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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Cabbage varieties adapted to commercial production in Florida
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Title: Cabbage varieties adapted to commercial production in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 29 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCubbin, E. N
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1952
Copyright Date: 1952
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Subject: Cabbage -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by E.N. McCubbin ... et al..
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Volume ID: VID00001
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Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN6436
oclc - 18267177
alephbibnum - 000925780

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Board of control and staff
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
Full Text

NOV 24 19..
Bulletin 501 August 1952
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS ATALOGE
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial
Production in Florida
SBy E. N. MCCUBBIN, F. S. JAMISON, R. W. RUPRECHT
and E. A. WOLF

























Fig. 1.-Cabbage plant with a round, solid head.



Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










BOARD OF CONTROL P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.'
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
IH. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Hush.
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville EDITORIAL
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor a
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editor
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
William B. Mitchell, A.B., Assistant Editor

EXECUTIVE STAFF ENTOMOLOGY
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., Presidents A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist 1
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3 L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
Willard M. Fifleld, M.S., Director H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
L. 0. Grats. Ph.D., Assistant Director R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.s
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE H
HORTICULTURE
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
SGtoF. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist"
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economists Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
M. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Zaeh Savage, M.S.A., Associate R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.'
. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate' R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate3 L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort:
H. Little, M.S., Assistant' C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
W. K. McPherson. M.S., Economist S. E McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. L. Tennant, Ph.D., Agr. Economist Buford Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA) LIBRARY
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician 2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A, Agr. Statistician PLANT PATHOLOGY
J. K. Lankford, B.S., Agr. Statistician W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist 1 3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer13 Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Eng.S Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
AGRONOMY N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.13
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 12 J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist SOILS
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 'i
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Assistant Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant 4 Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor3
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist3
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant3 Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant 3 biologist 4
H. E. Buckley, B.S.A., Assistant H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
E. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemists3
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
S. N. Edson, M. S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 3
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.1 William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist 3 O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
S. John Folks, Jr., M.S., Asst. An. Husb. W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem. J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D.. Asso. An. Husb.3 H. F. Ross, B.S., Soils Microbiologist
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri. L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.S H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 8
E. F. Johnston, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman VETERINARY SCIENCE
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian1
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
DAIRY SCIENCE C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
E L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.x L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.8 Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3 Pathologist
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.' W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist











BRANCH STATIONS SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
W. C. Rhoades, Jr., M.S., Entomologist in Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Charge John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
"W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush. M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Monticello WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
Mobile Unit, Marianna man in Charge2
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED R. W. Rupreeht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
Francine Fsher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path. H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist LIVE OAK
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-Path. E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist Robert 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort. W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem. Amegda Jack, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
I. H. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
J. B. Weeks, B.S., Asst. Entomologist FIELD LABORATORIES
R. B. Johnson, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochem. Watermelon, Grape, Pastre--Leesburg
W. I'. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist Acting in Strawberry-Plant City
Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr. Vegetables-Hastings
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb. A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
N Hayslip, B.S.A., sso. Entomologist T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist Pecans-Monticello
W. N. S'oner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist'
W. G. Genung, B.S.A.. Asst. Entomologist John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
V. E. Green, Ph.ID., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path. Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2
fH L. Chapman, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort. 1Head of Department
M. R. Bedsole, M.S.A., Asst. Chem. 2 In cooperation with U. S.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer 2
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils 3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
Chem. 4 On leave
















CONTENTS

PAGE
INTRODUCTION ...-...---.....---- ....--- ..-- ... .............. .... ...-----..-- .....---- 5

AREAS OF PRODUCTION, ACREAGES, VALUES AND YIELDS .....---............ --............. 6

VARIETIES GROWN IN FLORIDA ..-...................--...........-- -.....--- ..- .. 7

VARIETIES GROWN IN REPLICATED PLOTS .-.............--.......--....-- --..-- 8

Belle Glade Tests ..---...........---..- -...--......... ---.... -----.... 10

Gainesville Tests ..............-..-- ......-------------------.. 10

Hastings Tests .--....----...-- ........-.. -....... -.............---- 11

Sanford Tests ---............------------- ---------..-....--- 14

COMPARISON OF AVERAGE YIELDS OF VARIETIES GROWN IN REPLICATED
PLOTS ..--....--.--- --.. -----...-.. -------------......... --- -.............. 14

Early Varieties ......-.....-...---- ....--.....-......... -- -..-------. 14

Midseason and Late Varieties .......--.....--..- --..-------------.... 16

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIETIES GROWN IN REPLICATED PLOTS ..--.............. 16

Early Varieties ..--..-..... --...-...--..-.....----... ..--.....--- ..-- ...-..-...-..--- ----- 18

Midseason and Late Varieties .-....------ ----.............----------. 21

VARIETIES GROWN IN OBSERVATIONAL PLOTS ...................--- --.....---------.. 25

Early Varieties .......-...--..--..-----..--...------ -------..-- 25

Midseason Varieties ....------......-... ---.. --... ---.. ------------. 26
Late Varieties .............---...... ...... ......------------- 27

Red and Savoy Varieties .-.......................------ ---------- 27

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS .-----.....................-...........--------.-----... 27










Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial
Production in Florida

By E. N. MCCUBBIN, F. S. JAMISON, R. W. RUPRECHT
and E. A. WOLF'

INTRODUCTION
Cabbage, grown in Florida on a commercial scale for more
than 50 years, is an important part of the state's commercial
vegetable industry. Grown in the fall, winter and spring months
for local consumption and for shipment to Northern markets,
most of the crop is shipped as a fresh green vegetable, with
little or none stored for any length of time. The market demand
is mostly for fresh, green, solid, round heads which weigh from
two to three and one-half pounds each, Fig. 1.
Florida growers constantly seek information on varieties of
cabbage which may be better adapted to their soil and climatic
conditions than those being grown. In times of seed shortage
they also want to know which ones may be planted in place of
the standard varieties. The Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station has a program of testing varieties of vegetables to find
and recommend well-adapted, high-yielding ones for commercial
production in different parts of the state. Varieties of cabbage
which may be adapted to Florida are first grown in observational
plots, and the better ones are selected and planted in replicated
plots where their yields and other characteristics are compared
with those of standard varieties. Varieties which equal or
excel standard ones in yield and market qualities are recom-
mended for commercial production in Florida.
During the 19-year period, 1933-1951, 89 varieties of cabbage
were tested at the Everglades Station at Belle Glade, the Main
Acknowledgments.-Yield data on cabbage varieties grown at Belle
Glade from 1933 to 1948 were obtained by H. H. Wedgworth, R. G. Town-
send, E. C. Minnum and J. C. Hoffman, who were formerly on the Staff of
the Everglades Station. The authors also acknowledge the assistance of
other members of the staff, particularly, Forrest Myers, Agricultural Ex-
tension Service, Gainesville; B. F. Whitner, Central Florida Station, San-
ford; S. M. Burrell, Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings; and Byron
E:. Janes, formerly a staff member at the Main Station, Gainesville. Thanks
also are due A. H. Eddins, Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings, for
helpful criticisms and suggestions in the preparation of this bulletin. and
for making the photographs used in all figures.
I McCubbin, Horticulturist, Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings;
Jamison, Horticulturist, Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville; Ru-
precht, Vice-Director in Charge, Central Florida Station, Sanford; and
Wolf, Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Station, Belle Glade.







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Station, the Potato Investigations Laboratory, and the Central
Florida Station. Results are summarized in this bulletin. In-
formation on the adaptability of cabbage varieties has been re-
ported at numerous farmers' meetings held in different parts
of the state during the last 19 years, and from time to time
results of the variety tests have been mimeographed and dis-
tributed to growers or summarized and published.2" 4

AREAS OF PRODUCTION, ACREAGES, VALUES
AND YIELDS
Cabbage is grown principally in eight concentrated areas in
Florida. Acreages planted to the crop in these areas in 1950,
as reported by the USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics
and the Department of Agricultural Economics of the Univer-
sity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, were Hastings,
7,300 acres; Everglades, 5,800 acres; Sanford-Winter Garden-
Zellwood, 2,100 acres; Gainesville, 1,000 acres; Manatee-Ruskin,
500 acres; Hillsborough-Plant City, 350 acres; East Coast, 350
acres, and West Florida, 200 acres.
Florida's cabbage acreage has varied from 8,500 to 23,500
acres and averaged approximately 14,000 acres annually during
the 14-year period, 1937 to 1950, Table 1. Usually, the acreage
has increased following a year in which cabbage commanded a
high price and decreased after a year when it sold at a relatively
low price. The farm value of cabbage during this period ranged
from $16 to $76 a ton and averaged $34.87 a ton. Its selling
price was highest during and following World War II and lowest
during the 1936-37 and 1937-38 seasons.
Cabbage grown in the most productive soils of Florida on the
best managed farms during seasons most favorable for growth
of the crop has seldom yielded more than 25 tons per acre. The
yield for the 14-year period, 1937 to 1950, averaged 7.6 tons an
acre, Table 1. The average yield for the first six years, 1937
to 1942, is 6.2 tons an acre, and for the last eight years, 1943
to 1950, 8.7 tons. The increase in yields during the latter period
was apparently due to planting better adapted varieties, em-
ploying better methods of fertilizing the crop, and obtaining
better control of insects and diseases.
SMcCubbin, E. N. Cabbage variety tests in the Hastings section. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 56: 177-182. 1943.
"aAnderson, E. M. et al. Commercial vegetable varieties for Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 405. 1944.
SHoffman, James C. Adaptability of vegetable varieties to the Ever-
glades and adjacent areas. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-7. 1949.








Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 7

TABLE 1.-CABBAGE ACREAGES, AVERAGE YIELDS AND VALUES PER TON IN
FLORIDA FOR 14 SEASONS, 1936-37 TO 1949-50.*

Season Acreage Tons per Value per
Acre Ton
Dollars
1936-37 ................. ...................... 8,500 6.0 16.00
1937-38 .................... ............................ 9,400 6.5 16.00
1938-39 ............................................. 10,000 5.5 18.00
1939-40 ................................................ 16,000 7.0 18.40
1940-41 .... ............................................ 10,000 6.0 38.90
1941-42 ................................................ 18,000 6.0 17.80
1942-43 .......................................... ...... 10,000 8.5 76.00
1943-44 ......... ...................... ..... 23,500 8.0 36.00
1944-45 ......................................... .. 17,200 8.0 37.00
1945-46 ........ .............. ....... ............... 13,200 8.8 49.00
1946-47 ........ ..................... .............12,200 8.2 34.70
1947-48 ..................................... .......... 16,700 8.7 52.50
1948-49 ...---............. .............................. 16,000 9.2 44.00
1949-50 .......................... ................. 17,700 10.5 30.00


Average ........................................... 14,171 7.6 34.87

Compiled from reports of the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando,
Florida; U.S.D.A. Bureau of Agricultural Economics and Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station Department of Agricultural Economics, cooperating.

VARIETIES GROWN IN FLORIDA

Many varieties of cabbage, ranging from early- to late-matur-
ing types and those producing pointed, round or globular and
flat heads, have been grown commercially in Florida, Fig. 2.
Time elapsing between seeding directly in the field or trans-
planting and harvesting of the head will vary with the variety,
season, locality and soil fertility and cultural practices. Early
varieties usually produce heads within 60 to 85 days from trans-
















Fi Cabbae heads of different shares: pointed, flat and round.
Fig. 2.-Cabbage heads of different shapes: pointed, flat and round.








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

planting; midseason varieties within 75 to 95 days; and late
varieties within 95 to 120 days.
Varieties of cabbage grown on a commercial scale prior to
1937 were the pointed Early Jersey Wakefield and Charleston
Wakefield, the early roundhead Copenhagen Market and Golden
Acre, the midseason Premium Flat Dutch and the late globular
Hollander.5 Early Jersey Wakefield and Charleston Wakefield
were the most extensively grown.
Since 1937 roundhead varieties have gradually replaced pointed
ones in popularity, and the latter are no longer grown on a com-
mercial scale in Florida. Ninty-six to 98 percent of the acreage
is now planted to varieties in the early and midseason round-
head groups. Copenhagen Market is the standard variety grown
on sandy soils in the Gainesville, Hastings and Sanford areas
in the fall for early harvest and in the late winter and spring
before temperatures become too high for growing cabbage.
Copenhagen Market also is grown in midwinter in these areas
for main-crop cabbage, but most of the main crop is planted
to Glory of Enkhuizen. Other varieties grown are Marion Mar-
ket, Midseason Market, Round Dutch and Bonanza.
On peat and muck soils of the Everglades area Copenhagen
Market is the most widely planted variety. The recently intro-
duced Bonanza has increased in popularity and ranks second
in acreage in this area. The remaining acreage is planted
largely to Golden Acre and Round Dutch.
Only 1 or 2 percent of the Florida cabbage acreage is planted
to late-maturing varieties such as the Hollander and Danish
Ballhead, as they require extra fertilizer to produce a crop and
have to be sprayed over a longer period of time than early and
midseason varieties to control insects and diseases. A few acres
are planted each year to red and savoy varieties, to meet market
demands for these types of cabbage.
VARIETIES GROWN IN REPLICATED PLOTS
Strains of 35 early-, midseason- and late-maturing varieties
were tested one or more years in replicated plots for yield and
other characteristics in one or more of the four locations from
1933 to 1951. Where more than one strain of a given variety
was tested, yields of the best yielding strain are reported in this
bulletin. Seeds of the varieties tested were supplied by com-
mercial seed firms in the United States.
5 Spencer, A. P. Florida Vegetables. Fla. Agr. Ext. Serv. Bul. 90: 1-67.
1937.





TABLE 2.-YIELDS OF EARLY, MIDSEASON AND LATE VARIETIES OF CABBAGE GROWN AT BELLE GLADE, FLORIDA, FROM 1933 TO
1950.

Variety* _Seasons Grown and Tons per Acre
1_932-33 1933-34 1944-45 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50**
Early I
America ------------- 14.7 -
Copenhagen Market ....... ............ 23.8 16.4 16.7 19.2 15.0 15.7 13.3 17.4 11.2
Early Jersey Wakefield .................... 18.3 13.8 -
Early Market --------------......-... 16.6 -
Early Summer ................................. 12.2 -
Golden Acre ....................................... 25.1 11.1 17.9 16.1 16.8 14.5 14.8
Green Acre ....................................- 16.3 17.6 16.2 19.8 15.0 -
Long Island Wakefield ...................... 20.1 13.4 1
Racine Market ................... 14.1 1.4 --
Resistant Detroit ............................... 17.0 22.3 11.8 14.6 15.8 9.1 c
Resistant Golden Acre .................... 11.1
Resistant Premier .......................... 16.6 19.3 12.7 14.7 16.4 -
Midseason and Late
All Head Early .....................-...-- 24.7 19.0 -
Bonanza ........................... -------- 16.1 12.8 16.7 19.9 26.0
Charleston Wakefield ........................ 19.4 20.0 -
Danish Ballhead ............................... 26.1 13.5 17.6 -- -
Early Danish .... ....... .............--- 13.5
Early Dwarf Flat Dutch .....- ........ 25.7 -- -
Early Glory ..........................-..... 17.1 22.1 17.1
Globe .................................- 15.7 21.0 14.8 14.0 19.2 31.7
Glory of Enkhuizen .......................... 25.5 15.7 27.2 18.8 15.5 16.6 25.9 16.0
Hollander -- ....................... 16.0 12.9 -
Marion Market ..................... ... --.. 19.4 17.2 15.0 15.2 22.4 18.3
Midseason Market ............................--- 17.4 22.2 20.2 16.1 18.0 23.5 14.6
Penn State Ballhead ..................... 21.8 -
Premium Late Flat Dutch or
Surehead ........- ---------- 25.7 18.2 20.0 17.2 17.3 26.1 -
Premier .... .............................- 20.0 17.2 -
Resistant Glory ............................. 27.1
Round Dutch ................................ ...... 146 14.3 10.4 3o 1792 14.7
Round Dutch -- --------------------- 14.6 14.3 10.4 13.0 17.2 14.7
Stein's Early Flat Dutch ................. 24.8 -_
Succession or All Seasons ............... 26.6 19.9 18.0 16.2 16.3 19.9 -
Least Significant Difference .05 Level 4.6 3.1 4.7 3.9 3.3 1 2.9 2.7 3.4 5.1 ep
SFour to six replicates of 25 to 76 plants grown in 15- to 40-foot, single- or four-row, randomized plots with rows 27 to 36 inches apart and plants
12 to 18 inches apart in the row.
** Plants for 1949-50 test were seeded and thinned to stand; those for the other tests were transplanted from plant beds.








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The cabbage was grown on well decomposed Everglades peat
at Belle Glade, on Arredondo fine sandy loam at Gainesville, on
Bladen fine sand and loamy fine sand at Hastings, and on Leon
fine sand at Sanford. The plants were fertilized in accordance
with Experiment Station recommendations in the different loca-
tions and protected from insects and diseases by regular applica-
tions of insecticides and fungicides. The plants were transplanted
from October through March and harvested from December
through May, depending upon the locality in which they were
grown in different years, except at Belle Glade in 1949-50, when
the plants were seeded directly in the field and thinned to a stand.
Belle Glade Tests.-Thirty-one varieties were tested at Belle
Glade from 1933 to 1950, Table 2. No tests were made from
1935 to 1944 or during the 1945-46 and 1946-47 seasons. Two
tests were made in each of three seasons. In the group of 12
early varieties tested, Resistant Detroit, Resistant Premier and
Green Acre significantly outyielded Copenhagen Market in at
least one test. Copenhagen Market significantly outyielded
America, Early Jersey Wakefield, Early Summer, Golden Acre,
Resistant Detroit and Resistant Premier in at least one test.
Differences in yields of Copenhagen Market and those of Early
Market, Long Island Wakefield, Racine Market and Resistant
Golden Acre were not significant.
Of 19 midseason and late varieties grown, Glory of Enkhuizen
significantly outyielded Bonanza, Charleston Wakefield, Globe,
Marion Market, Midseason Market, Round Dutch, Early Glory,
Succession or All Seasons, Hollander and Danish Ballhead in
one or more tests. Differences in yields of Glory of Enkhuizen
and All Head Early, Early Danish, Early Dwarf Flat Dutch,
Penn State Ballhead, Premier and Premium Late Flat Dutch
or Surehead were not significant. In at least one test, yields of
Bonanza, Globe, Stein's Early Flat Dutch and Resistant Glory
significantly exceeded those of Glory of Enkhuizen.
Yields of Glory of Enkhuizen excelled those of Copenhagen
Market in six of the eight tests in which each was grown and
the increases were significant in four tests.
Gainesville Tests.-Eighteen varieties were tested at Gaines-
ville from 1946 to 1949, Table 3. No test was made in 1947.
The only varieties which significantly outyielded Copenhagen
Market were Green Acre, Resistant Detroit and Resistant
Premier in 1948 and Green Acre in 1949.
Glory of Enkhuizen was significantly outyielded by Round









Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 11

Dutch in 1946; and in 1948 by Round Dutch, Premium Late Flat
Dutch or Surehead and Succession or All Seasons. There were
no significant differences in yields of Glory of Enkhuizen and
other midseason and late varieties in 1949.
Glory of Enkhuizen significantly excelled Copenhagen Market
in yield in 1948, but in 1946 the latter significantly outyielded
Glory of Enkhuizen; in 1949 the difference in yield of the two
varieties was not significant.

TABLE 3.-YIELDS OF EARLY, MIDSEASON AND LATE VARIETIES OF CABBAGE
GROWN AT GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA, FROM 1946 TO 1949.

Seasons Grown and Tons
Variety* per Acre
1945-46 1 1947-48 1948-49
Early
America .-......-.............. ......-..-- ..- ......-- ....... 8.5 -
Copenhagen Market ....-.......................-.......... 8.8 8.8 7.3
Dark Green Copenhagen Market ......---.--... .. 7.3 -
Early Summer .....-.............- .. .................... 8.7 -
Golden Acre ......... --..... ......-- ..........-.....---- .... 6.1 | 7.5 -
Green Acre ..............----...... .--.....:............... I 13.6 9.5
Racine Market ............... --....................- ....---- 5.6
Resistant Detroit ................................................ 10.6 12.9 7.0
Resistant Premier ---....................................- -.. 9.4 10.2 7.7
Midseason and Late
Bonanza ..............................--- ........--...-- -.... 10.6 6.6
Early Glory ....................................................--------------- 8.2
Globe ..................................................................... 4.9 6.7 7.3
Glory of Enkhuizen .................-..............-......... 6.1 11.0 8.0
Marion Market ....................................-....... ..... 6.1 11.0 7.3
Midseason Market .............................. .....-- ....... 7.7 11.0 7.8
Premium Late Flat Dutch or Surehead ......... 12.4 7.8
Round Dutch ....................-- --..............- ......----- .. 8.3 12.9 7.8
Succession or All Seasons .................................. 11.9 8.9

Least Significant Difference .05 Level ............ 2.1 0.8 1.4

Four replicates of each grown in 30- to 60-foot, single-row, randomized plots with
rows 42 inches apart and plants 12 inches apart in the row.

Hastings Tests.-Thirteen early and 12 midseason and late
varieties were tested at Hastings from 1943 to 1951, Table 4.
None of the early varieties significantly excelled Copenhagen
Market in yield, except Golden Acre in one test made in 1949.
Glory of Enkhuizen was significantly outyielded by Premium
Late Flat Dutch or Surehead in 1944, but none of the other mid-
season and late varieties significantly exceeded it in yield.
Yields of Glory of Enkhuizen excelled those of Copenhagen
Market in eight tests made in the nine-year period and the in-
creases in yields were significant in six tests.










TABLE 4.-YIELDS OF EARLY, MIDSEASON AND LATE VARIETIES OF CABBAGE GROWN AT HASTINGS, FLORIDA, FROM 1943 TO 1951. W

Variety* Seasons Grown and Tons per Acre
1942-43 1943-44 1944-45 | 1945-46 j 1946-47 I 1947-48 I 1948-49 1 1949-50 j 1950-51
Early
America ......--.....- ...................... 15.4 14.3 15.7 13.8 11.4 -
Copenhagen Market ........................ 17.7 20.1 17.3 15.1 12.1 11.1 13.3 16.2 16.7
Dark Green Copenhagen Market .... 13.2 15.6 14.1 10.5 -
Early Market ...................................... 15.2 14.5 10.6 -
Early Summer .................................... 14.6 16.4 -
Golden Acre ...................................... 14.8 14.6 16.5 13.9 11.3 11.7 15.1 -
Green Acre ......................................... 17.9 19.3 17.5 12.3 12.3 14.1 -
Medium Copenhagen Market..... 15.8
Medium Copenhagen Resistant ..... 17.4
Racine Market .................................. - 11. 12.6 -
Resistant Detroit ................................ 16.1 16.3 18.0 15.0 12.2 11.9 16.0 15.9
Resistant Golden Acre ...................... 14.1 -
Resistant Premier ............-- ....-..-- .. - 17.8 14.7 12.2 10.6 13.8 16.1 -
Midseason and Late .
All Head Early .................................... 22.0 12.6 18.4 -
Bonanza ............................................. - 16.0 14.1 14.0 17.0
Early Glory ........................................ 16.0 17.6 19.1
Florida Danish .................................... - 14.7
Globe ................................................... - 14.2 16.0 13.9 13.3 14.5 -
Glory of Enkhuizen .......-.....-...-- .... 17.3 21.8 17.5 18.6 13.7 16.8 14.9 16.6 19.1
Marion Market ................................... 16.6 18.3 15.5 16.6 14.5 13.9 14.3 15.3 17.8 i
Midseason Market ............................. 16.4 21.2 17.2 19.2 14.3 15.5 14.3 16.9 19.1
Premium Late Flat Dutch or
Surehead ........................................ 23.1 16.5 15.1 16.0 15.6 -
Resistant Glory ............................... - 15.0 17.5
Round Dutch ..............................-- ....-- 14.5 16.8 14.6 17.4 14.2 12.9 j 14.7 13.9 16.9
Succession or All Seasons ............ 22.1 14.0 14.7 15.2 15.2 -
Least Significant Difference .05 Level 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.3 2.1 1.5 1.6 1.6
Six to 11 replicates of each grown in 22.5-foot, single-row, randomized plots with rows 40 inches apart and plants 9 inches apart, except in
1949-50 and 1950-51 when plants were 12 inches apart in the row.








TABLE 5.-YIELDS OF EARLY, MIDSEASON AND LATE VARIETIES OF CABBAGE GROWN AT SANFORD, FLORIDA, FROM 1942 TO 1951.


Variety* Seasons Grown and Tons per Acre
_____1941-42 11942-43 11943-4411945-46 1946-47 11947-48 1948-49 1949-50 1950-51
Early I
America ............................................. 19.5 11.1 9.6 8.9 -
Copenhagen Market .......................... 15.9 12.6 13.5 12.2 8.2 12.2 11.0 13.8 17.6 19.2
Dark Green Copenhagen Market ....... 15.7 11.5 15.5 7.1 -
Early Market ................................... - 13.1 8.3 -
Early Summer .................................. - 9.2 -
Golden Acre ..................... ................. 17.2 9.4 9.5 11.2 8.1 11.8 -
Green Acre ........................................... 17.6 11.7 13.5 7.6 14.0 15.4 -
Medium Copenhagen Resistant .......... 17.1 21.2
Racine Market ..................................... - 13.9 15.6 -
Resistant Detroit .............. .................. 15.6 10.0 10.9 19.4 8.3 12.0 13.0 14.1 17.7 18.6
Resistant Golden Acre .......................... - 9.9 -
Resistant Premier ........................... - 17.6 11.9 11.8 12.6 -
Midseason and Late
All Head Early ................................... - 11.1 -
Bonanza ............................................ - 12.9 12.6 12.7 16.7 19.1
Early Danish ...................................... - 10.0 -
Early Glory ......................................... - 20.6 18.3 19.3 24.5
Florida Danish ..................................... - 14.1 14.8
Globe ........................................... 11.0 4.6 9.7 16.4 --
Glory of Enkhuizen ............................. 9.7 11.4 4.5 6.7 17.6 15.3 18.3 22.0 26.8
Marion Market ..................................... 15.3 11.9 12.0 12.9 6.5 13.0 12.9 14.0 16.9 20.3
Midseason Market ........................... 8.8 15.4 14.1 5.9 14.4 15.0 17.8 17.8 21.4
Penn State Ballhead ........................ 10.0 -
Premium Late Flat Dutch or 3
Surehead ......................................... - 13.4 18.2 15.0 15.5 -
Resistant Glory ........ .............. 15.7 17.7 25.5
Round Dutch ....................... ......... 14.5 7.3 8.3 10.3 4.9 10.1 9.3 11.0 14.0 15.5
Succession or All Seasons ................... - 12.8 16.3 13.5 16.4 -
Least Significant Difference .05 Level | 3.1 ; 4.1 3.4 I 3.3 1 2.5 | 6.2 1 2.1 | 2.5 I 2.3 | 5.6
S*Three to eight replicates of each grown in 20- to 40-foot, single-row, randomized plots with rows 30 inches apart and plants 12 to,15 inches
apart in the row.








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Sanford Tests.-Twenty-six varieties were tested at Sanford
from 1942 to 1951, Table 5. Two tests were conducted in 1951,
but none was made in 1945. In the early group, Copenhagen
Market was significantly outyielded by America in 1942; by
Dark Green Copenhagen Market, Resistant Detroit and Resistant
Premier in 1946; and by Green Acre and Racine Market in 1949.
Yields of Golden Acre, Early Market and Medium Copenhagen
Resistant also exceeded those of Copenhagen in one or more
tests, but the increases in yields were not significant. Yields
of Early Summer and Resistant Golden Acre never equalled
those of Copenhagen Market in any test in which they were
compared.
In the midseason and late group, Glory of Enkhuizen produced
a low yield in 1946 and was significantly outyielded by Globe,
Marion Market, Midseason Market and Round Dutch. Mid-
season Market also significantly outyielded Glory of Enkhuizen
in 1944, and Early Glory significantly exceeded it in yield in
1949. None of the other midseason and late varieties signifi-
cantly excelled Glory of Enkhuizen in yield.
Glory of Enkhuizen significantly exceeded Copenhagen Market
in yield in five tests, and the latter significantly outyielded the
former in one test.

COMPARISON OF AVERAGE YIELDS OF VARIETIES
GROWN IN REPLICATED PLOTS
The average yield of each early variety grown in replicated
plots at Belle Glade, Gainesville, Hastings and Sanford was
divided by the average yield of Copenhagen Market grown in
the same plots to show the yielding ability of each in relation
to that of Copenhagen Market. Average yields of Glory of
Enkhuizen and other midseason and late varieties grown in the
four locations also were similarly compared.
Early Varieties.-Average yields of Copenhagen Market and
14 other early varieties are compared in Table 6. At Belle
Glade Copenhagen Market outyielded 10 varieties from 1 to 36
percent. Green Acre was the only one which excelled Copen-
hagen Market in yield.
At Gainesville average yields of Resistant Premier, Resistant
Detroit and Green Acre exceeded those of Copenhagen Market
10 to 43 percent, but Green Acre has been rejected for commer-
cial production as it produced loose, puffy heads. Yields of









Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 15

TABLE 6.-COMPARISON OF AVERAGE YIELDS OF COPENHAGEN MARKET
AND OTHER EARLY VARIETIES OF CABBAGE GROWN AT FOUR LOCALITIES
IN FLORIDA.

Average Yields Compared to Copen-
Variety hagen Market in Percent*
Belle Gaines-1 Hast- ISan- All Lo-
Glade I ville Iings Iford calities

America ...................................... .. 77 97 85 101 90
Dark Green Copenhagen Market.. 83 82 100 90
Early Jersey Wakefield ................ 79 79
Early Market ................................ 86 91 105 94
Early Summer .......................--...... 64 99 83 68 77
Golden Acre .................................. 99 77 92 90 93
Green Acre ...................................... 106 143 102 109 107
Long Island Wakefield ................ 83 83
Medium Copenhagen Market ...... 95 95
Medium Copenhagen Resistant.... 104 104 104
Racine Market .............................. 93 77 80 119 95
Resistant Detroit .......................... 99 123 96 103 101
Resistant Golden Acre ......-------......... 99 87 72 85
Resistant Premier .....-----................... 99 110 100 110 103

For comparative purposes, yields of Copenhagen Market are considered as 100 percent.



TABLE 7.-COMPARISON OF AVERAGE YIELDS OF GLORY OF ENKHUIZEN AND
OTHER MIDSEASON AND LATE VARIETIES OF CABBAGE GROWN AT FOUR
LOCALITIES IN FLORIDA.

Average Yields Compared to Glory
Variety of Enkhuizen in Percent*
Belle Gaines- Hast- I San- I All Lo-
Glade ville ings Iford I calities

All Head Early .............................. 91 92 97 92
Bonanza ............---...-----.-....... 98 91 91 74 87
Charleston Wakefield .................... 75 75
Danish Ballhead ............................ 84 - 84
Early Danish .................................. 87 57 71
Early Dwarf Flat Dutch .............. 94 94
Early Glory ...........-....................... 96 103 104 100 101
Florida Danish .............................. 77 59 64
Globe ............................................... 108 75 88 95 96
Hollander ........................................ 55 55
Marion Market ............................ 96 96 91 91 93
Midseason Market .......................... 92 105 98 99 97
Penn State Ballhead .................... 85 103 90
Premium Late Flat Dutch or
Surehead .................................... 102 106 99 99 101
Premier ................................-- ........ -108 108
Resistant Glory .............................. 169 91 88 100
Round Dutch .................................. 75 115 87 69 80
Stein's Early Flat Dutch .--.......... 158 158
Succession or All Seasons ............ 93 109 93 94 94

For comparative purposes, yields of Glory of Enkhuizen are considered as 100 percent.








16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Copenhagen Market were 1 to 23 percent higher than those of
the other five varieties.
At Hastings yields of Copenhagen Market exceeded those of
nine other varieties from 4 to 20 percent. Two varieties out-
yielded Copenhagen Market from 2 to 4 percent, and one yielded
the same as Copenhagen Market.
Of the 12 varieties grown at Sanford, three yielded from 10
to 32 percent less than Copenhagen Market and only one, Racine
Market, excelled it in yield by more than 10 percent.
Average yield of Copenhagen Market exceeded that of each
of 10 varieties in all locations from 5 to 23 percent. Green Acre
was the only one which outyielded it as much as 7 percent.
Midseason and Late Varieties.-Average yields of 19 mid-
season and late varieties are compared with those of midseason
Glory of Enkhuizen in Table 7. Glory of Enkhuizen yielded
from 2 to 45 percent more than 13 of the 19 varieties grown at
Belle Glade. Stein's Early Flat Dutch and Resistant Glory, each
of which was tested once at Belle Glade, exceeded Glory of Enk-
huizen in yield 58 and 69 percent, respectively.
Of the nine varieties grown at Gainesville, three yielded 4 to
25 percent less than Glory of Enkhuizen. Round Dutch was
the only one which exceeded it in yield as much as 15 percent.
Yields of Glory of Enkhuizen at Hastings were from 1 to 23
percent higher than those of 10 other varieties. Early Glory
was the only variety which exceeded Glory of Enkhuizen in yield
by as much as 4 percent.
At Sanford yields of Glory of Enkhuizen excelled those of 11
varieties 1 to 43 percent, and Penn State Ballhead was the only
one which outyielded Glory of Enkhuizen by as much as 3
percent.
Of the 20 varieties grown in the four locations, yield of Glory
of Enkhuizen exceeded that of each of 14 varieties from 3 to
45 percent. Stein's Early Flat Dutch outyielded Glory of Enk-
huizen 58 percent but it was tested only one season at Belle
Glade. Differences in yield between Glory of Enkhuizen and
the other four varieties varied from 0 to 8 percent.

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIETIES GROWN IN
REPLICATED PLOTS
A cabbage variety that can be grown profitably year after
year in Florida must be adapted to the climatic conditions and
produce good yields within 60 to 95 days after transplanting.








Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 17







-
































Fig. 3.-A bolting cabbage plant.
It must resist bolting or the formation of seedstalks when grown
during the winter and exposed to temperatures of 400 F. or
lower for several nights, Fig. 3. Resistance to cabbage yellows
also is an important characteristic where the soils have become
infested with the yellows fungus.6 Varieties which are sus-
ceptible to yellows are not recommended for commercial pro-

"6 Eddins, A. H., and W. B. Tisdale. Cabbage black rot and yellows and
their control. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-4. 1949.







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

duction on yellows-infested soil. The heads of some varieties
crack or burst more easily than those of other varieties when
not harvested soon after they reach marketable size. These
heads have no market value, and bursting is a defect which
may cause excessive losses when a susceptible variety is grown.
In addition to being adapted to a particular area in Florida
and possessing the above mentioned characteristics, a cabbage
variety must produce solid, round to globular, green heads which
weigh two to three and one-half pounds each. Loose, puffy
heads have no value as fresh-market cabbage, Fig. 4. The heads
also must maintain firmness in market channels and be free
of decay and other defects marring appearance.



















Fig. 4.-Sections of cabbage heads. Solid head with a short core
(left) and a loose, puffy head with a long core.
Some of the characteristics determining adaptability of cab-
bage varieties to commercial production in Florida are listed
in Table 8 for 15 early varieties and in Table 9 for 20 midseason
and late varieties.
Early Varieties.-Early varieties mature from 10 days to two
weeks earlier than midseason varieties and from three to five
weeks earlier than late varieties. They are generally outyielded
by the midseason and late varieties. They are grown where
earliness and smaller head size are important.
Copenhagen Market is the standard early variety grown in
Florida. It produces high yields of medium-sized, yellow-green,







TABLE 8.-SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF 15 EARLY VARIETIES OF CABBAGE GROWN AT FOUR LOCALITIES IN FLORIDA.

Head

Variety Yield' Reaction to: | Size on:' I Solidity on:'
Peat I Shape" Color" Peat Burst-
Bolt- Yel- Sandy and Sandy and ing8
ing2 lows8 Soil Muck _Soil Muck
America ............................................. M R S S SM R G MS S
Copenhagen Market .......................... H R S M M R YG MS MS MR
Dark Green Copenhagen Market ...... M R S M R DG MS S
Early Jersey Wakefield ........ ....... L R S S SM P G S MS MR
Early Market ........................... M R S SM SM R YG MS MS S
Early Summer ........................ ... L R S S SM R YG MS MS MR
Golden Acre ............................ M R S SM SM R YG MS MS VS
Green Acre ....---.................................... VH R S Mi ML R DG L L S
Long Island Wakefield ........................ L R S M P G MS MR
Medium Copenhagen Market ............ H R S R YG MS MR
Medium Copenhagen Resistant ........ VH R R M R YG MS MR
Racine Market ............................ H R R SM M R BG MS L MR
Resistant Detroit ................................ VH R R M M R DG L L R
Resistant Golden Acre ...................... M R R S SM R YG MS MS S
Resistant Premier ............................. VH R R M M R YG MS L S
1Based on average yields at all locations shown in Table 6. Shape: R=Round to Globular
VH=Very High (exceeds Copenhagen Market by not more than 7 percent) P=Pointed
H=High (95-100 percent of Copenhagen Market) SF=Semi-flat
M=Medium (85-94 percent of Copenhagen Market) F=Flat
L=Low (77-84 percent of Copenhagen Market) Color: GG=Gray Green
"Refers to formation of seedstalks when plants are subjected to temperatures BG=Blue Green
below 40 degrees F. YG=Yellow Green
S=Susceptible G= Green
MR=Moderately Resistant DG-Dark Green
R=eResistant Solidity: L=Loose
MS=Moderately Solid
Reaction to yellows: S=Susceptible S=Solid
R=Resistant VS=Very Solid
'Size: S=Small (under 8 pounds) Refers to ability to withstand bursting in the field
M=Medium (5 to 4 pounds) after reaching market size:
L=Large (over 4 pounds) VR=Very Resistant
MR=Moderately Resistant
R=Resistant I-
S= Susceptible
VS=Very Susceptible







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

moderately solid, round to globular heads which are moderately
resistant to bursting in the field, Table 8. Susceptible to yellows
but resistant to bolting, it is recommended as an early variety
for commercial production in Florida where the soils are free
of the yellows fungus.
Golden Acre is from four to six days earlier than Copenhagen
Market and its average yield was only slightly less than the
latter variety on peat and muck soils at Belle Glade. It has
not yielded as well on sandy soils at either of the other three
locations. It is susceptible to yellows but resistant to bolting.
Its heads, though slightly smaller, are similar to those of Copen-
hagen Market in color and solidity. They are very susceptible
to bursting and bruise easily on handling, but with the increased
use of the wire-bound, wooden Bruce box which gives some
protection, this variety may be grown on peat and muck soils
where heads of Copenhagen Market grow too large.
Medium Copenhagen Resistant produces high yields. Its
average yield in three trials at Hastings and Sanford exceeded
that of Copenhagen Market by 4 percent. It is resistant to
yellows and bolting and produces medium-size, round to globular,
yellow-green, moderately solid heads which are moderately re-
sistant to bursting in the field. It is especially suitable for plant-
ing on yellows-sick land at Hastings.
Average yield of Resistant Detroit in 27 tests in the four loca-
tions exceeded that of Copenhagen Market by 1 percent. It is
resistant to bolting and yellows and produces dark-green, round
to globular, medium-sized heads which are resistant to bursting.
They are, however, loose and puffy. It is not recommended for
production in Florida.
Resistant Golden Acre yielded 13 and 28 percent less than
Copenhagen Market on sandy soils at Hastings and Sanford,
but only slightly less than the latter variety on peat and muck
soils at Belle Glade. It is resistant to bolting and yellows and
produces round to globular, moderately solid heads. It is sus-
ceptible to bursting in the field and must be harvested soon
after it reaches marketable size. It is recommended for com-
mercial production on peat and muck soils at Belle Glade where
it produces small to medium-sized heads, but its heads are too
small when grown on sandy soils.
Racine Market is resistant to bolting and yellows. Its yield
in one to two trials at each location varied from 23 percent below
to 19 percent above that of Copenhagen Market, and averaged








Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 21

5 percent below the latter variety in seven trials at all locations.
On sandy soils it produces small to medium-sized, round to
globular, blue-green moderately solid heads which are moder-
ately resistant to bursting. On Everglades peat and muck soils
its heads did not grow as solid as those of Copenhage Market.
It appears well-adapted to commercial production in the Sanford
area, where it exceeded Copenhagen Market in yield by 19 percent.
Resistant Premier produces high yields and is resistant to
bolting and yellows. Its average yield in 18 trials at all loca-
tions exceeded that of Copenhagen Market by 3 percent. It
forms heads similar to those of Copenhagen Market and Re-
sistant Detroit, but they are susceptible to bursting. On Ever-
glades peat and muck soils its heads are loose and puffy. It is
not recommended for commercial production in Florida.
Green Acre produced very high yields, but it was rejected for
commercial production because of loose, puffy heads which were
susceptible to bursting in the field.
Medium Copenhagen Market matured three to five days later
than Copenhagen Market and produced heads similar to those
of that variety. It is susceptible to yellows but resistant to
bolting. It was grown in only one trial at one location, where
it yielded 5 percent less than Copenhagen Market.
Long Island Wakefield and Early Jersey Wakefield produced
low yields in comparison with Copenhagen Market at Belle Glade.
They form pointed heads and were grown on a commercial scale
in Florida when pointed cabbage was popular on Northern
markets.
America, Dark Green Copenhagen Market, Early Market and
Early Summer are not suitable for commercial production in
Florida because of low-yielding ability, susceptibility to bursting
in the field and other defects.
Midseason and Late Varieties.-Glory of Enkhuizen is the
standard midseason variety grown on sandy soils in Florida but
it is not grown on the Everglades peat and muck, as its heads
grow too large, Table 9. It produces high yields of solid, round
to globular, green heads which weigh from three to four pounds
each on sandy soils. It is resistant to bolting and will stand
five to seven days in the field after reaching marketable size
without bursting. It is susceptible to yellows and should not
be planted on infested soils.
Midseason Market produced yields averaging from 92 to 105
percent of those of Glory of Enkhuizen in trials at Belle Glade,






TABLE 9.-SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF 20 MIDSEASON AND LATE VARIETIES OF CABBAGE GROWN AT FOUR LOCALITIES IN
FLORIDA.

I -Head _
Variety Yield1 Reaction to: Size on:' Solidity on:' I
Peat Shape5 Color Peat I Burst-
Bolt- Yel- Sandy and Sandy I and ing"
ing" lows3 Soil Muck _Soil Muck__
All Head Early ................................... M S S ML L SF YG MS MS MR
Bonanza ......................................... M R S M M R GG VS VS VR
Charleston Wakefield ........................ L R S SM M P G S MS MR
Danish Ballhead .............................. L MR S SM M R BG S S R 2
Early Danish .............................. .. L R S SM M R BG S S R
Early Dwarf Flat Dutch .................... M MR S ML L F GG MS MS MR
Early Glory ................................. VH R S ML L R G S MS R
Florida Danish ..................... L MR S M M SF G MS MS R R
Globe .................................................. H MR R ML L R BG S S R "
Glory of Enkhuizen ......................... H R S ML L R G S MS R
Hollander ............................................. L MR R SM M R BG S S R
Marion Market ......................- .. M R R ML ML R G S S R
Midseason Market ......................... H R S ML ML R G S S MR
Penn State Ballhead ....................... M MR S SM M R BG S S R
. gemium Late Flat Dutch (Surehead) VH MR S ML L F GG MS S MR
Premier ..V.....- ......--. .- ML F S -
Resistant Glory ........................ H R R ML L R G S MS R
Round Dutch .-..-.........-.. L R S SM SM R DG S S MR
Stein's Early Flat Dutch ............... VH R S ML ML F G MS MS MR
Succession (All Seasons) ......... M MR S ML L SF YG MS 1 L MR
IBased on average yields at all locations shown in Table 8. Shape: R=Round to Globular
VH=Very High (exceeds Glory of Enkhuizen by not more than 58%) P=Pointed
H=High (95-100 percent of Glory of Enkhuizen) SF=Semi-flat
M=Medium (85-94 percent of Glory of Enkhuizen) F=Flat
L=Low (55-84 percent of Glory of Enkhuizen) 6 Color: GG=Gray Green
S Refers to formation of seedstalks when plants are subjected to temperatures BG=Blue Green
below 40 degrees F. YGYellow Green c
S= Susceptible G= Green
MR=Moderately Resistant DG=Dark Green
R=Resistant 7 Solidity: L=Loose
MS=Moderately Solid
a Reaction to yellows: S=Susceptible S= Solid
R=Resistant VS=Very Solid
"Size: S=Small (under 3 pounds) Refers to ability to withstand bursting in the field
M=Medium (3 to 4 pounds) after reaching market size:
L=Large (over 4 pounds) VR=Very Resistant
MR=Moderately Resistant
"Rn=R-aiat.ar








Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 23

Gainesville, Hastings and Sanford. It is resistant to bolting
but susceptible to yellows, and produces medium to large, round
to globular, solid, green heads that are moderately resistant to
bursting in the field. It is recommended for trial on peat and
muck soils and for commercial production on sandy soils which
are free of the yellows organism, particularly when seed of
Glory of Enkhuizen are not available.
Bonanza, a promising new variety, matures 10 to 12 days
later than Glory of Enkhuizen and may be classified as a late
midseason variety. It yielded 2 percent less than Glory of Enk-
huizen on peat and muck soils at Belle Glade and 9 to 26 percent
less than the latter variety on sandy soils in the other locations.
Susceptible to yellows, it is resistant to bolting; it produces
round, medium-sized, very solid heads of a gray-green color.
Heads are solid early in their development and will remain 10
days to two weeks in the field after reaching marketable size
without bursting. Thus, Bonanza may be harvested when mar-
ket demand is good or left in the field for a considerable period
when market demand is low. It is recommended for commercial
production on soils free from the yellows fungus.
Round Dutch matures six to eight days earlier than Glory of
Enkhuizen and may be classified either as a late early variety
or as an early midseason one. It produced yields at Gainesville
that exceeded those of Glory of Enkhuizen by 15 percent, but in
the other locations it yielded 13 to 31 percent less than the latter
variety. It is susceptible to yellows but resistant to bolting and
produces excellent dark-green, solid, round to globular, small
to medium-sized heads which are moderately resistant to burst-
ing. Some growers plant it on a commercial scale but others
have rejected it for commercial production because of low yields.
It is recommended for trial on sandy soils and for commercial
production on peat and muck soils at Belle Glade.
Marion Market, an old yellows-resistant variety, produced
yields in 28 trials at all locations which averaged only 7 percent
less than those of Glory of Enkhuizen. It is variable in plant
and head development but resistant to bolting and bursting in
the field. It produces medium to large, round to globular heads
of good quality. It is grown on a commercial scale at Sanford
and recommended for commercial production in place of Glory
of Enkhuizen in soils infested with the yellows organism.
Resistant Glory, a yellows-resistant selection from Glory of
Enkhuizen, matures seven to 10 days later than the parent








24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

variety and produces high yields. It is resistant to bolting and
bursting in the field and forms medium to large, solid, round to
globular, green head on sandy soils. On peat and muck soils
in the Everglades its heads grow too large for general market
demand. It is recommended for commercial production on sandy
soils which are infested with the yellows organism.
Early Glory, a selection from Glory of Enkhuizen, produced
yields averaging from 4 percent below to 4 percent above those of
the parent variety in one to four trials in the different locations.
Its average yield in all locations exceeded that of the parent
variety by 1 percent. It matures three to five days earlier than
Glory of Enkhuizen and produces solid, round to globular, green,
medium to large heads on sandy soils. On peat and muck soils it
produces large heads, moderately solid. Resistant to bolting and
bursting in the field but susceptible to yellows, it is recommended
for trial on sandy soils not infested with yellows.
Early Danish matured in season with Glory of Enkhuizen and
produced low yields in comparison with that variety in repli-
cated plots at Belle Glade and Sanford. It is susceptible to yellows
but resistant to bolting and bursting in the field, and forms
small to medium-sized, solid, blue-green heads. Additional trials
with this variety do not appear to be warranted because of its
low yield.
Danish Ballhead and Penn State Ballhead are late varieties
which mature from 15 to 20 days later than midseason Glory
of Enkhuizen. They were grown in replicated plots at Belle
Glade and in observational plots at Gainesville, Hastings and
Sanford. Moderately resistant to bolting but susceptible to
yellows, they produce low to medium yields in comparison with
Glory of Enkhuizen. They form small to medium-sized, round
to globular, blue-green solid heads which are resistant to bursting
in the field. They are recommended for trial by commercial
growers on soils not infested with the yellows fungus where
late maturity is not an objectionable feature.
Hollander, another late variety, produced low yields in com-
parison with Glory of Enkhuizen. It is resistant to yellows,
moderately resistant to bolting, and produces small to medium-
sized, round to globular, blue-green, solid heads which are re-
sistant to bursting in the field. It is recommended for trial as
a yellows-resistant variety by growers who do not object to its
late maturity.
Globe, an old yellows-resistant selection from Glory of Enk-








Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 25

huizen, matures eight to 10 days later than that variety and
produces high yields. It forms solid, blue-green heads which
are resistant to bursting in the field. On sandy soils in north
and central Florida, where growing temperatures sometimes are
rather low, it is only moderately resistant to bolting and its
heads are rather pointed. On peat and muck soils in southern
Florida its heads grow larger than desired on the market. It
is not recommended for commercial production or trial in Florida.
Early Dwarf Flat Dutch, Premium Late Flat Dutch or Sure-
head, Premier and Stein's Early Flat Dutch mature 10 to 12 days
later than Glory of Enkhuizen and produce medium to very high
yields in comparison with that variety. They are not recom-
mended for commercial production in Florida, as they produce
flat heads.
All Head Early, Florida Danish and Succession or All Seasons
have not been planted on a commercial scale in Florida and are
not recommended for trial. They mature six to 10 days later
than Glory of Enkhuizen and produce low to medium yields of
moderately solid, semi-flat heads which are only moderately re-
sistant to bursting in the field. They are susceptible to yellows
and susceptible or only moderately resistant to bolting in the
field.
Charleston Wakefield produced low yields in comparison with
Glory of Enkhuizen in replicated plots at Belle Glade and in
observational plots at the other locations. A producer of pointed
heads, it was grown in Florida when such cabbage was demanded
on the market.

VARIETIES GROWN IN OBSERVATIONAL PLOTS
Thirty-six additional early, midseason and late varieties, as
well as 18 red and savoy varieties, were grown in observational
trials at one or more of the four locations from 1933 to 1951,
Table 10.
Early Varieties.-Earliest Yet and Jersey Queen produce
pointed heads, but the former variety is undesirable for com-
mercial production because of its low-yielding ability and poor
color. Jersey Queen, resistant to yellows, may be grown on
yellows-infested soil when pointed cabbage is needed to meet
market demands.
Babyhead, Forkhook Forcing and Louisiania Copenhagen Mar-
ket are early roundhead varieties that were rejected for further
testing because of low-yielding ability, poor color or other un-








26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

desirable characteristics. Testing of Early Resistant Golden
Acre and Wisconsin Golden Acre will be continued, as they are
resistant to yellows, bolting and bursting in the field and produce
solid, medium-sized round heads of good quality.
Midseason Varieties.-Early Winningstadt matures in season
with Glory of Enkhuizen and is a good pointed midseason variety
which would be suitable for commercial production in Florida
if pointed cabbage is again demanded on the market. Five mid-
season varieties (Cannon Ball, Early Seneca, Large Late Copen-
hagen, Solid Summer and Steadfast) were dropped from ob-
servational trials after they were grown one or two years and
did not equal or exceed Glory of Enkhuizen in yield. The other
nine midseason varieties were rejected for further trial because
of poor color and bolting or the production of flat heads which
were unsuitable for fresh-market cabbage.
TABLE 10.-CABBAGE VARIETIES GROWN IN OBSERVATIONAL PLOTS AT BELLE
GLADE, GAINESVILLE, HASTINGS OR SANFORD FROM 1933 TO 1951.

Early Late
Bugner
Danish
Danish Roundhead
Early Flat Dutch
Babyhead Ferry's Hollander
Earliest Yet Hollander No. 8
Early Resistant Golden Acre Improved Danish
Fordhook Forcing Oakview Ballhead
Jersey Queen Stein's Flat Dutch
Louisiana Copenhagen Market Slow Bolting Flat Dutch
Wisconsin Golden Acre Superior Danish
Wisconsin Ballhead
Wisconsin Hollander
Wisconsin Hollander No. 8
Wisconsin No. 8
Midseason Red and Savoy
Improved Red Danish
All Head Select Red Acre
Cannon Ball Red Danish



Large Late Copenhagen Morse Large Red
Midsason Roundhead American Drumhead Savoy
Roundhead Cornell Early Savoy
Solid Summer Drumhead Savoy
Steadfast Improved American Savoy
"Ve ast Perfection Drumhead Savoy
Volga Savoy Chiefton
Savoy Perfection Drumhead
Small Early Savoy







Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 27

Late Varieties.-Late varieties are grown only on small acre-
ages in Florida, as they are not well-adapted to the production
of fresh-market cabbage in this state. They require a growing
period of 95 to 120 days after transplanting to produce market-
able heads. Also, they must be given more fertilizer and pro-
tected against insects and diseases over a longer period than
the early and midseason varieties to produce good crops of cab-
bage.
Four of the 15 late varieties grown in observational trials
(Bugner, Early Flat Dutch, Stein's Flat Dutch and Slow Bolting
Flat Dutch) produced large, flat heads which were undesirable
as fresh-market cabbage. Best late varieties grown in the
observational trials were Danish Roundhead, Hollander, Wis-
consin Ballhead and Wisconsin Hollander, Table 10. These va-
rieties produce medium-sized, solid, green or blue-green, round
to slightly flattened heads, and may be used for commercial
production in Florida where late-maturity is not an objection-
able feature. Wisconsin Ballhead and Wisconsin Hollander are
resistant to yellows and should be planted where late varieties
are to be grown on soils infested with the yellows fungus.
Red and Savoy Varieties.-Most of the 18 red and savoy va-
rieties grown in observational trials were rejected for further
trial after one or two seasons on account of lateness, low-yield-
ing ability, bolting or bursting in the field. Red Acre, Round
Red Dutch and Savoy Chieftain were the only ones grown in
1951. They yield less than midseason varieties of the green
type and mature a week to 10 days later. They produced ex-
cellent medium-sized round heads of red and savoy cabbage and
are recommended for commercial production to supply market
demands for these types of cabbage.

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Commercial cabbage yields have varied from 5.5 to 10.5 tons
and averaged 7.6 tons per acre in Florida during the 14-year
period, 1937 to 1950. Yields during the last eight years have
averaged 8.7 tons per acre and this increase is attributed to
planting better adapted varieties, employing better methods of
fertilizing the crop and obtaining better control of insects and dis-
eases.
Cabbage varieties with pointed heads were the leading ones
grown in Florida prior to 1937. Since 1937 roundhead varieties
have gradually displaced pointed ones in popularity on the mar-








28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

kets and the latter are no longer grown on a commercial scale.
Ninety-six to 98 percent of the present acreage is planted to
early and midseason varieties of the roundhead groups. Most
popular varieties in these groups are Copenhagen Market, Golden
Acre, Glory of Enkhuizen, Midseason Market, Marion Market,
Round Dutch and Bonanza. One to 2 percent of the acreage is
planted to late-maturing varieties of the roundhead group, such
as Hollander and Danish Ballhead, but these varieties are not
popular, since they require extra fertilizer and have to be
sprayed over a longer period to control insects and diseases. A
few acres are planted each year to red and savoy varieties to
meet market demands for these types of cabbage.
TABLE 11.-CABBAGE VARIETIES RECOMMENDED FOR COMMERCIAL PRODUC-
TION AND FOR TRIAL IN FLORIDA.

For Commercial For trial on:
Production on:
Variety Peat Peat
Sandy and Sandy and
Soils Muck Soils Muck

Early
Copenhagen Market ............................. X X
Golden Acre ................................ ......... -- ** X
Medium Copenhagen Resistant (yr)t X -
Racine Market (yr) ............... ............ X
Resistant Golden Acre (yr) .---........... X
Early Midseason
Round Dutch ...................---------- .....-.. .. X X
Midseason
Glory of Enkhuizen .............................. X
Midseason Market ............................... X X
Marion Market (yr) ............................ X X
Early Glory ........................................... X
Resistant Glory (yr) ............................ X
Late Midseason
Bonanza .....-...............................--- -...... X X
Red Acre ..................-..................- -......... X X
Round Red Dutch .................................. X X
Savoy Chieftain .................................... X X
Late$
Danish Ballhead --.................................-- X X
Danish Roundhead ................................ X X
Hollander (yr) ........................................ X X
Penn State Ballhead ............................ X X
Wisconsin Ballhead (yr) ...................... X X
Wisconsin Hollander (yr) .................... X X

Recommended.
** Not recommended.
t (yr) means that the variety is resistant to yellows.
$ To be tried only where late maturity is not an objectionable factor.







Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production 29

Eighty-nine early, midseason, late, red and savoy varieties
of cabbage were tested in replicated plots or grown for observa-
tion at Belle Glade, Gainesville, Hastings and Sanford during
the 19-year period, 1933 to 1951. The superior yielding abilities
of the strains of early Copenhagen Market and midseason Glory
of Enkhuizen grown in the different locations were demonstrated
in these trials. Average yield of Copenhagen Market at all loca-
tions exceeded that of 10 of the 14 other early varieties with
which it was compared by 5 to 23 percent. Average yield of
Glory of Enkhuizen in all locations exceeded that of 14 of the
19 other midseason and late varieties with which it was com-
pared by 3 to 45 percent.
Glory of Enkhuizen outyielded Copenhagen Market in most
locations, but the latter is planted in preference to the former
where earliness or smaller head size is important.
Yielding ability, time of maturity, resistance to bolting and
yellows and the production of medium-sized, solid, round to
globular heads which resist bursting in the field are the most
important characteristics which determine the adaptability of
a cabbage variety to commercial production in Florida. Varieties
recommended for commercial production and for trial by cabbage
growers in Florida are listed in Table 11.





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