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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Experiment 1
 Experiment 2
 Discussion
 Summary
 References
 Tables 1-14














Title: Effects of grower diets on the performance of egg production type pullets
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Title: Effects of grower diets on the performance of egg production type pullets
Physical Description: Book
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Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1962
Copyright Date: 1962
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Review of literature
        Page 4
    Experiment 1
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Experiment 2
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Discussion
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Summary
        Page 13
    References
        Page 14
    Tables 1-14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text












EFFECT OF GROWER DIETS ON THE
PERFORMANCE OF EGG PRODUC-
TION TYPE PULLETS



P. W. WALDROUP AND R. H. HARMS







TECHNICAL BULLETIN







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 0 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 0 GAINESVILLE
Bulletin 646 J. R. BECKENBACH, Director May 1962















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.
INTRODUCTION ..... ..... .... .... ............ ...... ........... .. 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ....................... .. ..... .......................... 4

EXPERIMENT 1 .......... .......... ... ..........5...- ........ 5

Experimental Procedure:

Grower phase ....................... ........................ 5

Layer phase ....-................. ... .. -... ............... 6

Results:

Grower phase ...................... .. ..... .............. 7

Layer phase .......... ........ ....... ......... ........... 8

EXPERIMENT 2 ......................................... .............. 9

Experimental Procedure:

Grower phase .....--..................... .... ...- ......... 9

Layer phase ............... ........... .. .. .. .. ............ ............ 10

Results:

Grower phase ............. .... ......................... ...-........... 10

Layer phase .............. ..-....-........ .... .-....... ........... 10

DIscussION -........ .... -........ .................... ................. 11

SUMMARY ... -----................ ----. ...-..-. .............- 13

REFERENCES ............--............. ....... -.......... 14










Effect of Grower Diets on the Performance

of Egg Production Type Pullets1

P. W. WALDROUP AND R. H. HARMS
Department of Poultry Science

INTRODUCTION
It is generally agreed that replacement pullets grown for pro-
duction of commercial eggs should be fed a well fortified, low
fiber, 21 percent protein starter diet for the first eight weeks of
life.
The best method of feeding from eight weeks of age until
housing is controversial. Many poultry breeders have developed
a system of feeding supposedly styled to fit their particular
breed or strain, and in many instances this has been modified
by the individual producer to meet the needs of his particular
conditions. Although each flock of pullets is raised on a given
feeding program it will fit into one of three general programs.
These three programs are usually referred to as: (1) full feed-
ing program, (2) limited feeding program, and (3) high fiber
feeding program.
The full feeding program entails the feeding of a well forti-
fied low fiber diet, containing 18 percent protein, from 8 to 16
weeks of age, at which time the level of protein is reduced to 16
percent. This diet is given until 21 weeks of age, when the pul-
lets are changed to the layer diet.
The same 18 percent protein grower diet used in the full
feeding program is used with the limited feeding program. How-
ever, from 8 to 21 weeks of age the amount of feed the birds are
allowed to eat each day is limited. Usually they are given ap-
proximately 70 percent of the amount of feed they would usually
consume. When pullets are grown in winter months, supple-
mentary feeding of 2 to 4 pounds of grain per 100 birds may
be given daily, especially on cold days.
The high fiber feeding program consists of "full feeding"
from 8 to 21 weeks of age, a diet containing at least 15 percent
fiber and 15 percent protein. This high level of fiber results in
a feed so bulky that the pullet cannot consume sufficient amounts

1 These data are a portion of a Thesis which the senior author submit-
ted to the University of Florida Graduate School as a partial fulfillment of
the M.S. degree.







4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

to sustain maximum growth, yielding the same results as the
limited feeding program.
Each of the above feeding programs was developed from in-
formation contained in the literature, although much conflicting
evidence can be found as to results obtained with these methods
of feeding pullets.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Reports from research prior to 1950 indicated that it was
possible to change the growth pattern of pullets without greatly
affecting subsequent performance. Vondell (1943) found that
pullets which performed well could be raised on grass range by
allowing the feeders to become empty each day and withholding
feed one day per week. Novikoff and Biely (1945) reported that
restricting feed intake from 1 day to 12 months of age resulted in
slower growth and lowered subsequent egg production. Heywang
and Morgan (1944) found that pelleting of the feed resulted in
heavier pullets at 12 weeks of age, but had very little effect on
age at first egg.
During the early 1950's, many poultrymen followed the pro-
gram of allowing the pullet to consume only approximately 70
percent of the feed it would usually consume. It was believed
sexual maturity of the pullet would be delayed by this procedure,
resulting in larger eggs and reduced mortality in the laying
house. Results from experiments using this type of growing
program have not been in agreement as to the effect on the above
mentioned factors. However, most workers (Milby and Sher-
wood, 1953, 1956; Davis and Watts, 1955; Quisenberry 1959; and
Fuller 1960) have found that restricting feed intake during the
growing period results in delaying sexual maturity of pullets.
Davis and Watts (1955) reported that restriction of feed
for New Hampshire pullets during the growing period resulted
in slightly larger initial eggs, while Milby and Sherwood (1956)
and Quisenberry (1959) reported that egg size at any given age
was not affected by this feeding program.
Restriction of feed during the growing period has been re-
ported to decrease egg production (Davis and Watts, 1955), in-
crease egg production (Fuller, 1960), and have no effect on egg
production (Milby and Sherwood, 1956).
Laying house mortality of pullets did not appear to be affected
by restricting feed intake during the growing period (Milby and
Sherwood, 1956; Quisenberry, 1959; and Fuller, 1960).







Performance of Egg Production Type Pullets 5

The use of high fiber feeds to delay sexual maturity has re-
cently been suggested (Couch et al., 1957; Bruins, 1958; and
Issacks et al., 1960). It was found that the same results would
be obtained with this program as with the limited intake of feed.
However, the above reports did not agree as to the effect on sub-
sequent performance.
It is apparent that published data pertaining to the effects of
various feeding programs on growing pullets are not in agree-
ment. These experiments were conducted to gather more infor-
mation on the effects of feeding diets containing various levels
of protein and energy to pullets during the growing period.

EXPERIMENT 1
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of
feeding grower diets which varied widely in protein and energy
to commercial egg production type pullets (Hy-line 934A). A
total of 920 pullets were used in this experiment. These pullets
were purchased from a commercial hatchery, and at one day of
age were dubbed, debeaked, dewinged, and vaccinated for New-
castle disease and Infectious Bronchitis by the intraocular
method.
The chicks were brooded in floor pens with dirt floors using
wood shavings as litter. Infra-red bulbs were used as the source
of heat. At six weeks of age the chicks were vaccinated for fowl
pox by the wing-web method, and at 8 and 21 weeks of age they
were re-vaccinated for Newcastle disease and Infectious Bronchi-
tis by the intraocular method.
From one day of age until eight weeks of age the pullets were
fed a starter diet. This diet, containing 22 percent protein and
940 Calories of productive energy per pound, was comparable to
starter diets used in commercial production. The pullets were
"full-fed" this diet during the entire eight week starter period
to obtain healthy, vigorous pullets that could withstand extreme
nutritional stress during the grower period (8-21 weeks).
Grower phase.-At eight weeks of age the 920 pullets were
randomized into 20 pens, each containing 46 pullets, and indi-
vidually weighed and wingbanded. Duplicate pens of pullets
were placed on each of the 10 grower diets shown in Table 1.
Each pen contained 120 square feet of floor space and was equip-
ped with 1 bell-type automatic waterer and two 4-foot feed







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

troughs. The experimental diets were available to the pullets
at all times.
Formulation of diets was based on values according to Titus
(1955). These diets were calculated to contain levels of protein
ranging from 9 to 25 percent, and energy levels ranging from
700 to 1180 Calories of productive energy per pound. Kjeldahl
determinations (N x 6.25) were made for each diet (Table 2) and
protein values were found to be close to calculated values. In
order to obtain an estimate of the density of the various diets,
three 3000 cc. samples of each diet were weighed. From these
weights the concentration of energy and protein was determined
(Table 2).
At the beginning of the thirteenth week artificial light was
provided to insure a minimum of 14 hours of light daily so that
the sexual maturity of pullets would not be delayed because of
insufficient light.
At various intervals (11, 14, 17, and 21 weeks of age) the
pullets were group weighed and feed consumption determined.
These data were used to calculate average body weight and feed
consumption as well as average daily energy and protein con-
sumption. At 21 weeks of age the grower phase was terminated
and the layer phase initiated.
Layer phase.-Eighty pullets of the 92 pullets in each of the
10 grower lots were randomly selected for the layer phase of the
experiment. A split block design was used with a pullet from
each grower diet being placed into each experimental block.
Eight of these blocks were assigned to one of ten different layer
diets. The composition of the layer diets is shown in Table 3.
Layer diets 1 and 2 were also fed with a supplement of either
0.075 percent methionine hydroxy analogue calcium (MHA2) or
200 mg. choline per pound, or both. However, since the inter-
action of grower diets x layer diets did not approach a level of
statistical significance only performance as influenced by grower
diets is given in this presentation.
The pullets were kept in individual cages and allowed access
to layer diets and tap water ad libitum. A minimum of 14 hours
of light was maintained by the use of artificial lights.
Records were kept of individual egg production, and the date
on which the pullet laid her first egg was recorded as the age
of sexual maturity. Since pullets from each grower lot were in

2Registered trademark Monsanto Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo., this
sample had 90 percent purity.







Performance of Egg Production Type Pullets 7

each block, no record was available for feed consumption as
affected by grower diet. Therefore, no comparison of this cri-
terion could be made between grower diets.
Egg weights were obtained at various intervals for each pul-
let, and average weight of eggs determined for all pullets grown
on each diet. The pullets were individually weighed at bi-
monthly intervals. Mortality was recorded and rate of egg pro-
duction calculated on a hen-day basis. No post-mortem examina-
tions were made. The layer phase of this experiment was con-
ducted for twelve 28-day periods. Statements of probability in
this presentation are based on the analysis of variance.
RESULTS
Grower phase.-Body weight of pullets at 21 weeks of age
was significantly increased with each increase in the level of die-
tary protein at all levels of energy with the exception of increas-
ing the protein level from 20 to 25 percent with 940 Calories of
productive energy per pound (Table 4). Increasing the level
of energy in the diet resulted in significantly increasing body
weight of pullets when the diet contained 16 percent protein.
Increasing the level of energy at a 9 percent level of protein re-
sulted in significantly decreasing body weight of pullets. Chang-
ing levels of energy at other levels of protein did not alter body
weight.
An increase in the level of energy in the diet significantly
lowered feed consumption (Table 5). Pullets receiving the diets
containing 700 Calories of productive energy per pound consumed
the greatest amount of feed with the 2 groups receiving the diets
containing 1180 Calories of productive energy per pound con-
suming the least. There was a trend for consumption of feed
to be slightly lowered when the level of protein in the diet was
increased. The group of pullets receiving the 9/9408 diet con-
sumed considerably less feed than groups receiving higher levels
of protein at this level of energy.
The average Calories of productive energy consumed daily
per pullet is shown in Table 6. Each increase in the level of
protein resulted in decreasing the daily energy intake when the
diet contained either 700 or 1180 Calories of productive energy.
The effect of protein level upon daily intake was not so clearly
defined when the diet contained 940 Calories of productive energy.
In general, an increase in protein resulted in decreased energy
"Refers to the diet containing 9 percent protein and 940 Calories of
productive energy. All diets hereafter will be referred to in this manner.







8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

intake. The lowest daily energy intake was noted with the
9/940 diet. No difference was noted when the level of protein
was increased from 20 to 25 percent with this level of energy.
Increasing the level of productive energy from 700 to 940
Calories per pound resulted in lowered daily energy intake.
However, a further increase to 1180 Calories resulted in a daily
energy intake equal to that observed from feeding diets contain-
ing 700 Calories of productive energy per pound.
Increasing the level of protein at either of the three levels of
energy resulted in an increase in daily intake of protein (Table
7). A decreased daily intake of protein was noted when the level
of energy was increased from 700 to 940 Calories of productive
energy per pound, and a further reduction was noted when the
level of energy was increased to 1180 Calories.
Age at first egg ranged from 160.0 days for pullets receiving
the 20/1180 diet to 179.4 days for pullets receiving the 9/940
diet (Table 5). Each increase of protein at a given energy level
resulted in decreasing age at first egg. The effect of energy level
upon age at first egg was not so clearly defined. Increasing the
level of energy when the diet contained 9 percent protein resulted
in increasing age at first egg. Energy level of the diet did not
affect age at first egg when the diets contained 12 percent protein.
Increasing the energy level when the diet contained 16 or 20
percent protein tended to decrease age at first egg.
Layer phase.-Rate of egg production, calculated at 28-day
intervals, for the pullets grown on the various diets, is shown
in Table 8. The highest rate of production for the 336-day lay-
ing period was 68.4 percent for the pullets receiving the 20/1180
grower diet, and the lowest rate was 64.9 percent for the group
of pullets which received the 9/940 grower diet. However, sta-
tistical analysis of total number of eggs for the year revealed
no significant difference in rate of lay among any of the 10 ex-
perimental groups.
During the first 28-days in the laying house (21-25 weeks
of age) the level of protein which the pullets received in the
grower diet significantly affected the number of eggs produced.
The higher the level of protein in the grower diet, at given level
of energy, the more eggs the pullet laid during the first month.
The effect of energy level in the grower diet upon number of
eggs laid during the first 28-day period was not nearly so clearly
defined. During the second 28-day period all groups were pro-
ducing at approximately the same rate except the groups which







Performance of Egg Production Type Pullets 9

received the diets containing 9 percent protein. By the begin-
ning of the third 28-day period all groups were laying at a com-
parable rate. From the third to the eleventh 28-day period, two
of the groups (9/700 and 9/940) produced at a slightly higher
rate than did the pullets grown on the other diets. However,
during the twelfth 28-day period, the rate of lay of these groups
had dropped to a level comparable to the other groups.
No difference in eggs weights was detected between the vari-
ous groups at any age (Table 9). The difference between the
groups producing the heaviest and lightest eggs at any given
date was usually less than 1 gram, and in no instance approached
a level of statistical significance.
Mortality in the laying house ranged from 15 percent for pul-
lets grown on the 9/940 diet to 3.75 percent for those grown on
the 12/700 diet (Table 10). Mortality rate could not be associ-
ated with either protein or energy level of the grower diet, there-
fore it is assumed that the variation obtained in this experi-
ment is within the normal range for the number of pullets per
treatment.

EXPERIMENT 2

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Results of Experiment 1 indicate that lowering the dietary
protein resulted in reducing growth rate of pullets, thus delaying
sexual maturity. This experiment was conducted to further
evaluate the low protein-high energy grower diet for replace-
ment pullets. This diet (10/940) was compared to a conven-
tional grower diet (16/940) and a 20 percent fiber diet (12/600).
A total of 120 day-old pullets were used in this experiment.
The procedure from 1 day to 8 weeks of age was the same as
was followed in Experiment 1.
Grower phase.-At eight weeks of age, the 120 pullets were
randomized into three pens, each containing 40 pullets. One
pen of pullets was fed each of the grower diets (Table 11).
Slight modifications were made in the low protein and the high
fiber diet from those used in Experiment 1. These changes
were made in order to obtain diets which were more practical
for commercial operations.
Each pen contained 120 square feet of floor space and was
equipped with one bell-type automatic waterer, and two 4-foot







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

feed troughs. The experimental diets were available to the
pullets at all times.
At the beginning of the thirteenth week, artificial light was
given to insure a minimum of 14 hours of light daily so that the
sexual maturity of pullets would not be delayed because of in-
sufficient light.
At 20 weeks of age the pullets were individually weighed,
the grower phase terminated and the layer phase initiated.
Layer phase.-Thirty pullets were randomly selected from
each of the 3 grower lots for the layer phase of the experiment.
The 30 pullets were divided into six groups of five each, placed in
individual cages, and allowed access to the layer diet and tap
water ad libitum. The layer diet was a slight modification of
diet 3 (Table 3) in that the energy content was increased to 1000
Calories of productive energy per pound by increasing the level
of animal fat.
The date on which the pullet laid her first egg was recorded
as the age of sexual maturity. Records were kept of individual
egg production and feed consumption obtained for each group of
pullets. Rate of egg production on a hen-day basis and feed
efficiency was calculated at 28-day intervals.
Egg weights were obtained at monthly intervals for each
pullet, and average weight of eggs determined for all pullets
grown on each diet. The pullets were individually weighed at
housing and at various intervals throughout the experiment.
Mortality records were kept and total mortality calculated for
the 11 month laying period. No post-mortem examinations
were made.
RESULTS
Grower phase.-Body weights of pullets fed the 10/940
grower diet (Table 12) were significantly less than either of the
other 2 groups of pullets at 20 weeks of age. Pullets fed the
16/940 diet were significantly heavier.
Feeding either the 10/940 or 12/600 diet resulted in signifi-
cantly delaying age at first egg (Table 13). Pullets receiving
the 10/940 grower diet were an average of 3 days older when
they laid their first egg than those receiving the 12/600 diet.
Layer phase.-Rate of egg production for the 336-day period
was not significantly different for the pullets grown on the 3
grower diets (Table 14). Pullets grown on the 16/940 diet laid
at a higher rate for the first three months as a result of retarded
sexual maturity in the other groups. After the fourth month,







Performance of Egg Production Type Pullets 11

pullets grown on the 10/940 and 12/600 maintained a slightly
higher rate of production for the remainder of the experiment.
However, the rate of production had practically equalized for the
3 groups by the end of the experiment.
Pullets grown on the 16/940 diet required significantly less
feed to produce a dozen eggs than was required by pullets grown
on the other diets (Table 14). This difference was primarily due
to the fact that pullets grown on the 10/940 and 12/600 diet con-
sumed as much feed during the first 2 months in the laying house
as did the pullets grown on the 16/940 diet, although the 16/940
fed pullets were laying at a much higher rate.
The diet which the pullets received during the grower period
did not significantly affect weight of eggs (Table 14). Mortality
was 6.7, 10.0 and 13.3 percent for the pullets grown on the
16/940, 10/940 and 12/600 diet, respectively.
Body weight of pullets at various intervals is shown in Table
12. As may be noted, although pullets grown on the 10/940 and
12/600 diets were severely retarded in body weight at 20 weeks
of age, they were as heavy as pullets grown on the 16/940 diet
after they had been in the laying house for 2 months.

DISCUSSION
Reducing either the energy or protein content of the diet
with the other held constant resulted in significantly lowering
body weight of pullets at 20 or 21 weeks of age (Tables 4 and 12).
This lowered body weight was accompanied by a delay in age at
first egg (Tables 5 and 13). In general, each change of 18 grams
in body weight at 20 or 21 weeks of age resulted in an inverse
change of 1 day in age at first egg. The delay in sexual maturity
from feeding diets low in energy and high in fiber agrees with
the findings of Couch et al. (1957) and Bruins (1958). This is
the first report on the use of low protein grower diet for delaying
sexual maturity of pullets.
Although body weights of pullets were lowerer at 20 weeks
of age when fed the low protein or energy diets, by 28 weeks of
age the weight of these pullets was equal to that of pullets grown
on the 16/940 diet (Table 12). These pullets gained at such
rapid rate because they consumed as much feed during the first
2 months in the laying house as did the pullets which were grown
on the 16/940 diet which were laying at a much higher rate.
Rate of egg production was not significantly affected by the
diet which the pullets received during the growing period (Ta-







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

bles 8 and 14). However, pullets grown on diets low in either
protein or energy laid fewer eggs in both experiments. This
slightly lowered rate of production resulted from these birds
producing fewer eggs during the first three months in the lay-
ing house and not being able to overcome this deficit although
they produced at a slightly higher rate from the fourth to tenth
month in the laying house.
Pullets grown on the low protein or low energy diet had a
comparable pattern of egg production for the entire 336-day
period, indicating that if delay in sexual maturity is desired the
low protein grower diet is as good as the low energy diet.
Pullets grown on diets containing 1180 Calories of produc-
tive energy per pound (Table 1) produced as well as pullets fed
on lower levels of energy (Table 8) even when one-half of these
pullets received layer diets containing 1063 Calories of productive
energy per pound (Table 3). This would indicate that feeding
growing pullets a diet high in energy is not detrimental.
Size of eggs at any given age was not influenced by the diet
which these pullets were fed during the growing period (Tables
9 and 14). These data agree with the findings of Milby and
Sherwood (1956) and Quisenberry (1959) with egg production
type pullets, however, they are contradictory to those of Davis
and Watts (1955) and Couch et al. (1957) with meat type pullets.
It may be possible that differences in type of bird may affect the
response to the growing program.
Mortality of pullets in the laying house was not significantly
affected by the diet which the pullets received during the grow-
ing period (Tables 10 and 13). No trends were evident, indicat-
ing that neither energy nor protein content of the grower diet
affected laying house mortality even when some pullets received
grower diets containing 1180 Calories of productive energy per
pound. These data agree with the findings of Milby and Sher-
wood (1956), Quisenberry (1959) and Fuller (1960), however,
they disagree with the findings of Bruins (1958).
Significantly more feed was required to produce a dozen eggs
with pullets grown on the 10/940 and 12/600 diets than on the
16/940 diet (Table 14). This resulted from the pullets having
been grown on these diets consuming as much feed during the
first three months in the laying house as those grown on the
16/940 diet. This rate of feed consumption for the pullets grown
on the low protein or energy diets was necessary for those pullets
to gain normal adult weight.








Performance of Egg Production Type Pullets 13

Pullets grown on the low energy diets consumed considerably
more feed during the growing period than did those receiving
high energy diets (Table 5). This combined with increased con-
sumption in the laying house resulted in these pullets consuming
considerably more feed for the combined grower and layer phase.
Although pullets grown on the low protein diet consumed more
feed during the layer period (Table 14), they consumed less dur-
ing the grower period (Table 5). This difference in feed con-
sumption during the grower period would be an advantage for
using the low protein diet for delaying sexual maturity of pul-
lets. In general, feed consumed per pullet during the growing
period (Table 5) was determined by the energy content of the
diet. Each change of 10 Calories of productive energy per pound
of diet resulted in an inverse change of 1 percent in the amount
of feed consumed.
SUMMARY
Two experiments were conducted with commercial egg pro-
duction type pullets to determine the effect of feeding grower
diets varying widely in protein and energy content.
It was found that a delay in sexual maturity of pullets was
obtained by reducing the level of either protein or energy in the
diet. The use of grower diets (8 to 21 weeks) low in protein is
proposed as a new method of growing replacement pullets when
delay of sexual maturity is desired.
The energy or protein level in the grower diet did not signifi-
cantly affect the total rate of egg production; however, pullets
raised on diets low in either protein or energy tend to lay at a
higher rate after 32 weeks of age.
Egg weight at any given age was not influenced by the diet
which the pullet received during the grower period.
The amount of feed consumed during the grower period was
inversely related to the energy content of the diet. Each change
of 10 Calories of productive energy per pound of diet resulted in
an inverse change of 1 percent in the amount of feed required.
Pullets restricted in protein or energy during the grower period
consumed more feed after being placed in the laying house and
reaching a normal adult weight.
Based on results of these experiments, it is suggested that
pullets being grown for the production of commercial eggs be
"full fed" from 8 to 21 weeks a diet containing 16 percent pro-
tein and a level of at least 940 Calories of productive energy per
pound of diet.








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to express their appreciation to Dr. A. E.
Brandt for his assistance in the statistical analysis of these data.


REFERENCES
BRUINS, H. W., 1958. Energy restrictions for replacement pullets. Feed-
stuffs 30(39) :32.
COUCH, J. R., R. E. ISSACKS, B. L. REID, W. P. CRAWFORD and J. H. QUISEN-
BERRY, 1957 Feeding and management of replacement broiler stock.
Feed Age 7(10):34.
DAVIS, W. M., and A. B. WATTS, 1955. The effect of ration treatments dur-
ing various stages of the chicken's life upon the subsequent perform-
ance of laying hens. Poultry Sci. 34:1231.
FULLER, HENRY L., 1960. Restricted feeding of pullets. Abst. of papers
presented at the Maryland Nutrition Conf., 1960, pp. 2-4.
HEYWANG, B. W., and R. B. MORGAN, 1944. A comparison of a pelleted and
unpelleted all-mash diet for growing chickens. Poultry Sci. 23:16.
ISSACKS, R. E., B. L. REID, R. E. DAVIES, J. H. QUISENBERRY AND J. R. COUCH,
1960. Restricted feeding of broiler type replacement stock. Poultry
Sci. 39:339.
MILBY T. T., AND D. H. SHERWOOD, 1953. The effect of restricted feeding
on growth and subsequent production of pullets. Poultry Sci. 32:916.
MILBY, T. T., AND D. H. SHERWOOD, 1956. The influence of feed intake
during the growing period on the subsequent performance of laying
hens. Poultry Sci. 35:863.
NOVIKOFF, M., and J. BIELY, 1945. Observations on two methods of feeding
chickens from one day to twelve months of age. Poultry Sci. 24:245.
QUISENBERRY, J. H., 1959. Limited feeding vs. limited energy feeds for
the growing pullet. Feedstuffs 31(43):36.
VONDELL, J. H., 1943. Range utilization by growing chickens. U.S. Egg
and Poultry Magazine 49:464.












TABLE 1.-COMPOSITION OF GROWER DIETS.

Ingredient 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Lbs./cwt.


Yellow corn .................... ................. 22.6 14.4 4.5 65.0 56.5 46.5 35.6 23.8 59.2 46.9
Ground oats .....-....-............................. 9.9 7.6 4.5 22.0 19.8 16.7 13.4 10.0 -
Soybean meal (50% prot.) ...------..... 7.2 15.3 25.9 8.2 18.8 29.8 41.7 20.6 31.2
Animal fat ............................ .. 9.7 11.3 13.0 0.4 2.0 3.8 5.9 8.1 11.4 13.2
Oat hulls ..........----.......................-------. 41.8 42.6 43.4 3.7 4.6 5.5 6.7 7.9 -
Alfalfa meal (17% prot.) -............ 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Ground limestone ..--- ----...... ......-- 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Defluorinated phosphate
(34% Ca + 17% P) ...-...-- ..------. 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.1 2.0
Bifuran premix* ..--- -----......---...--- 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.,5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Iodized salt --.....................--..... ----- 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 -
Micro-ingredient premix** .................. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9


% Protein ...-........--- .........----.. .... 9.0 12.1 16.2 8.9 12.1 16.2 20.4 24.9 16.2 20.4
Productive energy Cal/lb. ..........---.... 700 701 700 940 940 940 940 940 1180 1180
Calorie/protein ratio ..... ----- 77.8 57.9 43.2 104.6 77.5 57.9 46.1 37.6 72.8 57.8

Bifuran premix (2 pounds Bifuran + 98 pounds corn) supplies per pound of diet: 25 mg. nitrofurazone and 3.6 mg. furazolidone.
** Supplies per pound of diet: 3150 I.U. Vitamin A, 10 meg. Vitamin B,, 340 I.C.U. Vitamin D,, 2 mg. riboflavin, 9 mg. calcium pantothenate, 18 mg.
niacin, 261 mg. choline chloride. 80 mg. manganese sulfate, 2 mg. procaine penicillin, 9 mg. iron, 0.9 mg. copper, 90 mcg. cobalt, and 45 mcg. zinc.


CA













>-i



TABLE 2.-ANALYSIS OF GROWING DIETS.

Diet N x 6.25 Grams/cc.** cc./lb.** Cal./g. Cal/cc.** Prot./ce.**
No. Protein/Energy* ]___

1. ----...-..--.--... 9/700 9.90 0.429 1054.2 1.54 0.66 0.008
2. ....-.....----.. 12/700 12.06 0.436 1040.6 1.54 0.67 0.012
3. ...-......--- .... 16/700 16.08 0.432 1049.7 1.54 0.66 0.015
4. --..--.....--..... 9/940 9.71 0.533 849.7 2.07 1.10 0.011
5. ---................ 12/940 12.35 0.531 854.3 2.07 1.09 0.014
6. .......--....... 16/940 17.15 0.561 808.8 2.07 1.16 0.020
7. ........--...-- ..--- 20/940 20.58 0.562 804.3 2.07 1.16 0.025
8. .............-...... 25/940 26.07 0.552 822.5 2.07 1.14 0.030
9. ...............---.. 16/1180 18.04 0.598 758.9 2.60 1.55 0.021
10 .................. 20/1180 21.56 0.594 763.4 2.60 1.54 0.027

*Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.
** Density determined by weighing three 3,000 c.c. samples of each diet.








Performance of Egg Production Type Pullets 17



TABLE 3.-COMPOSITION OF LAYER DIETS.

Diet No.


Ingredient 1 2 3 4

__Lbs./cwt.

Yellow corn ............................ .............. 77.2 71.3 65.4 59.4
Animal fat .............................. ........... 1.0 6.0 2.8 7.8
Soybean meal (50% protein) ............... 7.6 8.5 17.6 18.6
Fish meal (60% protein) ....................... 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Alfalfa meal (17% protein) .................... 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
Iodized salt ....................................... ...... 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Defluorinated phosphate
(34% Ca + 17% P) ....................... 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Ground limestone ..................................... 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
Micro-ingredient premix* ..................... 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5


% Protein ....................-. ..............-- 13.0 13.0 17.0 17.0
Productive energy Cal/lb ................... 977 1063 977 1063
Calorie/protein ratio ................................ 75.2 81.7 57.4 62.6

*Micro-ingredient premix supplies per pound of feed: 2000 I.U. Vitamin A, 700 I.C.U.
Vitamin D,, 6 mcg. Vitamin B12, 2 mg. riboflavin, 4 mg. calcium pantothenate, 227 mg.
choline chloride, 6 mg. niacin, 2.5 I.U. Vitamin E, and 80 mg. manganese sulfate.



TABLE 4.-EFFECT OF GROWING DIETS ON BODY WEIGHT AND SEXUAL MA-
TURITY OF COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION TYPE PULLETS (EXPERIMENT 1).

Average body weight (lbs.) -
Diet .
No. Prot./ 2 S S
Energy* i .
00 A 4 -i IN ob 4 W

1. ........... 9/700 1.150 1.408 1.801 2.122 2.548 1.398 173.9
2. ......... 12/700 1.147 1.490 1.994 2.302 2.699 1.552 168.5
3. ......... 16/700 1.185 1.630 2.120 2.381 2.756 1.571 167.0
4. ........... 9/940 1.156 1.451 1.673 1.890 2.144 0.988 179.4
5. ............ 12/940 1.162 1.588 1.994 2.329 2.728 1.566 168.6
6. .......... 16/940 1.152 1.687 2.176 2.834 2.943 1.791 163.8
7. -.....-..... 20/940 1.146 1.751 2.228 2.570 3.007 1.861 161.3
8. ............ 25/940 1.139 1.739 2.238 2.559 2.984 1.809 160.3
9. ...-....-... 16/1180 1.148 1.662 2.044 2.466 2.925 1.777. 16-5.8
10. ....... 20/1180 1.151 1.665 2.159 2.495 2.978 1.827 160.0

Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF GROWING DIETS ON FEED CONSUMPTION
OF COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION TYPE PULLETS (EXPERIMENT 1).

Diet Feed/bird (pounds)
No. Prot./ 8-11 11-14 14-17 17-21 8-21
Energy* wks. wks. ] wks. wks. wks.

1. .......... 9/700 2.86 4.40 4.85 6.43 18.54
2. .... ..- 12/700 3.04 4.37 4.69 6.05 18.15
3. .......... 1 16/700 2.90 4.09 4.37 4.98 16.35
4. .......... 1 9/940 2.17 2.35 2.72 3.75 10.99
5. .......... 12/940 2.29 2.81 3.24 4.30 12.64
6. ......... 16/940 2.26 2.75 3.12 4.18 12.31
7. ....... 20/940 2.27 2.73 3.09 4.00 12.09
8. .......... 25/940 2.19 2.72 3.00 4.16 12.07
9........... i 16/1180 2.02 2.44 2.80 3.62 10.88
10 ........ 20/1180 1.94 2.36 2.60 3.67 10.57
Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.


TABLE 6.-AVERAGE CALORIES OF PRODUCTIVE ENERGY CONSUMED
DAILY PER PULLET DURING THE GROWING PERIOD (EXPERIMENT 1).

Diet Period (weeks)
No. Protein/ 8-11 11-14 14-17 I 17-21 1 Average
_Energy* I

1. ...... 9/700 95.1 146.7 154.5 214.5 144.3
2. ........... 12/700 101.1 146.1 149.5 202.0 141.4
3. .16/700 96.6 136.4 139.2 165.9 127.1
4. ............ 9/940 92.6 105.4 116.2 167.9 114.8
5 .......... 12/940 97.9 125.9 138.6 192.3 131.9
6. ........... 16/940 96.4 123.3 133.3 186.9 128.4
7. ........I. 20/940 97.0 122.5 132.1 179.1 126.3
8. ...........] 25/940 93.4 121.9 128.2 186.2 126.1
9. .......... 16/1180 103.9 137.3 150.4 203.3 142.6
10. ........... 20/1180 99.9 132.8 139.7 206.1 138.5
Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.


TABLE 7.-AVERAGE POUNDS OF PROTEIN CONSUMED DAILY
PER PULLET DURING THE GROWING PERIOD (EXPERIMENT 1).

Diet Period (weeks)
No. Protein/ 8-11 11-14 14-17 17-21 Average
Energy* I _

1. .............. 9/700 0.014 0.019 0.019 0.028 0.019
2. ............ 12/700 0.018 0.025 0.025 0.035 0.024
3. ......... 16/700 0.021 0.032 0.032 0.038 0.029
4. ............ 9/940 0.011 0.010 0.011 0.016 0.011
5. .... ....... 12/940 0.014 0.016 0.017 0.025 0.017
6. ........... 16/940 0.017 0.021 0.023 0.032 0.022
7. ......... 20/940 0.020 0.027 0.028 0.039 0.027
8............ 25/940 0.024 0.032 0.034 0.049 0.034
9. .......... 16/1180 0.015 0.019 0.020 0.028 0.020
10. .............. 20/1180 0.017 0.023 0.023 1 0.036 0.024
Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.















TABLE 8.-AVERAGE RATE OF EGG PRODUCTION OF PULLETS REARED ON DIETS VARYING IN LEVEL OF PROTEIN AND ENERGY
(EXPERIMENT 1).

No. Growing diet _Month of lay
Prot./Energy* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Average

"% % % % % % % % % % %
1..... 9/700 10.7 68.9 82.4 80.8 76.3 73.7 70.6 68.8 64.0 62.7 62.4 61.5 65.4
2. .... 12/700 23.3 78.5 83.4 80.7 76.4 74.8 73.8 68.6 62.9 59.7 58.5 59.3 66.9
3..... 16/700 26.3 78.0 82.0 78.3 70.1 71.4 70.3 63.3 59.9 60.7 60.4 61.4 65.6
4. .... 9/940 8.5 58.1 81.5 83.1 79.5 76.5 74.0 70.2 64.6 60.7 60.0 62.4 64.9
5.... 12/940 19.8 77.2 82.1 79.9 77.4 75.7 73.0 70.0 63.3 62.2 63.4 63.1 67.4 c
6..... 16/940 33.0 78.6 81.2 79.0 74.4 74.1 71.9 67.6 60.0 61.8 61.1 61.1 67.2
7.... | 20/940 39.7 79.7 76.6 74.7 70.4 68.3 68.0 63.7 61.0 58.7 62.0 60.3 66.1
8 .... 25/940 41.4 79.2 80.2 76.6 72.4 71.9 69.0 62.5 57.9 58.8 60.9 59.8 66.1
9. 16/1180 28.8 78.0 81.5 78.3 73.0 70.7 70.1 65.5 61.2 59.1 59.0 59.6 66.4
10. .... 20/1180 43.7 80.1 79.8 80.2 77.0 75.6 72.2 67.1 61.7 60.3 61.1 60.1 68.4
i ______ ____ ___ ___ -___ -___ -__I_ ____i i____ I __ __]______ _____
Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.

<~-
















TABLE 9.-AVERAGE WEIGHT OF EGGS LAID BY PULLETS REARED ON FEEDS VARYING IN LEVEL OF
PROTEIN AND ENERGY (EXPERIMENT 1).

Diet Age of pullet (weeks)
No. I
SProt./Energy* 23 25 26 | 27 28 30 32 40 68 4.

__Average Egg Weight (Grams)_

1 ..-.. ... 9/700 44.9 48.4 50.0 52.5 54.0 54.8 56.2 60.3 61.0
2. .------- 12/700 44.4 47.7 50.3 52.3 53.9 54.4 55.2 59.3 61.0
3. -.... 16/700 44.3 48.6 51.0 52.5 54.1 54.2 55.6 59.6 61.4
4. .---- .. 9/940 43.8 48.5 50.1 51.6 53.4 54.7 55.6 60.0 59.7
5. ........-- 12/940 45.8 48.8 50.2 52.4 53.3 54.1 55.5 59.4 60.5
6. -.....-.. 16/940 44.8 48.2 50.3 51.6 53.4 54.3 55.1 58.7 61.2
7. ..--.. 20/940 45.4 49.0 50.9 52.1 53.6 54.1 55.7 60.2 60.9
8. ------ 25/940 45.0 47.8 50.4 52.3 53.8 54.4 54.9 60.5 61.6
9--.. 16/1180 44.3 48.3 50.4 52.2 53.6 54.2 55.3 59.2 60.2
10 .----...... 20/1180 45.8 49.0 50.6 52.7 54.0 54.3 55.0 59.6 61.3

*Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.









Performance of Egg Production Type Pullets 21




TABLE 10.-LAYING HOUSE MORTALITY OF PULLETS REARED
ON VARYING LEVELS OF PROTEIN AND ENERGY (EXPERIMENT 1).

Diet
No. % Mortality
Protein/Energy*


1 .......................... .......................... 9/700 5.00
2 ....................................................... 12/700 3.75
3 ....................................... ...... ...... 16/700 11.25
4. ................................... ....................... 9/940 15.00
5. ............- ........- .........-................ 12/940 12.50
6. ...................... ............ ... ....... .. 16/940 10.00
7. .........--- .......... .. ............... 20/940 12.50
8. .......... ....................................... 25/940 7.50
9 ....................................... ........... 16/1180 8.75
10. ........................................................ 20/1180 6.25

Expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet.





TABLE 11.-COMPOSITION OF GROWER DIETS (EXPERIMENT 2).

Diet Number
Ingredients
_1 2 3
(Lbs./cwt.)


Yellow corn ....... ........................... ........ ........ ... 65.0 - 46.5
Ground oats ..................................... ....... ... .... 22.0 40.00 16.7
Soybean meal (50% protein) ............................. 2.0 11.29 18.8
Animal fat ..............................- .......................... .. -- 5.34 3.8
Oat hulls ...................... ............................. 2.1 34.57 5.5
Alfalfa meal (17% protein) ............................... 2.0 2.00 2.0
Ground limestone .............................................. 0.9 0.83 0.9
Defluorinated phosphate (18% P + 34% Ca) ... 2.2 2.17 2.0
Bifuran premix* ..............--........-.... ................... 2.5 2.50 2.5
Iodized salt ....................................... ... ............ 0.4 0.40 0.4
Micro-ingredients** .......--...........---.................----. 0.9 0.90 0.9

Bifuran premix (2 lbs. Bifuran + 98 lbs. corn) supplies per pound of diet: 25 mg. nitro-
furazone and 3.6 mg. furazolidone.
**Supplies per pound of diet: 3150 I.U. Vitamin A, 10 meg. Vitamin B 340 I.C.U.
Vitamin 1Y, 2 mg. riboflavin, 9 mg. calcium pantothenate, 18 mg. niacin, 261 mg. choline
chloride, 80 mg. manganese sulfate, 9 mg. iron, 0.9 mg. copper, 90 meg. cobalt, 45 meg.
zinc, 5 mg. terramycin HCI, and 56 mg. Ethoxyquin.








22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations








TABLE 12.-BODY WEIGHT OF PULLETS WHEN REARED ON DIET
VARYING IN PROTEIN AND ENERGY CONTENT (EXPERIMENT 2).

Diet Number

1 2 3

Content*

Wk. of age 10/940 12/600 16/940

(Grams)

20 ...................... ---......... 1024 1137 1285
24 ..........-.............. ..... .... 1514 1485 1525
28 -----......................-----..... .... ... 1625 1603 1616
32 .................................. ... 1678 1647 1673
40 ............ ----.............. ------............ 1774 1725 1751
56 ...............----- ..- -.......--..................------------........ 1870 1802 1810
62 ............... ...... .. ..------..--...--...---...... 1823 1729 1797

Content of diet expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound
of diet.






TABLE 13.-AVERAGE AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY (AGE AT FIRST EGG) AND
LAYING HOUSE MORTALITY OF PULLETS FED VARIOUS LEVELS OF PROTEIN
AND ENERGY (EXPERIMENT 2).

Diet Age at first
egg (days) Mortality
No. Content*_____

1 ..................--....- ..... 10/940 172.8 10.0%
2 ............................ ...... 12/600 169.6 13.3%
3 ..................................... 16/940 158.3 6.7%

Content of diet expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound
of diet.













TABLE 14.-AVERAGE RATE OF EGG PRODUCTION, FEED REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A DOZEN EGGS AND WEIGHT OF EGGS FROM hT
PULLETS REARED ON DIETS RANGING IN PROTEIN AND ENERGY (EXPERIMENT 2).

Rate of Egg Production Feed/Doz. Eggs Egg Weights

Mo. of Lay Grower Diet* Grower Diet* Grower Diet* __
S10/940 12/600 16/940 10/940 12/600 16/940 10/940 12/600 16/940
% _Lbs. Gms. _

1 .------.------...... ........-.. 6.2 7.4 28.9 39.1 31.4 7.8 53.8 52.2 53.0 0
2 .........5...... ........... ... 57.7 66.8 83.3 4.80 3.73 3.12 53.7 52.5 52.4
3 ----.... ... --......---- ............. 82.6 77.1 85.2 3.37 3.27 3.08 54.5 53.2 53.2
4 .....-- ........ ................... ....i. 84.9 82.9 81.2 3.32 3.23 3.23 56.9 56.4 56.0
5 ---........ ------.............. 83.3 79.9 75.3 3.53 3.47 3.63 57.2 55.9 55.9
6 ---.....--... ---.. ----...... ------....... 76.1 76.5 68.3 3.68 3.83 3.66 59.5 58.0 58.3
7 ------...........-- ................... 75.0 74.6 71.6 3.71 3.72 3.54 60.7 59.1 59.0
8 ----... ..-...--...-...............-- ...... 73.5 71.2 69.9 3.58 3.57 3.68 61.6 59.9 60.8
9 .................................... .... 70.2 66.1 64.5 3.83 3.90 3.79 60.8 58.4 61.4 0
10 -...................................... 57.3 61.4 57.4 3.51 3.60 3.84 59.6 58.5 59.3
11 .....---...... ...-..-.. .........-- ---.--58.6 57.9 56.4 4.14 4.04 3.86 61.0 59.2 61.6
12 .------. ...... ............... 52.7 57.1 56.9 4.25 4.24 3.99 60.3 58.3 60.8


Av. ..---...........--------........---- 64.9 64.8 66.5 4.08 3.93 3.69

Content of diet expressed as percent protein and Calories of productive energy per pound of diet. o





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