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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 193
Title: An economic study of potato farming in the Hastings area for the crop year 1925
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026825/00001
 Material Information
Title: An economic study of potato farming in the Hastings area for the crop year 1925
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 173-275, 4 folded leaves : charts, maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McKinley, Bruce
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1928
 Subjects
Subject: Potatoes -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Bruce McKinley.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026825
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000923500
oclc - 18173071
notis - AEN4051

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Full Text


February, 1928


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION





An Economic Study of

Potato Farming in the Hastings Area

For the Crop Year 1925

By BRUCE MCKINLEY


Fig. 86.-Harvesting Potatoes in the Hastings Area



Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
Agricultural Experiment Station
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 193







BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola E. L. WARTMANN, Citra
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Talla-
A. H. BLANDING, Leesburg hassee.
W. B. DAVIS, Perry J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee
STATION EXECUTIVE STAFF
WILMON NEWELL, D. Sc., Director ERNEST G. MOORE, M. S., Asst. Ed
JOHN M. SCOTT, B. S., Vice-Director IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
S. T. FLEMING, A. B., Asst. to Di- RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
rector K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B. S. A., Editor RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Accountant
MAIN STATION-DEPARTMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS


AGRONOMY
W. E. STOKES, M. S. Agronomist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph. D., Asso.
C. R. ENLOW, M. S. A., Asst.*
FRED H. HULL, M. S. A., Asst.
A. S. LAIRD, M. S. A., Asst.
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
JOHN M. SCOTT, B. S., Animal
Industrialist
F. X. BRENNEIS, B.S.A., Dairy
Herdsman
CHEMISTRY
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph. D., Asst.
C. E. BELL, M. S., Asst.
H. L. MARSHALL, M. S., Asst.
J. M. COLEMAN, B. S., Asst.
J. B. HESTER, B. S., Asst.
COTTON INVESTIGATIONS
W. A. CARVER, Ph. D., Asst.
M. N. WALKER, Ph. D., Asst.
E. F. GROSSMAN, M. A., Asst.
RAYMOND CROWN, B.S.A., Field Asst.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL


BRUCE MCKINLEY, B. S. A., Asst.
M. A. BROKER, M. S. A., Asst.
ECONOMICS, HOME
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph. D., Chief
L. W. GADDUM, Ph. D., Asst.
C. F. AHMANN, Ph. D., Asst.
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
A. N. TISSOT, M. S., Asst.
H. E. BRATLEY. M. S. A., Asst.
HORTICULTURE
A. F. CAMP, Ph. D., Asso. Hort.
M. R. ENSIGN, M. S., Asst.
HAROLD MOWRY, Asst.
G. H. BLACKMON, M. S. A., Pecan
Culturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
O. F. BURGER, D.Sc., Plant Pathologist
G. F. WEBER, Ph. D., Asso.
K. W. LOUCKS, B. S., Asst.
ERDMAN WEST, B. S., Mycologist
VETERINARY MEDICINE
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian
D. A. SANDERS, D. V. M., Asst.


C. V. NOBLE, Ph. D., Ag. Economist E. F. THOMAS, D. V. M., Lab. Asst.
BRANCH STATION AND FIELD WORKERS
W. B. TISDALE, Ph. D., Plant Pathologist, in charge, Tobacco Experiment
Station (Quincy)
Ross F. WADKINS, M. S., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A. M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
R. L. MILLER, Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
W. L. THOMPSON, Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph. D., Soils Specialist (Belle Glade)
J. H. HUNTER, M. S., Assistant Agronomist (Belle Glade)
J. L. SEAL, M. S., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Belle Glade)
H. E. HAMMAR, M. S., Field Assistant (Belle Glade)
L. O. GRATZ, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
STACY O. HAWKINS, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
R. E. NOLEN, M. S. A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Monticello)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)
E. D. BALL, Ph. D., Associate Entomologist (Sanford)

*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture.













CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION ..............
ECONOMIC HISTORY -.........-
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA ..............
Location ................ ---
Transportation ......-... ...
Soil .---....--------
Topography ....-...... -.. .....
Climate ---. ---- --... ..
METHOD OF STUDY ..................
SUMMARY OF THE FARM BUSINESS
TENURE ..... ................. ..- ...
UTILIZATION OF FARM LAND .......


UTILIZATION OF CROP LAND .......... .....-..... ... ...... ..... ....
CAPITAL ................................---- -........... ....- ... .....
MORTGAGES AND BORROWED WORKING CAPITAL ..... ... ........... -
LIVESTOCK ..................- ....... ...-- .
P purchased F eed .............- ..- ..... ..- ...............................
FARM RECEIPTS ......-..- --... ---- .- .- ..........
FARM EXPENSES ..........- -----..- .. ...........
POTATOES ..... -..... --- --..... ............
Seed ........... -----....---- -- ..........
Fertilizer --------------- ---...................
Dusting ---..........--...... -----------..........
H harvesting and Grading ................ ................. ...... ..............
M marketing ...................................................... .................
M an L abor ............... ............... ..................
W ork Stock Labor .............. ... ..... ......-....................
Trucks ... .... ------------.... -...... .....
Tractors .- ..- ...-................ -
CROP YIELDS -.......---------.-............
P RICES .............. ..... .... .. ...... ....... .. ................... .. ......
RELATION OF CAPITAL TO LABOR INCOME........................... ...............
RELATION OF ACRES IN POTATOES TO LABOR INCOME.............................
RELATION OF RECEIPTS FROM POTATOES TO LABOR INCOME .........................
RELATION OF CROP INDEX AND PRICE INDEX TO LABOR INCOME..................
RELATION OF QUALITY OF POTATOES TO LABOR INCOME...............................
RELATION OF PRODUCTION OF POTATOES TO PRICE...................................
LABOR INCOME FREQUENCY TABLE .--........--------.......--
PREVIOUS OCCUPATIONS OF FARMERS .................... .................................
EDUCATION OF FARMERS ............. .. --- ...... ..............
SUMMARY ..... ---...... ..- ---------.... ...... ......
A PPENDIX -........... ..--. ...... -..........


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AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF
POTATO FARMING IN THE HASTINGS AREA
FOR THE CROP YEAR 1925
By BRUCE MCKINLEY

INTRODUCTION
This bulletin presents data regarding production, expenses,
receipts and net returns from farms on which the growing of
potatoes for Northern markets is the chief business. The re-
sults apply to potato farms rather than to highly specialized
truck farms, fruit farms or general farms in Florida.
The study was made to find out the farm practices, materials
used, profits made, and to compile this information in such form
as to make it helpful to farmers. The Hastings area was selected
because it has been for years the noted potato growing area of
Florida.
The Hastings potato area was divided into the Hastings, Bun-
nell, Green Cove Springs, and LaCrosse districts.
The larger the number of farms in a study the less will be
the probable error in the results. The data on the group of farms
in the Hastings district are more reliable than those compiled
for the smaller districts, and when all farms are included the
data are still more dependable.'

ECONOMIC HISTORY
In St. Johns County, where most of the material for this study
was gathered, the first permanent settlement in America was
made at St. Augustine in 1565. The Spanish held the territory
until 1763. The crops grown during that period were confined
to corn, vegetables, sugar cane, and fruits grown from trees
planted in gardens.
During the period from 1763 to 1784, under the English rule,
agriculture made some development.
Williams in 1837 wrote that indigo was the most certain crop,
second to which was sugar cane, followed by corn, sweet pota-

'Acknowledgment is due Dr. C. V. Noble for valuable suggestions with
reference to preparing the data for publication, to Dr. J. E. Turlington,
who outlined and started the project, and to H. G. Hamilton, F. W. Brum-
ley, C. A. Scarborough, J. S. Smith, M. A. Brooker, and D. E. Timmons,
who assisted in collecting the data presented in this bulletin.
Thanks are extended also to the farmers for their courtesy in giving
the information which made the publication possible.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


toes, and cotton. Irish potatoes, pumpkins, squashes, melons,
cucumbers, and garden crops did well. About this period upland
rice and some oranges were grown. This industry (oranges)
started in the seventies and developed until the freeze of 1895.
Late in the nineties the production of Irish potatoes for
northern markets began in the Hastings area, and has increased
until it is the chief farm enterprise in both St. Johns and Flag-
ler counties. The growing of potatoes was started about three
miles south of Hastings. In 1899 there were 128 acres in pota-
toes in this area. In 1902, 15,000 barrels of potatoes were
grown, and by 1909 the production was three times this amount.
In the Bunnell district, this type of farming was started in
the Haw Creek section about 1907; in the Green Cove Springs
district about 1912 not far from the town limits of Green Cove
Springs. The first commercial plantings at LaCrosse were made
in 1919.
The potato industry of Florida in 1923 included 19,310 acres,
in 1924, 28,000 acres, and in 1925, 21,920 acres. In 1925, of the
total commercial acreage of early potatoes, Alabama had 4.5
percent, California 7.2 percent, Florida 11.1 percent, Georgia 1
percent, Louisiana 7.9 percent, Mississippi .6 of 1 percent, North
Carolina 11.2 percent, South Carolina 7.6 percent, Texas 5.2 per-
cent, and Virginia 43.7 percent."
North Carolina and Florida had about the same acreage, Texas,
California, and Alabama had approximately half as much,
Louisiana and South Carolina about three-fourths as much,
while the acreage in Georgia and Mississippi was relatively un-
important.
In Table I is shown car-lot shipments, from the five Florida
counties from which the records were taken, from 1920 to 1925,
inclusive, with percentage of total shipments of the state for
these same years. About three-fourths of the average Florida
potato shipments came from these five counties, and slightly
over one-half of the Florida shipments originated in St. Johns
County during this six-year period.
According to a statement in the 1925 yearbook, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, potatoes as a world crop exceed in
point of total production any other table food plant grown. In
-Soil Survey of St. Johns County, Florida.
3Compiled from Marketing Alabama Potatoes 1926, U. S. D. A. Bureau
of Agricultural Economics.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 179


the United States the potato acreage is in sixth place, but as a
table food the potato is second only to wheat.
The potato industry in Florida is not large, but relatively im-
portant because the crop comes on the market during March,
April, and May when there is a scarcity of early vegetables.
Early potatoes make it possible to forestall a serious shortage
that a poor late northern crop of the previous year might cause.

TABLE I.-CARLOADS OF POTATOES SHIPPED FROM FLORIDA 1920-1925.


County


S19


Alachua


20 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925

7 2 54 36 119 69


C lay ............. ......

Flagler ...... .....

Putnam ...... ......

St. Johns .......... ............


Total for above counties.


Total for Florida ............


-.... .. 340 81

321 157 423 267

.. 401 229 509 308

.... 1,748 1,401 1 2,340 1,996


.... 2,477 1,789 3,666 2,688


... 3,445 2,389 5,046 3,497


Percentage of total Florida shipments originating in the Hastings area.


County


Alachua

Clay .....


Flagler .............. .. ...... .....

Putnam ............... ................

St. Johns ......-...............

Total percent of state ship-
m ents .......... ................


1920

*I


9.3

11.6

50.7


71.6


1921 1922 1923 1924

1.1 1.0 2.7

.......... 6.7 2.3 1.3

6.6 8.4 7.6 9.6

9.6 10.1 8.8 9.4

58.6 46.4 57.1 43.1


74.8 72.7 76.8 66.1


4Statistical Bulletins 9 and 19, U. S. D. A.
*Less than .1 of 1 percent.

DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

Location: St. Johns, Flagler, Putnam, Clay, and Alachua
counties in Northeast Florida comprise the area from which the
records were taken (Figs. 87 and 88). In some of these coun-


59 56

420 592

413 584

1,887 3,259


2,898 4,560


4,381 5,137


1925

1.3

1.1

11.5

11.4

63.4


88.7


I


I I


I I






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ties potato farms have been developed only here and there, so
potato growing is not the most common type of farming through-
out the whole section.


Fig. 88.-Detail map of the Hastings potato area, showing important ship-
ping points, railroads, and waterways.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 181

The area designated as the Green Cove Springs district in-
cludes farms on the west of the St. Johns River from near Bost-
wick north to Doctors Inlet. In Alachua County at the time these
records were taken, the growing of potatoes at LaCrosse was
confined to a few farms and comparatively small acreages.
When the Hastings district is mentioned, the vicinities of
Hastings, Spuds, Elkton, Federal Point, Yelvington, Roy, San
Mateo, Orange Mills, and East Palatka are meant.
In the Bunnell district is included the potato area adjacent
to Bunnell, Espanola, Haw Creek, and Bimini.
Transportation: The transportation facilities are good. No
point in St. Johns County is more than 10 miles distant from a
railroad station or steamboat landing. The Florida East Coast
Railroad extends through St. Johns and Flagler counties, giving
splendid shipping facilities. In Flagler County the Dupont and
Florida Central, a short line connecting with the East Coast
at Dupont, gives a good outlet to the potatoes grown in the Haw
Creek section. A good brick highway, which has recently been
widened, extends from St. Augustine through Hastings, Espan-
ola, Bunnell, and Dupont.
The Atlantic Coast Line from Palatka to Jacksonville gives
good shipping facilities to the Green Cove Springs section and
the Seaboard Air Line through LaCrosse gives that section a
good outlet to Northern markets. Both the latter sections have
good paved roads, making the shipping points easily accessible.
Soil: The two types of soil best adapted to the growing of po-
tatoes found in this area are the Bladen fine sand, which pre-
dominates around Elkton in St. Johns County and the Bimini
section in Flagler County, and the Bladen fine sandy loam, which
is found around Hastings, in the Haw Creek section of Flagler
County, and LaCrosse section in Alachua County.
"The Bladen fine sand consists of a dark gray or almost black
fine sand, 4 to 12 inches deep, grading into a grayish to almost
white, loamy fine sand, which passes at about 16 inches into a
gray or grayish and yellowish loamy fine sand. From 30 to 36
inches there is usually a small content of clay which imparts
a slight stickiness.
"The soil of the Bladen fine sandy loam consists of a gray to
dark gray or black loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 inches deep, grad-
ing into a gray loamy fine sand, mottled with yellow. This gradu-
ally becomes heavier with increase of depth until the drab, blu-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


,5
'10
65

60



40
30


YEAR-


YE.Ae-



Fig. 89.-Above: Annual rainfall at Federal Point, Fla., 1916-1925.' Be-
low: Annual mean temperature at Federal Point, Fla., 1916-1925.'
1U. S. D. A. Weather Bureau
"No figure was given for August, 1922, temperature. The average for July and Sep-
tember was used.
3No figure was given for April, 1925, rainfall and temperature. The averages for March
and May were used.
ish drab, mottled yellow or brownish and drab, plastic clay sub-
soil is reached at 12 to 30 inches."a
Topography: In the whole area studied, the land is compara-
tively flat, and in the Hastings and Bunnell districts, especially,
the water table is near the surface. The drainage is poor, and

in order to make potato growing a success it has become neces-
sary to dig artificial ditches to carry off the surplus water. The
land is commonly known as flatwoods. In the Hastings district
proper, most of the drainage goes into the St. Johns River. There
is yet much valuable potato land available, when proper drainage
is given. The land in the LaCrosse section is higher and up to the


"Soil Survey of St. Johns County, Florida.


~







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 183

present time much less drainage has been necessary. It is the
practice throughout the area to plant potatoes on ridges because
of the danger of damage from excessive rains.
Climate: The climate of the areas studied is subtropical,
with long summers and pleasant winters. The rainy season be-
gins in May or June and usually ends in September or October.
There is generally sufficient moisture for the growth of the po-
tato crop, yet some years have unusually dry periods, and where
irrigation facilities are available, the water is turned onto the
potato fields. While Federal Point and St. Augustine are only
22 miles apart, the average annual rainfall is 47.98 inches at
St. Augustine and 57.3 inches at Federal Point.
In figure 89 are shown the annual rainfall and annual mean
temperatures at Federal Point.
Although the direct effect of rainfall on the season's potato
crop occurs during the period from October to April, inclusive,
there is no question of the indirect moisture effects from the
rainfall of the remainder of the year.
The potato thrives best in cool weather, so in Florida it is
necessary to plant when the weather is conducive to its growth.
It is possible to grow a fall crop of potatoes but in the area
studied the plantings were almost negligible. One farmer stated
that one crop of potatoes a year was enough to handle, but the
records show that fall yields are much poorer, and there is the
competition of the late Northern crop which is a determining
factor even if the same yield could be obtained.

METHOD OF STUDY
The study of the Hastings potato area was made by the sur-
vey method." The farmers in the different districts were visited
in December 1925 and in the early part of 1926. A complete
record of the farm business of each farmer for the year begin-
ning November 1, 1924, and ending November 1, 1925 was ob-
tained. More than 300 records were taken, but on account of
some being incomplete, 217 from the Hastings district, 50 from
the Bunnell district, 14 from Bostwick to Doctors Inlet, which
has been designated as the Green Cove Springs district, and 13
from the LaCrosse district were usable, making a total of 294
for the entire area.
"See Farmers' Bulletin 1139, U. S. D. A., for description of the survey
method.
It is necessary to define certain terms that will be used throughout






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SUMMARY OF THE FARM BUSINESS

A summary of the farm business is shown in Table II. The
average size of farms ranged from 88 to 349 acres for the dif-
ferent districts. The farms in the LaCrosse district were the
largest. There were two farms in that group of more than 1,000
acres each, yet neither had more than 100 crop acres that year.
The average size of all farms was 100 acres.
Crop acres ranged from 42 to 64 acres, with an average of 48
acres per farm; of this, 80 percent was re-cropped. In the Green
Cove Springs district 90 percent, Hastings 84 percent, Bunnell 79
and LaCrosse 22 percent of the crop acres were re-cropped.
The average number of work stock was lowest in the LaCrosse
district and highest in the Hastings district, with an average of
3.3 for all farms.
Capital invested per farm in the Bunnell, Green Cove Springs,
and LaCrosse districts was quite uniform, while in the Hastings

this bulletin in order that the reader may follow the discussions intelli-
gently at all times.
Farm Capital. The average value at the beginning and the end of the
year of real estate, machinery, livestock, and feed and supplies necessary
to operate the farm business. It includes the value of the farm dwellings,
but not the household furnishings.
Receipts. The farm receipts include the amount received from all sales
of crops, the net increase from stock, receipts from outside labor, machine
work and rent of buildings. The net increase from stock is found by add-
ing the amount paid for livestock bought to the value of livestock on hand
at the beginning of the year and subtracting this sum from the total of
livestock product receipts plus sales of livestock and value of livestock on
hand at the end of the year. If the value of crops or supplies on hand at
the end of the year is greater than at the beginning of the year, the dif-
ference is considered a receipt.
Expenses. These are the expenditures made during the year to con-
duct the farm business including the value of unpaid family labor (except
operator's labor), and depreciation of buildings and equipment. If the value
of crops or supplies at the end of the year is less than at the beginning,
this is considered an expense. Household or personal expenses are not in-
cluded.
Farm Income. The difference between receipts and expenses.
Labor Income. The amount left for the farmer for his labor and man-
agement after 7 percent interest on the average farm capital has been
deducted from the farm income. In addition to labor income the farmer has
a house to live in, wood from the farm, garden products, milk, eggs, etc.
Unpaid Family Labor. Work done by members of the family exclud-
ing the operator. Its value is determined on the basis of what it would
have cost if the farm work performed by members of the family had been
hired at the prevailing rate of wages.
Family Income. The sum of farm income and value of unpaid family
labor (except operator's labor), or the amount available for family living
if there is no interest to pay.
Percent Return on Capital. This is found by deducting the estimated
value of the operator's labor and management from the farm income and
dividing the remainder by the total capital.








Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 185


district, largely on account of high priced land, it was more than
50 percent greater than in any of the other districts.


TABLE II.-SUMMARY OF THE FARM
TINGS, BUNNELL, GREEN COVE SPRINGS,



Item


Number of

Farm area acres


farms

- - -


Crop acres .....- .. ........ ...... ...

Acres in crops* ..........

Number of work stock ....

Total capital ... ........... 8'S

Receipts -..... -.. ........ .........

E expenses ..... ..... ..... .........

Farm income e ............-......

Interest on Investment at
seven percent .......... ....

Labor income e ....................

Value of operator's labor -.....$

Percent return on invest-
m ent .......... -.. .................

Value of unpaid family la-
bor (except operator's).. 8

Family income ...............---.........


88.1

49.1

90.1

3.-

25,030

10,877

8,744

2,133


1,752

381

534


BUSINESS PER FARM IN THE HAS-
AND LACROSSE DISTRICTS IN 1925.


50

89.5

42.5

75.9;
3.1
3.11


816,065 81

8,920

7,544

1,376


1


,124

252

548 $


6.4' 5.2!


116 $

2,249


197 $

1,573


14 13

102 349

40.6 63.6

77.3 77.8

3.3 2.7


294

100.5

48.5


6,421 ,816,674 $22,726

8,413 3,955 10,120

6,277 2,754 8,157

2,136 1,201 1,963


1,149 1,167 1,591

987 34 372

570 $ 468 $ 530


10.3[ 4.4! 6.


105 $ 309 $ 138

2,241 1,510 2,101


*Difference equals the acres re-cropped.

Receipts, as well as expenses, were comparatively low in the
LaCrosse district. The farm income was practically the same in
the Hastings and Green Cove Springs districts, but the labor in-
come was much higher in the latter because the average invest-
ment upon which interest was computed was 52 percent higher
in the Hastings district.
The interest on investment at Bunnell was 64.2 percent of that
at Hastings. At Green Cove Springs it was 65.6 percent, and at







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LaCrosse it was 66.6 percent of the interest on the investment at
Hastings. This high interest charge causes the labor income in
the Hastings district to show at a disadvantage because of the
lower investments in the other districts.
The range of labor incomes was from $34 per farm to $987
per farm with an average for all farms of $372.
The farmer placed a value upon his labor, which was highest
in the Green Cove Springs district. The value of the family labor
was also estimated by the farmer. This labor was highest in the
LaCrosse district, where the families were largest. The aver-
age number in the families, excluding the operator, was 5.2 in
the LaCrosse district, 3.1 in the Green Cove Springs district,
3 in the Bunnell district and 2.7 in the Hastings district.
The highest percent return on the investment was in the
Green Cove Springs district and the lowest was in the LaCrosse
district. The average was 6.3 percent.
The average family income was nearly the same in the Has-
tings and Green Cove Springs districts, and in the Bunnell dis-
trict it was $63 more per farm than in the LaCrosse district.

TENURE

Farm ownership is the rule in the Hastings potato area. Of
the 294 farmers, 219 owned all the land they farmed, 45 owned
some land and rented additional land for cash, while 4 farmers
who owned farms, rented additional land on shares. (Table III.)

TABLE III.-NUMBER OF POTATO FARMS OPERATED BY OWNERS AND BY'
TENANTS, NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


I



2


O w ners .................... ...
Owners cash renting additional
lan d ........................... ........
Owners share renting additional
lan d .............. ........ ....
Owners cash and share renting
additional land .......... ......
Cash renters ...............


a >






45 71.1 24.7

4 128.1 8.5

1 20 26.0
25 ... ...... 69.2


106.1

95.8

136.6

46.0
69.2







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 187

For the few farmers who rented, the prevailing system of rent-
ing was for cash. In the LaCrosse district there was no land
cash rented. In the Green Cove Springs district 6 farmers had
cash rented land. The price paid was $10 per acre on two of these
farms, $5 per acre on three of them, and $3 per acre on the other.
Of the farmers cash renting in the Bunnell district, 14 per-
cent paid $15 per acre, 50 percent from $10 to $15 per acre, 22
percent from $5 to $10 and 14 percent less than 85 per acre.
In the Hastings district 38 percent of those cash renting land
paid over $20 per acre, 25 percent from $15 to $20 per acre, 23
percent from $10 to $15 per acre, 8 percent from $5 to $10 per
acre, and 6 percent paid less than $5 per acre.

UTILIZATION OF FARM LAND

The farm area includes the entire acreage operated as one
farm, whether owned or rented. Of the total farm area in the
Hastings section 59 percent was crop land, either in use or lying
idle; in the Bunnell district 60 percent, in the Green Cove

TABLE IV.-UTILIZATION OF FARM LAND IN THE DIFFERENT AREAS ON
294 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Hastings Bunnell


4J




Crop land .................. 49.5 56.2

Tillable land idle..... 2.4 2.7
Permanent pasture
tillable ............ .3 .3
Open pasture not |
tillable ................ .9 1.01
Woods pastured ..... 9.3 10.6|


Woods not pastured
Farmsteads, roads,
w aste ....................

Total farm area........


4.4 5.0'

88.1100.01


Green
Cove
Springs


LaCrosse All Farms


42.5 47.5 40.6 39.811 63.6 18.2 48.51 48.3
CC C) C) CC C C)






C) C () C c) CI

................ .2 .2

.2 .2 1.0 1.0 .81 .8
15.4 17.2 7.3 7.2 112.4 32.2 14.8 14.7
16.5 18.51 42.1 41.3 92.2 26.4 24.6 24.4

3.61 4.02 8.2 8.01 11.0: 3.2 4.71 4.7

89.5 100.01102.01100.01349.01100.01100.51100.0






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Springs district 42 percent, while the LaCrosse district had only
38 percent of its area devoted to this purpose. (Table IV.)
Hastings and Green Cove Springs had less than 3 percent of
their acreage in tillable land lying idle; Bunnell 12.6 percent;
and LaCrosse 20 percent, or more than was cropped.
By woods pastured is meant that part of the woodland under
fence used for pasture, and woods not pastured is the common
range. In the Hastings and Bunnell districts practically one-
third of the land area is in woods; nearly one-half in the Green
Cove Springs district, and 59 percent in the LaCrosse district.
Some of this land is potential crop land, and no doubt in time,
if potato growing justifies it, the tillable acreage will be in-
creased.
While the farms in the Hastings district are smaller than
those found in the other districts, 9 percent more of the total
acres was in crops than in the Bunnell district, 16 percent more
than in the Green Cove Springs district, and 38 percent more
than in the LaCrosse district.

UTILIZATION OF CROP LAND
On account of the long growing season, the high labor require-
ments during the planting and harvesting of potatoes, and be-
cause of the early maturity of this crop, farmers plant much of
their land to second crops which can be cared for after the rush
of the potato season is over. On the average, all the first crop
land in the Hastings district except 4.1 acres per farm and in the
Bunnell district except 3.6 acres per farm, was planted to pota-
toes. On the farms in the Green Cove Springs district all but
10.6 acres per farm of the land in first crops was in potatoes,
while on the LaCrosse farms about one-seventh of the first
crop land was in this crop. (Table V.)
The crop area (Table V) represented the land planted in first
crop. Much of the land where potatoes were grown was re-
cropped with corn and other crops. This re-cropped area has
been added to the area planted in first crop to arrive at the total
area in crops.
Corn is sometimes planted before the potatoes are harvested,
but more generally, after they are harvested. The unused fer-
tilizer applied to the potatoes is sufficient to make a corn crop,
if the season is favorable. Corn was second in importance to
potatoes. It was grown on 93 percent of the farms with an





TABLE V.-DISTRIBUTION OF ACRES IN CROPS IN THE DIFFERENT AREAS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA ON 294 POTATO FARMS.


No. of Farms






Crop Area ............
Area re-cropped ......................
Total area in crops .....
Truck and fruit crops:
P potatoes .....................-- .....- .
Sweet potatoes ...................
Cabbage .................................
Cucumbers -----......
M elons .......................
Sweet corn ........... .....
Sugar cane ......
G arden .......................
String beans .......................
Sweet peppers ...................
Squash ........-..................
Fall potatoes .....................
Cantaloupes ................
O nions ..........- ..- .. ......
T om atoes ............................
Celery ..................
Cauliflow er ....................

Oranges and Tangerines
Grapefruit ............. ......
Strawberries .......................

*Less than .1 of an acre.


Hastings


217



M


............ 10,748.81
...... .... 9,002.1
.... ..... 19,750.9

... .... 9,845.5
..... ... 1i 47.6;
..... ........ 39.5 :


J 9.7!
35
13.7
28.5
1.0
7.01
S 10.0,
S 4.0


1.7
1.5
.3I

113.1
8.6
2.6


Bunnell


u) -


49.5
41.5
91.0

45.4
.7
.2


.2
.1
.1


5S



a!


2,125.9
1,671.5
3,797.4

1,945
31.3
84.5

2.3

4.2
5.4
12.5

1 3.0
6.0
S.7
2 2


Green Cove
Springs


0


56!)
514
1,083

420
15
7
15
13
4

.5,
4
10


40.6
36.7
77.3

30.0
1.1
.5
1.1




.3
.7


LaCrosse All Farms

13 294



Em aal 4
3 C U Q4 rt 0C QaCC
H1 EC |4F=


826.5
184.9
1,011.4

121.5
25

39.5
17

17.8
2.7
10.7


42.5
33.4
75.9

38.9
.6
1.7



.1
.1
.2


.1
:


.5 21.5 .4

-- -- ---------


48.5
38.7
87.2
o
41.9
.7
.4
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1 %
.1

-
00





.5 0

o


14,270.2
11,372.51
25,642.7

12,332
218.9
131
54.5
42
39
35.7
37.1
28.2
17
13
10
3.7
2.2
1.7
1.5
S .3

134.6
8.6
2.6


S .2


---------.------

--- ---- ------
- -
-- ---- ------


I
----- -- --:
- - --.. . .









TABLE V.-DISTRIBUTION OF ACRES IN CROPS IN THE DIFFERENT AREAS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA ON 294 POTATO FARMS.
(Continued.)

Hastings Bunnell Green Cove
Hastings BunnellSprings LaCrosse All Farms

No. of Farms 217 50 14 13 294
I




Velvet beans ............... 34 .2 38 8 38 10.6 210 .7""
General Crops: I
Corn for grain ..... 6,497.3 29.9 1,029 20.6 375 26.8 467.5 36.0 8,368.8 i 28.5 ~
Cowpeas 1,927.5 8.9 379 7.6 149.5 10.7 7.5 .6 2,463.5 8.4
Crab grass hay 856 3.9 91 1.8 25 1.8 53.7 4.1 1,025.7 3.5 d
Velvet beans 34 .2 38 .8 ... 138 10.6 210 .7
Cowpeas and crab grass ................. 47 .2 71 1.4 30 2.1 ............. ........ 148 .5
Peanuts ...-- .......- ..- .. ... 3 ... .. ...- ....- ....-- .... 110.5 8.5 113.5 .4
R ice hay ................. ............ ........ 8.5 65 1.3 .... ... ---1 .......... .. ....- ......... 73.5 .3
Velvet beans & cow peas ......... 45 .2 -......... ........... -...- ............. ......... ............. .. ............ 45 .2
Cow peas and corn ......... ............. 20 .1 .... ............ .......... .. ..... ............. .............. 20 .1 .
O at hay ..........- ........ ...- ........ 13 .1 5 .1 I ........... ..... .....- ......... I.. ... 18 .1 c
Soy beans ....... -......... ........ ........ 16 .1 -------------- ------..... ......... ... 16 .1
Flow er bulbs .....-... .- ..... .... ... .8 ...... .... ... 11.51 .8 12.3 *
P ecans ..... ----..- .... .-- .- ....-... 4.0 .4.*.--. ..:... ..... ..... .......... 4 4
M illet hay .......... .... .. ........-- 3. .......... .. 3.8 3
F odder corn .......... -... .. ... 3.0 ..... .. ......... .. ..... .... ......... 3 *
Oat and rye hay ...-.........-.. .... 1. ..... ---- .. ... 1.5
Rice and crab grass hay ................... ......... 1 .. ...... ......... ... 1*
C hufas ......... ... ....... .. ... .5 ....- ... ........ ................. .5 *
D asheens ............ .. ............................ .5*
Sorghum .... ....... ...... .51 ... ... ... ... ..... ..... ............. .5 *
*Less than .1 of an acre.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 191

average of 281/2 acres per farm. It was usually a second crop
except in the LaCrosse district.
Sweet potatoes are commonly grown in the area, but for the
whole area less than an average of three-fourths of an acre per
farm was grown.
Cabbage was not a common crop but more was grown in the
Haw Creek district, near Bunnell, than in any other.
Some cucumbers were grown in the Green Cove Springs dis-
trict, and on the LaCrosse farms an average of 3 acres per farm
were grown. These were shipped to northern markets. The bulk
of the crop was harvested in May.
Sugar cane was grown primarily for family use, though some
syrup and cane stalks were sold. Melons, string beans, sweet
peppers, squash, cantaloupes, onions, tomatoes, celery, cauli-
flower, strawberries, and other garden products were grown on
the farms studied, but the acreage of these crops was small.
On the Hastings and Bunnell farms there are a few citrus
groves. The majority of these are not far from the St. Johns
River. Some of them compare very favorably with groves much
farther south.
Cowpeas, crab grass, rice, oats, millet, sorghum, oats and rye
mixed, and peanuts, constituted the hay crops. Crab grass vol-
unteers after the potato crop, and in some instances where noth-
ing was planted in the spring, a crop of crab grass hay was cut.
Hay is an unimportant cash crop in the area, as most of it is fed
on the farm. In some instances small sales were made to neigh-
bors who failed to save enough to feed their livestock.
Velvet beans were planted in the corn and pastured or plowed
under as a green manure crop.
Peanuts were planted in the LaCrosse district mostly for hog
pasture. They were planted as both a first and a second crop.
Very few were planted in any of the other districts studied.
Since on most farms, potatoes are planted year after year in
the same fields, it seems wise to plant leguminous crops after
the potatoes are harvested. A large number of the farmers
planted cowpeas for hay and velvet beans for pasture. In the
whole area, 56 farmers plowed under cowpeas and 2 plowed
under velvet beans and peas. It is not known how many of these
same farmers followed this practice the year before, but it is
quite likely that most of them did. Of course, the potatoes were






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


harvested before these green manure crops were planted. So these
crops could not influence yield of potatoes for the year in ques-
tion. The farmers who planted and plowed under these crops in
1925, however, had a yield of 12.9 bushels of potatoes per acre
on the average more than the farmers who did not follow this
practice.


PLRCEMT OF TOTAL ACRnS IN CROPS


PororoEs 8
0
t-
PO....... 3,T^


CORN


40 251


Cow PuEA 2 34








ALI 01- I
CR OPS 2. Z5


10 0 AO 0


C 5 o& o MANO IN TFRPLANOTE COc.S


Fig. 90.-Distribution of total acres in crops on 294 potato farms in
Northeast Florida, 1925.

It is shown in Table VI that early potatoes were grown only
as a first crop. A small percentage of the corn acreage was
planted as a first crop, except at LaCrosse.
Sweet potatoes are grown as either a first or a second crop.
Land from which a crop of Irish potatoes or other early vege-
tables has been harvested is often planted to this crop. Most of
the cowpeas and velvet beans were second crops.


PE _ENT


IU


I


1







TABLE VI.-DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL ACRES IN CROPS IN THE DIFFERENT AREAS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Hastings


-4

CU
C).
isi
0) u
g^F~


Potatoes .............. 49.8
C orn ............... ........ .........-- 2.6
Citrus fruits ...... ........... .6
Cabbage ........ .2
Sweet potatoes .2
Peanuts ...............
Velvet beans .....
Crab grass hay ................- .2
Cucumbers ............ ....... ..... .
Cowpeas .......... .... ..... .1
M elons .......... ........ .. *
Garden ......................... .1
Sweet corn ........ .. ........ .2
Sugar cane ...................... *
Flower bulbs .......... ..... *
Velvet beans and cow peas ...........
Cowpeas and crab grass ........
Miscellaneous feeds .......... .1
Miscellaneous vegetables,
pecans, and berries ... .1

*Less than .1 of 1 percent.


Bunnell


30.3


5
-- E







4 .2 ------
---------- ... ......
*

*2

9.7






.2 -.-.--
.2
.2


.0
to







.6
2.2
.2






.1






.4

.2


1.9
1.5

.5


Green C
Spring


-0


T3.
u0





26.2


.6

1.0
2.4

10.0
1.0


3ove
?s


Lal


-- -- -- -- 1 2
30.8 41.7a







-8 2.4
---- ---- i 7 .8
.............. 6 .7
2.3 2.5
........... 3.12





10.7 ---- -
30.8 41.7







-------- ----- '.'8
.8 2.4
7.8

2.3 2.5
3.9
10.7
1.7


11I1 ****-::: ^g-~


Crosse All Farms

4 1
.-o *-& "-c
t^ Cu ^
(- C -

y, o "m '

a1)
5) ej.^-j
ocf S a;*Ga

i ~ ~ ~ A 1LM P&- c


4.5 4.0
.6
.5
.3
3.2 .3
6.9 .3
2.8 .2
.2
.7 .2
.2
..... .1
.1
.1
~ .1


.............--- -------------... .... ---..--. ... .. .2

2 .8 .... ...- ----------- ---------------- .6
---- --- --- ---- ---......... ..... .. .2 .4

..1.1 -..... .....- .2 .1


38.8
3.8

.6
.6

---------- -


1.4
3.1
1.2

.4






194 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE VII.-NUMBER OF FARMS ON WHICH EACH CROP WAS GROWN IN
1925, 294 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA.


Crops



Potatoes -.............
Corn for Grain..-.'
Crab grass ..........
Cowpeas ..............
Sweet potatoes
Garden, for sale-.
Sugar cane .......
Oranges & Tan-
gerines ...........
Cabbage ................
M elons .........
String beans ........
Cucumbers ......
Peanuts .....-............
R ice ......................--
Cowpeas & crab
grass ..............
Velvet beans ........
Sweet corn ..........
O ats ......................
Strawberries ........
Tomatoes ....-..........
Sweet peppers ....
Grapefruit ............
Fall potatoes .....-
Celery .................
Millet ...............
Soy beans ..........
Velvet beans &
peas ..............
Cantaloupes ..........
Flower bulbs ......
Onions ..............-
Squash ..............
Cauliflower ..........
Chufas ..................
Fodder corn ...-
Dasheens ..............
Rice & crab grass
Oats and rye ......
Pecans ..................


:5 j
I C
i a

294
273
150 ....
105 1
101
41 -......
37 ........

25
23
16
12 i.........
12
11 9
10

9
9 5
8

4
4
6 .-.- .-- -
4 .-- .--- --
4 .- .--- -
3
3 .......
3 .- .--- --
3 ---------
3 1
2 1

2
2 -.-.-----


2
1
2 -.-.-----

2 -.-.-- --
2 -.------

1 ....

1 1
1
1
1 .........
: :::::::-:


*4




..... ... ....





----- ----
-------------- -
3 7









--- -----







..................

-----------
- - - -

- i - -










1 --------- --.


1 --- -- -- -
------... -------............


.. |: ::::::::::::


I <


150 -
...... I 48 19* ;




------------. --...- ....--------- -


1


.......... .......
------------ I
--------------------ii


0 ....- .. .- ...

9 ... ... ... .. ...
.... -------------- -------------


S....... ..._-





1............................
2-----..


2 ...... ........ --- .....




------- ----- ----- 1




.1 .. ........


*Indicates that part of the crop was handled one way and part the
other.

The relative importance of crops grown in the area studied is
shown in Table VII. All the farms studied were potato farms,
though there was a great variation in acreage. The largest had
175 acres in potatoes and the smallest 3 acres, all others had 5
acres or more. Corn also was very generally planted.


jlllll




iii

i
--1-----






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 195

CAPITAL

The average farm capital on all farms was $22,726 per farm.
The average capital in the Bunnell district was 64 percent, in
the Green Cove Springs district 66 percent, and in the LaCrosse
district 67 percent of the average capital on the Hastings farms.
(Table VIII.) The average capital on 18 farms at Federal Point
was $23,358 per farm. When this group was taken out, the aver-
age capital on the other 199 farms near Hastings was $25,181
per farm.
Land represented 71.3 percent of the total investment in the
Hastings district and increased to 75.7 percent of the total in-
vestment in the LaCrosse section. Dwellings ranged from 5.3
percent in the LaCrosse section to 9.4 percent of the total invest-
ment in the Hastings area. The amount invested in tenant houses
and other buildings ranged from 3.4 percent in the Green Cove
Springs district to 6.3 percent in the Bunnell district.
Real estate represented from 85 to 89 percent of the total
capital, while that part of the working capital including live-
stock, machinery, automobiles, trucks, feed, and supplies repre-
sented from 11 percent in the Hastings district to 15 percent
of the total capital in the Green Cove Springs district.
The value of real estate per acre applies to all land, buildings,
fences and irrigation. It must be borne in mind that $251 per
acre is the average value for all farms in the Hastings district
and that some farms probably could not be bought for less than
$600 to $700 per acre. Land in the other districts is consider-
ably cheaper, but a wide range would be found in any of the dis-
tricts studied.
In few farming sections would there be found such a wide
variation in capital. There is no other farm in the survey with
a capital approximating the farm showing highest capital. This
is a large farm and highly improved. In the group with 70 and
over acres in potatoes there was also the widest range in acres
of potatoes. Two farms had 175 acres, 4 had from 150 to 165,
3 had from 120 to 130, 3 had 110, 6 had 100, and the others had
from 70 to 100 acres in potatoes per farm. (Table IX.) The farm
with highest capital in the group of 70 acres and over in pota-
toes, was 9 times that of the lowest. In the next group, the high-
est capital was nearly 8 times that of the lowest; in the third
group, the highest capital was 14 times that of the lowest; in
the fourth group the highest capital was 13 times that of the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lowest; in the fifth group the highest capital was 8 times that
of the lowest; and in the sixth group the highest capital was
nearly 28 times that of the lowest. The foregoing brings out
the range in capital on farms having approximately the same
acreages in potatoes.

TABLE VIII.-AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CAPITAL IN THE HASTINGS, BUN-
NELL, GREEN COVE SPRINGS, AND LACROSSE DISTRICTS, AND FOR ALL
FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Number of farms ..

Capital per farm ..-

Percent of capital in
Land ...............

Dwelling ............

Tenant Houses..

Other buildings .

Fences ...........

Irrigation ..........


Total Real Estate


Livestock .........- ...

M machinery ......................

Automobiles .................

Trucks .....................

Feed and supplies ......

Total Working
Capital ...........


Value of Real Estate per
A cre .......................... 1$
i


217

$25,030


71.31

9.4

1.5


aC

W

50

$16,065


14

$16,421


$16,


4.41 5.1/ 2.6!

1.01 1.3 1.7

1.7 1.0! 1.1

89 3 88.2 85.2


4.01

3.3

.7

.6

2.1


10.71



251 $


4.4 6.3

3.81 2.8

.3 .8

.9 1.0

2.31 3.9


11.7 14.8



155 1$ 137 $
1


13

,674


75.71

5.3

1.3

3.2

2.3'



87.8


5.2

1.9

.6

.9

3.6


12.2



42 $


-U-


294

$22,726


71.7

8.9

1.5

4.3

1.1

1.5

89.0


4.2

3.3

.7

.6

2.2


11.0



199


The farms with most acres in potatoes had the highest farm
incomes. This does not always hold true for labor incomes.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 197

Therefore, the farm income, which represents the difference be-
tween receipts and expenses, apparently shows that a farmer
is doing fairly well, when as a matter of fact he may be receiv-
ing little or no returns for his labor after deducting interest on
his investment.

TABLE IX.-RELATION OF ACRES IN POTATOES TO CAPITAL, FARM INCOME,
VALUE OF OPERATOR'S LABOR AND PERCENT RETURN ON CAPITAL, ON 294
POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Acres in r M
Potatoes i Range in Capital g
Zo ca a Cd a ai cZ

70 and over ... 42 $52,418 $23,117 to $209,672 $4,382 $673 7.1
50 through 69.... 52 25,975 7,825 to 61,963 2,442 500 7.5
40 through 49 40 24,721 5,370 to 76,604 1,939 562 5.6
30 through 39 .. 57 16,476 4,470 to 59,351 1,652 526 6.8
16 through 29 50 13,499 4,358 to 37,960 1,102 507 4.4
15 and under ...- 53 9,929 2,000 to 55,956 742 449 3.0
All farms ....... 294 22,726 2,000 to 209,672 1,963 530 6.3


The percent return on capital likewise was higher for the
larger acreages in potatoes, except that the group with from 30
to 39 acres in potatoes had a higher percent return than the
group with 40 to 49 acres in potatoes. The average value of oper-
ator's labor was somewhat higher on the farms in the latter
group, which partially helped to lower the percent return on the
investment, but this was not sufficient to explain the difference.
The greater the acreage in potatoes per farm, the higher was
the total capital, value of land, dwellings, tenant houses, other
buildings, irrigation, livestock, automobiles and feed and sup-
plies. (Table X.)
The capital investment in fences was slightly higher in the
fifth group than in the fourth group, and machinery values
were a little higher in the third group than in the second group.
Trucks were used in all groups, so the number of acres in pota-
toes and the number of trucks used showed no correlation.
The average for 294 farms might be misinterpreted. There
were on the 294 farms 259 dwellings with an average value of














TABLE X.-AVERAGE CAPITAL PER FARM SORTED BY ACRES IN POTATOES ON 294 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Acres in Potatoes




70 and over .....-...

50 through 69 .......

40 through 49 .........

30 through 39 .........

16 through 29 .......

15 and under .......

All farms .......


Cd
-



$38,5041$3,885

18,747! 2,286

18,204 2,036

11,2211 1,720

9,428 1,430

6,774 1,098

I 16,2931 2,011


w
M
4- )U C m

CX0 +C C
C)C 40c C


$1,141

419

213

203

96

55

332


$2,499

1,080

1,018

798

521

314

986


$489

267

248

188

200

171

252


o





$901

419

383

232
201

71

347


0
-4-




$1,665

965

904

811

781

714

951


$1,689

880

892

620

345

299

751


SC






184

151

133

115

76

S 150


<-





$1,065

614

444

425

331

286

511


1C




$52,418

25,975

24,721

16,476

13,499

9,929

22,726






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 199

$2,282 for those farms having dwellings. In a number of in-
stances the farmer lived in town. There were 167 tenant houses
on the 294 farms with an average value of $584 per farm for
those farms having tenant houses. There were 208 automobiles
at an average value of $211 per car for those using automobiles
on farms. This does not quite represent the total number of
automobiles but those which were partly or wholly used for
farm work. There were 4 or 5 farmers who kept automobiles for
pleasure only. There were 140 farms with trucks valued at $298
per truck.

TABLE XI.-MORTGAGES AND BORROWED WORKING CAPITAL ON POTATO
FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.

Mortgages Borrowed Working
Rate Capital
Rate ---
Number Average Number Average
Amount Amount

5% 1 $3,000 ............
5 1o 47 4,004 1 $ 1,500
6% 11 3,555 10 2,356
61/2% 1 800 3 1,700
7% 6 5,500 1 6,250
71/2% ..................... 1 15,000
8% 95 5,206 198 2,873
10% 1 1,400 2 3,315
N o charge .................... ........ ....................- 1 6,384
Rate not given ...... ..........-... .................. 1 867

Total and aver-I
age per loan 162 $4,692 | 218 $ 2,909
Total and aver-
age per farm 152 $5,001 215 $ 2,949

Improvements of various kinds were made on 139 farms dur-
ing the year. The average amount spent on the farms making
improvements was $99 for dwellings, $25 for tenant houses, $69
for other buildings, $7 for fences, $32 for land clearing, $15 for
irrigation, $197 for machinery, $95 for automobiles, and $85
for trucks, or an average of $624 per farm for the farms making
improvements.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


MORTGAGES AND BORROWED WORKING CAPITAL
Mortgages were reported on 52 percent of the farms studied.
On 10 farms there were two mortgages. There were probably
more farms mortgaged than reported, since the operators on
cash rented farms were not always able to answer this ques-
tion. About 29 percent of the farmers giving mortgages took
advantage of the 51/. percent interest rate offered by the Fed-
eral Farm Loan Board. The majority of the mortgages, how-
ever, were placed at 8 percent, which is the prevailing mort-
gage rate in Florida. (Table XI.) This table shows that 73 per-
cent of the farmers borrowed working capital; that 91 percent
of the loans were made at 8 percent, and over 4 percent of
them at 6 percent.
The interest charge used in this study was 7 percent. The
weighted average on all mortgages gave a rate of 7.1 percent,
so the interest charge was determined on this basis.

LIVESTOCK
The livestock industry is of minor importance on the farms
studied. The relative importance shows that Green Cove Springs
and LaCrosse had approximately twice as much total livestock
per farm as Hastings and Bunnell. (Table XII.)
In the Hastings district there were nearly 8 mules to one
horse; Green Cove Springs, 7; Bunnell, 5; and LaCrosse, a little
more than 2. This is what would be expected in the South, as
mules stand the heat better than horses.
It will be noted that all areas kept nearly the same amount of
work stock except at LaCrosse; there the potato acreage was
much less, and horse labor requirements were not so great. A
great many, especially around Hastings, keep their work stock in
small enclosures which makes the feed cost for work stock
comparatively high.
Dairy farming in connection with the growing of potatoes
was practiced on a few farms. There were two farmers be-
tween Elkton and St. Augustine who kept good sized dairy
herds and one smaller herd was kept near Hastings. Near Bun-
nell two potato farmers had small herds. Near Green Cove
Springs, a herd of purebred Jerseys was kept on a potato farm.
From this farm no milk products were sold but calves were be-
ing raised.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 201

TABLE XII.-AVERAGE NUMBER OF ANIMAL UNITS: PER FARM IN THE DIF-
FERENT POTATO DISTRICTS AND FOR THE 294 POTATO FARMS IN NORTH-
EAST FLORIDA, 1925.


No. of Farms
Kind

Work Horses

Work Mules ...

Total Work
Stock .........

Milk Cows .....

Range Cattle

Young Milk
Cattle .........

H ogs .............

Poultry ..........

Sheep ............

Total -..........


217


S .4

3.0


3.4

1.8

5.6


.3

.9

.6

12..............6 ....

- 12.6


50


.5

2.6


3.1

1.6

2.0


.2

1.4

.5

2.6

11.4


M
1a




14


13


.8

1.9


3.3 2.7

1.4 .4

14.7 16.3


.4 .1

1.6 5.0

.5 .6



21.9 25.1


*An animal unit is a mature cow or horse, or as many other animals as
consume an equivalent amount of feed. Two young or range cattle, 5 hogs,
10 pigs, 7 sheep, or 100 poultry are estimated to constitute an animal unit.

Scattered throughout all these districts were cows kept for
family use. Compared with some areas in Florida, the farm
cows were above the average. Grade Jerseys were the most
common type found on these farms.
Range cattle were kept in all the districts studied. Nearly
three times as many ranged in the LaCrosse and Green Cove
Springs districts as in the Hastings district. At LaCrosse every
farmer but one had range cattle and 5 farmers had from 45 to
100 head each. In the Green Cove Springs district only 5 farm-
ers had any range cattle and these had but few, with the excep-
tion of one farmer who had 360 head, which makes the average
for the small number of farms comparatively high. In the Bun-
nell district, large numbers of range cattle were seen, but they
did not belong to the potato farmers included in this study.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Range cattle subsist on the open range and require little atten-
tion.
Hogs are not so generally kept in the Hastings district as
would be expected. At LaCrosse more than three times as many
were kept per farm as in any other district.
Only one farmer of the 294 kept sheep. These were kept on
the range and only at shearing time were they rounded up.
The average size of the farm flock of poultry was 60 in the
Hastings and LaCrosse districts and 50 in the Bunnell and
Green Cove Springs districts. There were but three commer-
cial poultry flocks in the entire area. Eggs were sold from just
half the farms, and the average receipts were $154 per farm for
those selling eggs. The increase in poultry was $24 per farm for
all farms. This was the difference between the value of poultry
at the beginning and end of year added to the sales of poultry.
Purchased Feed: The most hay was bought on the largest
farms. The number of animal units fed hay was highest on the
same farms. The largest dairy herd is included in the third
group, which helps to account for more hay being used than in
the second group. (Table XIII.) In the last two groups the
amount of hay bought was the same, yet slightly more animals
were kept on the smaller farms. Hay prices ranged from less
than $25 to about $35 per ton, depending on the quantity, qual-
ity, and time of year bought.
The first group had no dairy cows while the second group
had Bunnell's largest dairy herd, which tends to increase some-
what the quantity of grain purchased. The grain bill was very
large on the largest dairy farm, which is in the third group. The
second largest dairy farm is in the fourth group, and the last
group had a dairy farm on which the grain bill was high. The
animal units shown at the left exclude range cattle and range
sheep, because they were fed neither hay nor grain. The varia-
tion in price per ton was caused by market fluctuations and kind
of grain bought.
On the Hastings farms $14.92 more was spent for hay per
farm than was received for hay sold. Only $7 more was spent
for hay on all the Bunnell farms than was received for hay sold.
On the 14 farms at Green Cove Springs, $215 was spent for hay
and on the 13 LaCrosse farms, $38. No hay was sold in these






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 203

two districts. For all farms 813.36 more was spent for hay per
farm than was received for hay sold.
On the farms in the Hastings district, $68.82 per farm more
was spent for grain bought than was received for corn sold;
in the Bunnell district, $171.90; in the Green Cove Springs dis-
trict, $77.71, and for all farms, $83.25. In the LaCrosse district
$10.92 per farm more was received for corn sold than was paid
out for grain.

TABLE XIII.-AMOUNT OF FEED BOUGHT AND COST PER TON ON 294 PO-
TATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.
Hay Grain


Acres in Potatoes M a .
0C m CC r-OC
C 0 ) 00 0 0> W 00
E-1 P-4
70 and over ......... 10.6 2.0 $31.41 4.3 $51.11
50 through 69 -...... 8.2 1.0 32.96 4.7 54.10
40 through 49 .......... 7.2 1.1 24.86 8.3 50.25
30 through 39 ......... 7.1 .5 34.65 5.0 49.87
16 through 29 .-.. 4.9 .3 33.13 2.0 52.97
15 and under ......... 6.3 .3 26.08 2.7 54.18
Average per farm 7.8 .8 30.69 4.4 51.66


FARM RECEIPTS

The details of farm receipts are shown in Table XIV. The re-
ceipts per farm from potatoes, corn, and from total crops were
highest in the Hastings district, followed by the Bunnell, Green
Cove Springs, and LaCrosse areas in the order named.
Citrus receipts were high from some groves near Hastings.
At Bunnell the groves were small. Sweet potatoes were grown
in all the districts, but LaCrosse nearly doubled the receipts of
each of the other districts. In the LaCrosse district 10 of the
13 farmers grew cucumbers, and sugar cane was relatively im-
portant in point of receipts.
Cabbage was grown in the Bunnell district but a large amount
went to waste on account of the low market price. Flower bulbs







204 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE XIV.-AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RECEIPTS PER FARM IN THE HAS-
TINGS, BUNNELL, GREEN COVE SPRINGS, LACROSSE DISTRICTS AND ON ALL
FARMS, 1925.


Number of farms ...... 217
Average farm receipts
per farm ............... $10,810
f


Crop
Potatoes .......................
Corn ....- -......
Citrus .... ...-..- ......
Sweet potatoes ............
Cucumbers .............-
Cabbage ............. ...-
Sugar cane ..................
Celery .............. .- ..
H ay ...................... .
Flower bulbs ...........
Garden ........... ..... ...-
Sweet peppers ....
String beans ...........
Tomatoes -..----...-....-
M elons ........................
Onions .... ........-.....
Fall potatoes ..............
Sweet corn ...............
Strawberries ..............
Squash -.......-.....-........
Cauliflower .............
Cantaloupes ..............-
Pecans, peanuts, and
velvet beans .........
Increase feed and
supplies ..........- ...
Total crops ........


Dairy products ............ $
Eggs ..-..-..-......................--
W ool .......... -..................
Net increase livestock
Total livestock
and livestock
products ......-
Man and team labor....
Machine work ............
Woodland products ....
Rent ......... .... ..----------
Miscellaneous ................


S 9,558
152
118
80

13
18
22 .
11
3 .
9
9 .

8 .
2
1
2
2
2


1

123
$10,135


50

88,898


14

S8,377


S7,500 $6,659
138 118
16 .... .....
83 72
...... ....... 334
154 26
20 -
20 ..................
31
31 ............... 164............
---- 3--K--- 164
13 7
.. 26
20 1

1 3
10 .................
104 ..... ..........
4 ..................


5



283
$8,283


144 $ 81
79 111
. ....... 38
74 35


297 $ 265
193 205
37 50
7 2
136 80
5 13


I-****-- --------------
. ...........- ..... ..................

434 78
$7,851 $3,581


$ 78 $ 100
.......... ........ --------- -----
291 258


$ 369 $ 358
109 2


13

$3,947


$2,201
24

145
798

251



1

51
.32
32


294

$10,065



$ 8,745
142
89
83
51
37
28
16
13
10
9
8
6
6
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1

1

163
$ 9,422

$ 120
85
6
85


$ 296
183
35
5
117
7


1








Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 205


TABLE XV.-AVERAGE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RECEIPTS IN THE DIF-
FERENT POTATO DISTRICTS AND FOR THE 294 FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLOR-
IDA, 1925.


Number of farms .............. 217 5 50
Average farm receipts per farm S10.810 $8,898

Crop '

Potatoes ....... ........ ...--- .......- 88.4 84.3
Corn ............... ..... .. ...----. .. 1.4 1.6
C itrus .................... ..............- ..... 1.1 .2
Sw eet potatoes ............. ......... .7 .9
Cucum bers .. ..-............... ...... --
Cabbage ...................... ............. .1 1.7
Sugar cane --.... ......... .........- .2 .2
C elery .--...... ..... ........- .2 .........
H ay ....... ... ..... .... .... .. ..-- ... .1 .3
Flower bulbs ......... ........
G arden ...................... ... ....... .1 .1
Sweet peppers .................. .1
String beans ......................... ..........- .2
Tomatoes ................................ .1
Melons ..
Onions ...................... ....... .1
Fall potatoes ..............
Sweet corn ................
Straw berries ................. .-...........
Squash .............................. ............... .1
Cauliflower ............ -
Cantaloupes ..... ................................- ... .1
Pecans, peanuts and velvet beans .......
Increase feed and supplies ....... 1.1 3.2
Total crops ..................... 93.8 93.1


Da
Eg
W(
Ne


Ma
Ma
We
Re


iry products ..........


1.3


.9


g s ............... ......... ......... i .
ool ......... .... ... .- .... ..... ...- ....- ..
t increase livestock................ .7
Total livestock and livestock
products .......................... 2.7 3.
In and team labor ................. 1.8 2.
ichine work ............................ .3
woodland products .................. .1
nt ........................ ........ .... .. 1.3
Miscellaneous ..... ..... *


*Less than .1 of 1 percent omitted.


14
88,377


i
4
4


S 13
$3,947



55.8
.6
3.7
20.2

6.4

... ;----


1.3
.8





(----------


1.9_
d .............
d .............





90.7



------6.5
6.5


4.4 9.0
1.3 .1
......-- .. -..-...-

6 .2
I::lt.-- -- ---------


294
810,065



86.9
1.4
.9
.8
.5
.4
.3
.2
S .1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
2.9








1.6
93.6

1.2
.8
.1
.8

2.9
1.8
.3
.1
1.2
.1






Florida Agricultuaral Experiment Station


Fig. 91.-Distribution of receipts on 294 potato farms in Northeast
Florida, 1925.
were grown on but two farms included in the study. The other
crop receipts were relatively unimportant.
It will be noted that the farmers in the LaCrosse district have
relatively low receipts from potatoes, but a higher return from
sweet potatoes, cucumbers, sugar cane, string beans, and melons
than the farmers in the other districts.





Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 207

The large increase in feed and supplies at Green Cove Springs
is accounted for by the fact that one farmer carried over for
planting a large supply of flower bulbs. On two farms where
there was a large crop of corn on hand at the end of the year,
there was none on one at the beginning of the year and only
a little more than one-third as much on the other at the begin-
ning of the year as at the end of the year. The corn crop was
good in 1925, and this also accounts for the large increase in
feed and supplies. At Bunnell, a number of farms had little or
no feed on hand at the beginning of the year, but had a good
supply of corn at the end of the year.
Receipts from dairy products were confined to Hastings and
Bunnell. There is no relation between egg sales and number of
poultry on the farms. It may be that some gave their farm
flocks better care than others, or that more eggs were used on
the farm in some areas than in others.
Receipts from man and team labor off the farm were highest
in the Bunnell district, but very low in the LaCrosse district.
In Table XV the distribution of farm receipts is shown in per-
centages.
The highest proportion of receipts from potatoes was realized
in the Hastings district. Only 56 percent of the receipts from La-
Crosse were from potatoes, while 20 percent were from cucum-
bers.
In all areas over 90 percent of the total receipts were from
crops, and only in the LaCrosse district do the receipts from
livestock amount to 5 percent or over.

FARM EXPENSES
The expenses per farm, like the receipts, were highest in the
Hastings district, followed by the Bunnell, Green Cove Springs,
and LaCrosse districts, in the order named. The cost of wage
hands ranged from $220 to $701 per farm, with an average of
S606. Miscellaneous, or day labor, cost most per farm on the
Green Cove Springs farms, and contract labor, or labor done by
the piece, ranged from S168 per farm on the LaCrosse farms
to $1,049 per farm on the Bunnell farms. (Table XVI.) The
total value of labor per farm, excluding the operator's labor,
was over twice as great on the Hastings farms as on the La-
Crosse farms.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Total labor and fertilizer expenses were greatest in the Has-
tings district, followed by the Bunnell, Green Cove Springs, and
LaCrosse districts in the order indicated. At LaCrosse, cheaper
fertilizer was used by several farmers, so the cost there was
considerably less per acre. For other crops, more than three
times the amount was spent for fertilizer on the Green Cove
Springs and LaCrosse farms, as was spent on the Hastings
farms. Total fertilizer cost ran about the same as total labor
cost, except on the LaCrosse farms, where it was only 54 per-
cent of the labor cost.
Seed costs per farm for potatoes depended, of course, upon
the potato acreage. Other seed costs were high at Green Cove
Springs, because flower bulbs were bought for 111/ acres on
one farm.
Barrels cost around 65 cents each and as there is little varia-
tion, the container cost ran according to the yield of salable
potatoes.
Irrigation expenses were low for the three areas which have
wells for that purpose. This expense was generally for cleaning
out wells. At Green Cove Springs 35 percent of the farms stud-
ied had irrigation wells; at Bunnell, 26 percent, and at Hastings,
61 percent, which shows the advantage the Hastings district
has in a dry year.
As more machinery is used in the Hastings district, the de-
preciation and repairs were accordingly higher there. Farm
buildings are better in the Hastings area, necessitating a high-
er upkeep cost, while fence repairs increased with the size of
farms, but were less at LaCrosse than one would expect.
Feed bought in the Bunnell area was exceptionally high; more
than 21 times as much per farm as was bought at LaCrosse.
No dusting was done at LaCrosse, and in the Bunnell area,
which was second in dusting costs, only 40 percent as much was
spent for dusting as at Hastings.
Automobile expense for personal use was not included. This
expense for farm purposes was least at Bunnell and highest at
Hastings. Average taxes per farm at Hastings were 8229, while
at Green Cove Springs they were $85. The average taxes for
all farms were $204.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Fartming 209


TABLE XVI.-AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENSES PER FARM IN THE
HASTINGS, BUNNELL, GREEN COVE SPRINGS AND LACROSSE DISTRICTS IN
1925.


Number of farms ... ..............
Average farm expenses per farm.

W age hands ....................
Miscellaneous paid labor ......
Man and team labor ..................
Contract labor ............... ........
Board of labor .......... .........
Unpaid family labor ...........
Total labor* .......... .....

Fertilizer for potatoes .............
Fertilizer for other crops .........
Total fertilizer ............. .

Seed potatoes ............
Other seeds, trees and plants .......
Total seeds, trees, and plants
Containers for potatoes ...
Other containers .......... ...
Total containers ...............


... 217 50
..... 88,677 $7,522


..S 701
.. 301
2
.... 922
.... 1
116
... $2,043

... S2,083
33
$... 2,116

.. 81,262
42
... 81,304
.. 81,439
.... I 9
S1.,448


|$ 363
224
-----------
1,049
9
197
|$1,842

$1,772
79
181,851

$1,103
[ 57
1$1,160
$1,157
36
|S1,193


0)







$ 360 220
366 190
S554 168
47 11
105 309
$1,432 $ 898

$1,351 $380
! 106 105
$1,457 $ 485

$1,129 $ 203
165 27
81,294 IS 230
|S 980 $ 293
S 33 1 90
j81,013 |S 383


Repairs and depreciation
Irrigation ......-.. .. .. ..... 8
M achinery ........................
Dw selling ......... ........ .
Tenant houses ... .......
Other buildings ....................
F ences .......................... .
Total repairs and depreciation 8
Feed purchased:
Hay & other roughage
Grain & other concentrates
Veterinary, medicine and dips
D u st ........... .. ............
Machine work hired .........
Team work hired ..............
Fuel & oil for farm use ..
Automobile for farm use .........
Use of truck and tractor ....................
Telephone ....-.
Fire insurance .............. .
Taxes .............. ....... -
R ent ......................... .......
Commission ....- ....- .......-........
Other expenses ............... ...
*Not including operator's labor.


294
$8,102

$ 606
286
2
893
5
138
$1,930

$1,920
47
$1,967

$1,182
49
1$1,231
|$1,318
18
81,336


11 i8 3
327 267
122 79
42 24
88 73
42 41
632 $ 490

26 31
221 310
6 4
174 70
11 12


i8 4
240
59
16
38
52
8 409


15
197
3
34
3

60
76
101
. ..... I
10
85
52


--8 9
162 305
62 109
36 37
47 82
54 44
361 8 586

3 25
13 226
3 5
.. 142
10
....... 3
39
58 98
172 144
6 9
4 25
125 204
107
5 2
... 13


4
39
112
139
11
30
229
126
3
3


----- I .. .-.- .
42
53
166
3 ...
13
150
68

64 ..








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE XVII.-AVERAGE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF' EXPENSES IN THE
HASTINGS, BUNNELL, GREEN COVE SPRINGS AND LACROSSE DISTRICTS IN
1925.


Number of farms .......... ....


W age hands ..............................
Miscellaneous paid labor .........
Man and team labor ..............
Contract labor ...........................
Board of labor ......................
Unpaid family labor ..................
Total labor ............
Fertilizer for potatoes .............
Fertilizer for other crops .......
Total fertilizer ....................
Seed potatoes .... &--- ...... I
Other seeds, trees & plants...--.
Total seeds, trees & plants..
Containers for potatoes ..........
Other -onin+nirI


Total containers .................
Repairs and depreciation:
Irrigation ........... ... ....
M achinery ....................-........
D w selling .................................
Tenant houses ............. ......
Other buildings ...-...- .. |
F ences ..--..-.........................
Total repairs and deprecia-
tion ..................
Feed purchased:
Hay & other roughage ........
Grain and other concentrates
Veterinary, medicine & dips...
D ust ..... .............
Machine work hired .........
Team work hired ................ ....
Fuel and oil for farm use......
Automobile for farm use ....
Use of truck and tractor-........
Telephone -........-.._-- ....... .....
Fire insurance -.... ....... .
Taxes ..............-
R ent ............. ..................
Com m mission .........................
Other expenses .............-.....
Percent of receipts required
for farm expenses ...............


a

217


8.1
3.5

10.6
*
1.3
23.5
24.0
.4
24.4
14.5
.5
15.0
16.6
.1
16.7

.1
3.8
1.4
.5
1.0
.5


14
%

5.8
5.9

8.9
.7
1.6
22.9
21.6
1.7
23.3
18.1
2.6
20.7
15.7
.5
16.2

.1
3.8
.9
.3
.6
.8

6.5

.2
3.2

.5


1.0
1.2
1.6

.2
1.4
.8


(0


a

13
%

8.0
6.9

6.1
.4
11.3
32.7
13.8
3.8
17.6
7.4
1.0
8.4
10.7
3.3
14.0


5.9
2.3
1.3
1.7
2.0

13.2

.1
.4
.1

------------
j-----------
2.1
6.3
.2
.1
4.6

| .2


C


294
%

7.5
3.5

11.0
.1
1.7
23.8
23.7
.6
24.3
14.6
.6
15.2
16.3
.2
16.5

.1
3.8
1.3
.5
1.0
.5

7.2

.3
2.8
.1
1.8
.1

.5
1.2
1.8
.1
.3
2.5
1.3

.2


80.3 84.5 74.5 69.6 80.5


fNot including value of operator's labor.
*Less than .1 of 1 percent.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 211

Labor, fertilizer, seed, and containers constituted 80 percent
of total expenses in the Hastings and Bunnell districts, 83 per-
cent in the Green Cove Springs district, and 73 percent in the
LaCrosse district. It required 84 percent of the farm receipts
at Bunnell, 80 percent at Hastings, 74 percent at Green Cove
Springs, 70 percent at LaCrosse, and 80 percent on all farms to
meet the total farm expenses. (Table XVII.)
The cost of seed potatoes per acre was $27.82 at Hastings,
$28.35 at Bunnell, $37.65 at Green Cove Springs, and $21.74 at
LaCrosse. (Table XVIII.) It was a general practice to put 5
sacks of seed to the acre at Hastings and Bunnell. On one of
the larger potato farms in the Green Cove Springs district, six
sacks pere acre were used, which made the average for the 14
farms higher. The most common practice at LaCrosse was to
use 4 sacks to the acre, making seed cost there much less.

TABLE XVIII.-CosT OF SEED, FERTILIZER, SPRAY MATERIAL, AND CON-
TAINERS PER ACRE OF POTATOES FOR THE DIFFERENT DISTRICTS AND FOR
294 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.









Dust ........ ............... 3.73 1.79 1.13 .............. 3.30
Containers .......................... 31.71 29.75 32.65 31.37 31.43

Total ...............................I $109.16 $105.43 $116.46 $ 93.76 $108.67


Fertilizer cost in all districts was about $45 per acre, except
at LaCrosse. Container costs per acre were lowest at Bunnell.
The total cost per acre of seed, fertilizer, dust, and containers
was $109 in the Hastings district, $105 in the Bunnell district,
$116 in the Green Cove Springs district, $94 in the LaCrosse
district, and $109 for the whole area.
On approximately 70 percent of the farms regular hired help
was used. The average cost of this class of labor was about 853
per month. Only 10 farmers boarded their hired help.








212 Florica Agricultural Experiment Station


It would not be expected that miscellaneous day labor would
be as cheap per month as the regular hired labor. The average
price was 872 per month, and 81 percent of the farmers used
this class of labor.

Contract labor in the potato area is especially important. Cut-
ting seed was generally hired at 25 cents a sack, though there
IT


PE-C-- O TO4 E- PLNSL


Wag1 &M-xl 111
LA5OQ ."i 17
CD tl 11.0




Poro 231
FErTluEe OTrMER


PoTTO 14.6
0'.. 1


RepjeB &


SrtDBour A


TA E


Ai.. oInE E.PetsEs 74


a.WahLisM'adU.oos
. Fmil Labor
c Conbrac Lobor
d FErler frPoltoes
. rlilr fLr oth e Crops
f.Conairtar3 for Fotoas
?CorJurtrs Foro herCrops
h.Se.d PWotooes
i. Other seeds.tres&lnts

k.Feed.h.ro.ek.bougk
k. ricd~ha.clc. bouehr


ID io So P.C,.tw


Fig. 92.-Distribution of farm expenses on 294 potato farms in North-
east Florida. 1925.


PO ATO
CoWTlntrS


2.*


h.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 213

was some variation. Hauling to market was by the barrel, the
price depending on the distance from market. Fertilizer was
hauled by the ton and seed by the sack. Coopering barrels was
usually done by contract labor. Dusting was sometimes done
under contract at a specified price per acre. Cleaning ditches
was often contracted. Picking beans and cucumbers and cut-
ting and hauling cabbage was done by contract in some instances.
The largest item for contract labor was digging and picking up
potatoes. The average price for digging and picking up in 1925
was 25 cents per barrel. Where diggers were used, the average
price paid to pick up was about 15 cents per barrel.
Hastings is an intensive potato center and the crop is ready
to harvest within a relatively short time. If the price is high
and weather conditions favorable, a great many are harvesting
at the same time and there is strong competition in getting
the contract labor at such times. This sometimes changes the
rate on this kind of labor.

TABLE XIX.-CLASSIFICATION OF MAN LABOR OF 294 POTATO FARMS IN
NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.



Kind of Labor t % |o | B



Paid Number Number
Regular hired .......... 207 11.5 $52.74 $606
Miscellaneous .........................1 237 3.9 72.23 279
M manager ...............- ........-...- 3 .1 56.72 7
Contract ................................. 294 .--...----- .... ................ 893
Unpaid
Board of hired labor ........... 10 .3 17.44 5
Family labor except oper-
ator .................................. 129 2.5 55.72 138
Operator's labor ................. 294 12.0 44.18 530
Percent of total labor paid ..... ..-....... ...... .. ........... .........72.6%o
Percent of toal-labr paid------------ -------------------272.6/
Percent of total labor unpaid ............... ................ 27.4%
All farmers used contract labor. On account of the various
kinds of this class of labor, it was found impossible to get a rate
per month. The amount spent per farm was $893. (Table XIX.)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


On 44 percent of the farms, members of the family aside from
the operator did some farm work. The value of this labor, esti-
mated by the farmers whose families assisted with the farm
work, was 856 per month.
The value of the operator's labor was obtained on all farms.
Whether he worked on the farm all year or not the estimate of
the value of his labor was considered for 12 months, and any
work he did off the farm was counted as a receipt. The average
value of all operators' labor for the year was $530. This seem-
ingly low value is due to the fact that a great many of these
operators are not engaged in farm work for the entire year.
Nearly 73 percent of the farm labor was hired.

POTATOES
Since the main crop is potatoes in this area and as the greater
part of the farm receipts comes from this crop, more attention
will be given to potatoes than to the other crops, which are of
minor importance.
Anyone who expects to go into the business of raising pota-
toes in Florida should first acquaint himself with the capital
requirements. In general farming the operator and unpaid fam-
ily labor, with a small outlay for farm equipment and with a
relatively small amount of working capital, may be successful.
In potato farming the machinery expense is comparatively high;
seed must be bought, and fertilizer arranged for early in the
season. Later, dust may be needed, barrels must be provided
and harvesting expenses met, until sufficient returns are in to
meet these expenses.
Seed. The Spaulding Rose is the variety commonly grown
in the area studied. "Good seed may be defined as being true
to varietal name, free from mixture, vigorous in growth, pro-
ductive and as free as possible from tuber borne diseases.""
About 99 percent of the seed potatoes used in the area studied
came from Maine. It was selected seed and in 1925, 75 percent
was certified. It is remarkable how nearly the amount of seed
needed is determined in advance. In this area the dealer knows
the number of acres of potatoes he is to help finance or is to
handle and the Hastings Potato Growers Association knows
"U. S. D. A. yearbook, 1925.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 215

what acreage their members intend to plant. In the fall they
buy about 5 sacks, each weighing 165 pounds, for each acre,
and distribute to the farmers. It frequently happens that one
dealer has a shortage of seed and another a surplus, which gen-
erally takes care of the situation.
Fertilizer: The amount and cost per ton of the different
kinds of potato fertilizer are shown in Table XX. Sorted accord-
ing to acres in potatoes, the range in cost of mixed fertilizer
per ton for the different groups showed little variation.
The cost of nitrate in the first group seems exceptionally
low in comparison with the others. The 12 tons, however, were
used on one farm. The other 6 farmers who used nitrate used
from .2 of a ton to 11/2 tons. On the 7 farms where nitrate was
used, 3 had yields above the average and 4 had yields below the
average. A little more than .1 of 1 percent of the fertilizer
bought was nitrate, less than .1 of 1 percent acid phosphate,
which was used on only one farm, while 99.8 percent of the fer-
tilizer used on potatoes was the mixed fertilizer, of which 5-7-5
was the most common analysis.
One farmer used 6 tons of phosphate rock at a cost of $1 a
ton. This is not shown in the table.
All growers used fertilizer and it is surprising how uniform
the rate of application was. The group range was from .99 to
1.08 tons per acre, with an average of 1.06 tons for all groups.
On the LaCrosse farms, nearly all of which fall in the group
of 15 acres and under, only 1,815 pounds of fertilizer per acre
were used and over 50 percent of the farmers in that district
used fertilizer that cost $40 or less per ton.
Dusting.-Dusting for potato late blight was practiced, ex-
cept in the LaCrosse district. This is a comparatively new potato
section and the disease had not appeared there in 1925. The most
common type of duster used in the area is the Niagara.
The writer was informed that 75-25 copper-lime dust was
most commonly used. The labor distribution obtained on 163 of
the 175 farms where potatoes were dusted, showed how many
times dusting was done. On these 163 farms, 23 dusted once, 73
twice, 62 three times, and 5 dusted four times. Dust was applied
between the middle of February and the middle of April in
the Hastings and Green Cove Springs districts, and from the
















TABLE XX.-AMOUNTS AND COST PER TON FOR DIFFERENT KINDS OF FERTILIZER USED ON POTATOES ON 294 FARMS
IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Acres in
Potartces
Per Farm



and over .......

through 69 ...

through 49 .

through 39 .

through 29 ..

and under .....


Total and average


0o
--c)





4,218

2,854

1,669

1,928.5i

1,136

526.51
1


'-c
01 C)




4,463.5

2,936.5

1,794.1

2,048.8

1,208

516.5


> 0



$43.68

43.42

43.79

43.08

42.91

42.97


12,332 12,967.4 843.44


-co
C,~


C)


>0


.......... ........


6 $

6 $


C0










.2

........ 2.5



8 .2

8 i 17.4
!'


m
0
0
a4-
C>)0 C) 5

<<-4F 4 0


a,

-! C-) 4
Hp,- N

>00CC)F
*'*0 00 1
COuPIFe


010



$51.50



76.00

74.00

64.40

68.75

$57.09


$43.70

43.42

43.80

43.11

42.95

42.69

$43.45






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 217

middle of February to the first of April in the Bunnell district.
(Fig. 93.)
There was four times as much man labor used per acre dust-
ing in the Hastings district as in the Bunnell district, and eight
times as much as in the Green Cove Springs district.
According to Florida Experiment Station Bulletin 169, it is
essential that tubers used for seed should be free from late
blight. The conclusions from this bulletin are that dusting with
copper-lime dust is cheaper than Bordeaux paste, but more ex-
pensive than home-made Bordeaux mixture. The results ob-
tained were prac-
tically the same.
Dusting is a
preventive rather
than a cure, yet
the general ten-
dency of the
farmer is not to
buy dust until
blight appears in
the neighborhood.
When it does ap-
year there is a
great rush to get
the material and
to apply it with-
out delay.
More than 219
tons of dust were
used on potatoes Fig. 93.-The most common type of duster used in
in the whole area the Hastings area.
at an average cost of $185 per ton.
The relation of dusting to yield of potatoes is shown in Table
XXI. In the group with 70 acres and over in potatoes, 85.7 per-
cent of the farmers dusted and the yield was 36 bushels more
per acre than on the farms where no dusting was done. On the
farms in the second group, 65.4 percent dusted; in the third
group, 77.5 percent, and the yield averaged 30 bushels more per
acre in these two groups than on the farms where no dusting
was done. In the fourth group, 75.4 percent of the farmers dust-
ed and these harvested 17 bushels more per acre than those who






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


did not dust. Of the farmers in the fifth group, 51 percent dusted
and in the sixth group, 14.6 percent. In these two groups the
yield was 10 bushels more per acre than on the farms where
no dusting was done.
While there are many factors which may affect yield, the in-
dications are that dusting is one of them, since every group in
Table XXI shows better yields where dusting was practiced.
TABLE XXI.-RELATION OF DUSTING TO YIELD ON 281 FARMS IN NORTH-
EAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Acres in 0 0 o
Potatoes | :


70 and over ........ 42 6 115.5 36 151.8
50 through 69 .. 52 18 126.5 34 156.2
40 through 49 40 9 128.7 31 159.0
30 through 39 .- 57 14 137.2 43 154.3
16 through 29 .. 49 24 133.9 25 143.8
15 and under .... 41 35 124.8 6 135.0

Harvesting and Grading: The potato crop is ready to har-
vest in from 90 to 100 days after planting. Some prefer to leave
the potatoes 110 days before harvesting, in order to get an in-
creased yield.
Hastings has a reputation for potatoes, and by the time the
crop is ready to be harvested, numbers of colored laborers are
on the ground for this work. They board themselves as a rule,
and sleep in the small houses scattered among the potato farms,
and at Hastings, or nearby towns.
The most common method of digging is to bar off both sides
of the row with a plow, then a contract price to dig and pick
up is paid the laborers. Potato rakes are used to get the potatoes
out of the ground. They are picked up in buckets, baskets or
crates and put into barrels which have been conveniently placed
about the fields. When the barrels are filled they are covered
with potato vines to shield them from the sun. (Fig. 86, front
cover.)






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 219

On some farms the elevator type of digger is used. The
Hoover and the International are the most common. Where the
digger is used, the potatoes are picked up at a specified price
per barrel.
In harvesting potatoes too great care cannot be taken. Up to
this time there has been a great expense incurred in making the
crop, and carelessness may cause heavy losses. Young potatoes
are tender, so very great care in digging and pouring into bar-
rels, as well as care in handling at the grader, should be exer-
cised. According to U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bulletin 1050, the ma-
jority of fungous diseases that cause decay of potatoes cannot
develop when the skin is free from cuts and bruises.
Harvesting in 1925 was begun the last half of March on the
Hastings and Bunnell farms, the first half of April on the Green
Cove Springs farms, and the last half of April on the LaCrosse
farms. All were practically through by the middle of May, ex-
cept at LaCrosse, where they did not finish until the last of May.
The barrels are loaded on wagons and hauled to the grader,
which is generally under a shelter nearby.
The grading of potatoes is a decided advantage to the farmer
because buyers know what they are getting and are willing to
accept grades and guarantee payment to the farmer through
their banks, when they have assurance that they are getting a
standard product.
Some farmers use hand graders but the most common in use
is the Boggs power grader. Some advantages in grading are to
satisfy the market and to save expense of containers, labor and
freight in handling small potatoes. Farmers should give close
supervision to the grading of their crop since carelessness on
the part of the help may prove expensive.
All defective potatoes are sorted out by hand as they are be-
ing conveyed to the grader, which is equipped with sizing
screens. The U. S. Standard Grades numbers l's, 2's, and 3's,
drop into barrels placed about the grader to receive them. The
culls also drop into a barrel for removal from the grader. If in-
spection is made this must be done in the field or at the grader.
When barrels are filled they are headed and labeled.
Potatoes are hauled directly from the grader to the car (Fig.
94). The average carload is 186 barrels, but this varies from
160 to 190 barrels.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Marketing: The potato crop is not a sure money maker,
since the yield may be high or low, the market demand favor-
able or unfavorable. Up to the time of harvesting the farmer
has had great risks and after the crop has been harvested,
another still faces him-that of getting a favorable market.
The potato crop is marketed through the Hastings Potato
Growers' Association and independent buyers. The writer was
informed that from 85 to 90 percent of the crop is sold f. o. b.



















Fig. 94.-Loading Irish potatoes into cars.
shipping point. For years, Hastings potatoes have attracted buy-
ers, so competition is strong. Some buyers maintain headquar-
ters at Hastings the year round. Seed, barrels, about 30 percent
of the fertilizer, and an advance for digging, if necessary up to
50 cents per barrel, may be furnished by independent buyers.
There are cases where an advance of $20 per acre is made for
growing the crop. When the crop is marketed the buyer who
has financed the grower deducts the expenses before the farmer
gets his pay for his crop. Independent buyers in most instances
pay cash f. o. b. shipping point.
When the potato season opens there are buyers present from
Pittsburg, Philadelphia, New York City, and other large East-
ern markets, but the greater part of the crop is handled by the
cooperative association, and other firms who help finance the
growers and who maintain offices at Hastings.








Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 221

The following was furnished through the courtesy of the Has-
tings Potato Growers' Association:

This association was organized during the summer and fall of 1922.
It started its first year with 62 active members, who represented less than
18 percent of the tonnage produced in the area. In the spring of 1923 the
Association shipped 605 cars, in 1924, 1,105 cars, in 1925, 1,211 cars, in
1926, 1,456 cars, and in 1927, 1,738 cars of potatoes.
The Association operates under a three year contract with its mem-
bers. When a farmer desires to affiliate with the Association, he makes
application for membership. If he proposes to enjoy the full benefits of
the purchasing service as well as the marketing service, he submits with
his application for membership a financial statement, which is the basis
of credit extended to him by the board of directors, through its finance
committee. The applicant must satisfy the board of his desirability as a
member and ability as a farmer. If his membership is approved, funds
are then available to him for the purchase of his requirements, through
the Association's endorsement of his paper, in proportion to the line of
credit extended to him and approved by the finance committee.
The needs of the farmer are determined largely by his potato acreage.
When the acreage he is to plant has been determined, he gives his note
to the Association, which is endorsed by the Association and passed to
its subsidiary, the Hastings Agricultural Credit Corporation, which in
turn endorses it over to the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Columbia,
where it is rediscounted at an interest rate averaging less than 5 percent.
An account is opened with the member who pays cash for fertilizer,
seed, spray materials, barrels, and any other supplies necessary to the
growing and harvesting of the potato crop. The grower does not handle
the money, but the Association pays all of these expenses on the grower's
orders. There is available up to $20 per acre during the growing season
for production costs, distributed over a period of six months in monthly
advances of 83 per month for live months and 85 per month during the
planting period. The allowance per barrel for digging, grading, and load-
ing varies according to the distance from the loading station. This expense
is available through the Association in addition to the $20 per acre allowed
to cover production costs.
The Association is a farmer's f. o. b. shipping point sales organization,
and sells for its members only. It has sold over 90 percent of its mem-
bers' products on a cash basis, f. o. b. shipping point.
With the exception of one year, the organization has had the products
of its members inspected by the Federal-State Inspection Service and in
1925 over 80 percent of the potato crop of its members was inspected by
this service.
The farmer who becomes a member of this Association must retain
his membership for three years. All potatoes grown by him or coming
into his possession during that three-year period must be marketed by
and through the Association by virtue of his contract. Any member violat-
ing or breaching his contract with the Association forfeits all equity in
any of the reserve funds, properties, or interest accumulated by the As-
sociation.
Every member who loads standard U. S. grades of potatoes is eligible
to pool. Suppose 50 cars are loaded and moved on a given date. A number
of cars may be sold on different dates, or failing to have been sold f. o. b.,
may have been distributed through several different markets, thus differ-
ent prices may have been received per barrel for the same grade goods
moved on the same date. When all returns are in, which may require
from 12 to 20 days, receipts for every car that moved on that date are
totaled, and each farmer in the pool gets the average price per barrel
that the total brought.
Each member has an account with the Association and at the close of
each daily pool each member's account is credited with the amount due







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


him through the pool; as soon as the member's account shows a credit
due him, he gets a check covering that amount.
In 1925 the cost of marketing was 25 cents per barrel, but on account
of the increased volume it was reduced to 22 cents per barrel in 1927.
At the close of each fiscal year each member is advised of the amounts
placed to the credit of his account in the cash reserve fund, and the build-
ing reserve fund. After the annual reports of the officers of the Associa-
tion have been audited by a certified public accountant, they are passed
on to the members for their final approval.
Each member's equity in the various funds of the Association are ac-
cumulated in proportion to the extent that he avails himself of the pur-
chasing and selling service offered by the Association.


Fig. 95.-Map showing carlot unloads of potatoes from Florida, 1925.

Of the 294 farmers interviewed, 103 reported that they were
members of the Hastings Potato Growers' Association, 118 said
they were not members but did not give the names of the deal-
ers who marketed their crops, and 52 farmers gave the names
of the independent buyers who handled their potatoes in 1925.
Three farmers sold part of their crop through the Association
and part through the independent buyers and on the other 18
farms the information is lacking.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 223

The cities, and number of cars of Florida potatoes received by
them in 1925 are shown in Fig. 95."o These cities handled 82.4
percent of the total Florida crop that year.

TABLE XXII.-COMPARATIVE NUMBER OF CARS OF POTATOES SHIPPED FROM
FLORIDA, AND PERCENT OF U. S. SHIPMENTS FROM FLORIDA-1923, 1924,
AND 1925."



S1 119 0,14 99 o0.- 0 9:0. 0 8. .0
N~ 01 Z ;.1 L O
Date r, ru rc&Sfe



Before April 1 ...... 36 109 401 ..................
April 1 to 15 .........-- 119 324 999 80.4 90.5 81.8
April 16 to 30 ...... 934 1,011 1,896 93.5 83.4 71.5
May 1 to 15 ............ 1,684 1,596 1,729 91.2 72.1 51.5
May 16 to 31 .......... 607 1,205 99 17.5 22.9 2.1
June 1 to 15 .......... 91 118 | 9 1.4 1.4 .1
June 15 to 30 ....... 17 8 .............. .2 .1
To end of season.. -- 3 4 -. .. ........
Total number of
cars .... ............ 3,491 4,375 5,133 ............... .. ..... ..........

"Compiled from The Florida Potato Deal, 1925, U. S. D. A. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics.
*Less than .1 of 1 percent.

In Table XXII it is shown conclusively that the 1925 crop was
much earlier than the 1923 and 1924 crops. More than 10 times
as many potatoes were shipped out of Florida in 1925 before
April 1 as had been shipped the same date in 1923. By April 15
in 1923, 4.4 percent of the crop, in 1924, 9.9 percent of the
crop, and in 1925, 27.3 percent of the crop had been shipped. By
April 30, 1923, 31.2 percent, in 1924, 33 percent, and in 1925,
64.2 percent of the crop had been shipped. By May 15, 1923,
79.4 percent, in 1924, 69.4 percent and in 1925, 97.9 percent of
the car-lot shipments had been moved. Only 9 carloads went out
in 1925 after June 1, and none after June 15.

1"Compiled from Florida Potato Deal, 1925, U. S. D. A. Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics.






Florida Agricultural Experimtent Station


In 1925, 81.8 percent of the U. S. shipments from April 1 to
15 came from Florida. From April 16 to 30, 71.5 percent, from
May 1 to 15, 51.5 percent and from May 16 to June 15, the end
of the Florida season, 2.2 percent.
The new crop of potatoes shipped during March is of minor
importance, but of all the new crop, Florida shipped 63 percent.
(Table XXIII.) In April about one-fifth of the total shipments
of potatoes in the United States was of new crop, and Florida
shipped nearly three-fourths of these. In May over 40 percent
of the total crop shipped was new potatoes, but less than one-
fourth of these came from Florida.
TABLE XXIII.-CARLOAD SHIPMENTS OF POTATOES DURING MARCH, APRIL
AND MAY, 1925.1.
Percent of
Month Total Number TotalCars Per New Pota-
of Cars of New of New toes from
Potatoes Potatoes Florida


March .......... ...' 21,639 595 2.7 62.7
April ....... ........ 20,123 3,998 19.9 72.4
May ......... ......... 20,215 8,210 40.6 22.3

It has been shown in Table XXIII that late Northern potatoes
are real competitors of the Florida crop. The fact that other
early potatoes go onto the market at the same time that Florida
potatoes are marketed, unless one considers to what markets
they go, gives a wrong impression as to competing areas. (Fig.
96.)
It will be noted that Florida's potato crop had practically been
shipped by May 16. (Fig. 96.) Up to this time 856 cars had been
shipped from Louisiana. This state is not a strong competitor,
since Chicago, Kansas City, St. Louis, Memphis, Minneapolis,
Omaha, and New Orleans handle a large part of its crop.
Alabama had 540 cars, or about half of its crop, shipped dur-
ing Florida's busy shipping period. Of Alabama's total crop
Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama got 75 percent, so there was
little competition with the Florida crop.
During the week ending May 16, the Florida shipments were
nearly two-thirds less than the previous week and South Caro-

"Figures compiled from carload shipments of potatoes, mimeographed
sheet, U. S. D. A. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.








Im.







rLORIDA .10






500-1





zoo-

4001


300-



100-
p
TEXA3


00-


LouislAM

otoo-


GEORGIA li


ALABAMA
,AGO.


1400

(300

12.00-


'toeq














500T t
900




















Soo
CARDLIMP,







(DO

























AI1KANSAS
wo
boo


1200

Iur,

1000



\IIPtGmIA


700
Vmst CroI
S.o



4a.




20,

'00

E#4O''I


I I I I I I I I I


28I..lAPR. 'APR.. APR.4Iii 1 5MA
28 4 11 18 75 z


MAY MAY 'MAY MAy
9 4, 23 .30


* one corlood


Fig. 96.-Weekly carload shipments of early potatoes, 1925.


fu-E u tA
Isl


_


S1


41r


Ir






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 225

lina that week had nearly as many, so the combined shipments
of these two states would not equal Florida's shipments of the
previous week.
Texas began to ship the same week Florida began. The peak
of its shipments for the one week, April 25, was less than one-
third of Florida's that week, and then dropped sharply. Texas
shipped 272 cars to Kansas City, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, and
St. Louis, while Florida shipped only 79 cars to those cities.
Texas shipped but 122 cars to other cities farther East which
are shipping points for Florida. Thus it is seen that though
these two states harvest at about the same time they supply
different markets.
In 1925 California shipped to 9 different markets to which
Florida also shipped, but only a total of 21 cars. It should be
borne in mind, however, that the 1925 Florida crop was har-
vested earlier than usual and some years South Carolina may
be shipping heavily before Florida has finished harvesting her
crop."'
Many families in cities, when potatoes are cheap, buy enough
to last them through the spring months and buyers often store
old potatoes and sell on favorable markets, so the old crop is a
competitor of the Florida crop. Since the storing of young pota-
toes is not practical, it is to the mutual advantage of both buyer
and producer to rush them from the field to the market as soon
as possible.
When certain crops go on the market the public buys liber-
ally, because the season when they can be had is short. The po-
tato is a staple food, almost as indispensable as bread and but-
ter, and with the average family the amount used does not vary
greatly from day to day. It is true that when new potatoes
come on the market, the desire for them causes many to buy
at first, who soon go back to the use of old potatoes because
they are cheaper.
Since consumption of potatoes is rather uniform from day to
day, it would seem that one of the greatest economic problems
is proper distribution. The marketing of potatoes is not easy.
To reach the best market at the right time, to avoid the ones
that are glutted, and to command the highest prices at all times
is the ideal of all shippers.

"Compiled from South Carolina Potato Deal, 1925, U. S. D. A. Bureau
of Agricultural Economics.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE XXIV.-MAN HOURS PER ACRE FOR VARIOUS OPERATIONS ON 276
POTATO FARMS IN THE DIFFERENT DISTRICTS IN 1925.




Operations .

U co -Z P


Cutting stalks ..........................

Plowing and harrowing ......-....

Preparing seed bed ................

Hauling fertilizer .....................

Hauling seed .........................

Cutting seed .-........-......-.......

Irrigating ....... .....- ...... .. .......

Planting ..............-. ....-...........

Cultivating .- .....- ...............--

H oeing ...-......... .- ...- ..... ........

Hauling dust ............................

Dusting ............ ........ ...........

Total before harvesting .........

Barring off .................. ..-...

Digging and picking up .......-

Hauling hands .....................

Hauling to grader ...................

Grading .. ......- ... .... .

Coopering barrels .................

Hauling to market ............. .

Total harvesting and marketing


.3

7.4

7.2

1.2

.6

7.4

5.1

3.8

8.3

.2

.1

1.6

43.2

2.0

54.3

.2

8.3

13.3

2.3

3.0


83.4


Total all operations .......-....... 126.6


.1

4.5

6.9

.8

.4

6.5

1.6

3.2

6.8



*

.4

31.2

1.6

57.2

.1

7.1

11.4

.2

2.6

80.2


111.4


.1

6.5

7.1

.8

.4

5.8

2.0

4.1

6.3


*


.2 I ........-.

33.3 42.2

.7 1.9

68.3 52.2

.1 ............

8.9 2.2

13.4 14.0

1.0 2.0

2.7 4.3

95.1 76.6

128.4 118.8


.2

6.9

7.2

1.1

.5

7.1

4.4

3.8

8.0

.2

.1

1.4

40.9

1.9

55.3

.2

8.1

13.0

1.9

2.9

83.3

124.2


*Less than .1 of 1 percent.

Man Labor: Man labor distribution on potatoes by operations
is shown in Table XXIV. Labor distribution was obtained on 202


.4







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 227

farms in the Hastings district, 48 in the Bunnell district, 14 in
the Green Cove Springs district, 12 in the LaCrosse district,
making a total of 276 farms.
Where corn was grown the year before, stalk cutters, drawn
by two mules, were used by some; others broke the stalks down
with disks.
Preparing the land was done in different ways. Some plowed
the land, some listed, some disked. In many instances, the disk
was used to cut the land ahead of the breaking plows. Harrow-
ing and plowing were done with either work animals or tractors.
Preparation of the seedbed included laying off the rows, fer-
tilizing, disking in fertilizer, throwing up beds, and running
the middle buster. The time varied from 6.9 hours per acre at
Bunnell to 7.3 hours per acre at LaCrosse. The man hours re-
quired for hauling seed and fertilizer varied considerably on ac-






34

3 30




-.. WN LABOR-HOURS- Pen ACt L
1O" AVERAGE ALL OIrItS 2o0

116

12.
Io I







JuN Ju- Aue.. S.Pr OcT Nov. DE-C JAM, Fee. MAR APR MA.

S MI- MONTMLy PLrTIODS

Fig. 97.-Distribution of man labor per acre by semi-monthly periods on:
276 farms in all potato areas studied in 1925. Acres in potatoes, 11,469.5.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


count of the number of men used to the wagon or truck, and
distances hauled.
Cutting seed was done partly by family labor but mostly by
contract. There is probably as wide a variation in the amount
of seed different individuals can cut properly, as would be found
in the amount of cotton individual pickers are able to pick per
day. Cutting seed requires skill and careful supervision. The
hours per acre on this labor were least at LaCrosse, because
less seed were planted.
Irrigation includes, besides upkeep of wells, cleaning and
keeping ditches open. As has been shown in Table XVI, La-
Crosse had no irrigation wells, but they did a small amount of
work to keep ditches open to drain away surplus water.
Planting required practically the same number of hours per
acre in the different districts, except at LaCrosse, where the
labor requirements were much higher. In all other districts
nearly all the planting was done with improved machinery; the
seed was cut in advance, so there was little delay when ready
to plant. At LaCrosse, two-thirds of the farmers planted by
hand.
Hauling to grader and hauling to market combined required
much less time at LaCrosse than in the other districts. The po-
tatoes in this section were graded at the loading station, which
is comparatively close to all the farms. In the Hastings district
66 percent, in the Bunnell district 72 percent, in the Green Cove
Springs district 74 percent, in the LaCrosse district 64 percent.
and on all farms 67 percent of the total man labor on potatoes
was required in harvesting and marketing.
The farmers in all the districts did some work preparatory to
planting potatoes the first half of October. The hours of labor
increased through November, except in the LaCrosse district,
where little work had been done to that time. The work through
December became heavier in all the districts and through Janu-
ary planting was at its height. In February there was a slack
period. In March, digging was started in the Hastings and Bun-
nell districts. The peak was reached in these districts in April.
The Green Cove Springs farmers were harvesting, but the peak
was not reached there and at LaCrosse until the first half of
May. (Table XXV.) Man labor per acre ranged from 111 hours
in the Bunnell district to 128 in the Green Cove Springs dis-
trict, with an average of 124 hours per acre for all farms.








Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 229


The material contained in the last column in Table XXV is
shown graphically in figure 97. This covers the labor distribu-
tion on 276 potato farms.

TABLE XXV.-DISTRIBUTION OF MAN LABOR PER ACRE OF POTATOES BY
SEMI-MONTHLY PERIODS FOR THE DIFFERENT POTATO DISTRICTS AND FOR
276 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Period


July 1-15 ..........

August 1-15 ...-...

August 16-31 ..

September 1-15 ...

September 16-30

October 1-15 .......

October 16-31 .......

November 1-15

November 16-30

December 1-15 ..

December 16-31

January 1-15 ......

January 16-31 ....

Wonhrunr 1-14 .


00 Z 0




.............. ---.............



-- - --- .... ... ... .
I


.1

.3

1.8

2.2

2.1

2.3

3.4

4.0

7.5

6.1

9 8


.2

.2

.6

.7

1.5

1.5

2.3

3.5

8.9

3.7

2.1


.5

1.7

1.3

2.2

1.1

2.1

2.7

7.8

6.0

2.2


.3

1.6

1.9

2.0

2.1

3.2

3.8

7.8

5.8

2.7


J -- -- --I -I
February 15-28 ....... 3.4 1.9 2.3 3.5 3.1

March 1-15 ............ 3.9 2.0 2.1 3.2 3.5

March 16-31 ......I.... 6.3 8.5 i 1.4 1.6 6.4

April 1-15 ................ 16.8 36.7 20.5 .8 19.9

April 16-30 ........- 39.8 28.3 23.9 ............... 37.1

May 1-15 .................... 22.5 8.3 50.5 53 21.6

M ay 16-31 ............ 1.3 .4 ................ 23.5 1.3

Total Labor ............. 126.6 111.4 128.4 118.8 124.2

*Less than .1 of an hour per acre.







230 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Distribution of man labor in what has been referred to
throughout as the Hastings district is shown in Fig. 98. It will
be noted that through October and November the distribution
was fairly uniform. The busiest time planting was the first
half of January, and the harvesting peak was the last half of
April.



0 0
I8





36 236
4 -34
32









4 4
20 20

15 i aM_ LAto l-. ouis F>x..AC.. o,













1SEI- MONrLY PE..IO.I


Fig. 98.-Distribution of man labor per acre by semi-monthly periods
on 202 farms in the Hastings district, 1925. Representing 9,155 acres
of potatoes.

Within the Hastings district has been included 18 farms in
the vicinity of Federal Point, where the season is somewhat
earlier than for the district as a whole. A separation of
the Federal Point farms from the Hastings district was made
and the labor distribution for the two regions is shown in
Figures 99 and 100.
Figures 99 and 100.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 231

With the 18 farms represented in Figure 100 omitted, the
distribution of labor in Figure 99 appears to be very similar to
that in Figure 98. It will be noted, however, that the planting
hours during the last half of December diminished as well as
the harvesting hours the first half of April, when the Federal
Point farms were omitted.






40






za 20


1 z

Fig. N L99Di-HOtiuti o o AClam
5 .3b












12 2b















on 184 farms in the Hastings district, excluding Federal Point. Acres
in potatoes, 8,462.


In Figure 100 it is clearly shown that the peak of the plant-
ing season at Federal Point was reached the latter half of De-
.JkE ~lYALX-. 5MEPT. Ocy NOV. DE- JXM, FE1. MAR. AF, MAY




Fig. 99.-Distribution of man labor per acre by semi-monthly periods
on 184 farms in the Hastings district, excluding Federal Point. Acres
in potatoes, 8,462.

In Figure 100 it is clearly shown that the peak of the plant-
ing season at Federal Point was reached the latter half of De-
cember, and that the peak of harvesting was reached the first
half of April instead of the last half as was shown in the two






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


previous figures. The hours per acre of harvesting for the Has-
tings district the last half of March were 16.8; with the 18 Fed-
eral Point farms omitted 14.6; while on the Federal Point farms
alone 28.1 man hours were used during this period. These fig-
ures bring out the fact that in both early planting and early
harvesting, Federal Point leads.


Fig. 100.-Distribution of man labor per acre by semi-monthly periods
on 18 farms at Federal Point, 1925. Representing 693 acres of pota-
toes.

The peak of the planting season at Bunnell was reached the
first half of January and about as much harvesting remained
to be done May 1 as has been done to April 1. (Fig. 101.)






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 233

On the Green Cove Springs farms (Fig. 102), almost half of
the harvesting was done during April and within the next two
weeks the harvesting of the crop was completed.
On the farms in the LaCrosse district (Fig. 103) no harvest-
ing was done before May 1, and by the end of the month this
work has been finished.



0
?






6 6






4 4
MAN LIiOR-HOuPA rt f. A4












2 2

J t J,.Y A .PT. OCT NAo. DC. J.A M rr. MA,.. 1AIB. MAY

,5EMI-MONTHLY PERIOD

Fig. 101.-Distribution of man labor per acre by semi-monthly periods
on 48 farms in the Bunnell district, 1925. Acres of potatoes, 1,783.

It is shown in Figure 104 that no plowing for potatoes was
done before September, and that harvesting was completed by
the first of June. Many did not begin that early, and were
through long before June 1. The different operations over-
lapped. It is hard to draw the line between plowing, harrowing,
and preparing the seedbed, because the farmers did not all use
the same method. After work was well started in the fall, farm-
ers were generally busy preparing the seedbed, fertilizing, plant-







234


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ing, cultivating, dusting, and harvesting. There was no rest
period, except at LaCrosse during the last half of April. Culti-
vation was all done by the middle of April.


MAI LABOR-HOURS Pi.R ACRE
GREENCoYE SPRINGS DISTRICT


SEPT OCT.


Nov. D)EC. JAN. FEh MAR. APR. MA'


HOURS






44
41
40

3s



32
.30







22



6
34
t
to
a
6
4




It
0
*Y


SEMI- MONTHLY PERIODS


Fig. 102.-Distribution of man labor per acre by semi-monthly periods
on 14 farms in the Green Cove Springs district, 1925. Acres in pota-
toes, 420.


Work Stock Labor: The range in number of work stock per
farm was from 2.7 on the LaCrosse farms to 3.4 on the Has-
tings farms. (Table XXVI.) On the former farms, nearly 28
acres of crops were worked per work animal. This was higher

than in any of the other areas, because there were fewer acres
in potatoes, and more of crops with lower per-acre labor re-








Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 235


quirements. The average was 26 acres of crops per work animal.
Work stock labor was used in cutting stalks, plowing and har-
rowing, preparing seedbed, hauling fertilizer, hauling seed, plant-
ing, cultivating, hauling dust, dusting, and irrigation. Under
the last item the work referred to was opening ditches. All this











i 4b



34 40
38 SO



3t 2



26 z6

n22
MAN LADOR-tHOURS PER AC E 0
18. LACROSSE DI TftlT f8

54 1.4

12 I
10 to
28 8

.4 4-


S EPr OC. Nov DaC. JAN fEa MAR. APR MAY
1 I X I Z '



SEMI-MONTHLY PERIODS



Fig. 103.-Distribution of man labor per acre by semi-monthly periods
on 12 farms in the LaCrosse district, 1925. Representing 111.5 acres
of potatoes.







236 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

work was done prior to harvesting and ranged from 32.8 hours
per acre in the Bunnell district to 46.3 hours per acre in the
Hastings district and 43.9 hours for the whole area. (Table
XXVII.)


I I 1eI I


dU)JE JULY AUc. SEPT OCT. Nov DEC JAN FEB MA,. APRp MA-Y
5.SEMI-MONTiTLy PEp.IODS

Fig. 104.-Seasonal distribution of labor by operations on 274 potato farms
in Northeast Florida, 1925.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 237


TABLE XXVI.-AVERAGE NUMBER OF WORK ANIMALS PER FARM AND CROP
ACRES PER WORK ANIMAL, 294 POTATO FARMS, NORTHEAST FLORIDA,
1925.


District


H astings ..........- ....- .. ..........
B unnell ............................
Green Cove Springs .........
LaCrosse ............. ...............
All Farms .......... --


Work
Number of Animals
Farms Per Farm

... 217 3.4
50 3.1
14 3.3
..... 13 2.7
.. 294 3.3


TABLE XXVII.-WORK STOCK HOURS
ON 276 POTATO FARMS IN THE


Operations
Operations


Cutting stalks ....................

Plowing and harrowing ....

Preparing seed bed ..

Hauling fertilizer

Hauling seed .................

Irrigating ...............

Planting ..... .........

Cultivating ............. ....

Hauling dust ......................

Dusting .............-...............

Total before harvesting...

Barring off ..............

Hauling hands ........


Haul to grader .........

Haul to market .......
Total harvesting and
marketing .............

Total all operations


PER ACRE FOR VARIOUS OPERATIONS
DIFFERENT DISTRICTS, 1925.




0 P }



.2 .2 .8 .4

6.2 11.7 14.8 13.2

10.9 10.5 7.8 10.7

.1 .3 2.0 .6

.2 .6 .2

.1 .... .... ...... .... .3

4.1 4.2 3.5 4.5

10.4 10.1 8.6 11.6

*.8 .5 ................ *2.

.8 .5 .............. 2.4


8.7 7.2

.1 .3

11.2 9.7

S57.5 42.5


8.9



9.8

47.5


*Less than .1 of 1 hour.


Crop Acres
Per Work
Animal

26.7
24.2
23.1
27.9
26.2







Florida Agricultuiral Experiment Station


Barring off just ahead of the diggers, hauling hands, haul-
ing to grader and to market were the principal work stock labor
operations after the harvesting season began. Less than half as

TABLE XXVIII.-DISTRIBUTION OF WORK STOCK LABOR PER ACRE OF POTA-
TOES BY SEMI-MONTHLY PERIODS FOR THE DIFFERENT POTATO DISTRICTS
AND FOR 276 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Period


A ugust 1-15 ...............-.... ...............

A ugust 16-31 -............ ........

September 1-15 .......... ..- .1

September 16-30 .... ......... .5

October 1-15 ................... 3.5

October 16-31 ---.... ... -... 4.4

November 1-15 ................ 3.9

November 16-30 ............. 3.3

December 1-15 .............. 4.0

December 16-31 .... .....1 4.5

January 1-15 ---................. 4.0

January 16-31 ............... 3.7

February 1-14 .............. 3.0

February 15-28 ............. 3.8

M arch 1-15 ................... I 4.0

M arch 16-31 ................ ... 2.9

April 1-15 .................... .. 3.0

April 16-30 ...................... 5.6

M ay 1-15 .... .......... 3.1

M ay 16-31 ............. ........i .2


Total


.2



.3

.3

.5

.7

2.3

2.2

3.2





3.7

2.7

2.7

2.6

2.8

5.0

3.3

1.3

.1

42.5


$- 0 .





I------------_




3.0

2.6

4.2

1.2

2.4

3.7


4.8

4.8

3.5

3.0

2.9

1.6

1.9

2.3

5.6



47.5


.4

.9

.5

.4

4.1

5.7

11.9

3.7

2.9

2.5

2.6

1.6

.8



3.1

1.6


42.7


*Less than .1 of an hour per acre.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 239

much work stock labor was used during this period at LaCrosse
as was used in the other districts.
Work stock labor before harvesting in the Hastings district
was 81 percent, in the Bunnell district 77 percent, in the Green
Cove Springs district 79 percent, in the LaCrosse district 89
percent, and for all farms 80 percent of the total labor put on
the crop. The marketing work is supplemented to a considerable
extent by the use of trucks.
It is shown in Table XXVIII that very little work was done
on potatoes before the middle of September and that not until


Fig. 105.-Distribution of work stock labor per acre by semi-monthly
periods on 202 farms in the Hastings district, 1925. Representing
9,155 acres of potatoes.


WoOR STOC-K LASNo-BUNMELL




I T



JK. Ju- J. A"- Sa* 0- M-.o. Ap,.-. ,..v


Fig. 106.-Distribution of work stock labor per acre by semi-monthly
periods on 48 farms in the Bunnell district, 1925. Representing 1,783
acres of potatoes.


3E1Mf- MO.4T l-4LV P- IC ODI







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


3EMI-M MONTHLY PERIODS


Fig. 107.-Distribution of work stock labor per acre by semi-monthly
periods on 14 farms in the Green Cove Springs district, 1925. Repre-
senting 420 acres of potatoes.





0
2 z
I-II

10 .10
9 -9
S WORK STOCK LABOR- LACROSSE


3-6




z


I2 2 I I 2 2 I It I a0
JUNE JULY AUG SEPT Or Nov DEC. JAN. FEB MA.R APR. MAY
SEMI-MONTHLY PERIODS


Fig. 108.-Distribution of work stock labor per acre by semi-monthly
periods on 12 farms in the LaCrosse district, 1925. Acres of potatoes
represented, 111.5.

the first of October were the work stock busy. They were kept
busy generally until late in May.

From a farm management standpoint, the growing of pota-
toes does not show a very efficient use of labor and equipment.
The planting and gathering of corn, planting and harvesting


1a
WORK STOCK LA6OR -GrO.EN COVE SPRINGS 0
I

-5


A3
2 O MAR. R. MAY



AUo. SEPT Oc NoV. DEC. JAN FEB' MA. APR. MAY







Bulletin 1j3, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 241


Q'





3 ,
o I
x, WOA tOCIC r B09-^ L T rI/ NOSTN Q TMOUT EDEHALPT P







12 1 2 1 1 2 I2 2 20I 2 I 2
JUNE JULY AUF SEP. OCT Nov. De-. JAN F'.. MAAR APR. PlAY

SEMI-MoitTrrlLr CE.RIoOs

Fig. 109.-Distribution of work stock aoF'rdrb--by semi-monthly
periods on 184 farms in 1925 in the Hastings district, exLtdlftig Fed-
eral Point. Acres of potatoes represented, 8,462.






7-7
-6
3 3
f VORK( irocK LAOPR-TEoERAL POINT











JuNE. JULY AU. SEPT OCT INov DEC JAN FEB. MAR. APR. MAY
SEMI-MONTHLY PER.IODS

Fig. 110.-Distribution of work stock labor per acre by semi-monthly
periods on 18 farms at Federal Point, 1925. The farms represent 693
acres of potatoes.

the hay crops, and caring for the small acreages planted to other
crops than potatoes do not demand the full employment of man
and work stock labor that many farmers are obliged to keep in
order to successfully handle the potato crop.
The work stock labor shown in figures 105 to 111 inclusive,
as well as figures on man labor already shown, refer to labor
on potatoes only. There is better distribution of work stock
labor in the Hastings district than in the other districts.
In that district, the potato acreages are larger. The work stock
labor distribution in the LaCrosse district on growing potatoes







242


Florida Agricultural Experiment St, tion


WoV 5TOCc. LLAOe- AvE.Ct ALL. AtAS









JuLtsJ Jur A. 5ET OCT tc Nov. DF-C JA. Fra. MAR.. ArR. MAY


Fig. 111.-Distribution of workAtock labor per acre by semi-monthly
periods or._27g-farms in all potato areas studied, 1925. These farms
reV-present 11,469.5 acres of potatoes.

TABLE XXIX.-TRUCK HOURS PER ACRE FOR VARIOUS OPERATIONS ON
POTATO FARMS IN THE DIFFERENT DISTRICTS AND FOR 276 FARMS IN
NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Operation


Hauling fertilizer ............ .5

H auling seed ...................... .3

Fertilizing .......................... *

Hauling dust ................... *

Total before harvesting. .9

Hauling hands .......... .2

Hauling to grader ........... *

Hauling to market ........... 2.5

Total harvesting and
marketing ....- ... ......... 2.7

Total all operations ........ 3.6


P
M

e3 h a


.7

.4

.2
*

1.3

.1

.1

2.4


2.6

3.9


.5

.2

........... ..
*

.7

.1



2.1


*Less than .1 of an hour.


0






.6 .6

.4 .3

*
---------ii-i *



1.0 1.0

.2
....-...--- .2

*

3.2 2.5


3.2 2.7

4.2 3.7


I







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 243


alone looks inefficient, but it must be borne in mind that as this
is a section of more general farming, the work stock labor is
being used on other crops, so the distribution is not so poor as
it appears.

Trucks: Trucks were used on some farms to supplement
workstock in hauling seed, fertilizer, dust, hands, potatoes to
grader and to market. (Table XXIX.) The total hours per acre
ranged from 2.9 to 4.2 in the different districts. Of this truck
use, about three-fourths in the Hastings, Green Cove Springs,
and LaCrosse districts, and two-thirds in the Bunnell district
was done after harvesting was begun.


TABLE XXX.-SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRUCK HOURS PER ACRE IN THE
DIFFERENT POTATO DISTRICTS AND FOR 276 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST
FLORIDA, 1925.


Period




November 1-15 .............

November 16-30 ............

December 1-15 ...............

December 16-31 ....... ...

January 1-15 ...................

January 16-31 ........... ..

February 1-14 .........

February 15-28 .... .....

March 1-15 ..... ....

March 16-31 ..... .....

April 1-15 ................. .....

April 16-30 ....- ... ....

M ay 1-15 ......... .... .

M ay 16-31 .......................

T otal ....................................


.8



















. .5



.8
S .2


S.
S.








.1

.5

1.3

.8



-[ 3.6


.1

.4

.6







*
.1









.3 ......


a da
M 0




.2 ... .. ..... .....
--- -- -- --- -- -


.2

.2 .2

.3 .5

* .3




--------- --------------
---.. .. ._- --


1.1 .5

1.1 .6

.2 1.0

4.0 ...........

4.0 2.9


.2

.4

.3

*

*





*

.1

.6

1.3

.7



3.7


*Less than .1 of an hour per acre.


..






244 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Trucks were not used until November. During November and
December materials such as seed and fertilizer were hauled
from distributing points. From the first of January very little
work was done with trucks until the beginning of the harvest-
ing season in March. (Table XXX.)
Tractors: All of the tractor work in the Green Cove Springs
district, practically all of it in the Bunnell district, and 93 per-
cent of it in the Hastings district, was done before harvesting.
(Table XXXI.) No tractors were used in the LaCrosse district.

TABLE XXXI.-TRACTOR HOURS PER ACRE FOR VARIOUS OPERATIONS ON
POTATO FARMS IN THE DIFFERENT DISTRICTS AND FOR 276 FARMS IN
NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Operations .
m C Q C

Plowing and harrowing ................... 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3
Preparing seed bed ......... .......... .. .2 .2 *
Fertilizing ....... ......... ........- ....... .... .1 *
P lan tin g ........- ....... ..........---- .. -- ---------

Total before harvesting .................. 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.3
D digging ..... ............... .1 ..--.... .......- .1
Hauling to grader ..................... .. ...... ..... ----..

Total harvesting ........ .......1 ............. .1

Total all operations ........................... 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5

*Less than .1 of an hour per acre.

On the 294 farms studied there were tractors on 94 farms. On
four of these, there were two tractors each, and on one farm,
three, making a total of 100 tractors on all farms.
There does not seem to be any immediate danger that the
mule will be supplanted by tractors on the potato farms in Flor-
ida, since there were only 1.5 hours of tractor use per farm
against 54.8 hours of work stock labor.
It will be noted that tractors were used almost exclusively








Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 245


for plowing, harrowing, and preparing the seedbed. In the Has-
tings and Bunnell districts they were used infrequently to fur-
nish power for diggers.
There was very little tractor work done before the first of
October, and no tractors were used from the middle of January
to the middle of March. (Table XXXII.) In this table is shown
the seasonal distribution with the total number of tractor hours
per farm.


TABLE XXXII.-SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTOR HOURS PER ACRE IN
THE DIFFERENT POTATO DISTRICTS AND ON 276 POTATO FARMS IN NORTH-
EAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Period



August 16-31 ......

September 1-15 ....

September 16-30 ..-

October 1-15 ........

October 16-31 ......

November 1-15 ....

November 16-30 ..

December 1-15 ....

December 16-31 ....

January 1-15 .......

March 16-31 .........

April 1-15 ............

April 16-30 .........-

May 1-15 .-...........

May 16-31 .........


Hastings


*

*



.3

.3

.2

.3


Bunnell


Green
Cove
Springs


.4 ........................

.2 .2

.1 .1

.3 .2

.............

------------- -----------


.1


Total --- ..- .......... 1.5 1.7


*Less than .1 of an hour per acre.


All Farms








.3

.3

.2

.3

.1

.1













1.5






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CROP YIELDS

High yields of potatoes as well as other crops at as low a cost
as possible is desirable. Good seed, correct cultural practices,
and spraying at the right time are all important factors.
The average yield of potatoes for Florida in 1923 was 90.5
bushels; in 1924, 91.1 bushels, and in 1925, 118.5 bushels. The
shipments in 1925 were the largest in many years. Seven hun-
dred and fifty-eight more cars were shipped in 1925 than in
1924 and 1,642 more cars than in 1923."
In 1925, the yield of potatoes was highest in the Hastings
district and lowest in the Bunnell district, and the yield of corn
and sweet potatoes was highest in the Bunnell district and low-
est in the LaCrosse district. (Table XXXIII.) The year 1925
was one of high yields for both corn and potatoes.
The yield of potatoes in the Hastings district was 149.6
bushels per acre, with 18 farms at Federal Point included. With
these farms omitted, the yield was 150.2, and the yield on the
Federal Point farms was 140.5 bushels.

TABLE XXXIII.-AVERAGE YIELDS OF CORN, POTATOES, AND SWEET POTA-
TOES IN THE DIFFERENT AREAS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Area S m



Hastings .............. ........ 217 25.1
Bunnell ............... ...... .. 50 29.5
Green Cove Springs ...... 14 26.7
LaCrosse ...................... 13 18.2
All Farms ....................... 294 25.3

A large number of farms in the Hastings


404w
jo Q o





149.6 94.8
133 103.5
147.4 73.3
145.2 62.0
146.8 90.8

district are supplied


with artesian wells. The water is turned on when needed for
irrigation purposes and during times when the young potatoes
are liable to damage from frost. The Hastings district has this
advantage over the other districts studied, since it is better sup-
plied with these wells. In .an extremely dry season farmers may

"The Florida Potato Deal, 1925, U. S. D. A. Bureau of Agricultural
Economics.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 247

irrigate their fields, get a better stand, and thus increase their
yield. During the year 1925, Hastings had no advantage over
the other districts, as it did not become necessary to irrigate.

PRICES
In general, the late Northern crop of potatoes, with the ex-
ception of Western potatoes of especially high quality, is shipped
much shorter distances than Florida potatoes. This is a bulky
crop to handle and unless the price justifies long hauls the
freight charges take the profits. When Florida potatoes come on
the market they have little competition except from the pre-
vious year's late Northern crop. The first shipments generally
sell at a premium. If the price is too high there is danger that
they will not be readily sold, and because of the poor keeping
qualities they may have to be sold at a reduction which may
lower the market price for later shipments.
Florida potatoes are used exclusively for table consumption,
and the proportion of the crop shipped is dependent upon the
market price. Some years number 3's are marketed, but the year
this study was made comparatively few of this grade were
shipped. Very few culls are sold locally and in nearby markets,
and as there is but a small amount of livestock kept in this area,
the unmarketable potatoes are practically a loss.
The average price for all grades of potatoes in the Hastings
area was $4.19 per barrel. (Table XXXIV.) The average price
per barrel received for all potatoes sold was $4.16 in the Has-
tings district, $4.28 in the Bunnell district, $4.40 in the Green
Cove Springs district, and $4.69 in the LaCrosse district.

TABLE XXXIV.-AVERAGE PRICE PER UNIT RECEIVED FOR CROP PRODUCTS
ON 294 POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.
Crop Unit Dollars
Potatoes .. .. .......-..... Barrel $4.19
Corn ................ ....... Bushel .97
Sweet Potatoes .......... Bushel 1.63
Sugar Cane ...... Stalk .05
Gallon 1.01
H ay ............................... Ton 25.00
The price in the Hastings district, with 18 Federal Point
farms taken out, was $4.04 per barrel, and for the 18 Federal






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Point farms alone, $5.83 per barrel. The reason for the higher
price on the Federal Point farms was because they were the
first to reach Northern markets.
The average prices received for corn, sweet potatoes, sugar
cane, and hay are also shown in Table XXXIV. Sugar cane was
sometimes sold by the stalk, but most of the crop was made
into syrup, a part of which was marketed. The price of hay
was the average price received for all varieties and quantities
sold.
The farms were sorted according to the number of acres in
potatoes. On 158 farms the prices were given for U. S. No. 1,
on 159 farms for U. S. No. 2, and on 20 farms for U. S. No. 3.
(Table XXXV.") On the other farms the farmers interviewed
were not able to separate the grades. The price for U. S. No. 1
ranged from $4.62 to $5.07, with an average of $4.86 per barrel;
for U. S. No. 2, from $2.39 to $2.99, with an average of $2.65
per barrel; and for U. S. No. 3, from 81.25 to $2.50, with an
average of $2.01 per barrel. As the potatoes were marketed
from the last half of March to the last half of May, on account

TABLE XXXV.-AVERAGE PRICE PER BARREL RECEIVED FOR THE DIFFERENT
GRADES OF POTATOES IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.
U. S. Grades Number 1 Number 2 Number 3


Acres in .0 aC a a a 3 M
Potatoes EF S EW a .S


70 and over ........ 15 I $4.62 15 $2.48 2 $1.25
50 through 69.... 32 4.82 32 2.60 2 2.00
40 through 49.... 23 4.66 24 2.39 6 1.53
30 through 39 ... 28 4.86 28 2.57 4 I 2.50
16 through 29.... 30 5.07 30 2.99 5 2.50
15 and under ... 30 4.97 30 2.73 1 2.00
Average per
farm reporting| 158 4.86 I 159 2.65 20 2.01

See Marketing Florida Potatoes Season 1926, U. S. D. A. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics for potato grades. The standard sizes are: U. S.
No. 1, 1% inches and larger; U. S. No. 2, 11 inches to 17/s inches; U. S.
No. 3, smaller than 112 inches.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 249

of market fluctuations the prices would not be expected to be
uniform.
In Table XXXVI, the 280 farms where the grades of potatoes
were obtainable, were sorted into groups according to acres in
potatoes. The percentage of U. S. No. 1, averaged 73.2 for all
farms. The first two groups each had 92.2 percent of U. S. Nos.
1 and 2, and 7.8 percent of U. S. No. 3 and culls. The group hav-
ing from 30 to 39 acres and the group having 15 acres and
under had practically the same combined percentage of U. S.
Nos. 1 and 2, but the latter group had more of U. S. No. 1. The
group of farmers who had from 16 to 29 acres in potatoes had
the lowest combined percentage of U. S. Nos. 1 and 2 and high-
est of U. S. No. 3 and culls. The grade percentages were fairly
uniform, however, for all groups. As the prices are based on
grades, it is, of course, to the advantage of the farmer to get
as many of the higher grades as possible.

TABLE XXXVI.-PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT GRADES OF POTATOES ON 280
POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA IN 1925.

Number U. S. Grades
Acres in Potatoes f Farms No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 Culls
Percent Percent Percent Percent

70 and over ............... 40 72.1 20.1 .4 7.4
50 through 69 ........... 49 72.6 19.6 .2 7.6
40 through 49 ............ 39 77.4 i 16.8 1.0 4.8
30 through 39 ........... 54 73.5 20.3 .4 5.8
16 through 29 .............. 49 71.8 19.9 .7 7.6
15 and under .............. 49 74.5 18.8 .3 6.4
Average ........... ......... 280 73.2 19.5 .5 6.8

The yield of Florida potatoes in 1925 was larger than in 1926,
but prices were much lower in 1925. Number 2 potatoes in 1926
brought more than number 1's in 1925. Had the survey been
made a year later, the results would have been much more fav-
orable to the potato industry of Florida, but would not have as
nearly represented normal conditions. Prices for the correspond-
ing days of the two years in New York market are shown in
Table XXXVII.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE XXXVII.-COMPARATIVE PRICES PER BARREL ON THE NEW YORK
MARKET FOR SPAULDING NO. 1, FLORIDA POTATOES, 1925 AND 1926.18


Date


April 22 ............

April 23 ............

April 24 ..........
April 27 .... .....
April 28 ...........
April 29 ............

April 30 ............

May 1 ................

May 4 ................

May 5 ..............
May 6 ................
May 7 ................

May 8 .-- ........


1925
Price Range

$6.25 to $6.50

5.75 to 6.00


4.50 to 5.00

4.75 to 5.25
5.25 to 5.50
5.50 to 5.75

5.75 to 6.00


"Figures compiled from the Florida


Potato


Florida Potatoes 1926, U. S. D. A. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.

THE RELATION OF CAPITAL TO LABOR INCOME

Farms were sorted according to capital. The 50 farms with
the largest capital showed a large range, with an average of
855,288. These farms made a small average labor income. On
50 farms with smallest capital the range was comparatively
small, with an average capital of $5,237, and the average labor
income on these was small but considerably larger than on the
largest farms. There was a wide range in capital on the farms
between these extremes. The average capital was $18,841 and
the average labor income $537. (Table XXXVIII.) It would
appear that the potato farms with the largest or the smallest
capital investment were not so profitable as the group between
these extremes.
The interest at 7 percent on the farm with smallest capital in
the first group was $2,448, and for the farm with highest cap-
ital $14,677, while the interest for the farm of lowest value in
the second group would be $140 and for the highest, $560. Thus,


1926
Price Range


$12.00 to

13.50 to

11.00 to
9.25 to

9.50 to
10.50 to
10.50 to

10.50 to

10.50 to

10.75 to

11.25 to
11.00 to
10.50 to


$12.50

14.00

12.00
9.75

10.00
11.00
11.00

11.00

11.00

11.25

11.50
11.50
11.00


Deal, 1925 and Marketing






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 251

a farm with large capital may show low returns, when the fac-
tor of interest is taken into account.

TABLE XXXVIII.-RELATION OF CAPITAL TO LABOR INCOME ON 50 FARMS
WITH THE LARGEST CAPITAL, 50 FARMS WITH THE SMALLEST CAPITAL
AND 194 FARMS WITH CAPITAL BETWEEN THESE EXTREMES, NORTHEAST
FLORIDA, 1925.


Range in Capital S Range in Labor P
3CZ Incomes


$34,978 to $209,672 ... 50 $55,288 $-12,201 to $14,818 $ 23
$ 2,000 to $ 8,008 ....... 50 5,237 4,144 to 5,326 82
$ 8,920 to $ 34,716 ....| 194 18,841 8,637 to 10,303 537


THE RELATION OF ACRES IN POTATOES
TO LABOR INCOME

There was a direct relationship between the acres in pota-
toes and capital invested. (Table XXXIX.) Yield was highest in
the third group, but as current expenses were $10 more per
acre of potatoes than in the fourth group and interest on the
investment $577 more per farm, the difference in labor incomes
can be explained. For best yields the medium sized farms seem-
ed to excel, and lowest yields were received on the farms with
smallest potato acreages. This is contrary to the general opinion
that the largest yields are obtained with small acreages.
The range of labor incomes shows that either losses or profits
may be expected regardless of whether there is a large acreage
in potatoes or small, but the largest profits as well as the larg-
est losses are found on the largest farms. Losses are shown
preceded by the minus sign, and the group of figures to the
right shows profit.

THE RELATION OF RECEIPTS FROM POTATOES
TO LABOR INCOME
Farms were sorted according to the percent of total receipts
from potatoes. (Table XL.) On the 294 farms, 62 had from 95
to 100 percent of their receipts from potatoes; 75 farms had
















TABLE XXXIX.-RELATION OF ACRES IN POTATOES TO YIELD PER ACRE, CAPITAL INVESTED, AND LABOR INCOME ON 294
POTATO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.

J0 w
Acres in Potatoes i
Acres in Potatoes 0 i W Range in Labor Income



70 Acres and over .................................. 42 100.4 53.7 $52.418 $712 $-12,201 to $14,818

50 Acres through 69 .............................. 52 54.9 53.2 25,975 624 8,637 to 8,809

40 Acres through 49 .............................. 40 41.7 55.4 24,721 207 8,926 to 6,666

30 Acres through 39 .................. .... 57 33.8 54.6 16,476 498 8,612 to 10,303

16 Acres through 29 ............-.................... 50 22.7 50.5 13,499 157 6,020 to 6,330

15 Acres and under .............. ... 53 9.9 47.6 9,929 47 4,113 to 4,648
--






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 253

from 90 to 95 percent; 81 farms had from 80 to 90 percent; 52
farms had from 60 to 80 percent, and 24 farms had below 60
percent. Of the 24 farmers who received below 60 percent of
their receipts from potatoes, 7 were LaCrosse farmers where
the potato acreage was small, 4 sold dairy products, 5 had more
than 40 percent of their receipts from outside labor off the
farm, 2 from the sale of other truck crops, and the other 6 from
various miscellaneous farm receipts. The higher the percent-
age of receipts from potatoes, the greater was the labor income
received, except in the third group where the average price re-
ceived for potatoes was lower than that received by the suc-
ceeding group.

TABLE XL.-RELATION OF PERCENT OF RECEIPTS FROM POTATOES TO ACRES
IN POTATOES AND TO LABOR INCOME, ON 294 FARMS IN NORTHEAST
FLORIDA IN 1925.

Percent of Receipts Number of Acres in Average
From Potatoes Farms Potatoes Lahor Income

95 to 100 ----................... 62 48.5 $ 877
90 to 95 ............................... 75 50.5 652
80 to 90 ........-................... 81 42.7 74
60 to 80 .....................-.........I 52 31.7 368
Below 60 ................ .............. 24 17.6 -685


THE RELATION OF CROP INDEX AND PRICE INDEX
TO LABOR INCOME
The crop index for the individual farm is a comparison of its
yields of potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, and hay with the aver-
age yields for all farms in the area taken as 100 percent. As
the crop index increased, labor incomes increased. This shows
that good yields are an important factor to insure a good labor
income. (Table XLI.)
Farms were sorted according to potato price index. (Table
XLII.) The potato price index for the individual farm is found
by comparing the price received for potatoes on that farm with
the average potato price on all farms taken as 100 percent. As
the price index increased, the labor income increased. There
was no relation between the acres in potatoes and prices re-
ceived for them.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE XLI.-RELATION OF CROP INDEX TO ACRES IN POTATOES AND LABOR
INCOME, NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Crop Index


80 and under .........

81 to 100 ...........

101 to 120 ..............

121 and over .........


Number of Acres in Labor Income
Potatoes
Farms Per Fam Per Farm


47 34.5 -$916

122 44.9 129

82 41.1 1,218

43 44.3 1,592


TABLE XLII.-RELATION OF POTATO PRICE INDEX TO ACRES IN POTATOES
AND LABOR INCOME, NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Potato Price Index



80 and under .............

81 to 90 ....... .... .......

91 to 100 ............ ........

101 to 110 .................

111 to 120 ...............

121 and over ..........-


Number of
Farms


46

. 53

S 59

S 56

37 3

S 43


Acres in
Potatoes
Per Farm


Labor Income
Per Farm


41.2 $-2,752

43.0 -906

47.8 257

42.0 820

38.7 1,970

36.1 3,491


TABLE XLIII.-RELATION OF CROP INDEX AND POTATO PRICE INDEX TO
LABOR INCOME NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.


Crop Index



80 and under ...-...- ...-- .. ..-

81 to 100 ................... ...... .... ........

101 to 120o ................ ..................

121 and over .............. -- ...............I-


Average Labor Income

Potato Price
'otato Price Index Index-100 and
Less than 100 Over


-81,975

- 1,153

- 944

116


$513

1,077

2,909

4,346






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 255

Farms were sorted according to crop index and sub-sorted by
potato price index. (Table XLIII.) In every group the farms
with a potato price index of less than 100 showed a much smaller
labor income than those with a price index of 100 or over. As
the crop index went up the labor income increased, for both
groups.
The combined effect of low yield and low price, and vice versa,
is clearly brought out here. Those farms having a crop index
of 80 or under and receiving less than the average potato price
resulted in a minus labor income of 81,906. That is, they lacked
this amount of meeting other farm expenses in addition to fur-
nishing no pay for operator's labor. On the other hand, those
farms with a crop index of 121 or over and receiving better than
the average price for their potatoes returned a labor income of
$4,346 to their operators. It will be remembered that the aver-
age labor income for all farms was $372.

THE RELATION OF QUALITY OF POTATOES
TO LABOR INCOME
The relation of quality of potatoes to labor income is shown
in Table XLIV. With the exception of the group of farms hav-
ing an average of 83 percent of their crop of U. S. No. 1 grade,
there was a decided decrease in labor income as the percentage
of U. S. No. 1 grade decreased. The principal cause of the lower
labor income in the group having the highest percentage of U. S.
No. 1 grade is the relatively small acreage of potatoes in this

TABLE XLIV.-RELATION OF QUALITY OF POTATOES TO LABOR INCOME, 158
POTATO FARMS, NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.

Percent of U. S. No. 1 Grade




80% and above ... 83.2 29 31.8 56.9 $ 654

70 to 79 ..--................ 75.2 75 41.9 54.7 $1,052
60 to 69 .-.----.-- 64.9 44 39.0 47.6 383
Below 60 ..------...--- 55.0 10 37.5 55.3 683
Average .................. 72.6 158 38.9 53.1 472
i I







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


group. Approximately 28 percent of the total number of farms
having 10 acres or less in potatoes is in this group, whereas the
group represents only 10 percent of the farms in the survey.
The larger proportion of U. S. No. 1 grade in this group was not
sufficient to offset a 25 percent increased acreage of potatoes
somewhat inferior in quality. This table should clearly demon-
strate the importance of quality production in the potato in-
dustry.

THE RELATION OF PRODUCTION OF POTATOES
TO PRICE
The price received by the growers who marketed through the
Hastings Potato Growers' Association were available for the
five-year period 1923 to 1927, inclusive. The production of Flor-
ida potatoes for the same period is compared with the price re-
ceived. (Table XLV.) In 1924 there was an increase of 46 per-
cent in production of Florida potatoes over 1923, with a decrease
of less than 2 percent in price. In 1925 the production was about
12 percent higher than in 1924, but the price was 27 percent
below that of the preceding year. With practically no change in
production in 1926 the price was double that received in 1925.
The production in 1927 was but 7.5 percent above the 1926 pro-
duction, whereas the price was reduced approximately 42 per-
cent from the preceding year.
TABLE XLV.-RELATION OF PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA POTATOES TO PRICE.

Production of Florida Potatoes Price of Florida Potatoes
F. 0. B. Shipping Point

Producten Percent of Price Per Percent of
Year 0hels Preceding Barrel U. S. Preceding
omitted)'" Year Nos. 1 & 2" Year

1923 1,748 .................. $5.81 ... .........
1924 2,552 146 5.71 98.3
1925 2,852 111.8 4.17 73.0
1926 2,832 99.3 8.34 200.0
1927 3,045 107.5 4.86 58.3

"1923-1926 inclusive U. S. D. A. yearbook, 1927, U. S. Crops and Mar-
kets, July, 1927.
"Hastings Potato Growers' Association.







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 257

Contrary to what one might expect, there seems to be no
correlation between production and price of Florida potatoes.
Evidently the supply of potatoes from other areas has a much
greater effect upon the Florida price than does the size of its
own crop.

TABLE XLVI.-RELATION OF PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN MAINE, NEW
YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, MICHIGAN, WISCONSIN AND MINNESOTA, TO PRICE
OF FLORIDA POTATOES THE FOLLOWING SPRING.

Production in Six Northern Price of Florida Potatoes
States F. 0. B. Shipping Point

Production Percent of Price Per Percent of
ear in Bhels Preceding Year rreNos. Preceding
(000 PreU. S. Nos.Bar
Omitted) Year 1 and 2 ear

1922 212,331 ........... ....-- 1923 $5.81 ........
1923 200,472 94.4 1924 5.71 98.3
1924 221,965 110.7 1925 4.17 73.0
1925 156,631 70.6 1926 8.34 200.0
1926 174,832 111.6 1927 4.86 58.3

"Figures from U. S. D. A. yearbooks.
'"Prices from Hastings Potato Growers' Association.

The relation of the production of late Northern potatoes in
the six leading states to the price of Florida potatoes the fol-
lowing spring is shown in Table XLVI. In three years out of
the four where comparisons were made, a production of late
Northern potatoes above that of the preceding year was fol-
lowed by a lower price of Florida potatoes the next spring, than
was received the preceding spring. The opposite was also true.
The size of the late Northern potato crop evidently is one of the
factors determining the price of Florida potatoes the following
spring, and Florida potato growers might improve their busi-
ness by watching the November and December reports of the
Northern crop before deciding their acreage.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LABOR INCOME FREQUENCY TABLE

With the same groupings with reference to acres in potatoes
that has been used previously, the farms in these various
groups were sorted according to labor income. (Table XLVII.)
Those who farmed at a loss are shown in the table from O,
downward, and those who made a profit from $1, upward. One
farm showed a loss of more than $10,000 and 4 showed a profit
greater than that amount. Of the 294 farmers, 143 showed a
labor loss and 151 showed a labor income. Of those receiving a
labor income, 23 received less and 128 received more than the
average labor income for all farmers, which was $372.

TABLE XLVII.-FREQUENCY TABLE OF LABOR INCOMES ON 294 POTATO
FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, ACCORDING TO ACRES IN POTATOES.


Labor Incomes




Over $10,000 ...........

$5,001 to $10,000 ....

$4,001 to $5,000 ........

$3,001 to $4,000 ........

$2,001 to $3,000 ......

$1,001 to $2,000 ........

$501 to $1,000 ..........

$1 to $500 ..... .....-


$0 to $-500 ... -........ ----.....

$-501 to $-1,000 ..............

$-1,001 to $-2,000 ...........

$-2,001 to $-3,000 ........

$-3,001 to $-4,000 ............

$-4,001 to $-5,000 ..........

$-5,001 to $-10,000 .......

More than S-10,000 ..........


o


No.



5

1

6

7

4

2

3


2

3

2

3

6

4


1 2

.............. 1

2 2

. ...... .... ... .. .


No.

1

1

3

2

6

10

2

2

12

3

11

3


bJ



No.



2
1


1







Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 259


PREVIOUS OCCUPATIONS OF FARMERS

In general farming sections it is not unusual to find here and
there farmers who have previously engaged in other lines of
work. On the potato farms in this area it is of interest to note
that so many had come from other employment to become pota-
to farmers.

TABLES XLVIII.-OCCUPATIONS, OTHER THAN FARMING, IN WHICH THE
OPERATORS OF 294 FARMS HAD AT SOME TIME ENGAGED.


Occupation


Number Occupation


Number


Railroader .- ............ ... ....
Turpentine Worker .........
Saw Mill Worker ................
M erchant ....-...........- ...-...-..
Carpenter ..............-...
M echanic .................... ........
Salesm an ----- .... ....... ---
Real Estate Dealer .............
Well Driller .....-.....---
Lumberman .....---.................
Nurseryman ......-..-- .....--.--
Dredger --- ....- --..
U S. A rm y .........................
Logger --..-..-.. ..
Preacher -. ...-------
Druggist -......................
B anker ................................
Bookkeeper -.------.
Clerk -.. --. ......
Contractor ......-..... .....--
Telephone Employee .......
Stockman ....--.. ................
Dairyman .........................
Farm Supervisor .............
Trucker -- -------................
Marketman ........................
Street Car Operator ---..
Steam Boat Engineer ........
Government Employee ........
Teacher ....- ---.
Doctor .-...---...........----.
Veterinarian .......--..... --------
Chemist .............-- .
Photographer ...................
M usician .................-.....-
Draftsman ------ ..
Physical Director .............
Trained Nurse .. .......
Asylum Attendant .......
Steam Boat Captain ........
Barber ....-- ...-- ...
Painter ........--...... -.... .........


Machinist ........ -----
Engineer ..................--
Inspector ......................
Tool Maker .......- .
Pattern Maker ....-......
Block Maker ..........
Barrel Maker ------
Lumber Inspector ...........
Insurance Agent .............
Office Manager ... -
Livery Stable Manager......
Laundry Manager ...............
Cow Boy .-- ........
Horse Trader ............
Corporation Employee.....
Fed. Farm Loan Employee
Office Employee ............
Hotel Employee ............
Mail Carrier .--- -
Postmaster ....... .........
Road Builder ...................
Garage Worker ..............
Cement Worker .-.....
Powder Plant Worker .....
Orange Grower ....................
Rancher ..................................
Machine Shop Foreman ....
Stove Factory Foreman-..
Barrel Factory Foreman....
Gas Driller ......................
Naval Operator ..............
Cigar Maker .................
M iller ... .......................
Tin Worker .... .
Iron Worker .... ........
Steel W orker .......-............
Cross Tie Worker .........
M ill Hand ....... ........
Blacksmith .....--
Light Tender ................
Public Works ...........


The figure following the name of the occupation (Table
XLVIII) indicates the number who had been thus employed. It


--






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


should be borne in mind that some farmers had engaged in sev-
eral lines of work before they became potato farmers, so they
have been counted as many times as they changed occupations.

TABLE XLIX.-RELATION OF OCCUPATION TO LABOR INCOME, ON 293 POTA-
TO FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.
4P 4





Always Farmed .......... 143 57.3 42.7 $679
Engaged in other Oc-
cupations besides
Farming ................. 150 45.3 54.7 68

In Table XLIX it is shown that those who previously had done
nothing but farm were slightly in the minority in the whole
area. It is doubtful whether many areas in the country would
show as many trades and occupations followed, prior to enter-
ing the farming business, as the Hastings area. A higher per-
centage of those who had always farmed made a profit than of
those who had followed other occupations than farming. The
average labor income was almost 10 times as great for the ones
who had not engaged in other lines of work as the ones who
had shifted from other occupations to farming. It is not true
that all farmers who had followed other occupations received
low labor incomes, for some of the most successful farmers in
the area previously had engaged in other lines of work. Neither
is it true that those who had always farmed were all successful.

EDUCATION OF FARMERS

In the group of 277 farmers, where a record of the highest
school attended was obtained, 3.6 percent of the men were col-
lege graduates, 28.9 percent were high school graduates or had
attended high school or business college; and 67.5 percent had
finished the eighth grade, the lower grades, or had not attended
school. The higher the education of the operators, the higher
was the average labor income received. (Table L.) The number
of college graduates, however, is small for such a comparison.
The average labor income for the 90 farmers who had gone
beyond the eighth grade, was $886.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 261

TABLE L.-RELATION OF EDUCATION TO LABOR INCOME ON 277 POTATO
FARMS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1925.

Education Number Average Labor
Income

College Graduates ............................ 10 $1,009
High School graduates, attended
high school, attended college or
business college .......................... 80 871
Eighth grade and below .................. 187 168


SUMMARY
The average capital invested was 822,726 per farm.
Eighty-seven percent of the farm receipts were derived from
the potato crop.
All labor (excluding operators') constituted 23.8 percent, fer-
tilizer 24.3 percent, seed 15.2 percent, and containers 16.5 per-
cent of the total expenses. These four items represented 80 per-
cent of the total farm expenses. (P. 210, Table XVII.)
Dusting appears to be one of the factors affecting yields,
since every group in Table XXI shows better yields where dust-
ing was done. (P. 218.)
SOne-third of the labor on potatoes was performed before har-
vesting and two-thirds was performed in harvesting and mar-
keting. (P. 226, Table XXIV.)
There was practically no man or work stock labor on the pota-
to crop during June, July, August, and September. (P. 227, Fig.
97 and P. 242, Fig. 111.) This would indicate that sufficient
labor is available for the more general planting of leguminous
crops for hay or green manure. Farmers who were following
this practice made better yields than those who did not.
In 1925 the percentage of the different grades of potatoes was
as follows: No. 1-73.2; No. 2-19.5; No. 3-.5; Culls-6.8.
(P. 249, Table XXXVI.)
As a rule the farms with the largest acreage of potatoes made
the highest labor income. (P. 252, Table XXXIX.)
As a rule the higher the percentage of receipts from potatoes,
the greater the labor income. (P. 253, Table XL.)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Labor income increased as yield of potatoes increased. (P. 254,
Table XLI.)
Labor income increased as price of potatoes increased. (P. 254,
Table XLII.)
The combination of good yields and good prices greatly in-
creased labor income. (P. 254, Table XLIII.)
In 1925 the potato farms with very large or very small cap-
ital were not so profitable as farms with capital between these
extremes. (P. 251.)
As prices are based on grades it is to the advantage of the
grower to get as good a quality as possible. (P. 248, Table
XXXV; also P. 255, Table XLIV.)
There seems to be no correlation between production and price
of Florida potatoes. (P. 256, Table XLV.)
The size of the late Northern crop evidently is one of the fac-
tors determining the price of Florida potatoes the following
spring. (P. 257, Table XLVI.)
The average labor income was $372. Of the 294 farmers, 151
made a labor income, 23 of these received less than the average,
and 128 more than the average; 143 had a labor loss. (Page
258.)
The operators who had always engaged in farming made bet-
ter labor incomes than did those transferring from other occu-
pations. (P. 260, Table XLIX.)
Experience has shown that the soils in the Hastings area are
especially adapted to potatoes. The farmers have learned that
they can make greater profits, over a period of years, growing
potatoes than by utilizing their land and capital in other lines
of farming. This type of farming is highly stabilized. If the re-
turns are low, due to poor yields, low prices, or other causes,
there is no tendency to turn to other crops, but one may expect
to see the same farms planted to potatoes year after year.
The volume of business is sufficiently large to attract buyers,
some of whom remain in the area throughout the year. It also
has other advantages, because it insures more economical buy-
ing of machinery, seed, barrels, dust and fertilizer, and attracts
sufficient outside labor to insure the harvesting of the crop.






Bulletin 193, An Economic Study of Potato Farming 263

The potato growers in the Hastings area use about the same
amount of fertilizer to the acre, the same general cultural prac-
tices, the same variety of seed, the same system of grading,
and the same kind of container. All these factors tend to put a
more uniform product on the market, and promise a continu-
ance of the potato industry of the area.

APPENDIX

For the information of persons desiring more detail concern-
ing individual farms, Table LI has been prepared.









TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED- ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT.


Capital


+-R
cI
m
P3 S


C m






290 175
279 165
205 160
287 150
474 150
377 130
210 127
458 120
391 110
344 110
473 110
211 100
365 100
283 100
282 100
224 100
221 100
286 98
276 93
267 90
272 90
215 90
417 90
464 90


I _


a o





$32,513 $26,670 | $ 5,843 $ 829 7.6
48,205 31,964 16,241 9,362 15.7
31,510 20,264 11,246 6,429 15.0
64,148 41,372 22,776 8,099 9.8
34,898 25,785 9,113 3,965 11.2
35,214 27,411 7,803 5,063 16.9
52,774 31,664 21,110 14,818 22.6
38,432 23,354 15,078 11,784 30.6
19,760 24,735 -4,975 -7,609 -14.8
32,149 19,082 13,067 8,950 21.7
21,584 22,862 -1,278 1 -5,505 -2.8
29,460 22,253 7,207 5,524 27.8
26,993 16,936 10,057 4,555 11.3
22,910 20,165 2,745 429 8.0
14,379 19,468 -5,089 -9,101 -9.9
15,876 20,606 -4,730 -7,142 -15.5
33,644 19,339 14,305 11,816 38.0
23,655 18,029 5,626 57 6.2
18,373 15,183 3,190 465 5.9
9,075 13,055 -3,980 -6,174 -14.6
17,750 15,449 2,301 -2,941 2.5
17,126 15,289 1,837 -293 3.0
20,380 19,120 1,260 -2,592 2.0
16,162 14,606 1,556 -393 3.1
22,170 23,440 -1,270 -5,085 1 -4.5


415 $71,633 $65,000
230 98,277 90,000
215 68,813 65,000
340 209,672 200,000
312 73,544 67,500
460 39,146 34,500
400 89,884 80,000
140 47,053 42,000
280 37,622 32,000
192 58,814 52,400
208 60,381 54,500
113 24,042 19,300
190 78,601 72,500
105 33,086 30.000
200 57,317 50,000
140 34,456 28,000
113 35,557 30,000
124 79,554 75,000
126 38,931 36,000
140 31,337 28,000
100 74,883 70,000
108 30,431 26,100
149 55,025 48,000
190 27,840 22,000
205 54,502 50,000


98.0
93.2
100
65.9
91.1
94.9
87.2
95.6
91.1
86.8
87.5
85.1
95.9
92.5
85.8
81.4
89.7
95.3
83.8
80.5
90.1
77.6
56.4
89.3
92.6


8 400 ..
825 .. ......
900 .. ....
2,142
900
1,200
800 $1,500
660 1,200
600
300 80
400 .. .......
520 180
1,170 ................
100 ..............
600
600
780 390
680 -
900 900
600 ................
450 ................
939 150
150 100
688
1,200 1,000






TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT-(Continued).


Capital

wC 0 M m

Ca CIS
o U: 0


90 48,529
200 50,265
100 33,968
230 33,504
132 42,544
120 64,997
90 36,140
140 23,117
153 60,958
79 39,622
83 52,819
110 25,348
120 23,451
160 49,161
140 35,876
80 28,082
79 42,792
280 26,189
89 36,958
65 22,610
125 27,518
80 36,754
363.5 33,521
97 32,518
80 19,214


43,000 15,815
46,000 20,247
30,000 20,245
29,000 16,687
39,600 19,891
60,000 15,310
33,000 19,095
21,000 16,975
58,000 7,080
36,700 18,842
50,000 14,730
23,000 14,056
20,000 13,707
42,500 15,834
27,500 13,493
25,000 11,712
39,500 14,425
24,000 15,369
32,000 13,929
19,500 20,956
25,000 6,660
35,000 17,082
25,700 20,770
29,600 21,497
16,000 12,610


v m ww a, m
C4 a4 CL4. o S T a
C)CCC C)C)L0 0 OFd^


14,381
15,953
16,373
15,027
13,710
15,382
12,241
12,453
15,014
14,123
13,508
16,210
9,823
11,145
12,397
13,407
14,013
15,047
12,861
13,992
13,371
12,079
15,360
12,765
12,553


900 600
600 ........
160
300
900 ..............
600 150
600 .. ....
480 600
600
750 360
300
600 200
675 25
800 100
540 ......
149 -..-
780 .. .....
600 50
550 600
550 .. ....
450
500
702 1,200
825 ...
240 480


70
65
65
65
65
65
65
63
60


1,434 -1,963 1.1 93.7
4,294 775 7.3 98.1
3,872 1,494 10.9 90.9
1,660 -685 4.1 86.3
6,181 3,203 12.4 94.1
-72 -4,622 -1.0 94.7
6,854 4,324 17.3 96.9
4,522 2,904 17.5 89.8
-7,934 -12,201 --14.0 63.6
4,719 1,945 10.0 90.1
1,222 -2,475 1.7 97.0
-2,154 -3,928 -10.9 91.6
3,884 2,242 13.7 91.2
4,689 1,248 7.9 88.4
1,096 -1,415 1.5 73.5
-1,695 -3,661 -6.6 98.8
412 -2,583 .9 93.6
322 -1,511 -1.1 86.5
1,068 -1,519 1.4 92.6
6,964 5,381 28.4 78.2
-6,711 -8,637 -26.0 94.0
5,003 2,430 12.3 94
5,410 3,064 14.0 67.4
8,732 6,456 24.3 93.5
57 -1,288 -1.0 90.7


w a,
EB 1^
ii 0
ce


r








TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT-(Continued).


Capital


C)
S5


w
o 0

C) +- -,.C rC
000 5 00 0
-o U Y wo
0C C)C) CCCCO
C)CCC C)C) 0;


C6


60
60

60
60
60
60
60


58
58
58
58
57
55
55
55
55
54
54
54
50
50
50
50
50
50


33,670
26,550
12,810
16,038
42,884
30,721
25,989
17,678
23,385
34,520
23,425
21,875
28,043
16,478
26,916
13,894
21,150
23,392
18,556
22,279
9,934
9,866
18,525
37,976
26,925


-pW



30,000
24,000
9,750
13,000
40,000
28,000
25,000
15,000
20,000
30,000
20,500
19,000
25,000
15,000
24,000
12,000
19,500
20,000
16,800
20,000
9,000
7,500
15,750
33,250
24,000


19,008
10,409
11,475
16,629
15,492
9,473
9,278
9,684
21,606
13,747
9,702
10,135
13,897
11,948
16,217
12,028
12,900
12,334
7,912
10,335
6,925
5,550
14,616
10,577
14,406


11,261
11,143
10,904
9,424
8,631
9,497
11,227
11,160
11,674
7,979
10,694
10,455
10,558
11,379
9,078
8,848
8,521
8,470
7,479
6,821
6,360
11,057
9,985
9,127


14.9
-4.9
1.4
34.4
12.9
2.3
-3.2
-12.3
42.6
5.4
4.8
-5.6
9.6
6.0
17.2
18.4
18.0
14.4
-4.4
10.3
-4.2
-12.3
14.9
0.9
19.2


65.9
95.5
100
89.5
77.4
96.4
95.8
92.7
90
94.3
92.6
99.7
93.3
100
94.4
77.9
90.7
96.8
96.1
78.6
86.2
82.7
93.6
82.7
93.1


'Cr


1,200 ...............
450 -..... .
150
200 700
525 ......
150 .
600 600
625 .
480 1,000
195 ....-
600
675 ......
750 35
400 50
208 300
390 180
240 -.. ..-
450 -..... ..
250 60
560 100
520 240
400 400
800 100
240
100 .


6,219 3,862
-852 -2,710
332 -565
5,725 4,602
6,068 3,066
842 -1,308
-219 -2,038
-1,543 -2,780
10,446 8,809
2,073 -343
1,723 83
-559 -2,090
3,442 1,479
1,390 237
4,838 2,954
2,950 1,977
4,052 2,572
3,813 2,176
-558 -1,857
2,856 1,296
104 -591
-810 -1,501
3,559 2,262
592 -2,066
5,279 3,394


I





TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT-(Continued).


F C)
C) C-O -) t
^
a ",5 oo
fc^ <;C|

Capital







36,655 33,000
7,825 6,000
61,963 60,000
22,680 20,000
22,395 20,000
51,630 50,000
26,916 25,000
15,171 13,500
31,974 27,500
28,517 25,000
31,423 30,000
36,014 32,500
39,297 37,500
20,510 18,000
17,386 15,500
25,722 22,500
18,506 16,500
23,017 20,000
14,433 12,000
18,935 16,800
23,260 20,000
29,057 25,000
18,144 15,000
14,821 12,825
32,750 30,000


[C





11,887
9,026
10,806
8,310
7,587
13,613
7,749
9,478
9,943
10,138
11,527
8,178
10,894
8,993
7,764
8,889
9,471
8,662
9,126
9,786
12,020
8,827
11,134
8,437
8,466


14,617
14,900
12,400
8,333
8,846
10,822
12,662
15,662
15,085
11,683
11,666
14,500
9,968
9,829
9,972
11,226
13,552
11,715
9,000
13,093
12,472
11,612
8,226
9,065
10,350


0W


5.8
73.8
1.8
-2.1
2.9
-6.9
16.0
39.4
14.6
1.4
-1.9
16.4
-3.6
0.3
10.4
6.8
19.9
9.4
-2.4
14.8
0.2
8.8
-20.6
1.3
4.5


2,730
5,874
1,594
23
1,259
-2,791
4,913
6,184
5,142
1,545
139
6,322
-926
836
2,208
2,337
4,081
3,053
-126
3,307
452
2,785
--2,908
628
1,884


78.5
92.3
90.2
97.5
90.4

78.7
82.3
92.0
88.0
99.0
78.5




82.3




80.0
96.9
97.9
90.3




97.9
80.8
78.7
82.3
92.0
88.0
99.0
82.0



180.0
96.9
97.9
90.3
97.9
80.8
76.8
100
93.5
85.2
89.3
93.2
95.7
96.6


164
5,326
-2,743
--1,565
-309
-6,405
3,029
5,122
2,904
-451
-2,061
3,801
-3,677
-600
991
536
2,786
1,442
-1,129
1,982
-1,176
751
-4,178
-409
-408


600
100
500
509
600
750
600
200
468
1,150
750
400
500
780
400
600
400
900
225
500
400
240
825
438
400


------- t





400
50 c
200







45 C-
----------

4








225
50




1,000 .

---------- t
130
45 -



225 g
50 a
1,000 .


105 m
;1.. c







TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA t
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED 0
AT 7 PERCENT-(Continued).


3




437 45
395 45
323 45
277 44
485 43
257 42
227 42
274 42
260 40
241 40
236 40
235 40
218 40
217 40
208 40
475 40
456 40
451 40
449 40
447 40
427 40
424 40
418 40
414 40
409 40


80
80

48
56
157
45
50
418
52
120
50
40
45
91
46
259
70
80
80
100
72
43
65
100
112


Capital




a) CV
E-1 W P4

18,309 16,000 14,544
15,232 14,000 14,049
18,443 16,750 11,420
13,432 10,600 8,665
34,716 30,000 19,057
20,393 19,000 13,500
26,608 24,500 11,360
76,604 70,000 7,874
5,370 3,500 4,589
30,243 27,500 9,741
16,587 14,000 6,746
10,086 8,000 8,179
17,446 15,750 8,777
16,039 13,500 6,082
24,871 21,250 11,512
41,189 40,000 16,449
17,856 16,500 10,698
10,228 8,000 10,550
18,282 16,000 10,598
17,525 16,250 4,691
28,562 25,500 9,300
17,896 16,000 10,624
17,447 15,000 11,559
32,722 30,000 8,172
36,423 33,600 9,187


a 0 0
U) )- ) Z2
a) a) E0 ;m4.) U0

+ FKes^ 0^0 U)CUU) O~Fc-l

8,382 6,162 4,880 24.8 83.6 1,614 ..........
7,936 6,113 5,047 37.5 93.6 400 ...
7,853 3,567 2,276 15.0 99.6 800 25
7,954 711 -229 0.8 91.8 600 .
9,961 9,096 6,666 24.1 71.5 720 .....
10,474 3,026 1,598 14.5 100 75 ] ..........
5,641 5,719 3,856 18.2 96.8 875...
11,438 -3,564 -8,926 -5.8 84.9 900 ............
7,939 -3,350 -3,726 -6.8 88.1 300 -
8,569 1,172 -945 3.0 85.6 260
6,837 -91 -1,252 -3.6 90.8 500 600
7,537 642 -64 -4.8 65.9 156 .......
6,629 2,148 927 8.9 81.1 600 50
6,641 -559 -1,682 -8.2 83.9 750
8,114 3,398 1,657 10.0 98.5 900 ..... .
9,442 7,007 4,124 15.8 79.8 500 ..
8,732 1,966 716 7.7 91.9 600 300
8,329 2,221 1,505 13.5 93.4 840 .......... ....
8,480 2,118 838 9.4 99.1 400 ..........
6,290 -1,599 -2,826 -13.2 92.3 720 150
8,670 630 -1,369 -3.1 93.9 480
7,112 3,512 2,259 17.1 96.0 450 .........
8,896 2,663 1,442 13.5 95.3 300 ....
7,701 471 -1,820 -0.1 96.5 500
7,798 1,389 -1,161 2.7 85.5 400 50




TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT--(Continued).


Capital


406 40 90
392 40 240
383 40 80
378 40 50
345 40 120
341 40 132
329 40 245
310 40 75
466 40 170
252 39 40
483 39 96
238 38 54
463 38 80
270 38 115
335 38 148
328 38 40
245 37 44
385 37 58
366 37 40
304 36 42
209 36 36
426 36 37
333 36 42
369 36 36
300 35 83.1


20,328
37,461
16,244
11,477
19,731
24,088
62,607
25,231
52,199
19,215
6,548
12,792
17,393
19,008
26,074
17,456
21,576
13,567
14,036
20,283
16,541
17,352
12,150
12,576
12,488


18,000
30,000
15,000
9,500
18,000
22,750
58,000
22,000
50,000
17,500
4,700
11,000
16,000
17,500
23,500
15,000
19,000
11,400
12,000
17,000
14,400
14,500
10,000
12,000
11,250


5,720 5,257 463 -674 -2.1 97.9 800 150

13,610 8,579 5,031 4,228 42.3 68.3 180 .......
7,290 7,423 -133 -1,514 -3.8 80.2 619 --------
7,956 7,731 225 -1,461 -1.1 97.8 480 .....
10,760 9,845 915 -3,467 .02 87.4 900 75
0) a a) Bo








13,904 8,258 5,646 3,880 21.6 89.3 200 -...| ........-
5,873 9,820 -3,947 353 -7,601 -8.4 9985.5 450 195
2 5,712 21,466 4,246 1,624 9.2 52.7 00 821.




10,164 6,925 3,239 2,781 45.8 89.5 240 .. ......-- -
5,720 5,257 463008 2,113 19.6 97.9 00 50 "
13,610 8,579 5,031 4,22 8 42.3 7268.3 1,0 ...
7,290,833 7,423 -133 -1,514 -3.8 80.2 400 400




11,214 7,115 4,099 2,274 11.5 95.1 1,096 ................
9 ,275 8,1781 225,097 -1,461 -1.1 93.7 900 50
1,760 ,845 915-608 -2,118 -5.1 91.1 500 ................
13,904 8,258 5,646 3,880 22.4 91.1 300 ................





10,735 8,690 2,045 1,062 14.3 76.2 40 ----------------
5,8769 7,305 4,564 3,144 19.8 9685.5 50 195..
8,368 7,511 85 -488 3. 4 95.6 150 100
10,164 6,169 57 -1,158 -2.45 89.7 480 50
9,151 8,165 986 213 19.6 95.5 500 50.
9,636 7,404 2,232 [ 1,014 \ 6.8 72.8 1,050
10,833 7,787 3,046 1,715 13.9 83.2 400 400 CO)
11,214 7,115 4,099 2,274 11.5 95.1 1,096 ...
9,275 8,178 1,097 -125 ; 1.1 93.7 900 50



5,760 6,365 0 2,705 1,825 -1 91.1 500 ................
11,331 7,992 3,339 2,389 22.4 91.1 300 .
10,735 8,690 2,045 1,062 14.3 76.2 40
11,869 7,305 4,564 3,144 19.8 1 96.1 550 |. .
8,284 7,599 685 -473 3.2 54.8 150 100
6,226 6,169 57 -1,158 -2.4 89.7 480 50
9,151 8,165 986 136 4.0 90.2 500
9,055 6,350 2,705 1,825 18.3 85 400 .
6,121 5,742 379 -495 -1.0 | 98.0 500








TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT-(Continued).


Capits


Pr


n5 a,
FC)
Co CCP
.r

269 35
232 35
216 35
467 35
479 35
422 35
421 35
384 35
348 35
242 34
231 34
472 34
361 34
387 34
407 34
399 34
292 33
226 33
206 33
201 33
373 33
398 33
308 33
251 32
376 32


42
40
53
40
35
48
250
40
40
35
40
50
50
40
48
34
56
49
35
37
105
37
35
37.5
70


E-4-


17,462
12,136
11,172
8,008
4,470
15,285
59,351
9,853
23,719
15,452
12,295
10,313
11,615
9,338
11,751
11,718
24,407
17,096
13,908
34,978
17,405
14,462
14,538
14,720
17,516





al


4-)-




16,000
10,000
10,000
7,000
3,500
12,000
51,000
8,000
21,500
12,900
10,500
7,500
10,000
8,000
9,600
10,000
22,500
15,000
11,500
32,500
16,000
12,000
12,000
12,500
16,000


a) a)

CSn
c


11,489
7,865
5,077
7,316
5,798
7,546
20,058
7,110
20,257
6,568
5,170
8,195
7,607
9,350
4,250
8,911
6,207
8,069
7,821
5,750
12,180
9,005
12,996
8,950
5,739


6,193
8,828
4,764
6,772
5,510
5,869
24,515
7,616
8,294
6,859
6,259
6,139
6,076
6,508
5,108
8,345
6,232
6,534
5,293
6,025
6,377
6,279
6,931
6,023
5,058


28.1 83.4 390
-11.7 81.4 455 50
-1.7 92.7 500 .........-
1.1 73.8 455 360
-0.3 95.1 300 ........
6.4 94.4 700 ... ....
-9.2 32.8 1,000 2,000
-12.2 100 700 .......
48.1 97.8 550
-5.9 92.5 619
-12.0 84.8 416 461
17.0 82.1 300 200
8.5 91.1 540 60
25.9 100 420 ---..
-13.4 94.1 720 .............
-0.3 85.1 600 ....
-1.9 73.9 450 300
5.0 80.6 675 ...-
13.9 92.5 600 .........
-2.2 88.7 500 200
30.8 96.5 450 .. ......
15.0 88.7 550 ............
37.0 96.5 688 .. ...
15.7 90.1 619
1.6 94.9 400 50


5,296
-963
313
544
288
1,677
-4,457
-506
11,963
-291
-1,089
2,056
1,531
2,842
-858
566
-25
1,535
2,528
-275
5,803
2,726
6,065
2,927
681


4,074
1,813
-469
-17
-25
607
-8,612
-1,196
10,303
-1,373
-1,971
1,334
718
2,188
-1,681
-254
-1,733
338
1,554
-2,723
4,585
1,714
5,047
1,897 |
-545





TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT-(Continued).


Capital


Z




410
203
326
271
247
275
237
470
412
393
372
343
331
314
306
338
305
353
408
370
332
322
202
460
249


32
32
31
31
30.5
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
29
29
28
28
28
28
27
27
27


0
00

9 0) C4
C) C)^
CC)V^C)
n'4z"


-72
852
2,886
4,648
-875
1,961
617
5,744
-1,186
2,231
-474
1,636
1,775
218
570
1,017
3,075
7,132
782
707
6,405
6,598
2,915
546
1,408


-1,332
-677
2,008
3,791
-1,806
1,293
-1,559
4,861
-2,078
1,313
-1,376
-4
-149
-925
-384
-104
1,567
6,330
-172
-137
5,670
4,703
1,908
--61
-21


18,006
21,842
12,540
12,245
13,306
9,536
31,079
12,616
12,744
13,121
12,889
23,431
27,483
16,327
13,623
16,019
21,544
11,464
13,631
12,057
10,498
27,076
14,382
8,672
20,420


-3.4
0.5
18.2
34.7
-10.5
11.1
-0.5
41.2
-13.1
16.2
-7.4
4.4
3.2


50
500
200


- - I .

180


360
50
100


540
750
600
400
520
900
782
540
480
100
480
600
900
nn


15,000
20,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
8,000
29,000
10,000
10,000
12,500
12.000
17,400
25,500
15,000
12,000
15,000
20,000
10,000
11,300
10,000
9,250
24,900
13,500
8,000
18,500


5,232
6,692
9,177
9,774
5,010
6,719
5,542
11,016
5,278
7.055
5,565
6,782
7,407
8,140
5,963
6,516
7,900
12,397
4,746
6,123
11,785
11,591
7,076
5,515
7,393


5,304
5,840
6,291
5,126
5,885
4,758
4,925
5,272
6,464
4,824
6,039
5,146
5,632
7,922
5,393
5,499
4,825
5,265
3,964
5,416
5,380
4,993
4,161
4,969
5,985


-v. I 0.. OWUU 1V
1.2 93.1 400 .....
4.5 93.5 300
11.7 98.7 550
51.3 90.2 1,252
2.8 84.1 400 120
1.6 82.6 520 600
56.2 65.3 500 50
23.3 90.6 300 ...
17.6 85.0 390 75
2.8 81.6 300 ...
6.2 96.8 150 ...








TABLE LI.-IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACTORS FOR 294 POTATO FARMS IN ST. JOHNS, FLAGLER, PUTNAM, CLAY, AND ALACHUA
COUNTIES, FLORIDA, FOR THE YEAR 1925, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF ACRES IN POTATOES. INTEREST CHARGED
AT 7 PERCENT-(Continued).


Capital


a
a,,
)i)
*< +-


a
- a




7,483 4,870
7,518 4,881
7,260 3,973
5,300 5,226
2,061 5,734
4,832 4,108
5,802 4,441
5,498 5,235
4,543 5,751
3,306 5,561
3,547 8,882
4,945 4,254
7,080 4,929
4,450 4,033
4,625 5,068
8,248 4,923
4,097 4,094
8,784 5,027
5,910 4,540
4,975 5,291
3,261 2,999
3,568 3,821
3,687 3,097
5,910 5,138
3,151 3,220


'+






2,613 1,828 16.3 97.8
2,637 975 10.7 86.5
3,287 2,718 37.5 96.4
74 -550 -3.5 86.0
-3,673 -4,144 -59.1 48.6
724 419 6.3 87.2
1,361 1 464 10.5 99.1
263 -1,161 -0.9 62.7
-1,208 -2,239 -13.4 87.7
-2,255 -2,879 -32.2 89.2
-5,335 -6,020 -62.5 70.5
691 46 2.2 78.8
2,151 706 7.5 91.8
417 -111 1.6 94.7
-443 -1,565 -6.5 97.8
3,325 2,628 31.0 96.1
3 -331 -9.5 90.0
3,757 1,194 8.8 91.7
1,370 304 3.1 95.9
-316 -1,721 -5.6 98.0
262 -281 -2.0 82.4
-253 -701 -16.2 77.9
590 1287 7.4 42.0
772 -54 -6.7 48.4
-69 -527 -15.0 97.8
-69 | 527 -15.0 97.8


a)
r.,0




782
100
240
390
300
450
12
450
768
619
780
485
600
300
600
240
455
550
900
800
420
782
100
1,565
912


36.5
100
40
25
40
30
25
76.5
40
40
40.5
40
168
110
30
84.5
25
218
32
180
22
65
30
50
30


11,220
23,745
8,130
8,920
6,724
4,358
12,816
20,343
14,733
8,912
9,785
9,221
20,636
7,541
16,023
9,953
4,778
36,621
15,226
20,065
7,760
6,405
6,598
11,795
6,545


10,000
22,000
7,000
7,500
6,000
3,500
12,500
18,800
13,000
8,000
8,500
8,000
19,0000
7,000
14,500
8,900
4,000
35,000
14,000
18,000
7,000
5,000
6,000
11,000
5,500


750 C


390
300
300
25

720

720 2.
c0

600

150 -
o0
75


195

782




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