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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Effect of feed additives on preservation and feeding value of pangolagrass silage
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026831/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of feed additives on preservation and feeding value of pangolagrass silage
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 15 p. : ill., charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCaleb, J. E
Peacock, F. M ( Fentress McCoughan ), 1922-
Hodges, E. M ( Elver M )
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1965
Copyright Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Pangolagrass -- Silage   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 15).
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. McCaleb, F.M. Peacock and E.M. Hodges.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026831
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEP0061
oclc - 18361865
alephbibnum - 000929283

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Full Text

Bulein 697 chnical)




















,l E 4 a Se

F. M. Peacock


E.B M. Hodge




AGICUL 0TUENT STATIONS
NTITUTE F ODNDARIUTURAL




SCINCEi *

UNIVERSI OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
J. R. BECKENBACH, DIRECTOR













CONTENTS
Page

Introduction ......-................. .....................---.... 3

Review of Literature ............................................ ... ... 4

Method of Procedure ...............................--. ............ .. 4

Results and Discussion ..................... ........... ................ 6

Summary and Conclusions ....................................................... 14

Literature Cited ........................................ ................... ..... 15








# ^ T~B ^'










EFFECT OF FEED ADDITIVES ON
PRESERVATION AND FEEDING VALUE
OF PANGOLAGRASS SILAGE

J. E. McCaleb, F. M. Peacock and E. M. Hodges'


INTRODUCTION
The fundamental principle underlying conservation of any
forage crop is harvesting the vegetation at the most desirable stage
of growth and storing to preserve its nutrients. An excess of
forage in one season and a shortage in another has always been
a problem of stockmen. Several methods have been developed
to preserve excess roughage for periods which normally would be
deficient. One of these methods, the preservation of grass as silage,
was used in this study.
The aim in making silage is to achieve within the ensiled mass
a concentration of lactic acid sufficient to inhibit other forms of
microbial activity and thus preserve the material in its most
palatable and nutritious form until such time as it is required (1)2.
Much of the research on silage preparation has been devoted to
development of the best method to achieve this end.
Pangolagrass is the crop most commonly used for making
silage on the mineral soils of south-central Florida. Silage of good
appearance, odor, and palatability has been made at the Range
Cattle Station (5) from pangolagrass containing 65 to 75 percent
moisture without the use of additives or preservatives when
thorough packing removed airpockets in the silage mass. Surface
spoilage was decreased by excluding air with vegetative material
or manufactured covers. In contrast to well-developed techniques
of ensiling pangolagrass, there is comparatively little information
on loss of protein, fiber, minerals, and other feed nutrients during
silage formation under south-central Florida conditions.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of
selected feed additives on: 1, nutritive value of pangolagrass silage
as measured by performance of long-yearling steers; 2, loss in
drainage (effluent); 3, temperature gradients; and 4, spoilage
during the storage period.
'Associate Agronomist, Associate Animal Husbandman, and Agron-
omist, Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Trials to determine the value of pangolagrass silage for fattening
and wintering beef cattle have shown it to be a satisfactory
roughage. Kirk et al. (3) reported that long-yearling steers gained
1.29 pounds per day when fed an average daily ration of 59.18
pounds pangolagrass silage and 2.99 pounds of 41 percent cotton-
seed meal. Other Florida research personnel (2, 5, 6, 7) have fed
pangolagrass silage with satisfactory results to cattle varying in
sex and age. Wing and Becker (7) tested one or more of six forms
of preservation on four legumes and four grass-type forages (in-
cluding pangolagrass) to determine consumption and digestibility
of these forages when fed to dairy cows. They found that all
forages investigated could be recommended for silage and that
absorptive concentrates such as citrus pulp and ground snapped
corn could be used satisfactorily as preservatives at the rate of
150 pounds per ton of fresh forage.


METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Trials to determine the effect of feed additives on preservation
of nutritive value of pangolagrass started with ensiling 2.5 tons of
good quality grass in each of four treatments on August 7, 1959;
August 11, 1960; and August 28, 1961. All treatments were
replicated three times for each year. Forage of similar quality
was used in August 1959 and 1960; grass of slightly higher
moisture content was ensiled in 1961. The vegetative material used
in 1960 most closely resembled the average forage used for silage
in south-central Florida. The treatments and pounds of additives
per ton of fresh cut grass were: 1, control-no additives; 2, citrus
pulp-150; 3, ground snapped corn-150; 4, citrus molasses-80.
Each silo rested on an 8 by 8-foot concrete base sloped to
permit collection of liquid draining from the forage. Silo walls
were made of 2 by 4-inch mesh 12-gauge galvanized wire enclosing
an 8 mil vinyl plastic bag liner. A small funnel was sealed in the
bottom of each bag and attached to a flexible plastic tube leading
to a 1-gallon brown glass jar, which collected the effluent. After
filling, each silo was made air-tight and waterproof (Figure 1).
The effluent was measured, and representative samples were
taken, frozen immediately in a deep freeze, and analyzed by
standard techniques by the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Uni-
versity of Florida.









Effect of Feed Additives on Pangolagrass Silage 5




Old tires (3-5) to
prevent billowing of
plastic. 0 ( 8 mil vinyl plastic






Thermocouple Oi
and wire f
l M92"x4" mesh fence


SSample in plastic
mesh bag


Thermocouple
'" and wire

S4* Effluent collection
tube
Slope --8'
".-- -- ---t-- --I6"
STube

Figure 1.-Diagram of experimental silos. Scale: 1/3"=1'.

Samples of freshly cut pangolagrass and additive, each
weighing 1000 grams, were collected at time of ensiling from each
silo at a position 1 foot from the top, midpoint, and 1 foot from
the bottom and divided into two portions. One of these was
immediately placed in a forced air dryer at 40 to 500 C to deter-
mine moisture content on an air-dry basis, then ground in a Wiley
mill for later analysis of nutrient composition by standard labora-
tory techniques. The second portion was placed in a bag made
from plastic screening and located in the silo at the three described
heights. These were removed during out-feeding and prepared for
analysis in the manner described above.
Thermocouple wires were located beneath and touching the
top plastic mesh sample bag, and above and in contact with the









6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

bottom bag. Temperature readings were taken daily between 9
and 10:00 a.m. for the first two weeks after ensiling and at approx-
imately three-day intervals thereafter for an additional four weeks.
Data were recorded for each replication, and temperature changes
were computed on a basis of number of days elapsed from time of
ensiling.
Grade Brahman-Shorthorn steers, approximately 18 months
of age, were used in each of the three years. Animals were allotted
to treatment by grade and weight to minimize differences between
lots. Initial weights at Range Cattle Station, and final weights at
Tampa, Florida, were used to compute total and average daily
gains. Water and complete mineral mixture were provided for
each lot.
Weighed amounts of silages were removed once daily from each
treatment and fed to steers in sufficient amounts to permit some
weighback. Three pounds of 41 percent cottonseed meal daily per
steer was distributed evenly over the silage at feeding time.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The percent dry matter of pangolagrass with and without feed
additives when ensiled and when out-fed is shown in Table 1.
The largest decrease- in dry matter percentage between ensiling
and feeding occurred in 1959 and the least in 1961. The figures
given in the center-out column would be expected to represent the
dry matter of larger silos.
The average chemical composition of silage by treatment and
location 1 foot from top, center and 1 foot from the bottom is
shown in Table 2. A comparison of the feed analyses averaged
for all treatments at ensiling with those at out-feeding shows a
loss in crude protein of 1.78 percent; calcium, .6; magnesium, .11;
phosphorus, .05; ether extract, .23; and NFE, .6 percent. Ash
increased 1.06 and crude fiber 1.89 percent. The control, citrus
pulp, and citrus molasses silages were below the minimum require-
ment of .20 percent phosphorus in air-dried forage recommended
by Morrison (5) for long-yearling steers.
Average percentage protein loss for the three years was:
control, 2.11; ground snapped corn, 2.11; citrus molasses, 1.72;
and citrus pulp, 1.52. The average percentage loss of protein in
each silo is shown in Table 3. Losses were least at the top and
became progressively greater at center and bottom locations. The
average loss was 23.74 percent protein for all treatments and








Effect of Feed Additives on Pangolagrass Silage 7

Table 1.- Percent air-dry material when ensiled and at outfeeding at
1 foot from TOP, CENTER, and 1 foot from BOTTOM.

Top Center Bottom Average

Year In Out In Out In Out In Out

Pangolagrass-no additives
1959 33.0 29.4 30.4 29.3 33.5 29.9 32.3 29.5
1960 35.5 29.1 26.4 27.3 34.1 33.5 32.0 30.0
1961 26.5 26.4 26.4 26.4 29.8 29.8 27.7 27.5
Average 31.9 28.3 28.6 27.7 32.5 31.1 30.7 29.0
Loss 3.6 .9 1.4 1.7
Pangolagrass + 150 lbs. ground snapped corn per ton grass
1959 34.2 31.2 35.8 32.5 36.9 32.2 35.6 32.0
1960 32.0 32.7 32.3 31.9 35.2 30.0 31.2 31.5
1961 31.5 30.5 28.6 28.1 25.9 25.3 28.7 28.0
Average 32.5 31.5 32.2 30.8 32.7 29.2 31.8 30.5
Loss 1.0 1.4 3.5 1.3
Pangolagrass + 150 lbs. citrus pulp per ton grass
1959 32.5 30.5 30.9 30.7 40.6 34.5 34.7 31.9
1960 35.4 35.7 33.0 32.3 37.2 32.1 35.2 34.7
1961 32.8 32.3 31.2 30.4 31.0 26.9 31.5 31.2
Average 33.6 32.8 31.7 31.1 36.3 31.2 33.9 32.6
Loss .8 .6 5.1 1.3
Pangolagrass + 80 lbs. citrus molasses per ton grass
1959 40.0 33.0 37.6 32.8 39.9 30.5 39.0 32.1
1960 35.1 29.4 34.6 31.5 37.8 34.0 35.8 31.6
1961 34.7 35.5 34.9 33.4 36.3 32.6 35.3 33.8
Average 36.6 32.6 35.7 32.6 38.0 32.4 36.7 32.5
Loss 4.0 3.1 5.6 4.2


locations. Barnett (1) stated that protein degradation is chiefly
the result of plant enzymes, and the rapid formation of lactic acid
or the addition of mineral acid will only partially inhibit this
plant enzymatic process.
The quantity of effluent draining from the silos in the 1960
trial, computed as pounds of water and nutrients per ton of silage,
is shown in Table 4. Drainage in 1959 and 1961 was insufficient
to provide samples for each silo. Since water was not added when
ensiling, the drainage losses represent moisture released by the
plant tissue in the process of silage formation plus free surface
water on the vegetation. The data presented in Table 4 show that
loss of protein or minerals in the run-off from silage under the
conditions of these trials was an unimportant factor.









Table 2.- Analysis* of feed on air-dry basis at ensiling and when silage was fed. 00

Crude Ether Crude Nitrogen Free
Protein Ash Calcium Phosphorus Extract Fiber Extract
Additives In Out In Out In Out In Out In Out In Out In Out

Top
Control 7.45 5.79 8.78 8.31 .58 .31 .16 .18 1.98 1.88 33.19 32.79 48.60 51.25
Ground snapped corn 7.89 5.95 7.68 6.86 .24 .31 .25 .25 1.73 1.40 36.98 34.55 45.72 51.24
Citrus pulp 7.30 6.04 7.78 14.23 .32 .48 .15 .19 1.81 1.61 35.39 33.81 48.72 44.31
Citrus molasses 8.91 7.19 14.14 17.34 .97 .68 .20 .14 1.41 1.03 28.32 34.94 47.22 39.50 2.

Center

Control 7.08 5.04 7.38 8.93 .22 .29 .24 .18 1.81 1.44 31.77 32.18 51.96 52.41
Ground snapped corn 7.82 5.58 8.02 8.42 .32 .27 .27 .18 1.70 1.55 32.83 32.69 49.63 50.37
Citrus pulp 8.18 6.17 8.70 18.19 .84 .58 .22 .17 1.92 1.88 30.78 34.09 50.42 49.58 t
Citrus molasses 7.72 6.68 10.36 10.79 .59 .56 .19 .19 1.68 1.25 32.83 34.42 47.41 46.86

Bottom

Control 8.20 5.57 13.74 10.64 .40 .31 .19 .18 1.59 1.24 32.40 31.66 44.07 50.89
Ground snapped corn 7.57 5.42 7.44 6.49 .26 .18 .22 .21 1.74 1.51 33.54 31.87 49.71 50.29
Citrus pulp 7.24 5.95 17.24 10.12 .28 .59 .33 .17 1.85 2.19 27.50 34.61 46.17 47.13
Citrus molasses 8.92 6.52 10.34 14.02 .89 .55 .20 .05 1.61 1.20 28.94 39.56 50.19 38.71

Average
Control 7.58 5.47 9.99 9.30 .40 .30 .20 .18 1.79 1.52 32.45 32.20 48.22 51.53
Ground snapped corn 7.76 5.65 7.71 7.26 .27 .25 .25 .21 1.72 1.49 34.45 33.04 48.36 50.64
Citrus pulp 7.57 6.05 11.24 14.18 .48 .55 .21 .17 1.86 1.89 31.23 34.17 48.45 47.02
Citrus molasses 8.52 6.80 11.62 14.05 .82 .60 .20 .16 1.57 1.16 30.04 36.31 48.28 41.70
* Analysis made by Animal Nutrition Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville.








Effect of Feed Additives on Pangolagrass Silage 9

Table 3.- Average percent protein loss by treatment and location in silo
for three years.

Crude Protein
Percent Loss of
Location In Out Crude Protein

Control
Top 7.45 5.79 22.28
Center 7.08 5.04 28.81
Bottom 8.20 5.57 32.07
Average 7.58 5.47 27.84
Ground snapped corn
Top 7.89 5.95 24.59
Center 7.82 5.58 28.65
Bottom 7.57 5.42 28.40
Average 7.76 5.65 27.19
Citrus pulp
Top 7.30 6.04 17.26
Center 8.18 6.17 24.57
Bottom 7.24 5.95 17.82
Average 7.57 6.05 20.08
Citrus molasses
Top 8.91 7.19 19.31
Center 7.72 6.68 13.47
Bottom 8.92 6.52 26.91
Average 8.52 6.80 20.19
Average of the four treatments
Top 7.89 6.24 20.91
Center 7.70 5.87 23.77
Bottom 7.98 5.87 26.44
Average 7.86 5.99 23.74


The average temperatures at top and bottom locations, by
number of days in the silo, are shown in Figures 2 and 3. The
relatively large surface areas of the trial silos in relation to tons of
silage resulted in rapid transfer of heat to and from the top
thermocouple, but had little or no effect on the bottom tempera-
ture reading. Top temperatures were higher because of rising heat
within the silage mass and collection of solar energy under the
non-reflecting plastic bag. Top temperatures were higher in the
control silo for the first three days, and lower at the bottom loca-
tions, compared with the other three treatments. The highest
temperature recorded in the trials, 110" F, is considerably lower






oF

110 Top
S--Check
T\ Ground Snapped Corn
Citrus Pulp
Citrus Molasses


100-





9 /
9011 1


-8




0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Days in Silo







OF

110 -Bottom
11, .-y Check
Ground Snapped Corn
- Citrus Pulp
SCitrus Molasses


100-






90-\








0 2 4 6, 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Days in Silo
Figure 2.-Average temperatures by treatments by days ensiled.






F
110-


Location in Silo
Top
Bottom
100- 1




\\

90\
\--, ^







0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Days in Silo
Figure 3.- Average temperatures of all treatments by days ensiled.













Table 4.- Pounds of water and nutrients lost in effluent per ton of silage in 1960.


Total Lbs. Percent Water Crude
Treatment Drained/Ton Water Loss Protein Ash Calcium Magnesium Phosphate o

Control:
8-17-60 2.92 98.68 2.88 .001 .009 .001 .001 .001
8-29-60 2.73 98.04 2.68 .003 .011 .002 .001 .001
5.65 98.36 5.56 .004 .020 .003 .002 .002
Ground snapped corn:
8-17-60 8.39 98.40 8.26 .007 .030 .005 .004 .004
8-29-60 6.56 99.38 6.52 .004 .011 .002 .002 .002
14.95 98.89 14.78 .011 .041 .007 .006 .006
Citrus pulp:
8-17-60 5.10 97.17 4.96 .007 .021 .006 .002 .003
8-29-60 3.65 98.14 3.58 .002 .009 .003 .001 .002 o
8.75 98.66 8.54 .009 .030 .009 .003 .005
Citrus molasses:
8-17-60 .73 95.81 .70 .002 .004 .001 .001 .001
8-29-60 5.65 97.16 4.89 .009 .024 .006 .004 .002

6.38 96.49 5.59 .011 .028 .007 .005 .003
-r



>-'








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

than the 1280 F read in a bunker silo at the Range Cattle Station
with a silage mass of over 200 tons.
The bottom temperatures are representative of the tempera-
tures which can be expected to develop in silage formation.
Temperatures apparently became stabilized 10 to 14 days after
ensiling, and further fluctuations were the result of prolonged
changes in the weather.
The average daily ration and steer performance for the three
trial years, 1959, 1960, and 1961, are shown in Table 5. The
average daily intake of silage per steer from the control silo was
the highest, followed by ground snapped corn, citrus molasses, and
citrus pulp in descending order. The lowest average daily gain was
made by steers fed the silage without additives, despite the fact
that average daily intake was highest. The highest gains were
made on silage containing citrus pulp, even though daily intake
was lowest.
The additives had no measurable effect on amount of silage
loss through spoilage or level of intake by animals during the
feeding trials.

Table 5.--Average.daily ration and steer performance for three years,
1959-60, 1960-61, and 1961-62.

Ground
Snapped Citrus Citrus
Control Corn Pulp Molasses

No. steers 6 6 6 6
Days on feed 100 100 100 100
Additives/ton pangolagrass 150 150 80
Av. daily ration, lbs.:
Cottonseed meal 3.01 3.01 3.01 3.01
Pangolagrass silage 43.99 42.35 41.03 41.50
Complete mineral .04 .03 .03 .03
Av. weight, lbs.:
Initial 837 831 842 830
Final 988 1000 1018 993
Gain 152 169 176 163
Daily gain 1.52 1.69 1.76 1.63



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Three trials to determine the effect of three feed additives-
ground snapped corn, citrus pulp, and citrus molasses-on the
preservation and feeding value of pangolagrass silage were com-








Effect of Feed Additives on Pangolagrass Silage 15

pleted during 1959-61. Under the conditions of these trials the
following conclusions are indicated:
1. Additives increased daily steer gains by .24 pound for
citrus pulp, .17 for ground snapped corn, and .11 for citrus
molasses compared with the control.
2. An analysis of the effluent verified that it was composed
primarily of water with negligible amounts of nutrients.
Drainage losses in pounds of crude protein per ton of silage
were .011 for citrus pulp and ground snapped corn, .009 for
citrus molasses, and .004 for the control.
3. Loss of crude protein between ensiling of freshly cut forage
and out-feeding of silage ranged from 1.52 to 2.11 percent.
This represents a loss of total protein ranging from 20.08 to
27.84 percent of the original content.
4. Silage of good quality and palatability was made in all
treatments with no important differences in spoilage or
steer intake.
5. Feed additives did not decrease spoilage or increase animal
intake of pangolagrass silage.
6. Increased gain made by steers fed silage plus feed additives
did not compensate for the cost of the different concentrates.





LITERATURE CITED
1. Barnett, A. J. G. Silage Fermentation. Page 4. Academic Press Inc.,
1954.
2. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, and E. M. Hodges. Pangolagrass hay and
silage with cottonseed meal and urea in fattening rations. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 654. 1963.
3. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges, and J. E. McCaleb. Value
of pangola hay and silage in steer fattening rations. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 621. 1960.
4. Morrison, Frank B. Feeds and Feeding. The Morrison Publ. Co. 22nd
Edition. 1956.
5. Peacock, F. M., J. E. McCaleb, E. M. Hodges, and W. G. Kirk. Factors
influencing winter gains of beef calves. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 635. 1961.
6. Wakeman, D. L. and J. F. Hentges, Jr. Self-feeding pangolagrass silage
to wintering beef cows. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. S-108. 1958.
7. Wing, J. M. and R. B. Becker. Nutrient intake of cows from silages
made from typical Florida forages. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul.
655. 1963.





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