
M. R. Bedsole, M.S.A., Asst. Chem. On leave.

















Contents


Page

INTRODUCTION ----........ ...... ---.. -....................- ..- ..... .. ..... ... 5


EXPERIMENTAL ... ....... ..-- ....-..-....- ...- .. ..... .. ........... 5

Experiment 1 ........-....--... -......-. --. ------------.....--..---------- 6

Procedure ----.......... .. ...-- -- ...-- ---. .-. ---. --........---- 6

Results ....- --. --.. -....... -...----......-------..... ...-....-.....----.. 7

Experiment 2 ......-..... -----------. ---- -----------...--..-..--....... 10

Procedure .---..----...........------------- .....-..--- ..---.. 10

Results ........- ..-..----------- --.....-..-..- ..-- ..-- --- -- --.. --..... 11

Experiment 3 ...--...... -.........-----.....- ------.----------.. 12

Procedure ..-...... -----.......--... ...-..........--- --- .-- -----... 12

Results .....--.. .-------------... .. ...... .... ...- ...... 15

Experiment 4 -...---......- ..-............-.-..--- .- ----- -- -------------... .... 15

Procedure ...-------.............--------- --..... --..----... -... .---- 15

Results ..-- ...-.....- ---..... ................ ..-- .-----.. .-------.. 16


DISCUSSION .......-- ....--------.........-- ------------.--.--.--------. 17


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ..---...---....-......------- ----------------- 19


LITERATURE CITED ....--..--------....----....... --... --... --... ------.... 20









Effect of Minor Elements, Particularly
Copper, on Peanuts
By HENRY C. HARRIS

Introduction
Copper applications to Arredondo loamy fine sand on the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station farm, Gainesville, Florida, have
corrected an abnormal growth condition of oats and peanuts
(8, 9, 10).' Furthermore, unpublished results show that copper
applications on the Station farm increased yields of corn, wheat,
barley and cowpeas. Large areas of this and similar soils in
Florida are used for the production of peanuts. For this reason,
experiments were conducted to determine primarily the possible
effect of copper treatments on yield and quality of peanuts grown
on this soil. Results obtained are presented in this bulletin.
Allison et al. (1) found that copper applied to the raw peat
soils in the Florida Everglades affected the growth of peanuts,
but this crop is practically always grown on mineral soils. Sev-
eral workers (3, 11) have treated mineral soils with copper but,
so far as the writer is aware, no one has obtained a pronounced
beneficial effect on peanuts. However, some workers (11, 16)
indicated that this element, when mixed with sulfur dust and
used for disease and insect control, increased yields.

Experimental
The tests were conducted on Arredondo loamy fine sand de-
rived from phosphatic limestone. It has a pH value of 5.7 and
a total base exchange capacity of 3.7 milliequivalents per 100
grams of soil. The exchangeable cations 2 in this soil in milli-
grams per 100 grams were 6.4, 15.4 and 1.6 for potassium, cal-
cium and magnesium, respectively.
Four field experiments were conducted on this soil. The first
measured the effect of treatments on yield and quality of pea-
nuts the same year as applied while the other three evaluated
the residual effect on peanuts of treatments applied to previous
crops. The treatments were reagent grade chemicals except
where the name indicates a commercial product or where other-
wise stated.
1Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.
SBase exchange capacity and exchangeable cations through the courtesy
of Dr. Nathan Gammon, Soils Department, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station.







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Experiment 1

Procedure.-The nine treatments used are given in Table 1.
The 2-12-12 fertilizer was formulated from uramon, treble super-
phosphate and potassium chloride. In order that sulfur and
magnesium might not be limiting factors, calcium sulfate and
magnesium sulfate were added to the fertilizer at rates of 100
and 80 pounds per acre, respectively. The minor elements were
mixed with the fertilizer, and two weeks before seeding all
treatments were worked into the soil in a broad strip about 15
inches wide where the peanut rows were to be located. The nine
treatments (Table 1) were replicated four times and randomized
in blocks. Each plot was 6 feet 2 inches by 15 feet and contained
two rows of peanuts.
Three varieties of peanuts, Dixie Runner, G. F. A. Spanish
and Alabama Runner, were grown and each variety received the
complete set of treatments. The varieties were kept separate
so that there were three independent parts of the experiment.

Fig. 2.-Close view of G.F.A. Spanish peanuts which have had a complete
fertilizer, including copper and other minor elements.








Effect of Minor Elements on Peanuts 7

The seed of each variety was inoculated with the legume organ-
ism and planted April 20, 1948. After the plants became well
established they were thinned to 32 per plot.
These peanuts were harvested September 2 and 3, 1948, and
there was little shedding of the fruit at this date. Yields were
obtained and the peanuts from each plot were graded, using a
standard screen for runner peanuts. Percentages of hulls,
shrivels, visible damage, concealed damage and plump and sound
peanuts were determined. The nitrogen and oil contents of
plump and sound peanuts from each Dixie Runner plot were
determined by standard methods.
Results.-All plants grew well except those which did not re-
ceive an application of copper chloride to the soil (Figue 1).
Where no copper was applied the plants showed abnormal growth
characteristics which were similar for the three varieties. The
bud area was affected and sometimes the leaflets in this area died.
Many of the leaflets were small and irregular and had dead

Fig. 3.-Close view of G.F.A. Spanish peanuts which had complete
fertilizer, including the minor elements, except copper. Note the abnormal
character of the foliage as compared with Fig. 2.













-WOO










IA








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

marginal areas which gave the affected leaves a ragged appear-
ance (Figures 2 and 3). There was a mild chlorosis of the
upper leaves and affected plants had a few small yellowish-white
spots on the foliage. The Spanish variety exhibited more pro-
nounced interveinal chlorosis. These symptoms began to de-
velop approximately a month after the plants came up. There
was some tendency towards a partial recovery of the plants with
copper deficiency late in the growing season. Plants on plots
treated with molybdenum were a darker green color than were
others. Yields are given in Table 1.

TABLE 1.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MEAN YIELD
OF HAY AND PEANUTS IN POUNDS PER PLOT (1/458.5 ACRE).
I
Hay* I Peanuts
Treatment Ala-{ Ala-
Dixie bama G.F. A. Dixie bama G. F. A.
Runner Runner Spanish Runner Runner I Spanish

1. No treatment ........ 3.8 5.0 2.1 0.65 0.82 0.27
2. Fertilizer* ............ 3.6 5.5 2.9 0.57 0.91 0.51
3. Fertilizer plus
minor elements .... 9.4 8.4 4.8 3.08 2.34 1.83
4. Fertilizer plus
minor elements ex-
cept copper ......... 3.7 5.0 1.7 0.44 0.55 0.29
5. Fertilizer plus
copper ...................... 8.7 7.6 3.9 3.19 2.40 1.47
6. Fertilizer plus
minor elements ex-
cept molybdenum.... 8.7 7.6 4.8 3.83 2.52 1.32
7. Fertilizer plus
molybdenum .......... 4.0 5.2 3.9 0.61 0.75 0.36
8. Fertilizer plus
copper and
molybdenum .......... 8.5 7.4 4.7 2.83 2.22 1.53
9. Minor elements ...... 8.1 7.2 4.2 1.96 1.87 1.29


L. S. D. at the 5% level 1.1 1.3 1.8 0.63 0.38 0.62
L. S. D. at the 1% level 1.5 1.7 2.5 0.85 0.52 0.84

Weight of the plants harvested less the weight of the peanuts picked from the plants.
** A 2-12-12 at 500 pounds per acre plus calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate at 100
and 80 pounds per acre, respectively.
f The minor elements copper, zinc, manganese, boron and molybdenum (chloride of
copper, zinc and manganese at 10 pounds, boric acid 2 pounds and molybdic acid 1 pound
per acre mixed with fertilizer).








Effect of Minor Elements on Peanuts 9

The striking thing about these results is the pronounced effect
of copper. This element (compare Treatment 3 with Treatment
4) increased the yield of peanuts 600, 325 and 531 percent for
Dixie Runner, Alabama Runner and G. F. A. Spanish, respec-
tively. All treatments containing copper gave high yields. The
fertilizer (major elements) had little effect on yields except
when applied in conjunction with copper. When minor elements
were applied the fertilizer produced a statistically significant
increase in yield of Dixie Runner and Alabama Runner peanuts.
Only percentages of shrivels and sound and plump nuts are
given in Table 2 because there was no significant difference in

TABLE 2.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON THE MEAN
PERCENTAGE OF SHRIVELS AND SOUND AND PLUMP NUTS.

Dixie Runner G. F. A. Spanishl Alabama
I IA Runner
Treatment Sound Sound I 1 Sound
and Shrivels and Shrivels and Shrivels
Plump __ Plump Plump_

1. No treatment ....... 60.7 9.1 64.4 18.7 65.6 8.0
2. Fertilizer* ......... ... 67.9 8.6 62.0 18.3 67.8 6.9'
3. Fertilizer plus
minor elements** .. 75.4 3.0 65.0 12.4 71.8 4.0
4. Fertilizer. plus
minor elements ex-
cept copper............ 68.8 7.2 59.1 24.9 67.5 9.2
5. Fertilizer plus
copper ...................... 72.0 5.2 66.7 11.4 70.2 4.8
6. Fertilizer plus
minor elements ex-
cept molybdenum .. 74.6 3.5 64.1 14.4 69.1 4.6
7. Fertilizer plus
molybdenum .......... 62.8 5.5 58.5 21.5 63.8 6.9
8. Fertilizer plus
copper and
molybdenum ......... 72.7 4.4 65.1 11.8 67.5 5.3
9. Minor elements ...... 66.8 4.1 65.3 i 14.4 70.6 3.3

L. S. D. at the 5% level 7.9 3.3 i not 6.8 | 5.5 2.7
| signifi-
L. S. D. at the 1% level 10.7 4.5 cant 8.2 7.4 3.7

A 2-12-12 at 500 pounds per acre plus calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate at 100
and 80 pounds per acre, respectively.
** The minor elements copper, zinc, manganese, boron, and molybdenum (the chlorides
of copper, zinc and manganese at 10 pounds, boric acid 2 pounds and molybdie acid 1
pound per acre mixed with fertilizer).







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

amounts of rots and other damage. It should be remembered
that the sum of the two values will not approach 100 percent,
since peanuts frequently are more than 20 percent hulls.
Variation in grade was related largely to treatments which
contained copper. Copper applications decreased the amount of
shrivels and increased the amount of sound plump nuts for all
varieties, although some of the differences were not statistically
significant.
Chemical analyses 3 for oil and nitrogen of sound and plump
nuts from the Dixie Runner plots showed no differences, hence
the results are not given.

Experiment 2
Procedure.-This experiment measured the residual effect of
treatments applied to the previous crop of oats on yield and
quality of Dixie Runner peanuts. The oats were seeded Dec. 1,
1948, in plots 6 x 10 feet. The treatments listed in Table 3
were replicated five times and randomized in blocks. Commer-
cial nitrate of soda was used as a top-dressing but the 0-12-12
fertilizer was applied before seeding. This fertilizer was formu-
lated from treble superphosphate and potassium sulfate. To
prevent magnesium and sulfur from being limiting factors for
plant growth, magnesium chloride and calcium sulfate were
added to the fertilizer in sufficient quantity to give an applica-
tion of 100 and 180 pounds per acre of the last two chemicals,
respectively.
In addition to major elements and other minor elements, cop-
per chloride was applied to the oats in four different amounts-
at rates of 10 and 30 pounds per acre in the fertilizer, 0.18
pound per acre in water on seed oats and 0.8 pound per acre
sprayed on the foliage of the oats February 9, 1949. Applied
as a fine mist, the spray consisted of 2.5 grams of copper chloride
in 1,000 milliliters of water.
After the oats were harvested the soil was again prepared
and the same kinds and amounts of fertilizer (Table 3) were
again applied, the only difference being that the sodium nitrate
was mixed in the fertilizer and the minor elements or flowers
of sulfur were not included. The fertilizer was worked into a
strip about 18 inches wide under the peanut rows.

"Courtesy R. W. Bledsoe, Agronomy Department, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.








Effect of Minor Elements on Peanuts 11

The peanut seed were inoculated with the legume organism
and two rows in each plot were planted May 16, 1949. Little
rain fell during late May and early June and the peanuts came
up rather irregularly during the first half of June. The stand
eventually was good but the plants were of different ages.
Copper chloride spray was the only minor element treatment
which was repeated on the peanuts. This spray contained 0.29
gram of copper chloride per 1,000 milliliters of water, and a
sufficient amount was applied as a fine mist to the foliage on
July 25, 1949, to give 0.19 pound per acre of copper chloride.
The peanuts were harvested September 5, 1949, yields ob-
tained and the peanuts graded as explained in Experiment 1.
Results.-Peanuts grown without copper treatments in this
experiment exhibited the characteristics previously described
for copper-deficient plants, but the symptoms were much less
severe.
All copper treatments except the small amount applied on seed
of oats increased considerably the yields of peanuts (Table 3).
Copper chloride applied at the rate 30 pounds per acre was no
better than 10 pounds per acre and the copper spray was as good
as any of the other treatments. It should be noted that only
0.19 pound of copper chloride per acre was sprayed directly on
the peanuts, the remainder being sprayed on the previous crop
of oats. Thus part of the increased yield may have been due
to other than the direct application of the spray to the peanuts.
However, it should be pointed out that the previous crop of oats
responded to copper treatments and that spray was as effective
as soil applications.
The flowers of sulfur treatment significantly increased yields,
even though a total of 360 pounds per acre of calcium sulfate
was applied in the two applications of fertilizer and potassium
sulfate was the source of the potassium in the fertilizer. The
sulfate ion in the fertilizer probably was sufficient for nu-
tritional purposes. A possible explanation of the beneficial effect
of flowers of sulfur is that it may have increased the availability
of soil copper by changing the reaction of the soil. This point
will be explained in the discussion.
Apparently variations in age of the plants, due to the effect
of drought on germination, caused the grades to be variable.
Whatever the cause, the differences in grade due to treatments
were not statistically significant and the values are not recorded.









12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 3.-RESIDUAL EFFECT OF VARIOUS TREATMENTS APPLIED TO PREVIOUS
CROP OF OATS ON MEAN YIELD OF DIXIE RUNNER PEANUTS IN POUNDS
PER PLOT (1/726 ACRE).

Treatment Pea-
Peanuts Hay* nuts
Oats Following Oats

1. Fertilizer** and minor elements Fertilizer ----.....- 3.25 0.98
2. Fertilizer and minor elements
plus 120 pounds per acre flowers
of sulfur mixed in top 4 inches of
soil ...........................................-...... Fertilizer --..-..-- 3.97 1.35
3. Fertilizer and minor elements
plus 0.18 pounds per acre of cop-
per chloride in water on seed of
oats ..............- .....--.......... ................ Fertilizer ....--...... 2.93 0.89
4. Fertilizer and minor elements
plus 10 pounds per acre copper
chloride in fertilizer .................... Fertilizer ... ... 4.17 1.47
5. Fertilizer and minor elements
plus copper spray (0.8 pounds per
acre copper chloride) .......-- ........... Fert. plus copper
spray (0.19 pounds
per acre copper
chloride) 4.78 1.62
6. Fertilizer and minor elements
plus heavy copper (30 pounds per
acre copper chloride in fertilizer) Fertilizer ............. 3.99 1.47


L. S. D. at the 5% level .. ...- .. 0.92 0.33
L. S. D. at the 1% level ................. 1.26 0.44

Weight of the harvested plants less the weight of peanuts picked from them.
** A 0-12-12 at 700 pounds per acre plus calcium sulfate, magnesium chloride and com-
mercial sodium nitrate at 180, 100, and 150 pounds per acre, respectively.
tThe minor elements zinc, manganese, boron and molybdenum chloridess of zinc and
manganese at 10 pounds, boric acid 2 pounds and molybdic acid 0.4 pound per acre mixed
with fertilizer).

Experiment 3

Procedure.-This experiment deals with the residual effect of
treatments applied to wheat and rye on yield of G. F. A. Spanish
peanuts. The wheat was seeded Dec. 8, 1947, in plots 6 x 20
feet each. The treatments (Table 4) were replicated four times
and randomized in blocks. Commercial nitrate of soda, used in
conjunction with the fertilizer, was applied as a top-dressing.
The 0-12-12 fertilizer was applied before seeding. It was formu-
lated from treble superphosphate and potassium sulfate. In
order that the magnesium and sulfate ions might not be deficient
for plant growth, calcium sulfate and magnesium chloride were









Effect of Minor Elements on Peanuts 13

added to the fertilizer in amounts equivalent to 110 and 80
pounds per acre, respectively. The minor elements were mixed
with the fertilizer in the cases specified (Table 4). In Treat-
ment 8 (Table 4) potassium chloride and calcium chloride were
substituted for the respective sulfates in amounts sufficient to
make the potassium and calcium content of this fertilizer equiva-
lent to the ones in which the sufates occurred.


TABLE 4.-RESIDUAL EFFECT OF VARIOUS TREATMENTS APPLIED TO PREVIOUS
CROPS OF WHEAT AND RYE ON MEAN YIELD OF G. F. A. SPANISH PEANUTS
IN POUNDS PER PLOT (1/363 ACRE).

Treatment
S Spanish Pea-
Rye Peanuts Hay* nuts
Wheat Following Following
Wheat Rye

1. No treatment ............. No treatment No treatment 6.3 1.30
2. Micro-nutrients** ...... No treatment No treatment 8.8 2.55
3. Fertilizer .................. Same as wheat Fertilizer$ 5.6 0.88
4. Fertilizer plus minor
elements ......................-- Same as wheat Fertilizer 10.3 2.83
5. Fertilizer plus minor
elements except
copper ..............--....... Same as wheat Fertilizer$ .. 5.5 0.65
6. Fertilizer plus cop-
per and iron ................ Same as wheat Fertilizer$ .. 9.2 2.63
7. Fertilizer plus minor
elements except iron. Same as wheat Fertilizer$ .. 11.0 3.15
8. Fertilizer plus minor
elements (fertilizer
without sulfates) ...... Same as wheat FertilizerS
(without
sulfates) 9.6 2.65


L. S. D. at the 5% level.. 1.6 0.61
L. S. D. at the 1% level.. 2.2 0.83


Weight of the plants as harvested less the weight of the peanuts picked from the plants.
** The minor elements copper, zinc, manganese, boron, molybdenum and iron chloridess
of copper, zinc and manganese at 10 pounds, boric acid 2 pounds, molybdic acid 0.5 pound
and ferrous chloride 2 pounds per acre mixed in fertilizer in cases specified).
tA 0-12-12 at 500 pounds per acre plus calcium sulfate, magnesium chloride and com-
mercial sodium nitrate at 110, 80 and 250 pounds per acre, respectively.
t Same rate and kind as used on wheat, except the nitrogen was derived from uramon at
the rate of 15 pounds nitrogen per acre.









14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

After the wheat was harvested weeds grew in the plots until
the soil was prepared and seeded to Florida Black rye in Novem-
ber 1948. The rye received the same treatments and quantity,
including minor elements, that previously had been applied to
the wheat.
Following the rye the soil was prepared and G. F. A. Spanish
peanuts were inoculated with the legume organism and planted,

TABLE 5.-GRADES OF G. F. A. SPANISH PEANUTS AS AFFECTED BY VARIOUS
TREATMENTS APPLIED TO PREVIOUS CROPS OF WHEAT AND RYE.

I Mean
Treatment F Per-
centage
Rye Spanish Mean Sound
Following Peanuts Per- and
Wheat Wheat Following centage Plump
_Rye I Shrivelsl Peanuts

1. No treatment ............ No treatment No treatment 19.3 60.6
2. Minor elements* ........ Same as wheat No treatment 14.9 64.1
3. Fertilizer* ..............- Same as wheat Fertilizert .. 24.3 54.4
4. Fertilizer** plus
minor elements .......... Same as wheat Fertilizert .. 15.1 64.1
5. Fertilizer** plus
minor elements
except copper ............ Same as wheat Fertilizert 25.4 53.3
6. Fertilizer** plus
copper and iron .......... Same as wheat Fertilizert .. 14.3 64.4

7. Fertilizer** plus
minor elements
except iron ..............---.. Same as wheat Fertilizert 13.1 65.8
8. Fertilizer** plus.
minor elements (fer-
tilizer without
sulfates) ...................... Same as wheat Fertilizert
(without
sulfates) .... 16.4 62.5


L. S. D. at the 5% level.. 4.6 6.4
L. S. D. at the 1% level. 6.3 8.7

The minor elements copper, zinc, manganese, boron, molybdenum and iron chloridess
of copper, zinc and manganese at 10 pounds, boric acid 2 pounds, molybdic acid 0.5 pound
and ferrous chloride 2 pounds per acre mixed in fertilizer in cases specified).
** A 0-12-12 at 500 pounds per acre plus calcium sulfate, magnesium chloride and com-
mercial sodium nitrate at 110, 80 and 250 pounds per acre, respectively.
t Same rate and kind as used on wheat, except the nitrogen was derived from uramon
at the rate of 15 pounds nitrogen per acre.








Effect of Minor Elements on Peanuts 15

two rows to a plot, May 2, 1949. The minor elements were not
applied to the peanuts but the other elements were all re-applied
at the same rates as used on the wheat and rye, with one ex-
ception. Nitrate of soda was not applied and in its place 15
pounds per acre of nitrogen derived from uramon was mixed
in the fertilizer. The peanuts were harvested August 16, 1949,
and yields and grades were obtained.
Results.-G. F. A. Spanish peanuts grown on the plots which
had copper applied to the soil grew normally, but in all cases
where copper had not been applied the plants grew poorly and
evidenced marked deficiency symptoms.
Yields (Table 4) were greatly increased-in one case (com-
pare Treatments 5 and 4) 335 percent-by all treatments con-
taining copper. Other elements did not have any striking effect
on yields.
Grades of the G. F. A. Spanish peanuts are given in Table 5.
Since these peanuts had virtually no damaged seed, only shrivels
and sound and plump peanuts are listed. As previously indi-
cated, peanuts may be more than 20 percent hulls, and the sum
of the two figures will not be near 100 percent.
The copper treatment (Table 5) is a factor causing a low per-
centage of shrivels or a high percentage of sound and plump
peanuts.

Experiment 4
Procedure.-In 1942 an extensive Sea Island cotton fertilizer
experiment was conducted on this soil. Four blocks in this ex-
periment had previously received various combinations of the
minor elements. The treatments (Table 6) were derived from
commercial grade materials and were randomized in the blocks.
The plots were 8 x 100 feet. This experiment was discontinued,
and subsequently the cultural practice and crops were the same
for all plots. Two rows of Dixie Runner peanuts were grown
on each of these plots in 1945 without further minor element
applications.
The peanuts were harvested relatively late and many of the
fruits had shed. This shedding made it necessary to rake out
of the soil of all plots the peanuts which were left by the usual
harvesting procedure. From the data obtained the percentages
of shed peanuts were calculated.








16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Results.-Results (Table 6) of this experiment show that
copper applied three years previously more than doubled yields.
A higher percentage of peanuts were shed where copper was
applied. This point will be taken up in the discussion. Other
minor elements or magnesium had no significant effect on either
the yield or percentage of peanuts shed.

TABLE 6.-RESIDUAL EFFECT OF VARIOUS TREATMENTS APPLIED IN 1942
ON MEAN YIELDS OF DIXIE RUNNER PEANUTS IN 1945 IN POUNDS PER
PLOT (1/54.45 ACRE), TOGETHER WITH THE MEAN PERCENTAGE OF THE
NUTS WHICH WERE RAKED OUT OF THE SOIL AFTER THE VINES WITH
CLINGING NUTS HAD BEEN HARVESTED.
S Mean
Mean Percentage
Treatment in 1942 Yield of Yield
_Shed

1. Fertilizer* ........................................-- ........ 10.8 46.5
2. Fertilizer plus 30 pounds per acre of copper
sulfate ...................................... .......-.. ............. 22.3 68.6
3. Fertilizer plus 30 pounds per acre of
manganese sulfate ...........----------....................... 9.2 45.9
4. Fertilizer plus 10 pounds per acre of zinc
sulfate -----......--..-- ---------........ --------..... 7.7 53.0
5. Fertilizer plus 12 pounds per acre of cobalt
sulfate ........................................................................ 11.0 53.6
6. Fertilizer plus 5 pounds per acre of borax ....... 14.2 59.0
7. Fertilizer plus copper, manganese, zinc, and
cobalt sulfates and borax at rates given above 21.0 60.9
8. Fertilizer without dolomite .................................... 7.8 38.0
9. Fertilizer without dolomite plus 60 pounds per
acre of magnesium sulfate .................................... 12.1 49.6


L. S. D. at the 5% level .............................................. 5.6 14.9
L. S. D. at the 1% level ......................-................... 7.5 Not
S___significant
A 3-8-5 fertilizer at 400 pounds per acre before seeding plus 15 pounds nitrogen and
25 pounds potash per acre from nitrate of soda and muriate of potash at chopping time.
Prepared from commercial grade materials and made non-acid-forming with dolomite.

The late W. E. Stokes, at that time Head, Department of Agronomy,.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, supervised this experiment. The
yields were obtained by Fred Clark, of the same department. The peanuts
in most of this large experiment grew poorly, and no effort was made to
evaluate the results, since it was felt at the time that some disease had
prevented most of the peanuts from growing normally. Later tests with
the minor elements led to the evaluation of the results in that part of the
experiment dealing with them.








Effect of Minor Elements on Peanuts 17

While calculating these results it was observed that several
plots which had not received copper treatments gave high yields.
The design of the experiment was examined and it was found
that in each case where this occurred the plot was located next
to one which had previously received copper. Because of this
the yields of the plots were divided into three groups as follows:
Copper applied, next to copper and away from copper. Mean
yields (harvested on vines plus amount raked out of the soil)
per plot for the groups were 21.7, 14.0 and 8.4 pounds, respec-
tively. Statiscal analysis indicated that the differences between
these means were all highly significant. The plots were 8 x 100
feet and there had been cross plowing and harrowing since the
treatments were applied. It is indicated that enough copper
had been transferred to adjacent plots to affect yields.

Discussion
Appearance of plants grown without copper treatments (de-
scribed under results of Experiment 1) is, in some respects, simi-
lar to symptoms attributed to thrips injury and leafhopper dam-
age (12, 15). There might be some relation between treatment
and insect damage or disease, but this point has not been investi-
gated. In these experiments, however, the effect of the copper
is believed to be primarily nutritional, since in most of the
treatments it was mixed in the fertilizer and applied to the soil.
The function of copper in the growth of plants is not well under-
stood, but a lack of it for peanuts usually affected the bud area
of the plant, decreased yield, and tended to increase the amount
of shrivels or immature peanuts. Therefore, it appears that
copper functions in the normal development of the fruit and
without an adequate supply the plant matures late and produces
more shrivels or immature fruit. That is probably the reason
why in Experiment 4 the percentage of shed peanuts was higher
where copper had been applied. The peanuts on these plots
developed and matured normally and many peanuts were shed
and left in the soil, while the ones receiving no copper did not
mature normally and a relatively larger percentage remained
attached to the plant at harvest time.
In view of the fact that a lack of copper affects the oil con-
tent of seed of some other plants and that this deficiency fre-
quently has a nitrogen relationship (2, 5, 6, 7, 9), it was thought
that an analysis of the plump seed for oil and nitrogen might
give a clue as to whether the copper treatments had an effect








18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in this respect. Since there was no difference in nitrogen and
oil contents of the mature seed in Experiment 1, the results
suggest that variations in copper will not affect the composition
of the seed as long as the supply is sufficient to produce well-
developed seed. It is well known that shrivels and immature
peanuts (4, 13, 14) do not have as high oil content as those
fully developed, and the inclusion of shrivels in the samples
probably would have changed the composition percentages.
The quantity of copper actually required for peanuts appears
to be very small. For example, 30 pounds of copper chloride per
acre in Experiment 2 (Table 3) was no better than 10 pounds,
and neither of these was any better than a combination of 0.8
pound of copper chloride per acre sprayed on the previous crop
of oats plus 0.19 pound per acre used as a foliar spray on the
peanuts. If copper spray were applied early in the growth of the
plant these data indicate that it would be relatively effective in
correcting the abnormality. The best spray concentration has
not been determined but apparently it should be quite dilute,
since the peanut seems to be very susceptible to spray burn. The
concentration used in Experiment 2 did not injure the plants.
How long the residual effect of a copper treatment will last
is not known, but in Experiment 4 there was a pronounced effect
after three years. Apparently, the treatment will have an effect
for several years.
The plots in most of these experiments were very small and
it was .surprising that the residual treatment effects remained
intact. In plowing and cultivation of land after the previous
crops an effort was made to prevent soil movement as much as
possible, except in Experiment 4, where there was cross plow-
ing and cultivation. The results suggest that the movement
of the copper from plot to plot will not be large unless it is done
by erosion or lack of care in the plowing and cultivation oper-
ations.
It is difficult to evaluate the severity of visual symptoms, but
a lack of copper seemed to cause the G. F. A. Spanish to show
more pronounced visual symptoms than the other varieties.
Differences in variety requirement have been noted in tung (6).
In Experiment 2 (Table 3) the fertilizer contained a liberal
amount of the sulfate ion, and for this reason sulfur was not
likely to be deficient for nutritional purposes. Nevertheless,
flowers of sulfur mixed into the soil significantly increased yields
of peanuts. However, copper chloride treatments increased








Effect of Minor Elements on Peanuts 19

yields as much as the flowers of sulfur. Because sulfur changes
the soil reaction, it is possible that the copper compounds of the
soil were made more available to the peanuts by sulfur.
Results given in this bulletin were obtained on the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station farm, Gainesville, Florida,
where copper deficiency was pronounced. In general, copper
treatments have not especially increased yield of peanuts in
Florida. Apparently there may be local areas where the de-
ficiency is severe. Minor elements can be harmful when applied in
too large quantities. For these reasons general recommendations
for peanuts based on the results of these experiments should
not be made.

Summary and Conclusions
Four field experiments with peanuts were conducted on Arre-
dondo loamy fine sand, using the varieties Dixie Runner, G. F. A.
Spanish and Alabama Runner. Secondary and minor element
treatments were applied and in some of the experiments the
treatments were applied to previous crops so that the residual
effect was measured. The appearance of the plants during
growth was observed and yields were obtained at harvest time.
The peanuts were graded and the plump seed of the Dixie Runner
variety from Experiment 1 were analyzed for nitrogen and oil
content.
From the results in the four field experiments the following
conclusions were drawn:
Each variety when grown without copper treatments showed
visible abnormal growth characteristics of the foliage.
Copper treatments corrected these abnormal growth char-
acteristics and greatly increased yields.
There was a pronounced effect on yields from copper applied
three years previously.
Without copper applications the peanuts were of a poorer
grade, having more shrivels and less plump peanuts.
The amount of copper required is very small and indications
are that a spray containing this element will prevent the ab-
normality.
Nitrogen and oil contents of the plump peanuts in Experiment
1 were not affected by the treatments.
Flowers of sulfur applied to Arredondo loamy fine sand where
no copper was applied increased the yield of peanuts, even though
the fertilizer contained a liberal amount of the sulfate ion.









20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

This suggests that the sulfur treatment may have made the
copper of the soil more available to the peanuts.
Because these results were obtained at one location, they
should not be used as the basis for general recommendations.

Literature Cited
1. ALLISON, R. V., O. C. BRYAN and J. H. HUNTER. The stimulation of
plant response on the raw peat soils of the Florida Everglades
through the use of copper sulfate and other chemicals. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 190. 1927.
2. CAMP, A. F., and B. R. FUDGE. Some symptoms of citrus malnutrition
in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 335. 1939.
3. COLLINS, E. R., and H. D. MORRIS. Soil fertility studies with peanuts.
N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 330. 1942.
4. FRAPS, G. S. The composition of peanuts and peanut by-products.
Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 222. 1917.
5. FUDGE, B. R. Dieback of citrus. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rpt., pp.
108-109. 1936.
6. GILBERT, S. G., F. S. LAGASSE, G. T. SIMS, J. HAMILTON and A. NASON.
The copper-nitrogen balance in the tung tree. Proc. Amer. Tung
Oil Assoc. 11: 55-60. 1945.
7. GILBERT, S. G., H. M. SELL and M. DROSDOFF. The effect of copper
deficiency on the nitrogen metabolism and oil synthesis of the tung
tree. Plant Physiol. 21: 290-303. 1946.
8. HARRIS, HENRY C. A nutritional disease of oats apparently due to
the lack of copper. Science 106: 398. 1947.
9. HARRIS, HENRY C. Copper deficiency in relation to the nutrition of
oats. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 12: 278-281. 1948.
10. HARRIS, HENRY C. Copper deficiency of peanuts. Proc. Southern Agr.
Workers 46: 139. 1949.
11. KILLINGER, G. B., W. E. STOKES, FRED CLARK and J. D. WARNER. Pea-
nuts in Flcrida. I. Peanut growing. II. Chemical composition of
the peanut plant. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 432. 1947.
12. METCALF, Z. P. Peanut "pouts". Science 86: 374. 1937.
13. MIDDLETON, G. K., W. E. COLWELL, N. C. BRADY and E. F. SHULTZ, JR.
The behavior of four varieties of peanuts as affected by calcium
and potassium variables. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 37: 433-457.
1945.
14. PATEL, J. S., and C. R. SESHADRI. Oil formation in groundnut with
reference to quality. Indian Jour. Agr. Sci. 5 (Part II) 165-175.
1935.
15. SHEAR, G. M., and L. I. MILLER. Thrips injury of peanut seedlings.
The Plant Disease Reporter 25: 470-474. 1941.
16. WOODROOP, NAOMI C., JOHN R. COLE and JAMES H. HUNTER. Leaf
spot control for increased peanut yields. Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir.
145. 1944.





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