• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Fertilizer and soil amendments
 Cultural methods
 Varieties
 Harvesting and packing
 Insecticide application precau...
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Title: Bush snap bean production on the sandy soils of Florida /
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026801/00001
 Material Information
Title: Bush snap bean production on the sandy soils of Florida /
Series Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description: 23 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hills, Walter A
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1953
Copyright Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subject: Kidney bean -- Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sandy soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 23).
Statement of Responsibility: by W.A. Hills ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "A contribution from the Everglades Experiment Station."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026801
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN6710
oclc - 18272400
alephbibnum - 000926051

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Fertilizer and soil amendments
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Cultural methods
        Page 10
    Varieties
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Harvesting and packing
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Insecticide application precautions
        Page 22
    Literature cited
        Page 23
Full Text
JAN 6 1954


Bulletin 530


November 1953


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(A contribution from the Everglades Experiment Station)






Bush Snap Bean Production
on the

Sandy Soils of Florida

By W. A. HILLS, J. F. DARBY, W. H. THAMES, JR.
and W. T. FORSEE, JR.


Fig. 1.-Harvesting beans in a commercial field near Delray Beach, Florida.










BOARD OF CONTROL

Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Wm. H. Dial, Orlando
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., Presidents
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr."
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associates
W. K. MePherson, M.S., Economist
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist'
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician "
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 1'1
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer

AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist '
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Associate 2
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant3
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman'
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist:'
lt. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace. Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. 3
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist' 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman :
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy Husb. '
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.3
James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Husb.


EDITORIAL
J. Irancis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor
J. N. Joiner. B.S.A., Assistant Editor::
William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Samuel L. Burgess, A.B.J., Assistant Editor :

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist '
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist''
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturists
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Buford D. Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & Mycologist:'
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.'1
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.'

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 1
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologist a
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist"
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist 3
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist'
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)











BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION. QUINCY
W. C. Rhoades, M.S.. Entomologist in Chare
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Planc Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr.. Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. H. Chapman, M1.S., Agronomist
Frank S. Baker. Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, 2I.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns. Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher. M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson. B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Engineer
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W .Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford. Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. 31. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. U. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D.. Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. FNewhall, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
Marion F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Physiologist
Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Hush.
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Stephens, B.S.. Drainage Engineer -
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Chem.
Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Thomas L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
D. S. Harrison, M.S., Asst. Agri. Engr.


F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
MI. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
J. N. Simons. Ph.D., Asst. Virologist
D. N. Beardsley, M.S., Asst. Animal Husb.
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin. Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, 3M.S., Asst. Hort.
MI. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist
WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband-
man in Charge -
RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. 21. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert 0. Magie. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
S. S. Woltz. Ph.D.. Asst. Horticulturist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. 21. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
J. 'M. Crall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Path-
ologist Acting in Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. M1. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in
Charge2
1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
'On leave











CONTENTS
PAGE
IN TRODUCTION ........ ....... ......... ... ......... 5
CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS .................... .........
FERTILIZER AND SOIL AMENDMENTS .. ............... ............................. 6
C ULTURAL M ETH ODS ............ .. ......... ... .... ........ ... ... .......... 10
V A RIETIES ................ .................... .. ... .... ... ..- 11
HARVESTING AND PACKING .... ............. .... .... 14
DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL ........ ........ ......... ....... 14
INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL ......... ... .- 19
INSECTICIDE APPLICATION PRECAUTIONS ............... 22
LITERATURE CITED ........ ........-. .... . .... .. 2:3








PREFACE

The bulletin is primarily a result of coordinated research at
the Everglades Station's Field Laboratories near Lake Worth and
Ft. Pierce. Walter A. Hills, formerly Associate Horticulturist,
and W. T. Forsee, Jr., Chemist in Charge, Everglades Station,
have contributed their findings in the Lake Worth Boynton area
on cultural requirements and methods, fertility, varieties, har-
vesting and packing. John F. Darby, Assistant Plant Pathologist,
and Walter H. Thames, Jr., Assistant Entomologist, have recom-
mended disease and insect control measures. Comments and
suggestions relative to other bean producing areas of the State
have been made by Dr. Victor F. Nettles, Associate Horticultur-
ist, Dr. A. N. Tissot, Head, Department of Entomology, and Dr.
W. B. Tisdale, Head, Department of Plant Pathology, all at the
Main Station, and by Dr. Ernest L. Spencer, Soils Chemist in
Charge, Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton. Those wishing more
detailed information on specific phases of snap bean production
may find the literature cited at the end of the publication useful.









Bush Snap Bean Production on the

Sandy Soils of Florida

W. A. HILLS, J. F. DARBY, W. H. THAMES, JR.,
and W. T. FORESEE, JR.

INTRODUCTION
For many years the snap bean has been one of the leading
truck crops grown in Florida. Acreages as reported in the
Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report of the Florida State Market-
ing Bureau for 1951-52 (5)7 show a total of 76,700 acres planted
in Florida with a value of 817.282.000. Palm Beach County
grew 44.800 acres of the total, followed by Broward with 16.900
acres. Other counties in which acreage exceeded 1.000 acres
were Dade. Seminole. Alachua and Hillsborough.
A large portion of the Palm Beach County acreage and most
of the Broward County acreage was grown on sandy soils. The
sandy soils are more frost-free than the muck soils. Therefore.
a large winter acreage is grown on these mineral soils. Beans
harvested during the winter months usually sell for a higher
price than those harvested in the spring. Approximately 90
percent of the snap beans grown in Florida are marketed as
fresh beans and the remainder grown for processing.

CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS
Climate.-The snap bean is a tender plant that will not stand
frost, but it will develop when temperatures are relatively low.
However, when the soils are cold germination is retarded and
growth of the plants is affected to some extent. The climate of
the lower East Coast of Florida is suited for growing snap beans
from September to May, except for parts of the Indian River
area which is somewhat colder and where midwinter beans may
be killed by frost. The rainfall is usually light during the winter
months, but where adequate water control is maintained this
is highly desirable because a lower moisture content around the
plants will aid in limiting the development and spread of certain
bean diseases. The main crop of beans in the North Florida area

Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited( in the back of
this bulletin.






Florida Agricultral Experiment Stations


is grown as a spring crop from March to June. A smaller
acreage is planted as a fall crop in August and September.
Soils.-The sandy soils of Florida bean growing areas come
under several different soil classifications. Most of the virgin
soils are very low in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and
may also require additions of some of the minor elements, such
as manganese, magnesium, boron, zinc and possibly others. The
acid sands are usually deficient in calcium and magnesium. They
are normally quite low in organic matter, resulting in a low
moisture-holding capacity.
Experiments on the lower Florida East Coast have indicated
that there is a distinct correlation between bean yields and the
soil moisture equivalent percentage, a measure of the potential
moisture-holding capacity of a soil. For most sandy soils this
factor is dependent to a large extent upon the percent organic
matter. Rapid declines in yield have been obtained as the moist-
ure equivalent dropped from 3.5 to 2.5 percent. Variations
from approximately 3.5 to 4.5 percent resulted in no significant
yield differences.
On the basis of this information, medium to dark gray sands
with a moisture equivalent of 3.5 or higher should be selected
for beans. The very light sands should be avoided until their
organic matter content can be increased by continuous cover
cropping, which may increase the moisture-holding capacity.
At the same time excessive drainage should be avoided.

FERTILIZER AND SOIL AMENDMENTS
Good yields of high quality beans on sandy soils depend to a
large extent on adequate amounts of available nutrients, suf-
ficient moisture to make them mobile, a proper pH value, and
a moisture equivalent percentage and organic matter content
sufficiently high to insure maximum utilization of nutrients and
moisture. Such conditions may be attained in the Immokalee,
Sunniland, Pompano, Delray, Davie and other soil types found
in the bean producing areas of South Florida by proper liming
and intelligent fertilizer practices, along with adequate water
control and the use of cover crops. Liming is not generally
practical on the North Florida sandy soils having a pH of 5.6
or higher.
Liming.-Many of the soils used for bean production on the
Florida Lower East Coast are either naturally acid or have be-







Bish Siap Bca 0 Prodi ction on Florida Sand!l Soils 7

come acid through leaching of the bases from the top soil as
the result of drainage, intensive cropping', and the oxidation of
organic matter. Such soils should be limed in order to re-estab-
lish a favorable pH and optimum levels of calcium and mag-
nesium. Experiments carried out on Immokalee and Sunniland
soils of the Florida Lower East Coast have indicated substantial
increases in yields of beans by liming to a pH of 5.6 to 6.0.
Beyond such values no yield increases or other benefits have
been obtained.
This 1H range is also fairly consistent with good soil con-
servation practices. Most of the insoluble sources of lime are
rapid enough in their action for general use and seem to be
safe insofar as the dangers of over-liming are concerned. Where
magnesium is a limiting factor, as is the case with many of
the sandy soils, a magnesium-bearing material such as dolomite
or slag is recommended, at least for periodic applications. Be-
cause of the outstanding results obtained on some other vege-
table crops from the use of open hearth slags, these materials
are suggested for periodic use in a well balanced liming program.
These sources of insoluble lime should be applied in the sum-
mer before the fall cropping period and only after their need
has been determined by an accurate pH test on a representative
soil sample. Hydrated lime may be used on soils previously
covered with palmetto and on other highly acid soils where
rapid action is imperative. Otherwise, the insoluble sources
are recommended for safety against the dangers of over-liming.
Fertilizing.-Good yields of beans are dependent upon the
use of adequate amounts of the proper fertilizer mixtures. Opti-
mum ratios of nitrogen, phosphate and potash are almost as
important as adequate amounts of these elements. Since most
of the beans are grown on soils with very low base exchange
capacities (ability of a soil to hold minerals against leaching)
and are subject to heavy leaching by an average annual rainfall
of approximately 60 inches per year, practically all of the residual
potash and nitrogen remaining after a winter's cropping is lost
during the summer rainy season. Although some phosphate
is lost through leaching ( ) this loss is not nearly as heavy as
nitrogen and potash, especially if the soils are kept limed or
have a pH of approximately 6.0. Because of these factors, soils
used for bean production year after year with sometimes as
many as four crops per year are likely to accumulate relatively
high residual levels of phosphate. This tendency to accumulate






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


phosphate, coupled with the general use of high phosphate fertil-
izers, has increased the residual phosphate in many of the soils
used for commercial bean production to such high levels that
potash deficiencies are more pronounced and higher nitrogen
levels may be required. Such interaction effects between nitro-
gen, phosphate and potash were observed in experiments re-
cently conducted in eastern Palm Beach County (1).
In spite of the fact that beans are a leguminous crop, they
show heavy response to applications of nitrogen. A lack of
nitrogen results in small vines, poor color which may become
very yellow or even brown under severe conditions, and lower
yields (1). Nitrogen requirements may be somewhat higher for
fall plantings than for the late winter and spring plantings.
This is because of the very low residual levels of nitrogen in the
fall following the summer rainy season in comparison to the
residuals generally present following a fall vegetable crop. Re-
cent experiments have indicated that nitrogen responses may
be higher where phosphate levels are high. Significant yield
responses at levels of nitrogen above 50 or 60 pounds of N per
acre have not been obtained, except from one experiment during
which severe leaching rains occurred.
No yield responses have been obtained to applications of
phosphorus above 60 pounds of P.,O, per acre on soils that had
been repeatedly fertilized and cropped and which showed water-
soluble phosphate levels of 15 to 20 pounds of P20., per acre.
Such a response has been obtained only on a fall planting. Late
winter and spring plantings on previously cultivated soils have
shown some harmful effects from applications of phosphate,
especially from amounts in excess of 60 pounds of PO.,, per
acre (1). The bean vines may be more yellow in color and have
a poorer over-all appearance. These symptoms have been more
pronounced where potash levels were low.
Responses to potash applications of 90 pounds per acre of
KO have been obtained in all experiments (1). Potash require-
ments seem to be heavier for spring than for fall plantings.
Higher soil levels of phosphate also seem to increase the potash
requirement. For spring plantings adequate potash is very
necessary for a healthy green color and a good over-all appear-
ance of vines. In fact, potash seems to contribute more to a
dark green color of the foliage than either nitrogen or phosphate.
On the basis of fertilizer experiments thus far conducted it
appears that beans grown on the sandy soils of the Florida Lower







Bihsh Snap Bean Production on Florida Sandy Soils 9

East Coast should receive an application of 1,000 pounds per
acre of a 5-6-9 fertilizer mixture. Slightly more nitrogen may
be advisable for fall plantings and more potash for spring plant-
ings. Top-dressed applications of both nitrogen and potash may
be advisable during any cropping period after excessively heavv
rains that might induce leaching. Since beans mature in such
a short time the use of organic nitrogen is not recommended,
except for fall plantings when subsequent cropping during the
winter can utilize the residual nitrogen remaining after the fall
crop is harvested.
A 4-7-5 or 5-6-8 fertilizer mixture at the rate of 1,000 pounds
per acre has proven satisfactory for bush snap beans in the
North Florida area. The addition of small amounts of the minor
elements to the fertilizer mixtures may be necessary, since de-
ficiencies of magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper and boron have
been diagnosed on certain crops growing on some of the lighter
soil types. Suggested supplements to the fertilizer mixtures
are 0.3, 0.5, 0.3, 0.2 and 2.0 percent, respectively, of CuO, MnO,
ZnO, B,O and MgO.
All fertilizer should be applied at the time of seeding in bands
two inches to the side of and on a level with or slightly below
the seed. Should a top-dressing be required because of leaching
rain, apply 300 pounds per acre of a 10-0-10 or some similar
mixture.
Nutritional Sprays and Dusts.-Beans showing manganese or
zinc deficiencies which usually occur on the more alkaline soils
will respond quickly to applications of these elements in the
form of nutritional sprays or dusts. Sprays may include 2 to 3
pounds of manganese sulfate and 1 to 11, pounds of zinc sulfate
per 100 gallons applied at the rate of 75 to 100 gallons per acre.
The concentrations may be doubled with entire safety if the
neutral salts of these elements are used. The materials may
be used with or without wettable sulfur and are compatible with
the recommended insecticides. Dusts may be formulated from
the above materials in sulfur, using 10 pounds of the manganese-
bearing material and 3 to 5 pounds of the zinc-bearing material
for 100 pounds of dust. Insecticides may be included. Apply
at the rate of 25 to 30 pounds per acre.
A small number of preliminary experiments with nutritional
sprays containing the major elements have shown no appreciable
benefits from such sprays.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CULTURAL METHODS
Preparation of Land.-A well-prepared seedbed is important.
Thorough and early preparation is an aid to weed, grass and
moisture control as well as to reducing damage from some dis-
eases and insects. Beans often get off to a slow start where
there is a large amount of undecomposed organic matter in the
soil. Beans planted in poorly prepared land frequently produce
a low yield of pods which are of poor quality.
Planting.-Snap beans are planted from about the middle of
September to about the middle of April on the lower East Coast.
In colder areas where there is danger of frost in the winter, as is
the case in parts of the Indian River and in the North Florida
areas, snap beans are planted mostly as a spring crop, with plant-
ings beginning in March. A smaller acreage is planted as a
fall crop in August and September. In the Indian River area
beans should be planted on raised beds. This method helps to
eliminate some of the danger of crop loss from flooding after
heavy rains. Recent investigations have shown that snap beans
in the Florida Lower East Coast area can be grown successfully
on very low beds and on the level where adequate water control
is provided. Soils with layers impervious to water two to three
feet below the surface should be on beds. Beans grown on raised
beds are planted two rows to the bed with rows spaced about
20 inches apart in the bed. The width of bed varies from four
to five feet, depending upon grower preference and the type of
equipment available for bedding, seeding, and cultivating. Single
rows of beans can be grown on narrow beds, varying from 30
to 36 inches from center to center. Single-row planting is the
type generally employed in the North Florida area, where they
are planted on the level or on very low beds.
The amount of seed required per acre varies with row spacing,
seed size and spacing in the drill. The quantity of seed required
to plant one acre varies from 50 to 75 pounds, but averages 60
pounds. Most snap beans planted with mechanical seeders are
spaced from two to four inches apart in the drill and should be
covered to a depth of one and one-half to two inches on the
lighter sandy soils.
Cultivation.-Snap beans are a shallow-rooted crop. Some
roots are found very close to the surface, with the majority of
the roots in the upper six or eight inches of soil. Shallow culti-
vation should be practiced because deep cultivation will cause







Bush Snap Bean Production on Florida Sandy Soils 11

injury by destroying those roots near the surface. Cultivation
should be avoided after the plants begin to bloom unless there
is considerable weed growth. To help control weeds it is essen-
tial that the soil be thoroughly prepared prior to bedding. Two
to three cultivations are usually sufficient to produce a crop of
snap beans when the land has been thoroughly prepared prior
to planting. There is no substitute for thorough land prepara-
tion, since hoeing by hand is prohibitive with the high cost
of labor.
VARIETIES
There is a multitude of bush snap bean varieties, only a few
of which are of commercial importance on the sandy soils of
Florida. Older bush varieties, such as Tendergreen, Stringless
Black Valentine, Bountiful and Plentiful, still constitute a major
portion of the bean acreage planted. However, several new
varieties are superior to the older ones in many respects. These
and some of the more important commercial varieties grown
on the sandy soils of Florida are described below. See Table 1
for comparison of performance of varieties.
Tendergreen.-Tendergreen is a leading all-purpose, round-
podded, stringless bean for shippers, canners. freezers and mar-
ket gardeners. In the canning and freezing industry it is the
standard of quality by which others are judged. It has a tall,
erect, sturdy bush and is a high producer. The pods average
about 5 inches in length, are attractive in appearance, round,
nearly straight, medium green and of excellent quality. Seed
are mottled brownish-purple on a fawn-colored field. Tender-
green requires 50 to 55 days from seeding to first harvest.
Wade's Bush.-Wade is a new variety which has not as yet
been widely tested on a commercial scale. It bears almost ideal.
deep green pods on a bush averaging somewhat taller than Ten-
dergreen. It is a fleshy, round-podded bean of the Tendergreen
type. It is resistant to common bean mosaic, is a consistently
high fielder and produces longer and straighter pods than does
Tendergreen. The pods are stringless and contain little filer.
Wade matures in from 52 to 56 days from seeding.
Stringless Black Valentine.-Stringless Black Valentine is an
excellent shipper, but is of only fair edible quality. It is an
oval-podded type and continues to be one of the more popular
shipping varieties, due to the fact that it holds up well in transit.
It is very susceptible to common bean mosaic. The vines are
vigorous and erect, but it fails to set pods under adverse en-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


vironmental conditions. The pods are nearly straight, medium
green in color and average 6 inches in length. Seeds are long,
oval, jet black in color and slightly flattened. It requires 50 to
55 days to reach maturity.
Contender.-Contender is an oval-podded green bush snap
bean. Plants are vigorous, but on very light sandy soils they
frequently do not reach sufficient size to hold all of the heavy
set of pods off the soil. The pods are similar to those of String-
less Black Valentine, but under most conditions they average
three-fourths inch longer, are slightly heavier and thicker, and
have a tendency to curve slightly. Contender is resistant to
common bean mosaic and has considerable resistance to powdery
mildew. It is well adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions
and develops marketable pods in 50 to 55 days. The seed are
buff-colored, with a slight mottling of brown.
Plentiful.-Plentiful is a flat-podded, green bean. The vines
are tall, erect, vigorous and moderately compact. The pods
average 7 inches in length, are light green in color, fairly straight,
stringless and slightly rough. This is a popular variety in some
sections on the sandy soils. It is quite frequently referred to
as a black-seeded Bountiful and has practically replaced Bounti-
ful in some areas. It also requires 50 to 55 days to reach ma-
turity.
Bountiful.-Bountiful is the earliest of the flat-podded varieties.
The pods average 614 inches in length, are thick-flat, light green,
tender when young but fibrous at full size. Plants are approxi-
mately 14 inches tall on the sandy soils, are vigorous and good
producers. This variety requires only 47 to 51 days to reach
maturity.
Cherokee Wax.-Often referred to as "Valentine Wax," this
is a selection out of Stringless Black Valentine, which it closely
resembles except for pod color. It sets pods under adverse con-
ditions where Stringless Black Valentine often fails. The plants
are large, erect and produce a good yield of golden wax, oval,
nearly straight, stringless pods of acceptable quality. It is
considered the best wax bean for Florida. The seeds are jet
black in color. It develops marketable pods in 50 to 55 days.
Logan, Topcrop and Rival.-These are all mosaic-resistant,
high quality, round-podded types, released in recent years by
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. They have not been widely
accepted. Logan is a high yielder, having excellent edible quality
but produces light colored pods that do not hold up well in






TABLE 1.-PERFORMANCE OF SIX VARIETIES (IF SNAP iIEANS IN TII: BOYNTON
DURINi; 1950-51 AND 1951-52 SEASONS.


I ate Seededl


( lltenl der
((val Pod)


St inn'less
Ulack Valentine
(()val Pod)



Teli(lder'greeit
( Round Pod)




\Wade (B 1515)


Toiperop
( Round Pod)


Days to First
I arrest


Average 1'Il

I (Inches)


Average
Ilant
lHeight
(Incl hes)


LAKE WoIrnTII AREA


P'(ercent of
Total Yield
Taken at First
Ilarvest


(Vlt. 22, 1951
()0 l. ;10, 11150

Wei. ;, 1952


00().. 22, 11951
()lt. :10. 1950

V,;. G, 1952
l''rl). 19, 1l)51

O(ht. 22, 1)51
()et. :!1). 1 .50 0

F()h. 4(, 19)52
I'Fe 1 1951

()ct. 22-, 1951
()W t. :1; 11950

Fl'eb. (;, 11952
Feb. 1l4, 1951

()t. 22, 1951
Oct. :10, 19150

Fe). 6i, 19152
Feb. 11, 19!51


YiBhi
(Bu..A.,') ^


14(



288

1:17




182
17:!
4l 7


2'22
215

185
177

221
:;02







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


marketing. Topcrop and Rival are high yielders having good
quality, but produce rough pods which frequently have large
hollow spaces between the seeds under certain growing conditions.
The list of bush snap bean varieties is too lengthy to discuss
those that are lacking in commercial importance to the area.
The Everglades Station, cooperating with the Main Station at
Gainesville, the U. S. Department of Agriculture and others, is
actively engaged in a coordinated breeding and testing program
to produce additional disease-resistant types suitable for both
fresh market and processing and which are adapted to the area.
A new variety, Seminole, is currently being released.

HARVESTING AND PACKING
Snap beans are harvested in a green-manure stage before the
seeds reach full size. The seeds are partly developed but are
not necessarily evident from the outside of the pod. Most grow-
ers make but one picking, unless the market is strong, in which
case they may make several pickings. Additional pickings then
are made at from five to seven-day intervals, which will give
the highest quality product. Picking at present is done by
hand in Florida. Mechanical pickers are being investigated else-
where and with the development of more concentrated yielding
varieties, and mechanical improvements, it is possible that these
pickers may be used successfully in the near future.
Several different methods of grading and packing are followed.
Many large growers haul the beans from the fields to packing
sheds in field containers, where they are first run through a
machine that blows out leaves and trash. The beans are then
carried over movable belts where workers pick out the remaining
trash and pods that are not suitable for market. At the end
of the belts the beans are packed in one-bushel bean hampers
and loaded directly into cars or trucks for transportation. Some
growers grade and pack on grading tables in the field. This
method is satisfactory when the beans are disease-free and of
high quality. When grown or sold for processing, the beans are
generally hauled in bulk in trucks direct from the field or pack-
ing shed to the processing plant.

DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL
Beans in Florida are subject to many diseases, any one of
which may cause considerable loss to the grower. A description







Blsh Snap Bean Production mo Florida Sandiy Soils 15

of the symptoms of the principal diseases and the recommended
control measures follow:
Anthracnose.-Anthracnose (Colletotricn lindem nthiauii
(Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Car.) occurs on all above-ground
portions of the plant, but the most noticeable symptoms are on
the pods where the fungus causes yellow-to-brown circular or ir-
regular sunken spots surrounded by a dark reddish-brown border.
These spots vary in size and often coalesce. Under moist condi-
tions masses of flesh-colored spores are borne on the surface
of these lesions. These small spores are easily spread to other
plants by rain or mechanical means. Infections may occur on
the under side of the leaf veins, causing a dark-brick-red to pur-
plish color which later turns to dark brown. Elongated clark
red or blackened lesions also may be found on the stems. The
disease is particularly severe during rainy or foggy weather.
Since the causal organism is seed-borne the u.e of anthracnose-
free seed offers the best means of control. The decrease in the
prevalence of this disease in recent years may be due to the
fact that most growers now use Western-grown seed. It has
been shown that the organism can live over in the soil for two
years. Fields where anthracnose has been known to occur should
not be planted in beans again for at least three years. Dusting
or spraying the plants with fungicides has not generally proved
to be effective.
Rust.-Bean rust ( Uroni myc .s p)hiscoli fo.pic, Arth.) attacks
the leaves and sometimes the pods in Florida. The first evidence
of the disease is the presence of small pale yellow spots on the
under side of the affected leaves. Approximately two days later
cinnamon-brown rust pustules about 1 16 inch in diameter break
through the epidermis and expose the spores.
There are several biological types of the bean rust fungus and
certain varieties of beans are resistant to one or more of them
and susceptible to the others. However, because none of the
commercial varieties of beans is resistant to all types of rust.
it is not safe to rely on resistant varieties as a means of control.
For control, spray with 10 to 15 pounds of wettable sulfur
in 100 gallons of water at the rate of from 50 to 100 gallons per
acre, or dust with 15 to 25 pounds of finely divided (at least
:'25-mesh) dusting sulfur per acre. The number and timing of
the applications depend upon the amount of the disease in the
area and the weather. To prevent bean rust infection, start
spraying or dusting as soon as the first true leaves appear and







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


continue at five to seven-day intervals until a few days before
picking. If there is no rust in the vicinity during the fall and
mid-winter months the plants may be watched closely for the
first evidence of the disease before making the initial application.
For the latter method to be effective sulfur must be applied be-
fore the leaves become heavily infected, as it is a preventive
rather than a cure.
Powdery Mildew.-Powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni DC.)
may become quite serious during cool, rainy weather or follow-
ing the application of irrigation water during cool weather. In
Florida it usually makes its appearance in the late fall and re-
mains until early spring. The first evidence of the disease is
the presence of small, slightly dark green areas in a mottle-like
pattern over the leaf. These insignificant looking areas develop
into white, talcous spots which increase in size and coalesce to
form a whitish, powdery growth over the surface of all above-
ground parts of the plant. If infection is severe the diseased
leaves curl downward and become malformed and pale yellow.
The pods become mottled and quite often a severe loss of leaves
follows.
Best results in the control of this disease have been obtained
by the application of sulfur before the disease became evident.
Usually two or three applications at the same dosages as recom-
mended for rust control are sufficient for adequate protection,
but occasionally severe infections may require additional ap-
plications.
Sclerotiniose.-In addition to being called sclerotiniose, this
disease is spoken of as watery soft rot, white mold and sclerotinia
rot of beans. The disease (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. DBY.) is
quite prevalent in Florida during periods of cool weather accom-
panied by frequent rains, fogs or heavy dews. Young plants
attacked by the disease can be distinguished by a watery soft
rot of the stem beginning near the soil line and extending up
to the primary leaves. Older plants may show infection of any
growing part, including the pods. In a day or two after infec-
tion a white fungous growth appears over the diseased parts.
Later small black sclerotia (irregular, leathery bodies), ranging
up to 1/1 inch in diameter, are produced by the fungus. The
presence of these sclerotia is a diagnostic characteristic that is
unmistakable. Most of the infections occur when the plants are
at or near blooming time, when there is enough foliage to keep






BRsh Snap BPean Prodilctiotn oa Florida Sa(nd!/ SNil. 17

the sunlight out and hold the moisture around the stems and
branches of the plants.
No effective control measures are known for the sandy soils.
However, there are a few suggestions which may help hold the
disease in check (3). Flooding the fields for four or five weeks
during the summer where feasible has been an efficient method
of killing the sclerotia. Avoid in the rotation such crops as
eggplants, cucumbers, potatoes, celery and lettuce because these
are susceptible to the disease. Plant resistant crops such as
corn for one or two seasons in the fields where the disease has
previously occurred. Treating the soil with cyanamid has not
given good control in the sandy soils along the Florida Lower
East Coast. Wider spacing of plants has been found to reduce
the disease considerably. Precooling the packed beans to 40
to 45 F. has been found to reduce transit losses. No sprays or
dusts have been reported to be beneficial in the control of sclero-
tiniose in Florida.
Rhizoctonia.-Rhizoctonia (Pcllicilaria filanmcutto.a (Pat.)
Rogers) is so common on beans in Florida that a 100 percent
infection often occurs in the fall and spring. Stand losses of
up to 75 percent have been reported. The disease is caused by
a soil-inhabiting fungus which produces a rot of bean seed in
the soil, thereby preventing germination. It also produces brick-
red, sunken, definitely outlined lesions on the taproot, basal stem
and pods. This condition may develop on the pods during ship-
ment as well as in the field. When severe it may prune off
the taproot and side branches, leaving blunted reddish-brown
stubs. Such plants are weakened but may continue to grow.
For control turn under summer vegetation in time for it to rot
before planting, practice rotation, plant disease-free seed, main-
tain good drainage, plant the seeds shallow (1 to 11 -' inches) and
grade out thoroughly all pods showing the disease.
Bacterial Blight.-There are two bacterial blights occurring
in Florida-halo blight (P.Wcidoiliot1.s h pilhc.olicola (Burk.)
Dows.) and common blight (XaSthlomnolnas plias~oli (E. F. Sm.)
Dows.)-but since their symptoms are somewhat similar and
the control for each is the same they are treated as one in this
discussion.
The disease may attack the seed, seedlings, leaves and pods.
Many seedlings from infected seed may (lie before or soon after
they emerge from the ground but some may continue to live.
In either case they serve as a source of inoculum and become






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


centers of infection for nearby plants. During wet weather
lesions on these infected plants produce slimy masses of bacteria
which are spread by wind, rain or mechanical means. On older
plants the first evidence of infection on the leaves appears in
the form of water-soaked blotches, and in the case of halo blight
these are often surrounded by a yellow halo. Later, the spotted
leaf tissue turns brown and dies. The spots on the pods start
as water-soaked (greasy) areas and later become surrounded by
a brick-red border. The greasy appearance of new infections has
resulted in the name of greasy spot in other countries. The pod
infections may be easily confused with anthracnose, especially
in the later stages when brick-red borders surround the lesions
of both organisms.
The most effective way to control bean blight is to plant certi-
fied blight-free seed grown in certain arid regions of the West.
Once the disease has appeared pickers and cultivators should
be kept out of the field while the plants are wet in order to
reduce the amount of spread in the field. Under Florida con-
ditions the disease has not been found to survive in the soil
from one growing season until the next. The disease is seed-
borne in that bacteria occur under the seed coat beyond the
reach of any practical method of seed disinfection. Sprays and
dusts have not given satisfactory control.
Mosaic.-Common bean mosaic (Bean rirus 1) has become
increasingly serious in Florida, especially on such varieties as
Black Valentine and Tendergreen. The leaves of diseased plants
become mottled with light and dark green areas, the greener
portion of the pattern often becoming decidedly puckered. The
virus may produce a downward curling of the leaf margins and
in some varieties extreme malformation of the leaves occurs.
The whole plant may become stunted and have a sickly yellow
color. It may cause flowers to shed freely, resulting in late and
irregular setting of the pods. Usually the earlier the plants
become infected the more will be the reduction in yield. The
disease may be introduced by infected seed or by aphids. After
introduction, it may be spread throughout the field by aphids.
The use of resistant varieties described earlier offers the only
practical means of control. The resistant varieties include
Logan, Topcrop, Rival, Contender and Wade's Bush. The virus
is so intimately associated with the seed that all attempts to
kill it by seed treatment have also destroyed the viability of the
seed. No practical means of controlling the virus through the






Bushl Snap Bcan Production on Florida Sandl SoNils 19

eradication of the aphid population has been proven on a com-
mercial scale. There is no spray or dust which will economically
prevent its spread once it is established in a field.

INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL
Cutworms.-These hairless. grey. thick-bodied worms are
found in the soil at the base of plants that have been chewed
off at or below ground level. When distrubed. cutworms curl
up tightly. The adult forms of these insects are moths that
deposit eggs on many varieties of grasses and weeds. When
the eggs hatch the young larvae or worms feed on these grasses
and weeds until the land is plowed and planted to a crop. Since
the preparation of the land destroys the original food of the
cutworms, they feed readily on the sprouting beans. The rela-
tively small amount of food material present in the form of a
cultivated crop receives a concentrated attack and heavy dam-
age may result in a very short time.
Destruction of weeds and grasses a month before plantin:
should reduce the cutworm population. Preventive applications
of 25 to 30 pounds per acre of a 10 percent toxaphene dust or
:) pounds of 40 percent wettable toxaphene per 100 gallons of
water per acre may be made after planting and before the beans
germinate if cutworms are known to be present. A careful in-
spection of young plants for cutworm injury should always be
made as soon as plants emerge and if cutworm damage is seen
insecticides should be applied promptly, in the form of dusts.
sprays or baits.
An effective bait may be prepared by mixing 5 to 6 pounds
of 40 percent wettable toxaphene or chlordane with 100 pounds
of wheat bran. The bait should be moistened with water until
it will make a loosely adhering ball when firmed in the hand.
Poison baits, freshly prepared, should be applied late in the
evening at the rate of 35 to 40 pounds per acre.
The toxaphene (lust or spray described above may be used
if the damage is widespread.
Armyworms may migrate into the field from unplowed areas
or may be present when the land is prepared for planting. DDT
used for leafhopper control may eliminate this problem. In the
event a heavy migration occurs the toxaphene spray or dust as
suggested for cutworm control should be applied.
Bean leaf rollers, Urbaniu protcis (L.), are the caterpillars
of a butterfly belonging to a group known as skippers. The eggs






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


are deposited by this butterfly on the leaves of beans or other
legumes. The first indication of the presence of the larva on
a bean leaf may be the appearance of a small flap-like fold on
the edge of the leaf. As the larva grows it makes larger shelters.
This larva is a greenish-yellow insect with a spindle-shaped body.
The head is separated from the body by a noticeable neck. The
under side of this neck is usually orange in color and the back
of the head is indented. The larva may grow to a length of
11/ inches.
These pests are controlled by the application of 30 to 35 pounds
per acre of a 3 percent DDT dust or a spray containing 2 pounds
of 50 percent wettable DDT in 100 gallons of water. One treat-
ment is all that is usually required.
The potato leafhopper, Etmpoasca fabac (Harris), or bean
jassid, is one of the most severely damaging pests of beans.
Only a few adults or nymphs are needed to produce the curling
symptoms of hopper-burn.
The adults and the young nymphs feed together on the under
side of the leaves, usually along the larger veins. When plants
are examined the adults often fly away, leaving only the nymphs.
The youngest insects are difficult to see, being only about 1/20
an inch long. They develop wing pads, and later wings, as they
grow. The color will vary from white in the young to a pale
yellow to green in the adults. The eyes are prominent. The
adult is about 1/8 inch long.
Plants are injured in two ways. There is a loss of juices re-
sulting from the sucking of the insect. At the same time a
toxic material is injected which causes the plant to be generally
stunted and the edges of the leaves to curl in towards the mid-
rib. Usually the lower leaves show this curling first.
Good control is obtained by spraying or dusting with DDT.
Three to four applications at 7 to 10 day intervals are usually
sufficient. The DDT may be applied with the sulfur used to
control diseases and red spiders. Manganese and zinc may be
added for plant nutrition. The treatments should be started
at the first sign of leafhoppers and discontinued just before
blooming.
Red spiders, or spider mites, Tetranwychus spp., occasionally
infest beans in dry weather. These are minute mites that feed
on the leaves. They spin a fine web over the surface of the leaf
to help them move about. They are not always red, and are
small enough to be difficult to see without a hand lens. With a







Bush Snap Bean Production on Florida Sandy Soils 21

lens they can be seen as small, yellow to rust-colored round
forms. Newly hatched mites have six legs but adults have
eight. They feed by sucking sap from the leaves.
Sulfur dust used with DDT for leafhopper control will reduce
the infestation or a 1 percent parathion dust applied at 25 to 30
pounds per acre may be used. TEPP at : pint of 40 percent
emulsion in 100 gallons of water per acre is also effective.
Serpentine leaf miners, Lirioniyza pusilla (Meig.), are small,
yellow to orange larvae of a very small fly. They feed within
the leaf, forming a winding tunnel that is visible on the surface
of the leaf. The tunnel becomes wider as the larvae grow. The
presence of a few mined leaves need give no concern, but when
infestations become general they may be controlled with toxa-
phene or parathion. Parathion is the more effective material.
Ten percent toxaphene dust at 25 to 30 pounds per acre, or 21,/
pounds of 40 percent wettable toxaphene powder in 100 gallons
of water, may be used. Parathion should be used at the rate of
25 to 30 pounds per acre of a 1 percent dust, or 1 pound of 15
percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of water. A second
application seven days after the first may be required to elimi-
nate the infestation.
Thrips.-These are minute, yellow-bodied insects that may be
seen flying away from the bush when it is shaken. They can
be seen more readily by pulling apart the blooms or, when severe,
by looking on the under side of the leaves. The narrow wings,
which are fringed with long hairs, can be seen with a hand lens.
These insects suck the juices from the leaves, causing a bronz-
ing and drying, usually of the lower leaves first. These leaves
dry up, turn brown and fall. In heavy infestations only the
newest leaves may remain green. Feeding on the blooms causes
them to turn brown at the base and fall off, while damage to the
pods appears as black specks, with a silvering of the damaged
area.
Control may be obtained with the same materials and dosages
recommended for the serpentine leaf miner. Thorough applica-
tion is necessary and the infestation on the leaves should be
eliminated before the first blooms appear.
Southern Green Stink Bugs.-Southern green stink bugs,
Nezera. 'iridula (L.), their nymphs and other stink bugs cause
damage to bean plants by sucking the sap. They often feed on
the pods. The green, shield-shaped adults are common and are
known to most growers. The female deposits small keg-shaped






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


eggs in masses on the leaves. The nymphs which emerge from
these eggs are quite different from the adults in color and mark-
ings. They are blue-black, with yellow markings on the abdo-
men. The abdomen is round at the edge and the body is flat.
Control of the young bugs and considerable reduction of the
adults may be obtained by using toxaphene or parathion as
recommended for leaf miners. Weeds around the margin of
the field also should be treated.
Garden Fleahopper.-This small, black sucking bug, Halticus
bracteatius (Say), is often found in small numbers on many
vegetables and weeds. Occasionally it occurs in such numbers
that it causes damage to beans. This injury is apparent as a
yellowing of the leaves. Closer examination may show a small
puncture on the upper surface, surrounded by a pale spot where
the juices have been sucked out. The insect is the size of a
large aphid and the adults jump about in a manner somewhat
like fleas.
Application of 35 to 40 pounds per acre of a 5 percent DDT
dust at five-day intervals will reduce the population.
Lesser Cornstalk Borer.-Bean plants are often attacked by
small greenish-purple larvae that hatch from eggs deposited by
the female moth, Elasmopalptus lignosellus (Zell.), on or near the
base of the stems.
The young larvae spin webs on the ground to protect them
while they bore into the stem where the plant emerges from the
soil. When damaged plants are pulled up some of this webbing
often adheres to the stem around the entry hole. Often the
larvae may be found within the stem or in the web left on the
ground. The web is an aid in determining the presence of this
insect.
Satisfactory control procedures have not been worked out.
Application of 2 pounds of 15 percent wettable parathion powder
in 100 gallons of water has reduced damage in some plantings.
The spray should be directed at the base of the plants in the
row. Apply before cultivation operations which might cover
up the webs with a layer of soil and thus protect larvae from
the spray.

INSECTICIDE APPLICATION PRECAUTIONS
Insecticides are necessary for the production of good yields
of high quality vegetables. However, they are poisonous to







Bush Snap Bean Production on Florida Sandy Soils 23

humans and must be used with care. There is no hazard if the
materials are properly used. Follow these rules carefully.
1. Read the manufacturer's label carefully.
2. Do not breathe dust or vapor, or get the insecticide on
the skin.
3. Wear protective clothing, gloves and approved respirators
if the label suggests their use. Always use them when applying
parathion.
4. Bathe and change to clean clothes daily when applying
insecticides.
5. Wash hands and face before smoking or eating.
6. Bury or burn empty insecticide containers.
7. Do not apply more often or at higher dosages than rec-
ommended.
8. Repeated use of insecticides will often result in a careless
attitude on the part of spray crews. Be sure they continue to
observe safety rules.

LITERATURE CITED
1. FORSEE, W. T., JR., and WALTER A. HILLS. Fertilizer experiments with
some vegetable crops on sandy soils in eastern Palm Beach County.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 64: 92-95. 1952.
2. HARTER, L. L., and W. J. ZAUNIEYER. A monographic study of bean
diseases and methods for their control. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul.
868: 1-160. 1944.
3. MOORE, W. D., R. A. CONOVER and D. L. STODDARD. The sclerotiniose
disease of vegetable crops in Florida. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 439:
5-20. 1949.
4. NELLER, J. R., D. W. JONES and NATHAN GAMMON, JR. Leaching of
fertilizer phosphorus in acid sandy soils as affected by lime. Fla.
Expt. Sta. Cir. S-32: 1-7. 1951.
5. SCRUGGS, FRANK H. Annual fruit and vegetable report. Fla. St. Mkt.
Bureau. 1952.
6. THOMPSON, HOMER C. Vegetable crops. Ed. 4. McGraw-Hill. 1949.
7. TOWNSEND, G. R., and G. D. RUEHLE. Diseases of beans in Southern
Florida. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 439: 5-56. 1947.
8. WALKER, J. C. Diseases of vegetable crops. 529 pp. McGraw-Hill.
1952.




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