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Title: Blackstrap molasses for beef cows
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Title: Blackstrap molasses for beef cows
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Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1965
Copyright Date: 1965
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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





BULLETIN 701
NOVEMBER 1965
















.










Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows






H. L. Chapman, Jr.
R. W. Kidder
M. Koger
J. R. Crockett
W. K. McPherson

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences -,&L ^- >
University of Florida, Gainesville
J. R. Beckenbach, Director










CONTENTS

Page
Foreword ..............................-- ....-.. ....................................... 4

Experimental Procedure ................................................................. 5

Results ---------------------...........................................-....... 8

Cow Weights .................--......--..---.........-------..................--- 8

Rate of Conception ................................... ........------------- .... 8

Calf Production .............................. ........-................... ...... 10

Economic Evaluation .............................................................12

D discussion --............................................................ ................. 16

Summary ...------........... --......-............................-..-..........21

Acknowledgm ents ...........................................................................21

Literature Cited ...................... ........-------------................. 22

Appendix ... .......... ................................... ......................................23











DEFINITION OF BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES

Blackstrap molasses is the by-product (or end product) of
either raw sugar manufacture or sugar refining. It is the heavy
viscous liquid separated from the final low-grade massecuite from
which no further sugar can be crystallized by the usual
methods (11)1.
The composition of blackstrap will be affected by variety and
maturity of canes, climatic and soil conditions, and clarification
technique. Molasses coming from the centrifuge varies from 85
to 92 Brix, 25 to 40 percent sucrose, 12 to 35 percent reducing
sugars, 2.5 to 9.0 percent crude protein, and 7 to 15 percent
ash (11).
Considerable lack of uniformity exists regarding grades and
definitions of molasses (5, 11), and care should be taken to define
the composition when discussing a molasses product. In addi-
tion to the above variation blackstrap molasses is often diluted
with water to facilitate pumping, and this product was originally
defined by the Association of American Feed Control Officials
(AAFCO) as "Cane Feeding Molasses": "a by-product of the
manufacture of sugar from cane . [which] shall contain 48
percent or more of total sugar, expressed as invert sugar and
shall test not less than 79.5 Brix." During the latter part of
1961 the executive committee of AAFCO adopted a revised defini-
tion terming the product "Cane Molasses for Feeding" (6).
Care should be taken to define the composition when discuss-
ing molasses.
1Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.










BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES FOR BEEF COWS

H. L. Chapman, Jr., R. W. Kidder, M. Koger,
J. R. Crockett, and W. K. McPherson2


FOREWORD

During 1963, 25,000,000 gallons of blackstrap molasses were
produced in south Florida, the majority made from cane grown
on organic soils (6). It is estimated that this will increase to
50,000,000 gallons by 1967.
Considerable information is available concerning the use of
blackstrap molasses in cattle fattening feeds. It has been shown
to be a good source of available energy, to increase palatability
of feeds, to increase activity of cellulose-splitting microorganisms
when fed in proper amounts, to be a good source of trace minerals,
to minimize dustiness in feeds, to be a good binder in pellets, and
to have 75 to 85 percent the feed value of corn grain (11, 14).
It has also been demonstrated to be a good vehicle for carrying
supplemental urea, vitamins, minerals, and other materials (6,
14, 15). Studies in Florida have shown that blackstrap molasses
can be used in various types of steer fattening programs (2, 3, 4).
A recent report from South Carolina (7) suggests that relative
cost should be the decisive factor in deciding whether to feed
ground snapped corn or blackstrap molasses in wintering rations
for beef cattle. The value of blackstrap molasses for various
classes of livestock has been reviewed (14).
Relatively little work has been done to evaluate blackstrap
molasses as a supplement to pasture for beef cows. It has been
shown to be a good source of energy for dairy cows (9) with indi-
cation that it is utilized most efficiently when not exceeding ap-
proximately 10 percent of the dairy ration. Similar information
is not available for beef cows.
Differences exist in the chemical composition of blackstrap
molasses produced from cane grown on organic soils, as compared
to that produced on mineral soils (11, 12). It is possible that
these differences might produce different effects on livestock. The
purpose of the study reported in this bulletin was to evaluate the
2Chapman, Animal Nutritionist, and Head, Range Cattle Station, Ona.
Kidder, Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, Belle Glade. Koger, Ani-
mal Geneticist, Main Station, Gainesville. Crockett, Assistant Animal
Geneticist, Main Station. McPherson, Agricultural Economist, Main Station.









effect of two levels of intake of blackstrap molasses on various
breeds of beef cows grazing good quality permanent grass pasture.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Approximately 300 cows were divided into three equal groups
on the basis of age, breed, and relative potential productivity3.
The majority of the experimental animals were coming two-year-
olds when placed on the study and, with the exception of some
of the purebred cows, were purchased from commercial herds in
south Florida. The groups were randomly allotted to the experi-
mental treatments of no molasses, seasonally fed molasses, and
continuously fed molasses (Table 1). The molasses used was
heavy mill-run (86 to 880 Brix) blackstrap produced from cane
grown on organic soil. It was fed twice weekly to furnish an
average intake of 5 pounds per cow per day. During the sum-
mer the continuously fed group sometimes did not consume 5
pounds a day, and when this occurred, the cattle were provided
free access to molasses not to exceed the 5.0 pound rate of intake.
The seasonally fed groups received molasses from approximately
the first of December until the middle of April of each year.
Molasses samples were obtained when delivered for Brix (ap-
parent solids), protein, and ash determinations4. These data are
presented in Table 2. Brix ranged from 84.4 to 86.4 degrees,
crude protein from 7.1 to 10.1 percent, and ash from 7.9 to 9.5
percent. Seasonally fed cows consumed an average of 633 pounds
per cow annually as compared to 1274 pounds for the contin-
uously fed group.
The breeding season was from January 15 to April 15 each
year. Single-sire herds were used, with one-third of the cows in
each molasses treatment bred to Angus, one-third to Brahman,
and one-third to Hereford bulls (Table 1), for a total of nine
breed groups. The approximately 300 cows were maintained on
180 acres of land, which was divided into nine separate pastures.
The nine groups of cows were rotated among the pastures every
two weeks to minimize the effect of pasture differences upon the
performance of the cows. Annual soil samples were taken, and
fertilization was based on the results of chemical analyses.
Monthly samples of the grass (Roselawn St. Augustinegrass)
sThis experiment was superimposed on the herd of beef cows used in
breeding research at the Everglades Station.
4Brix, protein, and ash content of the molasses were determined by the
state chemist, Tallahassee, Florida.








6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 1.-Experimental design.

Level of Molasses Breed of Sire
Supplementation Angus Brahman Hereford

None A B H
AB BA HA
AH BH HB
Seasonal (during winter) A B H
AB BA HA
AH BH HB
Continuous A B H
AB BA HA
AH BH HB
tLetters in table refer to breed composition of cows. A = Angus; B = Brahman;
H = Hereford; BH = Brahman X Hereford; BA = Brahman X Angus and AH =
Angus X Hereford.

Table 2.-Brix, crude protein, and ash content of composite samples of black-
strap molasses.

Date *Brix Crude Protein Ash
(%) (%)

June 1960 85.1 8.6 7.9
Dec. 1960 86.1 7.1 8.0
June 1961 85.0 7.9 8.6
Dec. 1961 86.2 8.1 8.3
June 1962 84.4 10.1 7.9
Dec. 1962 86.4 9.0 8.8
June 1963 85.1 9.7 8.3


were obtained for proximate analyses (1). These analyses are
summarized in Table 3. Dry matter ranged from 18.5 to 49.3
percent, crude protein from 9.58 to 17.21 percent, crude fiber
from 26.28 to 33.70 percent, ether extract from 1.42 to 4.17
percent, nitrogen-free extract from 41.37 to 52.11 percent, and
ash from 5.02 to 10.72 percent.
The sires were rotated annually within breed of sire and molas-
ses treatment groups to minimize sire differences. The cows were
pregnancy-tested 60 to 90 days after the bulls were removed, and
with one exception all open cows were sold. It was not possible
to remove all the open cows from the Brahmans not receiving
molasses without reducing inventories, so cows were allowed one
open year. If they were open in two consecutive seasons, they
were culled from the herd. Adjustments in herd inventories due
to culling and herd replacements were made in June of each year.








Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 7

Table 3.-Summary of proximate analysis of forage samples t (%).

Nitrogen
Dry Crude Crude Ether Free
Date Matter Protein Fiber Extract Ash Extract

November 1960 25.8 13.17 29.68 2.18 7.11 47.86
December 31.2 14.10 29.25 2.78 7.71 46.16
January 1961 36.4 13.36 29.06 1.42 6.36 49.79
February 41.1 12.45 32.71 1.75 6.85 46.17
March 37.1 13.25 27.57 3.00 7.23 48.95
April 40.0 11.83 30.37 1.77 5.59 50.44
May 33.7 11.68 26.79 2.85 6.57 52.11
June 24.8 14.92 27.06 4.17 8.33 45.52
July 19.2 15.03 28.96 2.71 10.47 42.83
August 18.5 12.44 31.10 3.00 10.72 42.74
September 21.5 13.24 29.29 3.37 8.80 45.29
October 24.1 10.88 29.78 2.51 8.54 48.28
November 25.9 13.24 32.41 2.91 8.00 43.44
December 29.6 14.27 30.47 2.73 7.77 44.75
January 1962 41.3 11.67 33.70 1.85 7.13 45.65
February 45.4 10.89 32.64 1.78 5.52 49.16
March 37.1 15.41 30.76 2.21 5.90 45.72
April 43.1 14.35 30.72 1.63 5.41 47.90
May 27.9 15.94 28.95 2.82 6.82 45.46
June 22.9 15.71 30.36 4.09 8.45 41.39
July 20.0 14.58 29.75 2.24 8.46 44.97
August 21.0 15.37 30.42 2.34 8.29 43.58
September 20.6 12.47 31.14 2.02 8.41 45.95
October 22.8 9.58 32.92 2.20 7.20 48.10
November 28.1 10.89 31.96 2.49 7.03 47.62
December 32.2 12.16 30.88 2.45 7.08 47.44
January 1963 43.5 11.61 33.39 1.94 5.25 47.81
February 49.3 13.94 30.54 2.86 5.02 47.64
March 40.5 13.81 28.97 2.49 5.50 49.23
April 29.0 14.94 26.28 3.13 7.66 47.99
May 28.8 16.47 26.49 1.99 9.31 45.75
June 21.0 17.21 28.07 3.45 9.30 41.37
tEach figure is an average of nine samples.
tCrude protein, crude fber, ether extract, nitrogen-free extract, and ash are
presented as a percent of the dry matter.


Cattle measurements taken included quarterly weights; preg-
nancy, calving, and weaning data for the cows; and birth weight,
weaning weight, slaughter grade, and feeder grade for the calves.
The data were analyzed by least squares techniques (Table 4),
and the averages are summarized in Tables 5 through 11. An
economic evaluation of the programs was made on the basis of
the average production per cow.








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 4.--Summary for least squares analysis of variance.

Pregnancy Survival
Rate Rate Weaning Traits
Mean Squares
df ms df ms df Age at Weaning 205 day
weaning weight weight

Molasses (M) 2 .4678** 2 .0109 2 1380* 57462* 304.7**
Year (Y) 3 .1048 3 .1224 3 2427** 39290** 78.9**
Breed (B) 8 .4396** 8 .1187* 8 7730** 52076** 432.6**
M X Y 6 .1327 6 .0299 6 1308** 5301* 17.1*
MX B 16 .1594** 16 .0635 16 653 2410 9.1
Error 954 .075 688 .050 647 402 1939 6.2
*P = less than 0.05
**P = less than 0.01


RESULTS
Cow Weights
The average initial cow weights were 827, 842, and 830 pounds
respectively for the non-fed, seasonally fed, and continuously fed
groups. The average quarterly weights for the three groups are
presented in Table 5 by years and molasses treatment. While
there was a trend toward increasing the size of cow in the con-
tinuously fed group, the major effect of molasses supplementa-
tion on cow weights was that of reducing weight losses during
the fall and winter months. Generally the three groups had
returned to the same relative weight relationship by the following
June.

Rate of Conception
Pregnancy data averages are summarized in Table 6 by year,
molasses treatment, and breed. Molasses treatment and breed
of cow had a highly significant effect upon conception rate. Dif-
ferences attributable to years were not statistically significant.
However there were variations between years that appear to have
practical significance. During the first year there was little dif-
ference in the conception rate among the three molasses treat-
ments. This could have been due to the good condition of the
cows and pasture during the first year, or it could be that the
benefit from supplemental feeding of brood cows is cumulative








Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 9

Table 5.-Average cow weights, by year and molasses treatment (Ibs.).
Quarterly Weights
Molasses
Treatment June Sept. Dec. March June Average

1960
None 827 797 857 828
Seasonal 842 845 928 872
Continuous 830 836 897 854
1961
None 790 869 842 802 822 825
Seasonal 815 882 866 823 870 851
Continuous 816 902 894 860 889 872
1962
None 801 915 941 819 859 867
Seasonal 845 975 970 836 823 900
Continuous 856 1000 989 874 891 922
1963
None 806 904 919 801 873 861
Seasonal 822 912 896 824 873 865
Continuous 853 960 989 849 892 909
Average
None 799 896 882 805 853 845
Seasonal 827 923 894 832 886 872
Continuous 842 954 926 855 892 889


and takes time to express its full value. As the experiment
progressed during the next three breeding seasons, the cattle
receiving no supplemental feed had conception rates of 83.3,
88.3 and 81.7 percent, as compared to 92.6, 93.3, and 95.8 per-
cent for seasonally fed cattle and 94.8, 92.6 and 92.9 percent for
the continuously fed cattle.
The different breeds responded differently to the supplemental
molasses (Table 6). The major difference was that the non-
supplemented Brahmans had a lower rate of conception than the
Hereford or Angus cows on the same program. The Brah-
man X English crossbred cows had intermediate rates of con-
ception, being higher than the purebred Brahman cows but lower
than the Hereford, Angus, or Hereford X Angus cows when
receiving no supplemental feed. Feeding molasses either sea-
sonally or continually tended to equalize breed differences. How-
ever, the Brahmans showed a larger increase in rate of conception
due to continuous-feeding of molasses than observed in any of
the other breeds.
The yearly rate of conception of Brahman cows (Table 4 of
Appendix) that received no supplemental feed was 100.0, 30.8,








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 6.-Pregnancy rate for different molasses treatments by year and by
breed (%).

Molasses Treatment
Group None Seasonal Continuous

Year
1959-60 96.2 93.6 96.2
1960-61 83.3 92.6 94.8
1961-62 88.3 93.3 92.6
1962-63 81.7 95.8 92.9
Breeds
A x A 90.6 93.2 90.2
B X B 63.0 78.6 91.8
H x H 92.7 98.1 94.5
A X BA 92.3 91.3 100.0
B X AB 70.0 100.0 96.3
A X HA 100.0 94.7 95.2
H X AH 91.2 97.6 95.2
B X HB 89.7 95.0 90.2
H X BH 87.5 97.1 97.2
Average 86.9 93.9 94.1



83.3, and 53.8 percent for the four breeding seasons, as compared
to 87.5, 91.7, 66.7, and 70.0 percent for seasonally fed cows and
100.0, 100.0, 76.9, and 92.3 percent for the continuously fed
cows. Similar variations were not experienced by the other breed
groups. Detailed information about rate of conception by breed
and year is presented in Tables 1 through 9 of the Appendix.

Calf Production
Calf survival from birth to weaning is summarized by year,
molasses treatment, and breed in Table 7. Supplemental molas-
ses increased the survival rate after birth from 93.6 to 94.3 and
96.4 percent. The differences were not statistically significant.
Both molasses feeding programs increased weaning percent
(Table 8) with the seasonally fed cows being intermediate in
this respect between the group receiving no molasses and the
group having continuous access to molasses. The effect upon
breed group was variable, the most evident benefit occurring in
the purebred Brahmans.
Each molasses treatment increased the weights of weaned
calves (Table 9), these being 337, 369, and 372 pounds for the
non-fed, seasonally fed, and continuously fed groups, respectively.
The effect of molasses was variable among breed groups.









Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 11

Table 7.-Calf survival from birth to weaning for different molasses treatments
by year and by breed (%).

Molasses Treatment
Group None Seasonal Continuous

Year
1959-60 97.4 94.7 89.5
1960-61 93.0 91.0 97.1
1961-62 90.7 95.1 95.3
1962-63 95.9 96.1 100.0
Breed group
A x A 88.6 89.8 92.9
B x B 91.7 92.9 97.1
H x H 91.2 100.0 97.8
A X BA 94.1 100.0 88.9
B x AB 90.9 88.9 88.9
A X HA 94.7 86.2 100.0
H x AH 96.0 97.1 97.1
B X HB 100.0 96.0 100.0
H x BH 100.0 100.0 100.0
Average 93.6 94.3 96.4


Table 8.-Weaning percent for different molasses treatments by year and by
breed.

Molasses Treatment
Group None Seasonal Continuous

Year
1959-60 88.1 87.8 85.0
1960-61 93.0 89.7 97.1
1961-62 81.0 95.1 94.3
1962-63 92.2 94.9 97.6
Breeds
A xA 84.8 88.0 88.6
B x B 62.9 83.9 89.5
H X H 91.2 100.0 97.8
A X BA 94.1 100.0 88.9
B x AB 83.3 88.9 88.9
A X HA 94.7 86.2 100.0
H x AH 96.0 97.1 97.1
B x HB 96.2 92.3 100.0
H X BH 100.0 100.0 100.0
Average 87.9 92.6 94.6


The average slaughter and feeder grades of calves at weaning
are presented in Table 10. Slaughter grades ranged from low
Standard to Good with the majority of the calves grading middle
or high Standard. Feeder grades fairly well reflected the slaughter








12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 9.-Weaning weights for molasses treatments by year and by breed (Ibs.).

Molasses Treatment
Group None Seasonal Continuous

Year
1959-60 322 365 348
1960-61 314 350 354
1961-62 362 376 396
1962-63 346 380 374
Breeds
A XA 302 339 358
B x B 302 337 346
H XH 340 369 376
A x BA 360 409 397
B x AB 382 406 394
A X HA 328 356 339
H X AH 332 366 365
B x HB 383 400 408
H x BH 375 401 412
Average 337 369 372

or condition grade, ranging from high Standard to high Good,
with the majority falling in the middle of the Good feeder grade.
Slaughter grade was increased by molasses feeding.
The average production per cow, in terms of pounds of calf
weaned, is summarized by molasses treatment and year in Table
11. Over the four-year period the seasonally fed cows had an
average of 46 more pounds of calf produced per cow, and the
continuously fed group 56 more pounds per cow. Here again it
appeared that the effect was cumulative, since there was more
difference due to molasses treatment during the last two years
than during the first two years.
The greatest effect of molasses treatment upon pounds of
calf weaned per cow was experienced by the Brahman. Produc-
tion was increased 93 and 120 pounds by the seasonally fed and
continuously fed programs. This is a direct reflection of improved
reproduction, as the effect on the Brahman weaning weights was
not greatly different from that on other breed groups. The next
highest increase was in the purebred Angus. Detailed yearly data
by breed are presented in Tables 1 through 9 of the Appendix.


Economic Evaluation
To a large extent the economic feasibility of supplementing
pasture forage with molasses in cow-calf enterprises depends upon









Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 13

Table 10.-Slaughter and feeder grade of calves at weaning time.

Molasses Treatment
Group None Seasonal Continuous

Slaughter grade
Year
1959-60 6 7 7
1960-61 8 8 9
1961-62 6 7 7
1962-63 7 7 8
Breeds
AXA 7 7 8
BxB 6 7 7
HxH 7 7 8
HxA 7 7 7
BxA 7 8 8
BXH 7 8 8
Feeder grade
Year
1959-60 8 8 8
1960-61 10 10 10
1961-62 9 10 10
1962-63 10 10 10
Breeds
A xA 9 10 10
BxB 9 9 9
H H 9 10 10
H XA 9 10 10
B A 10 10 11
B x H 10 10 11
t6, 7, 8 Low, middle, and high Standard; 9, 10, 11- Low, middle, and high Good.


the relationship between the cost of the molasses fed to cows and
the value of the increase in weight of weaned calves that can
be attributed to the supplemental feed.
An economic comparison of the three feeding programs is
presented in Tables 12 and 13. These tables illustrate the rela-
tionship between the cost of the molasses and the value of the
increased weight of calf weaned, with the price of calves ranging
from the extreme of $10.00 to $40.00 per hundredweight and the
molasses prices ranging from $20.00 to $40.00 per ton. For ex-
ample, when the price of molasses is $20.00 per ton, the cost of
feeding 633 pounds of molasses per cow seasonally is $6.33
(Table 12), whereas the value of the 46 pounds average increase
in the weight of the weaned calves per cow is $18.40 when calf
prices are $40.00 per hundredweight. In this instance, the net
return from feeding molasses seasonally is $18.40 minus $6.33,








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 11.-Production per cow for different molasses treatments by year and by
breed (lbs. calf weaned).

Molasses Treatment
Group None Seasonal Continuous

Year
1959-60 284 320 296
1960-61 292 314 344
1961-62 293 358 373
1962-63 319 361 365
Breeds
A XA 256 298 317
B X B 190 283 310
H X H 310 369 368
A X BA 339 409 353
B x AB 318 361 350
A x HA 311 307 339
H x AH 319 355 354
B X HB 368 369 408
H x BH 375 401 412
Average 296 342 352



or $12.07 per cow. At the other extreme, when the price of calves
is $10.00 per hundredweight, the value of the average increase
in weaned calf weight per cow is only $4.60, and the cost of
molasses at $40.00 per ton is $12.66. Under these conditions,
the feeding of molasses seasonally results in a net loss of $12.66
minus $4.60, or $8.06 per cow.
The continuous feeding of molasses is economically feasible
when the price of calves is high and the price of molasses low
(see Table 13). The differences in value of the weaned calves


Table 12.-Relationship between the value of the increased weight of weaned
calft and the cost of the seasonally fed molasses per cow* at dif-
ferent price levels ($).
Calf Increased Cost of Seasonally Fed Molasses
Prices Calf at Different Prices per Ton
($/cwt) Value 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00

10.00 4.60 6.33 7.91 9.50 11.08 12.66
15.00 6.90 6.33 7.91 9.50 11.08 12.66
20.00 9.20 6.33 7.91 9.50 11.08 12.66
25.00 11.50 6.33 7.91 9.50 11.08 12.66
30.00 13.80 6.33 7.91 9.50 11.08 12.66
35.00 16.10 6.33 7.91 9.50 11.08 12.66
40.00 18.40 6.33 7.91 9.50 11.08 12.66
tAverage increase in weight of weaned calf per cow per year = 46 lbs.
$Average molasses consumption per cow per year = 633 lbs.








Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 15

Table 13.-Relationship between the value of the increased weight of weaned
calft and the cost of continuously fed molasses per cowt at different
price levels ($).

Calf Increased Cost of Continuously Fed Molasses
Prices Calf at Different Prices per Ton
($/cwt) Value 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00

10.00 5.60 12.74 15.92 19.11 22.30 25.48
15.00 8.40 12.74 15.92 19.11 22.30 25.48
20.00 11.20 12.74 15.92 19.11 22.30 25.48
25.00 14.00 12.74 15.92 19.11 22.30 25.48
30.00 16.80 12.74 15.92 19.11 22.30 25.48
35.00 19.60 12.74 15.92 19.11 22.30 25.48
40.00 22.40 12.74 15.92 19.11 22.30 25.48

tAverage increase in weight of weaned calf per cow per year = 56 lbs.
$Average molasses consumption per cow per year = 1,274 lbs.


produced from cows fed molasses continuously and the cost of
the molasses were less than the differences between the cost of feed-
ing molasses and the value of the weaned calves on the seasonal
program. In other words, feeding molasses to cows seasonally
will result in a higher return on the money expended for molasses
than feeding it continuously. The returns on the cost of molasses
for the continuous feeding program will compare favorably with
those of the seasonal program only when the price of molasses is
about $20.00 per ton and the price of weaned calves approaches
$40.00 per hundredweight.
During the past 25 years there were three periods when the
price of blackstrap molasses was abnormally high. These were
World War II, the Korean conflict, and the Cuban crisis, the
last of which was coupled with crop failures in Europe. In 1963,
for example, molasses reached a peak price of $38.48 a ton. At
this cost it would have been necessary to sell the calves for $28.00
to $30.00 per hundredweight in order to pay for the seasonally
fed molasses and over $40.00 to pay for the continuously fed
molasses. Since 1963 the price of molasses has been following
a downward trend, and in June 1964 it was valued at $21.37 a
ton. At this price it would have been necessary to sell the calves
in the experiment for approximately $15.00 per hundredweight
to pay for the seasonally fed molasses and approximately $20.00
to pay for the continuously fed molasses. The price of molasses
from January 1959 to January 1964 is presented in Figure 1.








16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


39
36
33- DOLLARS PER TON
30
27
24
21
18
15
12
Of-
JAN. JUL. JAN. JUL. JAN. JUL. JAN. JUL. JAN. JUL. JAN.
59 60 61 62 63 64
Figure 1.-Price for blackstrap molasses in Florida (dollars per ton in tank car
lots).

Care should be taken to evaluate the relationship between the
cost of a supplemental feeding program and the extra return
that might result from the extra feed in order to be sure the
feeding program is economically sound.


DISCUSSION

The amount of total digestible nutrients in permanent grasses
of south and central Florida is lowest at the very time of the
year that the requirements of most beef cows in the state are
at their highest during the last two months of pregnancy and
the first three to four months after calving. For example, the
majority of calves in Florida are born during the fall and winter
months when permanent grass pastures are poorest in quality
and quantity. A 1000-pound cow requires 16 to 17 pounds of
total digestible nutrients (TDN) per day during the first three
to four months after calving (13). Because of a deficiency of
nutrients, it is not possible for cows, irrespective of their genetic
potential, to maintain themselves, nurse their calves, and become
pregnant on permanent grasses during the winter months. Under
these conditions it is necessary to furnish the beef cow with
the supplemental nutrients.
The crude protein level of the pasture forage in this experiment
almost always exceeded 10 percent (Table 3). The excellent concep-
tion rate of the molasses-supplemented cows indicates that protein
did not limit reproduction. Current National Research Council (13)








Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 17

recommended daily intake of crude protein during the first three
to four months after calving is about 0.10 percent of body weight
for pregnant cows and heifers. If the crude protein of forage
does not fall below 12 percent, on a moisture free basis, it is
unlikely that protein levels will be a limiting factor in cattle pro-
duction (4). In most cases protein should not be a limiting
nutritional factor if forage protein exceeds 10 percent, provided
cattle have access to all the forage they will consume and that
the forage does not contain too much moisture.
When heavy mill-run blackstrap molasses, produced on organic
soil, is fed to beef cows grazing forage containing more than 10
percent crude protein, it should not be necessary to provide an
additional protein supplement. When the forage contains less
than 10 percent crude protein, it will be essential to provide
cows with a supplemental source of protein to insure a minimum
dietary level of 10 percent crude protein. This may be of vege-
table or synthetic origin (urea).
Available energy may be one of the most limiting factors in
the optimum utilization of permanent grasses by cattle. The
amount of molasses fed, as percent of total ration, has an effect
upon its value (9), but when fed at proper levels of intake, molas-
ses is in excellent source of energy for beef cows. Care should
be taken not to feed molasses in excessive amounts (10). It is
suggested that intake be limited to an average of 4 to 5 pounds
a day per animal. The cows may consume more than twice this
amount if the molasses is provided free choice (2). If feeding is
desired in excess of 4 or 5 pounds a day per animal, a less soluble
form of carbohydrates, such as citrus pulp or corn, should be
used. Molasses should be considered a supplement to, not a sub-
stitute for, roughage.
It is important to provide sufficient trough volume to hold
11/4 to 1 /2 gallons of molasses per cow in the pasture. Used
bathtubs are excellent for this purpose and one 5-foot tub, such
as shown in Figure 2, will hold sufficient molasses to supply 50 or
60 cows for about 31/2 days. Troughs may also be constructed
if desired (Figure 3). It is necessary to provide adequate storage
capacity if molasses is fed. Examples of storage facilities are
presented in Figure 4.
The data from this experiment indicate that providing molas-
ses for an average period of 133 days during the winter months
only was approximately as beneficial nutritionally as feeding it








18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

continuously, and usually more profitable. If the experiment had
been extended over a longer period of time, greater differences
in the two feeding programs might have become apparent, but
this is problematical. Molasses feeding should increase the carry-
ing capacity of pastures. This point was not determined in this
trial, however, since the cows were rotated to prevent pasture
differences from being confounded with molasses treatment. Pos-
sible increase in carrying capacity was not considered in evaluat-
ing results from this trial. A longer period of supplemental
feeding might have been beneficial if pasture and climatic condi-
tions had been less optimum. Each rancher must evaluate his
own program to determine the type of supplemental feeding pro-
gram he can best use (4).
An important finding in this experiment was the beneficial
results obtained from providing supplemental feed to Brahman
cows. The individual Brahmans in this experiment had been
chosen from herds throughout the state and were excellent repre-
sentatives of the breed. The group that received no supplemental

























Figure 2.-Used bathtubs for feeding blackstrap molasses. Courtesy of U.S.
Sugar Corporation.








Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 19

molasses performed quite poorly in terms of conception rate and
production per cow. This emphasizes that heavy-producing
Brahmans need well balanced diets to perform to their maximum
inherent ability.
As mentioned earlier, permanent grass pastures in south and
central Florida usually are deficient in nutrients during the winter
months. When the pasture does not furnish the cow's nutritional
needs, she will use her body tissues for the nutrients she needs,
with a resultant loss in body weight and possibly in fertility and
milk production. In order to minimize this lowered production
it is necessary either to reduce cattle inventory or provide supple-
mental feed. Seasonal variations in cattle inventory usually are
not economically sound and also may prevent optimum utiliza-
tion of pasture land. A properly balanced supplemental feeding
program will increase cow production and will also result in the
maximum utilization of pasture land by enabling a cattleman to
stock his ranch to capacity and maintain a more uniform cattle
inventory throughout the year.


























Figure 3.-A molasses trough constructed of steel.









40000

a- nk


- 1 ~a;_ ko ,o,-





""24


Fi
Figur i4.-olas s





Figure 4.--Molasses storing and handling equipment. Courtesy of U.S. Sugar Corporation.







Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 21

SUMMARY

Beef cows receiving an average of 5 pounds of mill-run black-
strap molasses per day had a higher conception rate and pro-
duced heavier, higher-grading calves than cows receiving no sup-
plemental molasses. Death losses in calves from birth to weaning
were reduced by molasses feeding.
Seasonal feeding of molasses for a period of 133 days during
the winter months resulted in approximately the same produc-
tion per cow as continuous molasses feeding. Brahmans gave a
better response to supplemental molasses feeding than did other
breeds.
It is recommended that available pasture forage be properly
evaluated when feeding blackstrap molasses. Where the crude
protein level of the forage is below 10 percent, a supplemental
source of protein should be provided. It is important also that
an ample source of roughage be available to the animals. When
properly used, mill-run blackstrap molasses is an excellent sup-
plement to pasture for beef cattle.
Finally, it is profitable to supplement pasture forage with
mill-run blackstrap molasses when the value of the increase in
the weight of calves is greater than the cost of the molasses. The
seasonal supplementation of pasture with molasses is almost
always more profitable than feeding it continuously. When the
price of calves is $30.00 per hundredweight or more, it is profit-
able to feed mill-run molasses to brood cows seasonally as long
as the price of molasses does not exceed $40.00 per ton. On the
other hand, producers can seldom afford to pay more than $30.00
per ton seasonally when the price of calves is $20.00 per hundred-
weight or lower.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study reported in this bulletin would not have been pos-
sible without the assistance of a number of people, including
Lamar Reynolds, A. C. Warnick, and C. E. Haines. Appreciation
also is extended to Richard Deese for the statistical analysis of
the production data. Molasses used in this study was furnished
by the United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida.








22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

LITERATURE CITED

1. Methods of Analyses of Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
Washington, D. C., 9th Ed. 1960.
2. Beardsley, D. W., and R. W. Kidder. Molasses supplementation for
breeding cows. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Annual
Report: 223. 1954.
3. Chapman, H. L., Jr., R. W. Kidder, and S. B. Plank. Comparative
feeding value of citrus molasses, cane molasses, ground snapped corn
and dried citrus pulp for fattening steers on pasture. Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 531. 1953.
4. Chapman, H. L., Jr., F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley, and
T. J. Cunha. Supplemental feeding of beef cattle on pasture in
south Florida. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin
665. 1964.
5. Crochet, S. L. Proper molasses definition changes. Letters to the Edi-
tor. Feedstuffs 36 (18):10, 64-67. 1964.
6. Crochet, S. L. Personal communication. 1964.
7. Godbey, E. G., and R. C. Edwards. Comparison of blackstrap molasses
and ground snapped corn in wintering rations for beef cattle. South
Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 477. 1960.
8. Kirk, W. G., E. M. Kelley, H. J. Fulford, and H. E. Henderson. Feed-
ing value of citrus and blackstrap molasses for fattening cattle.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 575. 1956.
9. Lofgreen, G. P., and K. K. Otagaki. The net energy of blackstrap
molasses for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 43(2):220-230. 1960.
10. Maynard, L. A., and J. K. Loosli. Animal Nutrition, 5th Ed. McGraw
Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 1962.
11. Meade, George P. Spencer-Meade Cane Sugar Handbook, 9th Ed.
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, New York. 1964.
12. Morrison, F. B. Feeds and Feeding, 22nd Ed. The Morrison Publish-
ing Co., Ithaca, New York. 1956.
13. National Academy of Sciences. Nutrient requirements of domestic
animals, Number 4. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 1958.
14. Scott, M. L. Use of molasses in the feeding of farm animals. Review
and Ann. bibliography, Sugar Research Foundation, Inc., N. Y.
Technological Report Series No. 9. 1953.
15. Stengel, H. J., R. R. Johnson, and A. Spellman. Urea and Non-protein
Nitrogen in Ruminant Nutrition. Allied Chemical Corporation, Hope-
well, Va., 2nd Ed.









Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 23

APPENDIX

Appendix Table 1.-Production of Angus cows by year and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63

No molasses
Cows bred 14 16 11 12
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 87.5 81.8 91.7
Cows to calve 10 16 11 9
Calves born 8 16 11 9
Calves weaned 8 15 9 7
Weaning rate (%) 80.0 93.8 81.8 77.8
Death loss (%) 0.0 6.2 18.2 22.2
Slaughter grade 6.4 7.9 5.9 6.1
Feeder grade 7.8 10.4 8.4 9.6
Weaning weight (lbs.) 306 293 310 305
Production per cow (lbs.) 245 275 254 237
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred 16 16 14 13
Pregnancy rate (%) 93.8 93.8 92.9 92.3
Cows to calve 12 15 12 11
Calves born 10 15 12 12
Calves weaned 9 13 12 10
Weaning rate (%) 75.0 86.7 100.0 90.9
Death loss (%) 10.0 13.3 0.0 17.8
Slaughter grade 6.7 8.5 6.8 7.4
Feeder grade 8.4 10.8 9.8 10.2
Weaning weight (lbs.) 314 314 361 366
Production per cow (lbs.) 236 272 361 333
Continuous molasses
Cows bred 14 13 13 11
Pregnancy rate (%) 92.9 92.3 84.6 90.9
Cows to calve 9 13 11 11
Calves born 9 13 10 10
Calves weaned 7 12 10 10
Weaning rate (%) 77.8 92.3 90.9 90.9
Death loss (%) 22.2 7.7 0.0 0.0
Slaughter grade 7.9 9.2 8.1 7.6
Feeder grade 9.9 11.3 10.4 10.5
Weaning weight (lbs.) 342 342 414 333
Production per cow (lbs.) 266 316 376 303








24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Appendix Table 2.-Production of Brahman-Angus cows bred to Angus bulls by
years and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63


No molasses
Cows bred ...... 9 9 8
Pregnancy rate (%) ...... 100.0 88.9 87.5
Cows to calve ...... ...... 9 8
Calves born ...... ..... 9 8
Calves weaned ...... ...... 8 8
Weaning rate (%) ...... ...... 88.9 100
Death loss (%) ...... ...... 11.1 0
Slaughter grade ...... ..... 6.0 6.6
Feeder grade ...... ...... 8.6 10.0
Weaning rate (lbs.) ...... ..... 348 372
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... ...... 309 372
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred ...... 9 7 7
Pregnancy rate (%) ...... 77.8 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve ...... ..... 7 7
Calves born ...... ..... 7 7
Calves weaned ...... ..... 7 7
Weaning rate (%) ...... ...... 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) ...... ..... 0 0
Slaughter grade ...... ..... 7.6 7.6
Feeder grade ...... ..... 10.7 10.9
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... ..... 419 399
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... ...... 419 399
Continuous molasses
Cows bred ...... 9 9 9
Pregnancy rate (%) ...... 100.0 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve ...... ..... 9 9
Calves born ...... ..... 9 9
Calves weaned ...... ..... 7 9
Weaning rate (%) ...... ...... 77.8 100
Death loss (%) ...... ..... 22.2 0
Slaughter grade ...... ...... 7.9 7.8
Feeder grade ...... ...... 10.6 10.6
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... ...... 426 374
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... ...... 331 374








Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 25

Appendix Table 3.-Production of Hereford-Angus cows bred to Angus bulls by
year and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63

No molasses
Cows bred 12 11 12 11
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve 7 11 10 10
Calves born 7 11 10 10
Calves weaned 7 9 10 10
Weaning rate (%) 100 81.8 100 100
Death loss (%) 0 18.2 0 0
Slaughter grade 6.1 8.0 6.0 6.7
Feeder grade 8.0 10.7 8.3 10.2
Weaning weight (lbs.) 302 309 328 364
Production per cow (lbs.) 302 253 328 364
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred 10 9 8 11
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 77.8 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve 5 9 7 8
Calves born 5 9 7 8
Calves weaned 5 7 5 8
Weaning rate (%) 100 77.8 71.4 100
Death loss (%) 0 22.2 28.6 0
Slaughter grade 6.0 8.6 7.4 7.4
Feeder grade 7.8 10.9 10.0 10.6
Weaning weight (lbs.) 298 330 382 398
Production per cow (lbs.) 298 257 273 398
Continuous molasses
Cows bred 11 9 10 12
Pregnancy rate (%) 90.9 100.0 90.0 100.0
Cows to calve 6 9 8 9
Calves born 6 9 8 9
Calves weaned 6 9 8 9
Weaning rate (%) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) 0 0 0 0
Slaughter grade 6.2 8.2 7.9 7.1
Feeder grade 8.2 10.8 10.0 10.0
Weaning weight (Ibs.) 305 320 391 334
Production per cow (lbs.) 305 320 391 334








26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Appendix Table 4.-Production of Brahman cows by year and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63

No molasses
Cows bred 8 13 12 13
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 30.8 83.8 53.8
Cows to calve 5 8 11 11
Calves born 3 8 4 9
Calves weaned 3 6 4 9
Weaning rate (%) 60.0 75.0 36.4 81.8
Death, loss (%) 0 25.0 0 0
Slaughter grade 5.3 8.2 5.2 5.8
Feeder grade 6.7 9.0 8.8 8.9
Weaning weight (lbs.) 295 315 319 288
Production per cow (lbs.) 177 236 116 236
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred 8 12 12 10
Pregnancy rate (%) 87.5 91.7 66.7 70.0
Cows to calve 5 7 10 9
Calves born 4 7 10 7
Calves weaned 4 6 9 7
Weaning rate (%) 80.0 85.7 90.0 77.8
Death loss (%) 0 14.3 10.0 0
Slaughter grade 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.0
Feeder grade 8.2 8.5 9.7 9.1
Weaning weight (lbs.) 386 328 326 331
Production per cow (lbs.) 309 281 293 258
Continuous molasses
Cows bred 9 14 13 13
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 100.0 76.9 92.3
Cows to calve 6 9 12 11
Calves born 4 9 12 10
Calves weaned 3 9 12 10
Weaning rate (%) 50.0 100.0 100.0 90.9
Death loss (%) 25.0 0 0 0
Slaughter grade 6.3 6.7 6.2 6.9
Feeder grade 8.0 8.4 9.3 9.9
Weaning weight (lbs.) 400 325 348 345
Production per cow (lbs.) 200 325 348 314









Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 27

Appendix Table 5.-Production of Angus Brahman cows bred to Brahman bulls
by year and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63


No molasses
Cows bred ...... 8 7 5
Pregnancy rate (%) ...... 75.0 71.4 60.0
Cows to calve ...... ..... 7 5
Calves born ..... ...... 6 5
Calves weaned ...... ...... 5 5
Weaning rate (%) ...... ...... 71.4 100.0
Death loss (%) ..... ...... 16.7 0
Slaughter grade ...... ...... 6.6 6.8
Feeder grade ...... ..... 10.0 10.4
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... ..... 408 357
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... ...... 291 357
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred ...... 9 9 9
Pregnancy rate (%) ...... 100.0 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve ...... ..... 9 9
Calves born ...... ...... 9 9
Calves weaned ...... ..... 8 8
Weaning rate (%) ...... ...... 88.9 88.9
Death loss (%) ...... ..... 11.1 11.1
Slaughter grade ...... ..... 7.2 7.1
Feeder grade ..... ...... 10.5 10.0
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... ...... 412 399
Production per cow (Ibs.) ...... ...... 366 355
Continuous molasses
Cows bred ...... 9 9 9
Pregnancy rate (%) ...... 100.0 100.0 88.9
Cows to calve ...... ...... 9 9
Calves born ...... ...... 9 9
Calves weaned ...... ...... 7 9
Weaning rate (%) ...... ...... 77.8 100.0
Death loss (%) ...... ...... 22.2 0
Slaughter grade ...... ...... 7.0 7.9
Feeder grade ...... ..... 10.0 11.0
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... ...... 392 396
Production per cow (lbs.) ..... ...... 305 396








28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Appendix Table 6.-Production of Hereford Brahman cows bred to Brahman
bulls by year and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63


No molasses
Cows bred 10 9 9 11
Pregnancy rate (%) 90.0 88.9 100.0 81.8
Cows to calve ...... 9 9 8
Calves born ...... 9 8 8
Calves weaned ...... 9 8 8
Weaning rate (%) ...... 100.0 88.9 100.0
Death loss (%) ...... 0 0 0
Slaughter grade .... 9.0 6.4 7.2
Feeder grade ...... 9.2 9.5 10.6
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... 358 401 392
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... 358 356 392
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred 10 10 8 12
Pregnancy rate (%) 90.0 90.0 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve ...... 10 8 8
Calves born ...... 9 8 8
Calves weaned ...... 8 8 8
Weaning rate (%) ...... 80.0 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) ...... 11.2 0 0
Slaughter grade ...... 8.1 7.5 7.0
Feeder grade ...... 9.1 10.5 10.1
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... 392 407 399
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... 314 407 399
Continuous molasses
Cows bred 10 10 9 12
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 90.0 100.0 75.0
Cows to calve ...... 10 9 8
Calves born ...... 10 9 8
Calves weaned ...... 10 9 8
Weaning rate (%) ...... 100.0 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) ...... 0 0 0
Slaughter grade ...... 8.6 7.1 8.3
Feeder grade ...... 9.5 10.1 11.4
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... 398 400 428
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... 398 400 428









Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 29

Appendix Table 7.-Production of Hereford cows by year and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63

No molasses
Cows bred 15 14 ...... 12
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 85.7 ...... 91.7
Cows to calve 13 10 11
Calves born 13 10 11
Calves weaned 13 10 8 ......
Weaning rate (%) 100.0 100.0 72.7
Death loss (%) 0 0 27.3
Slaughter grade 6.2 8.2 6.5 ......
Feeder grade 8.0 10.4 10.0 ..
Weaning weight (lbs.) 353 305 360
Production per cow (lbs.) 353 305 262
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred 14 12 13 13
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 100.0 92.3 100.0
Cows to calve 12 9 11 10
Calves born 12 9 11 10
Calves weaned 12 9 11 10
Weaning rate (%) 100 100 100 100
Death loss (%) 0 0 0 0
Slaughter grade 7.3 9.0 5.8 6.7
Feeder grade 9.2 10.9 9.7 9.4
Weaning weight (lbs.) 434 341 344 342
Production per cow (lbs.) 434 341 344 342
Continuous molasses
Cows bred 14 14 15 12
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 92.9 93.3 91.7
Cows to calve 12 10 12 11
Calves born 12 10 12 11
Calves weaned 11 10 12 11
Weaning rate (%) 91.7 100.0 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) 8.3 0 0 0
Slaughter grade 7.3 9.1 7.7 6.9
Feeder grade 8.7 10.9 10.7 10.1
Weaning weight (lbs.) 380 365 398 358
Production per cow (lbs.) 348 365 398 358









30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Appendix Table 8.-Production of Brahman Hereford cows bred to Hereford
bulls by year and molasses treatment.
1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63


No molasses
Cows bred 9 7 ...... 8
Pregnancy rate (%) 77.8 100 ...... 87.5
Cows to calve ...... 8 7
Calves born ...... 8 7 .
Calves weaned ...... 8 7 ......
Weaning rate (%) ...... 100 100
Death loss (%) ...... 0 0
Slaughter grade 8.2 7.0
Feeder grade ...... 10.2 10.3
Weaning weight (lbs.) ..... 330 426
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... 330 426 ..
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred 9 8 8 10
Pregnancy rate (%) 88.9 100.0 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve ..... 8 8 8
Calves born ...... 8 8 8
Calves weaned ...... 8 8 8
Weaning rate (%) 100 100 100
Death loss (%) ...... 0 0 0
Slaughter grade ...... 9.1 7.0 7.5
Feeder grade .. 10.9 10.5 10.6
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... 389 395 419
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... 389 395 419
Continuous molasses
Cows bred 9 8 8 11
Pregnancy rate (%) 88.9 100.0 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve ...... 8 8 8
Calves born ...... 8 8 8
Calves weaned ...... 8 8 8
Weaning rate (%) ...... 100.0 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) ...... 0 0 0
Slaughter grade ...... 9.0 7.6 8.0
Feeder grade ...... 10.8 11.1 11.1
Weaning weight (lbs.) ...... 375 427 434
Production per cow (lbs.) ...... 375 427 434









Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows 31

Appendix Table 9.-Production of Angus Hereford cows bred to Hereford bulls
by year and molasses treatment.

1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63

No molasses
Cows bred 12 9 ...... 13
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 100.0 ...... 76.9
Cows to calve 7 9 9
Calves born 7 9 9 ..
Calves weaned 6 9 9
Weaning rate (%) 85.7 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) 14.3 0 0
Slaughter grade 5.2 8.3 7.1 ....
Feeder grade 7.2 11.3 10.3
Weaning weight (lbs.) 310 308 372
Production per cow (lbs.) 266 308 372
Seasonal molasses
Cows bred 11 10 11 10
Pregnancy (%) 90.9 100.0 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve 7 10 10 8
Calves born 7 10 10 8
Calves weaned 6 10 10 8
Weaning rate (%) 85.7 100.0 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) 14.3 0 0 0
Slaughter grade 6.0 8.8 6.9 7.2
Feeder grade 7.8 11.0 10.5 10.5
Weaning weight (lbs.) 347 368 370 376
Production per cow (lbs.) 297 368 370 376
Continuous molasses
Cows bred 12 11 9 10
Pregnancy rate (%) 100.0 81.8 100.0 100.0
Cows to calve 7 11 9 7
Calves born 7 11 9 7
Calves weaned 7 10 9 7
Weaning rate (%) 100.0 90.9 100.0 100.0
Death loss (%) 0 9.1 0 0
Slaughter grade 6.0 9.0 7.4 7.3
Feeder grade 7.4 11.2 10.4 10.3
Weaning weight (lbs.) 318 352 394 394
Production per cow (lbs.) 318 320 394 394








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