• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Experimental procedure
 Results
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 759 (technical)
Title: Beef production in a crisscross breeding system involving the Angus, Brahman, and Hereford
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026773/00001
 Material Information
Title: Beef production in a crisscross breeding system involving the Angus, Brahman, and Hereford
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 10 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Crockett, J. R ( Joe Richard ), 1926-
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Breeding   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 10.
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Crockett ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026773
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929855
oclc - 18432830
notis - AEP0656

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Bul759 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Experimental procedure
        Page 2
    Results
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 8
    Literature cited
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Unnumbered ( 11 )
        Unnumbered ( 12 )
        Unnumbered ( 13 )
        Unnumbered ( 14 )
Full Text

Bulletin 759 (technical) October 1973



eef Production in a Crisscross Breeding System

Involving the Angus, Brahman, and Hereford

J. R. Crockett, R. W. Kidder, M. Koger, and D. W. Beardsley



















Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
J. W. Sites, Dean for Research
University of Florida, Gainesville










HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida













CONTENTS

Page

Introduction ..----.... ------.... -----.......-....----.--.-- 1

Experimental Procedure ....-------.... ...--.. ----..-...---..---- 1

Results ....------.....-....-------......- ---- 3

Birth Rate .--.--..---..-...--.--.------------...--..- 4

Survival Rate -------.-----------.--...-... --------- 5

Weaning Rate ----...-----.. -----...... ------------- 7

Birth Weight .---..---............------..----.------- 7

Weaning Weight --.-----...--..---....---..-----.-----.- 7

Age at W meaning ....8........--...- ..... .... .. --. 8

Production per Cow --...- .....- ........- ...-- ...- .... 8

Summary and Conclusions .....-...-...- -------...... ------ 9

Literature Cited -------.------ --------------------. 10













CONTENTS

Page

Introduction ..----.... ------.... -----.......-....----.--.-- 1

Experimental Procedure ....-------.... ...--.. ----..-...---..---- 1

Results ....------.....-....-------......- ---- 3

Birth Rate .--.--..---..-...--.--.------------...--..- 4

Survival Rate -------.-----------.--...-... --------- 5

Weaning Rate ----...-----.. -----...... ------------- 7

Birth Weight .---..---............------..----.------- 7

Weaning Weight --.-----...--..---....---..-----.-----.- 7

Age at W meaning ....8........--...- ..... .... .. --. 8

Production per Cow --...- .....- ........- ...-- ...- .... 8

Summary and Conclusions .....-...-...- -------...... ------ 9

Literature Cited -------.------ --------------------. 10








BEEF PRODUCTION IN A CRISSCROSS
BREEDING SYSTEM INVOLVING THE ANGUS,
BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD

J. R. Crockett, R. W. Kidder, M. Koger,
and D. W. Beardsley1

INTRODUCTION

Many researchers have reported results of crossbreeding beef
cattle for increasing beef production (1)2. Much work is still
being conducted along these lines. Most reports, however, deal
with the first-cross (F1) progeny or F1 dam. Since a beef cattle
breeding system is most efficient when it is self-sustaining, i.e.,
producing its own replacement females, it was necessary to
measure the production of a continued crisscross system. How
much heterosis or superiority is involved in the F1 progeny and
F1 dam is not to be reported in this bulletin. Many times beef
producers who are considering a crossbreeding plan have asked,
"Where do we go from here?" The results reported here will
give producers more information to use in making a decision.
The purpose of this study was to determine only the sustained
advantage of rotational backcrossing for several years. Data
are presented here from a simple and efficient crossbreeding
system.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The results reported were obtained from a beef cattle breed-
ing study conducted at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Belle Glade. The project was initiated in 1961 and ter-
minated with the 1971 calf crop. The study was designed to
compare the performance of progeny from Angus, Brahman, and
Hereford cattle and from the three possible two-breed rotational
crosses from these breeds. The foundation cattle were purebred
Angus and Brahman cows, highgrade Hereford cows, and F1
females of Angus x Brahman, Hereford x Brahman and Angus
x Hereford breeding. The Angus x Brahman females did not
enter the data until the 1962 calf crop. Design of the study is
shown in Table 1.

1 Crockett, Associate Animal Geneticist, Belle Glade; Kidder, Animal Hus-
bandman Emeritus, Belle Glade; Koger, Animal Geneticist, Gainesville;
Beardsley, Animal Nutritionist and Director, University of Florida, IFAS,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade.
'Numbers in parentheses refer to literature cited.
1








Table 1. Experimental Design.

Breed of Breed and Number of Cows Used Each Year
Sire Angus Brahman Hereford BA BH HA

Angus 40 30 30
Brahman 40 30 30
Hereford 40 30 30



At the start of the study the F1 females were gate cut with
one-half of each breed group assigned to a sire breeding herd
representing one of the parent breeds, and the other half as-
signed to a sire breeding herd representing the other parent
breed, i.e., one half of B x A Fl's were bred to an Angus sire
and the other half to a Brahman sire, etc. The female progeny
of each breeding herd furnished replacement females for the
other side of the cross. The first cross resulted in 3/ blood of
breed of sire, the second cross resulted in %, blood of breed of
sire, and the third and subsequent crosses progressively ap-
proached the equilibrium of 2/3 blood of the sire breed. In this
report all crossbreds are grouped according to cross and breed
of sire without attempting to study each generation. The
Angus, Brahman, and Hereford cows were straightbred in order
to have contemporary comparisons of the parent breeds.
All breeding herds were managed alike, grazing Roselawn
St. Augustinegrass pastures, with a stocking rate of approxi-
mately 0.85 acres per animal unit. Supplemental feed was given
in the form of straight mill-run cane molasses at a rate of 4.5
pounds per head per day for approximately 100 days during the
winter. Replacement heifers were managed similarly to the
breeding herds. Cows were culled the first time open with the
exception of the purebred Brahman which were culled after
the second open season. Selected heifer replacements were bred
to calve first at three years of age. The breeding season ex-
tended 90 days beginning February 15 and ending May 15, with
the subsequent calf crop weaned the last week of July in the
following year. The study included 2928 progeny born to 3404
dams. Representative progeny of some of the crossbred and
straightbred groups are shown in Figure 1, 2 and 3.
The criteria used to measure the differences between the
continued backcrosses vs. the purebred parents were: 1) birth
rate; 2) survival rate, birth to weaning; 3) weaning rate; 4)
birth weight; 5) weaning weight; and 6) production per cow.
2








The values shown are actual and no adjustments have been
made.

RESULTS

Since this report deals with preweaning and weaning data,
the different traits related to these measures of production will
be reported and discussed separately. Also, in a crisscross
breeding system there are two sides of the cross and for some



* i ; -











73.


- '..

Figure 1. Progeny of Brahman X British rotational crisscross breeding
system at weaning.





















Figure 2. Progeny of British X British (Hereford-Angus) rotational criss-
cross breeding system.

3



























Figure 3. Hereford calves, at weaning, representing progeny of one of the
straightbred parental breeds.

traits the two sides may differ. For this reason the data are
presented in two ways: 1) Table 2 consists of data of the aver-
age of the combined sides of the crosses, and 2) Table 3 consists
of data of the average of each side of the crosses.

Birth Rate

This trait is reported here as the percentage of calves born
to all cows exposed to the bulls. Many workers (2, 3, 4, 7, 8,
9, 10) reported effects of crossbreeding on this trait; however,
they were studying mostly F, dams rather than subsequent
backcrosses. The reports show the crossbred dams to have a
higher birth rate than the average of the parent breeds. The
result of this study shows that Brahman x British crossbred
dams, in a crisscross breeding system, have more than 5%
greater birth rate than the average of the parental breeds of
the cross. However, the Angus-Hereford crosses show only a
1.3% advantage (Table 2).
Recent work by Peacock et al. (5), in a study of Brahman,
Shorthorn, and Brahman x Shorthorn reciprocal crosses, showed
that dams of predominant Brahman breeding (% B, 1/4 S) had
a higher birth rate than dams of predominant Shorthorn (% S,
1/4 B) breeding. The results of the study reported here also
show the advantage for predominately Brahman dams. Data
4







Table 2. Average of production traits of the two sides of each crossbred
combined and the average of the straightbred parental breeds
(Unadjusted data).

Straightbred Average
A-B H-B A-H Ax B x B AxH

No. cows bred, total 798 799 799 671 758 777
No. calves born, total 648 650 710 575 649 700
Birth rate, % 81.2 81.4 88.9 85.7 85.7 90.1
Survival rate, % 86.2 88.5 90.7 92.9 93.2 93.3
Weaning rate, % 70.2 72.4 80.6 79.6 79.7 84.1
Birth weight (lbs.) 57.3 62.3 56.6 67.7 72.2 55.8
Weaning weight (lbs.) 379 380 385 444 449 402
Age at weaning (days) 211 207 222 214 210 224
Production per cow (lbs.) 266 276 310 354 359 338

Advantage of both sides combined of crossbreds
over average of parental breeds (%)

Birth rate 5.5 5.3 1.3
Survival rate 7.8 5.3 2.9
Weaning rate 13.4 10.1 4.3
Birth weight 18.2 15.9 -1.4
Weaning weight 17.2 18.2 4.4
Prod. per cow 33.1 30.1 9.0



in Table 3 show that BA and BH dams (the first letter indiating
breed of sire of dams where B=Brahman, A=Angus and H==
Hereford) had higher birth rates than the reciprocal AB and
HB dams. When compared to the average of the parental breeds
involved in the cross the BA and BH dams showed an advantage
of 7.0% and 9.1%, respectively. In the same comparison AB and
HB dams showed only 3.4% and 1.4%, respectively.

Survival Rate

This trait is expressed in the number of calves weaned to
those born, on a percentage basis. A report by the National
Academy of Sciences (4) indicates losses for stillbirths, con-
genital malformation, and mortality of calves during the post-
natal period ranges from 9% to 31%. During this study, calf
losses ranged from 4.5% for the BH dams to 16.0% for the
straightbred Brahman dams. The Brahman-British crosses

5











Table 3. Effect of breed on various production traits (Unadjusted data).

Breed Sire: A B H A B B H A H All
Dam: A B H BA AB HB BH HA AH Breeds
No. cows bred 399 399 400 346 325 383 375 393 384 3404
No. calves born 354 294 356 302 273 316 333 355 345 2928
Birth rate (%) 88.7 73.7 89.0 87.3 84.0 82.5 88.8 90.3 89.8 86.0
Survival rate (%) 88.4 84.0 93.0 95.0 90.8 90.8 95.5 91.8 94.8 91.7
Weaning rate (%) 78.4 61.9 82.8 82.9 76.3 74.9 84.8 82.9 85.2 78.8
Birth weight (Ibs.) 51.6 63.0 61.5 62.9 72.5 76.2 68.2 53.8 57.7 63.0
Weaning weight (lbs.) 383 374 386 448 440 441 457 392 411 411
Age at weaning (days) 226 196 217 220 208 206 213 226 222 215
Production per cow 300 232 320 371 336 330 388 325 350 324

Advantage of crossbreds over average of parent breeds (%)

Birth rate 7.0 3.4 1.4 9.1 1.6 1.0
Survival rate 10.2 5.3 2.6 7.9 1.2 4.5
Weaning rate 15.1 6.0 3.5 17.1 2.9 5.7
Birth weight 9.8 27.0 22.3 9.5 -5.2 1.9
Weaning weight 18.2 16.1 16.1 20.3 1.8 6.8
Prod. per cow 39.5 26.3 19.6 40.6 4.8 12.9











Table 3. Effect of breed on various production traits (Unadjusted data).

Breed Sire: A B H A B B H A H All
Dam: A B H BA AB HB BH HA AH Breeds
No. cows bred 399 399 400 346 325 383 375 393 384 3404
No. calves born 354 294 356 302 273 316 333 355 345 2928
Birth rate (%) 88.7 73.7 89.0 87.3 84.0 82.5 88.8 90.3 89.8 86.0
Survival rate (%) 88.4 84.0 93.0 95.0 90.8 90.8 95.5 91.8 94.8 91.7
Weaning rate (%) 78.4 61.9 82.8 82.9 76.3 74.9 84.8 82.9 85.2 78.8
Birth weight (Ibs.) 51.6 63.0 61.5 62.9 72.5 76.2 68.2 53.8 57.7 63.0
Weaning weight (lbs.) 383 374 386 448 440 441 457 392 411 411
Age at weaning (days) 226 196 217 220 208 206 213 226 222 215
Production per cow 300 232 320 371 336 330 388 325 350 324

Advantage of crossbreds over average of parent breeds (%)

Birth rate 7.0 3.4 1.4 9.1 1.6 1.0
Survival rate 10.2 5.3 2.6 7.9 1.2 4.5
Weaning rate 15.1 6.0 3.5 17.1 2.9 5.7
Birth weight 9.8 27.0 22.3 9.5 -5.2 1.9
Weaning weight 18.2 16.1 16.1 20.3 1.8 6.8
Prod. per cow 39.5 26.3 19.6 40.6 4.8 12.9







showed an advantage of 7.8% and 5.3%/ for A x B and H x B,
respectively (Table 2). However, Table 3 presents data indi-
cating the predominant Brahman dams had higher calf survival
rates than the reciprocal crosses. The BA and BH dams showed
an advantage of 10.2% and 7.9% over the average of the paren-
tal breeds, while the AB and HB dams showed only 5.3% and
2.6%, respectively. Table 3 also shows there is a difference be-
tween the reciprocal crosses of the British crosses, although
not quite as pronounced as the Brahman-British crosses.

Weaning Rate
Weaning rate is expressed on a percentage basis as a ratio
of calves weaned to total cows exposed to the bulls and is a re-
flection of pregnancy rate, embryonic death loss, and postnatal
death loss. It can be calculated by multiplying survival rate
times birth rate. Data is presented in Table 2 showing cross-
bred dams weaned a higher percentage of calves than the aver-
age of the parental breeds with the A x B and H x B dams,
showing an advantage of 13.4% and 10.1%, respectively. The
predominant Brahman dams show an advantage over the recip-
rocal cross dams (Table 3).

Birth Weight
Data for birth weight of straightbred and crossbred progeny
are presented'in Tables 2 and 3. Birth weight may be considered
a function of the genetic makeup of the calf plus length of ges-
tation. These data indicate that British crosses are approxi-
mately the same as the average of the parental breeds. The
Brahman crosses show heavier birth weight than the average
of the parental breeds used in the cross (Table 2); however,
the predominant Brahman dams had calves lighter at birth than
the reciprocal crosses (Table 3).

Weaning Weight

Numerous reports by other researchers (1) have presented
data indicating the superiority of the first-cross progeny as well
as the first-cross dams in weaning weights. This study does not
report the first-cross progeny but only the production of F, and
subsequent backcross dams. Table 2 presents data showing the
Brahman crosses having an advantage of 17.2% to 18.2% com-
pared to the average of the parental breeds involved, while the
British crosses show only a 4.4% advantage over the average of
their parental breeds. For weaning weight there is not as large
7







a difference between the reciprocals of the Brahman crosses as
there was for previous traits. The Brahman-Angus cross shows
only an 8-pound advantage for BA dams compared to the AB
dams. However, there is a 16-pound difference between BH and
HB dams. In the British crosses the predominant Angus dams
produced calves weaning 19 pounds heavier than predominant
Hereford dams.

Age at Weaning
Age at weaning is a function of conception date, gestation
length, and weaning date. Since all bulls were put in the breed-
ing herds at the same time and removed on the same date, and
weaning time was constant year to year, age at weaning should
be comparable for all breed groups except for the straightbred
Brahman, which have a longer gestation length (approximately
10 to 12 days) than British breeds. However, it is evident that
the Brahman sire has some influence either on breeding date or
length of gestation as shown in Table 3. The average age at
weaning throughout the study was 215 days; the straightbred
Brahman were the youngest (196 days), and the straightbred
Angus and Angus sired calves from HA dams were the oldest
(226 days). That the sire has an influence on gestation length
or breeding date is obvious, since Angus-sired calves are the
oldest and Brahman-sired calves are the youngest in all breed
groups.

Production Per Cow
This is the most important single criteria for measuring
beef cattle production, since it is a combination of weaning rate
and weaning weight. It measures the total production efficiency
of a cow herd. Production per cow was calculated as the product
of weaning weight and weaning rate. In this study production
per cow ranged from an advantage of 28 pounds for British
crosses to 83 to 88 pounds for Brahman crosses when compared
to the average of the parental breeds involved in the cross. This
is an average increase of 9.0% for Angus-Hereford crosses and
33.1% and 30.1% for Angus-Brahman and Hereford-Brahman,
respectively, as shown in Table 2. However, when each side of
the reciprocal crosses are measured, it is evident that one side
of each cross is superior to the other side (Table 3). In the
Brahman-Angus crosses, BA dams are superior to the average
of the parental breeds by 105 pounds (39.5%), while the AB
dams are superior by 70 pounds (26.3%). The BH dams are
superior to the average of their parental breeds by 112 pounds
8







(40.6%), while HB dams are superior by only 64 pounds
(19.6%). In the British crosses AH dams are more productive
(12.9% to 4.8%) than the HA dams. Since this trait represents
total production, it is interesting to note that the combined
production for both sides of the Brahman-Angus and Brahman-
Hereford crossbreds show only a 4.7% and 6.2% advantage,
respectively, over the combined sides of the Hereford-Angus
crosses.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Eleven years of calf production data from a crossbreeding
project at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle
Glade, Florida, were studied to measure the performance of beef
cattle in a rotational crisscross breeding system compared to a
straightbreeding system. The breeds involved were Angus,
Brahman, and Hereford and the three possible two-breed rota-
tion crosses of these breeds.
Since a beef cattle breeding system is considered most effi-
cient when it is self-sustaining by producing its own replace-
ment females, the production characteristics of a continued
rotational crisscross system were determined. In this system,
females produced from one side of the cross are replacements
for the opposite side. The project was designed to measure the
production of continued backcross dam as compared to produc-
tion of the contemporary straightbred parent breeds.
The project continued through three backcross generations,
and production in the latter generation was still superior to the
original parent breeds. It was evident that there was a distinct
advantage for total production in a continued backcrossing sys-
tem over a straightbreeding system, as measured by production
per cow. This was an advantage of 88 pounds (33.1%), 83
pounds (30.1%), and 28 pounds (9.0%) for the Brahman-Angus,
Brahman-Hereford, and Hereford-Angus crossbreds, respec-
tively. There was only a slight advantage in total production in
crosses involving the Brahman breed when compared to the
Hereford-Angus crossbreds (5.5%). Since it is possible for the
Hereford-Angus crossbred steer calves to command a higher
price at weaning time than some of the Brahman crossbred
calves, it may be that the Hereford-Angus cross is more eco-
nomically feasible.





9








LITERATURE CITED

1. Cunha, T. J., M. Koger, and A. C. Warnick. 1962. Crossbreeding Beef
Cattle. Univ. of Fla. Press, Gainesville, Florida.
2. Gaines, J. A., W. H. McClure, D. W. Vogt, R. C. Carter, and C. M. Kin-
caid. 1966. Heterosis from crosses among British breeds of beef
cattle: fertility and calf performance to weaning. J. Animal Sci. 25:5.
3. Knapp, B., Jr., A. L. Baker, and R. T. Clark. 1949. Crossbred beef cattle
for the Northern Great Plains. USDA Circ. 810.
4. National Academy of Sciences. 1968. Prenatal and Postnatal Mortality
in Cattle. Publication 1685, National Academy of Sciences, Washing-
ton, D.C.
5. Peacock, F. M., M. Koger, W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, and A. C. Warnick.
1971. Reproduction in Brahman, Shorthorn and crossbred cows on
different pasture programs. J. Animal Sci. 33:458.
6. Turner, J. W., B. R. Farthing, and G. L. Robertson. 1968. Heterosis in
reproductive performance of beef cows. J. Animal Sci. 27:336.
7. Warnick, A. C., J. H. Meade, and M. Koger. 1960. Factors influencing
pregnancy rate in Florida beef cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 623.
8. Wiltbank, J. N., E. J. Warwick, E. H. Vernon, and B. M. Priode. 1961.
Factors affecting net calf crop in beef cattle. J. Animal Sci. 20:409.
9. Wiltbank, J. N., K. E. Gregory, J. A. Rothlisberger, J. E. Ingalls, and
C. W. Kasson. 1967. Fertility in beef cows bred to produce straight-
bred and crossbred calves. J. Animal Sci. 26:1005.





























10















































This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $660.24, or 81, cents per copy to provide information on
beef production in a continued crisscross breeding system.





University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs