Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 10
Title: Annual report of the director to the Board of Trustees of Experimental Station for the year beginning July 1, 1889, and ending June 30, 1890
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the director to the Board of Trustees of Experimental Station for the year beginning July 1, 1889, and ending June 30, 1890
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 31 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: DePass, Jas. P ( James P )
Pickell, J. M
Publisher: Experiment Station of Florida at the State Agricultural College
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1890
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural experiment stations -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Phosphates -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Phosphatic fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Superphosphates -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: Jas. P. DePass. Phosphate / by J.M. Pickell.
General Note: Caption titles.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026756
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001086644
oclc - 18686111
notis - AFH1932

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida










BULLETIN No. 10,

-OF THE-


EXPERIMENT STATION


OF FLORIDA,

-- AT THE -


STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.

Lake Citg, Florida.


JULY, 1890.


REV. JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
STAFF :
DR. J. C. NEAL, ENTOMOLOGIST AND BOTANIST.
DR. J. M. PICKELL, BOTANIST.
J. J. EARLE, A. B., ASSISTANT BOTANIST.



JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA :
SDACOSTA PRINTING AND PUBLISHING HOUSE,
189o.

ri4~~L-1~**~B












ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE DIRECTOR TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF EX-
PERIMENTAL STATION FOR THE YEAR BEGINNING
JULY 1, 1889, AND ENDING JUNE 30, 1890.

Mr. President and Gentlemen of th, Board:
I desire to make the following annual report of Experimental
Station in regard to the work done and give some account of its de-
partments:
THE LABORATORY is in a most excellent condition, having all the
appliances with the most improved apparatus and the best of chemi-
cals, in order to accomplish thorough and complete analysis of every-
thing within the range of the science of chemistry. The chemists are
learned, diligent and devoted to their profession and have done a
large and varied amount of work, as much as it was possible for them
to do, free of charge to the people. Under the proposition to analyze
free, there were sent the chemists more specimens of soils, rocks, plants,
fruits, cereals, roots, vegetables, water, etc., than they were able to
do. Under such circumstances it is a matter of regret that quite a
number of persons were disappointed in not having their samples an-
alyzed. But a great deal of work has been done, much of which has
been reported in previous bulletins, a great deal is to be reported still,
while to many parties reports have been made which will not be given
to the public, because unnecessary. Having devoted so much time
and material, with heavy cost in the past without charge
to parties, it is my purpose, after July ist, to decline to analyze for
any who may apply, free of charge, unless such analysis may be in
the interest of agricultural science and does not conflict with regular
scientific investigation in connection with the Station.
THE ENTOMOLOGIST AND BOTANIST is well supplied with everything
essential to carry on his work successfully, and is giving diligent atten-
tion to his departments while assisting the director in his epistolary
work.
THE FARM,
As you are aware, a year ago was in very poor condition for success-
ful experimentation. A large part of it was a miry and impenetrable
swamp, while the fields were so full of stumps and the hills with
springs as to render quite a number of acres useless. In spite of
these obstacles, I began last year many experiments in field,
garden and fruit crops, which are continued this year, and in-
creased in number, some of which promise permanent benefit to
the agricultural interests of the State. These experiments have been
conducted with unskilled labor and inexperienced superintendents,
and under the heavy pressure of an extensive corresponden-e, em-
bracing not only our State and county, but many foreign countries.









The farm is now getting in most excellent condition, and I am
hopeful that by the end of this year that the difficulties which at first
so embarrassed me will have, in a great measure, been overcome. By
a system of ditching and cultivation the serious trouble of washing,
occasioned by exceptional heavy rains, is under such control as not to
materially interfere with growing crops and experiments of an
interesting character. To sum up, and give an outline of the work of
the past year, I will state that I have finished the upper story of the
Laboratory and Station building, thus giving a fine lecture room to
the chemist, a good-sized room for society purposes for cadets, two
commodious rooms for the entomologist and his department, besides
plumbing the house for water and gas. Attached to the Art Hall I
have built an iron shed, in which is an engine, a cane, and a food mill
with furnace, all the necessary shafts, pulleys and belting for success-
ful operations. The superintendent's house on the farm has been
ceiled, and a kitchen built. The horse barn has had a valuable and
necessary addition in the w !y of a stable, while wagon, tool and fertil-
izer store-rooms have been made out of a rickety and unshapely barn.-
I have also built a double cabin and dug a well for laborers,
and added a comfortable and spacious barn for cattle. Pas-
tures have been made, and a hennery built on the most improved
plans for our climate. The houses and fences have been painted
and whitewashed. As an ornament, and as a benefit for geese
and ducks, one of the streams running through the farm has
been dammed up. It is contemplated to utilize the other stream for
similar purposes, and als) for experiments in fish culture. In addi-
tion to this, I have tiled the three acres of garden and the park around
the superintendent's house, which was a miry swamp, over which nei-
ther horse nor man could walk without bogging. The tiling was made
of heart pine, and has been successful.
THE STOCK consists of three mules, a Hambletonian stallion and
mare, a registered Jersey bull and three cows, a registered Holstein-
Friesian bull and cow, Poland China and common hogs, Cotswold
sheep, and improved breeds of turkeys, geese, ducks and chickens.
These are doing well.
I have also purchased an incubator and brooder, improved farm-
ing tools and a stump-puller, with wagons, harness, cart, and other
things necessary and essential to equip the farm.
To place the farm in its present condition it has required the cut-
ting down of fourteen and a half acres of dense woodland swamps,
the removal of stumps, the grubbing and leveling of the land. Besides
this, thirty acres more were cleared of stumps, seven of which were as
laborious and as difficult to clear as the fourteen and a half acres of
original swamp.
I have dug 2,331 yards of ditch from four to six feet wide and
from two to three feet deep, have placed 6,157 feet of tiling from
eighteen inches to two feet deep, and have built fences-of plank,
3,250 feet; of woven wire, 4,700 feet, and of barbed wire, 2,560 feet.










EXPERIMENTS.
There are forty-one experiments in cotton, embracing long cotton
from all parts of the world where it is known to be cultivated, and
several very prolific varieties of short cotton of unusually fine staple.
In corn, io experiments; rice, I; sugar cane, I; sorghum, 15;
grasses, 5; the Texas blue grass very promising; forage-plants, quite
a number; silo and ensilage; Irish potatoes, 7; sweet potatoes, 5;
vegetables of many varieties; grapes, over 60; peaches, pears, apples,
Oriental plums and persimmons, about 150.
In nursery, but recently budded, I will have quite a number of
pear, peach and plum trees for gratuitous distribution, besides several
thousand each of peaches and plums which will be budded in the fall.
Some new fruits have been obtained from Washington, and others
are applied for to the Department of Agriculture.
I have obtained, through the Department of Agriculture at Wash-
ington, a number of cuttings of Smyrna figs and Osier willows, which
have taken root and are growing very rapidly.
It has been my endeavor to organize the farm not only for the
object of experimentation, but with the purpose in view of facilitating
the education of youths in the Agricultural Department of the college.
By the time the college opens its fall session, in October, the student
will be afforded instruction and illustration in every department of ag-
riculture common to our State.
JAS. P. IEPASS, Director.

DEFUNIAK, FLA., June 9, 1890.
To Rev. James P. DePass, Director:
DEAR SIR-I have the pleasure to submit the following resume
of the operations of the past year at the Sub-Experiment Station lo-
cated at DeFuniak Springs, Fla.
A one and a half story frame house, 24x32 feet, has been built,
well finished and plastered.
Adjoining the house a well has been dug, three feet in diameter
and forty feet deep. This has been supplied with a Gould's force
pump. Since completed this well has contained from twenty to
twenty-five feet of water, and if furnished with a windmill the supply
of water would be sufficient to test the benefits of irrigation.
A frame barn, 16x24 feet, has been built. This is surrounded by
a board fence enclosing an ample yard, in which a limited number of
fowls or stock may be confined.
Substantial bridges have been built and a causeway, about 250
feet in length, has been made in front of the barn, leading to the house.
Ten acres of the farm has been cleared and enclosed with a sub-
stantial board fence, except I50 feet in front of the house which is
woven wire fence.
About 600 yards of open ditch has been made and is now in
good condition.
Seven of the ten acres are under cultivation, the remaining
three will necessarily have to be tile drained before they can be
plowed.











Small plats of forage crops, such as Kaffir corn, Egyptian rice
corn, Broom corn, millets, vetches, Spanish peanuts, sweet corn, etc.,
have been planted with a view of ascertaining their productive quali-
ties and relative value as well as to provide feed for the farm stock.
A small space has been devoted to garden truck with a view of
determining what kinds of vegetables were adapted to this locality,
and the varieties of each that succeeded best under different methods
of culture.
A small plat has been planted to long staple cotton.
We have also imported and planted a variety of sugar cane
grown on the Sandwich Islands.
Thirteen plats have been sown with different varieties of grasses.
Outside of the farm we are cultivating two acres iii field corn and
two acres in rice, to provide feed for farm stock.
Eighteen varieties of pear trees and twenty of peaches, several
kinds of plums, apricots, grapes and small fruits, and quite a number
of Satsuma orange trees, have been planted in the orchard. A limited
number of roses and ornamental vines, shrubs and flowers have been
planted in the house yard.
The above report is respectfully submitted by,
Yours truly,
L. W. PLANK,
Superintendent.

The Director was requested to publish the above reports in his
July Bulletin, by the Board of Trustees, as information to the public.
TAS. P. DEPASS, Director.














PHOSPHATE.

BY J. M. PICKELL.

I. FLORIDA PHOSPHATE.
II. SUPERPHOSPHATE-ITS MANUFACTURE.
III. PHOSPHATE AS A FERTILIZER.

I.

FLORIDA PHOSPHATE.

HISTORICAL.
As early as 1880, Dr. Chas. U. Shepard, then State Chemist of
South Carolina, said of the phosphate region, that it "certainly ex-
tends into North Carolina on the north and probably as far south as
Florida." In an "Abstract from Mineral Resources of the United
States, calendar year 1885," issued by the United States Geological
Survey, Dr. David T. Day gives the following information: Dr. C.
A. Simmons, of Hawthorne, located in 1879 a phosphate deposit
near that place and began the conversion of it into fertilizer in the year
1884. In the same year (1884) Judge James Bell, of Gainesville, dis-
covered phosphate in the Devil's Millhopper, and Mr. John A. Pres-
ton found rock near Waldo, containing bones and sharks' teeth and
emitting the "peculiar oder characteristic of phosphate rock;" hav-
ing tried this rock on poor land, he found it valuable as a fertilizer.
Rock from Simmons' quarry near Hawthorne, analyzed by Prof. C.
A. Colton, of Terre Haute, Indiana, contained 45.72 per cent. of
bone phosphate. Dr. Lawrence C. Johnson in 1884-85 made expla-
nations which threw much light on the subject. "The deposits fol-
low," says Dr. Day, "an irregular line from Thomasville, Georgia,
down through Hamilton, Suwannee, Alachua, Marion, Sumter and
Polk counties, disappearing in Manatee county in the region of Char-
lotte Harbor."
Dr. J. C. Neal, formerly of Archer, now of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station at Lake City, discovered in Levy and Alachua
counties, in 1876, and tested chemically phosphatic rocks, which were
in 1885 sent to the Smithsonian and analyzed quantitatively. They were
found to contain only a small per cent. of phosphate.
In the winter of 1887-88, several samples of supposed phosphates
were analyzed by the writer at the Florida State Agricultural College.
These phosphates were brought to the college from the Sopchoppy
River, Wakulla county, by Dr. J. Kost. Only one of them contained











any phosphate of consequence-23. 85 per cent. of phosphoric acid, or
an equivalent of 52.06 per cent. of bone phosphate. (A fossil from
that section analyzed at the same time contained 35.95 per cent. of
phosphoric acid, or 78.50 per cent. phosphate).
The discovery of phosphate in Peace Creek, DeSoto county, was
made in 1886 by J. Francis LeBaron (limes-Union). The dredging of
these phosphates has been in successful operation for the past two years.
The discovery of the deposits at Dunnellon, on the Withlacoochee
River, by Messrs. Voight, Snowden and Dunn last summer (1889), is
fresh in the minds of all.
In December, 1889, samples of phosphate were sent us from
Ocala for analysis. Since that date they have been steadily coming
in from very nearly every county of the State, and many valuable de-
posits have been discovered. In accordance with the policy of the
Station, to aid to the extent of its ability in the development of the
resources of the State, we have analyzed as many of these samples as
possible. This work has, in all cases, been done free of cost to the
sender, and the pressure has been so great that it has not been pos-
sible for us to make any complete analyses, or to study thoroughly the
character of the rock. In most cases we have been compelled to
limit our investigation to the determination of the phosphoric acid,
sand and insoluble matter, and the moisture.
OBJECT OF THIS BULLETIN.
It is not, therefore, the object of this bulletin to give a complete
account of Florida phosphates, but to present such analyses and ob-
servations as we have made, to give briefly, for the benefit of those
unfamiliar with the subject, the underlying principles involved in the
convention of the crude rock into soluble form, or superphosphate,
and to sum up what is known experimentally of phosphate, as a fer-
tilizer.
The chemist of the Experiment Station has not been able, owing
to his professorial and other duties, to inspect any of the deposits, and
has no observations of his own to offer in regard to their extent or
value. It should further be distinctly understood that he makes no
assertion in regard to any particular sample from any particular local-
ity further than that it contains such and such per cent. of such and
such constituents. Whether these samples justly represent the rocks
in the section from which they come is not known to him. If, for ex-
ample, in looking over the list of analyses, it is found that the sample
credited to a certain locality is of very low grade, or of very high
grade for that matter, it is not asserted that there is no high grade,
or no low grade rock in that locality. The chemist was never on the
ground, did not select the samples, and knows nothing personally, and
asserts nothing, in regard to what the samples represent.
ANALYSES.
Three hundred and eighty-seven samples of phosphate, real and
supposed, have been examined in the Station laboratory. They were
sent from the following counties, and were presumably taken in these
counties: Wakulla, Walton, Washington, Leon, Jefferson, Madison,











Hamilton, Suwannee, Lafayette, Columbia, Baker, Bradford, Alachua,
Levy, Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Polk, Hillsboro, Orange,
Lake, Osceola, Manatee, Dade, Monroe, Brevard, Volusia, Clay,
Putnam, St. Johns, Duval.
Two hundred and ninety three of these samples were examined
qualitatively only. Of this number about one-fourth (71) contain no
phosphate, were mainly limestone, though among them were several
samples of sandstone. A little less than two thirds (i88) gave good
tests for phosphate, but were not supposed to contain in any case
more than a small per cent., from I to 5 or io; they consisted
mainly of lime, though in a good many there was much sand and clay.
The balance (34) were thought to contain a paying quantity of phos-
phate, and their owners were advised to have them analyzed quan-
titatively.
The per cent. of phosphate (see Table I) determined in ninety-
four samples, ranged from 1.6i to 87.97, and averaged 52.03. Quite
a number of these samples cannot, of course, be classed as phosphate,
and should be excluded in making up an average. It will help to a
better understanding of the value of these rocks if they are thrown
into several classes, thus:
Containing less than 20.00 per cent. of bone phosphate 14
Average . 9.12 "
Containing from 20 to 30.00 o
Average .25.40 "
Containing from 30 to 55.00 23
Average . 42.48 "
Containing from 55 to 87.97 47
Average. 75.17 '. ''

Total.. .... .................. 94
Or again thus:
Containing 20.00 per cent. and more of Phosphate ..... 80
Average 59.50 "
Containing 30.00 70
Average 64.43 "
Charleston rock of fair to good quality contains 25 to 28 per
cent. of phosphoric acid, equivalent to bone phosphate of lime 55 to
61 per cent. (Annual Report of the S. C. Commissioner of Agriculture
for i880, page 75.)
In Tables II and III is given the per cent. of iron, aluminium,
lime, e c., in nine samples taken at random. The samples are from
the following counties: Columbia (i), Citrus (i), Bradford (I), Osce-
ola (2), Marion (i), Pasco (i), Manatee (i), unknown (i). None of
them contains any iron of consequence. The oxide of aluminium runs
from 2.60 to 13 40 per cent. The latter per cent. is found, however, in a
very low grade .19 per cent.) rock. The carbonate of lime ranges from
2.02 to II.36 per cent. Most of the samples contain some fluorine;
as much, perhaps, as r to 2 per cent. in some cases, but no quantitative
determination of this element has been made. Charleston rock con-











tains from traces to 2 per cent. of oxide of aluminium, I to 4 per cent.
of sesqui-oxide of iron, 5 to ii per cent. of carbonate of lime, I to 2
per cent. of fluorine. (See S. C. Report, 1880).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
The color of the Florida rock varies from light cream (or almost
white) to a deep cream and yellowish brown. Some of it is soft enough to
be scratched with the fingernails; some hard enough to scratch glass,
though the latter, I believe, is rare. These remarks have reference to
thoroughly air dry rock. When first dug it is usually quite soft, so it is
stated. It is brittle and easily crushed and powdered. The specific gravity
of twelve samples, taken at random (see Table V), ranges from 1.835
to 2.971, or, in round numbers, from 2 to 3. This means that the rock
is two to three times as heavy as water, bulk for bulk. It may be of
practical value to owners of phosphate lands to state that, according
to the above figures, a cubic foot of phosphate will weigh from 120
to 180 pounds, a cubic yard from 3,000 to 5,000 pounds, in round
numbers. According to the same figures, an acre of phosphate one
foot thick will contain from 2,700 tons to 4,000 tons. These figures
all have reference to thoroughly air-dry rocks-such a degree of dry-
ness as is reached when the rock is broken into small pieces, half the
size of a partridge egg, and spread out in a dry place. This degree
of dryness is never attained by rocks thrown into heaps. Average
hot air dried rock will contain as much moisture (say 2 per cent.) as
the rock of which we are here speaking.
In regard to the low grade phosphatic material, such, for example,
as contains from 3 or 4 up to 20, 30 or 40 per cent. of phosphate, it
may be divided, in a general way, without attempting a strict classifi-
cation, into three kinds: First, a coarse grained, friable sandstone;
secondly, limestone; and thirdly, a bluish or greenish clay-like sub-
stance, containing some limestone-all three classes impregnated with
of potash. A sample of the third class was found to contain Y per
cent. phosphate.
The South Carolina rock, as is well-known, occurs in more or less
kidney-shaped nodules from the fraction of an inch to several feet in
diameter; these nodules are not of uniform composition. (Report of
the South Carolina Commissioner of Agriculturefor I---
I have seen -na-il




ERRATA.

Make two last lines in second paragraph on page 9 read as follows:
Phosphate. A sample of the third class was found to contain Y per
.phosphate. Asampe Cu uy lne
cent. of potash." ..... c K, proved, in fact, to be entirely differ-
-enrt; one was a rich phosphate (74 per cent.), the other contained little
else than lime.











Is it possible to extract, mechanically, the phosphate from the low
grade rock, producing thus a high grade material ?
It is known, of course, that the South Carolina nodules are washed
to free them from adhering mud and sand; also, that the phosphatic
pebbles of Peace Creek are freed from sand by washing and sifting.
But this kind of purification is not what is meant by the foregoing
question. There are vast quantities of Florida rock containing 20 to
30 per cent. of phosphate. Can these be free to a great extent from the
impurities ? Two very simple experiments, resting each on entirely
different principles, have been made in our laboratory with a view to
answering that question. They were hastily executed, and have not
yet been repeated and improved upon; but they show that something
can be done in that line with certain kinds of rock. The material exper-
imented with was a coarse grained phosphatic sandstone. A rock which
originally contained 23.65 per cent. of phosphate produced 36 per cent.
of a material which contained 31.65 per cent. of phosphate, an increase
of 8 per cent. of phosphate. Another rock which contained originally
35.33 per cent. of phosphate was separated into several grades, one of
which constituted one-tenth of the original rock and contained 56.93 per
cent. of phosphate, an increase of 21.63 per cent. It is, doubtless, pos-
sible to improve greatly on these results. Reference is had here to
purification by mechanical, not chemical means.
EXTENT OF DEPOSITS.
Very few persons who sent us samples were able to give any idea
of the extent of the deposits. I quote a few replies to inquiries on this
point. "The sample of phosphate rock I sent you was found on dry
land. I can't tell as to the amount of the deposit, such as I sent was
found within three feet of the surface, a little deeper is a pretty heavy
deposit of what they call here phosphate clay, which is claimed by
some to be very rich." The sample in question contain 76 to 84 per
cent. phosphate.
"I am unable to say how large the probable supply is, though we
deemed it to exist in sufficient quantities to mine profitably before the
find became so extensive." Samples contain 56 to 73 per cent. of
phosphate.
"Deposits ranging from a ton to acres and acres."-Content of
phosphate, 16 per cent. and 72 per cent.
"Specimen sent you came from river bed, about four to six feet
below the level of the pine land. The river has but little swamp or
hammock there, and on one side coming down to the river is high rolling
pine land,-on the other side is flat level low land (pine) for about
200 to 300 yards from river bed. I do not know yet how deep the
deposits may be, but know that it extends same depth from surface as
river bed." Content of phosphate, 30 per cent. and 56 per cent.
"Samples one and two taken at a depth of three and one-half to
four feet-vein or ledge from eighteen to twenty-four inches, high
pine land. No. 3 taken at depth of ten feet, high hammock land.-
Seems to be large quantity ofall, as boring developed, the ledge extended











over two to three acres at depth from three and one-half to ten feet
from surface of ground." Content of phosphate (sample 3), 40~
per cent.
"No. 2 I think was a sample taken from a well I have on my
place, at depth of about thirty-nine feet from surface, and as we had
nothing but a sand-pump, we had to stop after going through that
substance nearly two feet About 700 feet east, and I should judge
about thirty feet or more below surface where well is, or near, the
level of some ponds near, rock crop out at surface in the form of large
rocks several feet surface and a foot or more thick. Could not say
about extent of deposit, but there seems to be rock all through this
section." Content of phosphate, sample No. 2, 67 per cent.
"Sample taken from one hundred boulders and pounded in mor-
tor. This is a fair average hard rock twelve feet thick of twelve pits
on 230 acres. Average depth of sand covering, six
feet. Pine land-high sand hills surrounding county
one-half mile from pond." Content of phosphate, 80 per cent.
"Rolling pine land, timber short but heavy in girth, scattering-
dry, no swamps or ponds; the tract of eighty acres, I think, contains
forty acres or more of phosphate. The sample you had came from a
well dug about ten years ago, forty or fifty feet deep; the phosphate
rock appears to be about ten feet from top of ground. Could not tell
about how thick the vein is. It is about the middle of a phosphate
strip running five to seven miles north and south." Content of phos-
phate, 73 per cent.
"Land rolling, first class pine, with clay near surface. At the
edge of deposit, it has been examined to the depth of near fifteen feet,
and there is little change in character of the rock. Surface indications
point to the existence of the phosphate over at least sixty or more acres,
but it has not been thoroughly examined." Content of phosphate,
74 per cent.













SUPERPHOSPHATE-ITS MANUFACTURE.

As many as four classes of phosphates are known to chemists.
The most common class is tnat of the ortho-phosphates. Of these
the commercially most important one is tri-calcium phosphate,
often called bone phosphate from the fact, doubtless, that it is
found in all bones, constituting as much as 40 to 50 per cent. of raw
bones and 60 to about 80 per cent. of burnt bones or bone-ash.
It was the use of bones as a fertilizer and the manufacture from them of
super phosphate that led to the similar utilization of phosphatic rocks.
Tri-calcium phosphate is the main phosphatic constituent of guano,
coprolites, phosphorites, apatite and the Florida and South Carolina
phosphates. The manufacture of super-phosphate is the corner-stone
of the fertilizer industry; and brief statement of the underlying princi-
ples will be acceptable to all those readers of our bulletins, who are not
familiar with the subject.
From tri.calcium phosphate are derived bi-calcium and mono-
calcium phosphate. Two or three easily understood chemical formulas
will make this clear. The formula for phosphoric acid as com-
monly used, is P2 05; for quick lime Ca 0; for water H2 0. The
meaning of each of these formulas is this: P2 05 is a compound con-
sisting of 62 parts of phosphorus and 80 parts of oxygen, together
142 parts. Ca O is a compound consisting of 40 parts of the metal
calcium and i6 parts of oxygen, together 56 parts. H2 0 is a com-
pound consisting of 2 parts of the gas hydrogen and of 16 parts of
oxygen, together 18 parts. Every reader of this knows, of course,
that phosphorus is a yellowish, transparent, wax-like substance
which will take fire of itself and burn if exposed to the air; also,
that in the dark it phosphoresces or gives off light. Some matches
leave a streak of light on the wall when struck in the
dark. This is the phosphorus in them. Calcium is a tenacious
and maleable metal harder than lead, but only one-seventh as heavy;
when heated it burns with a light of blinding brilliancy. It need
hardly be stated that oxygen is a gas which has neither color, odor nor
taste; that it constitutes about one-fifth part of the atmosphere, and is
that part of it which, when breathed, supports life, and without which
wood or other combustibles will not burn. Hydrogen is also a gas
without odor, color or taste, and is the lightest of known substances.
Now let us go back to the composition of tri, bi and mono-cal-.
cium phosphate. The following diagram will make the composition
of each plain:
TRI-CALCIUM PHOSPHATE. BI-CALCIUM PHOSPHATE. MONO-CALCIUM PHOSPHATE.
Phosphoric acid, P205, Phosphoric acid, P205, Phosphoric acid, P2 05,
142 parts. 142 parts. 142 parts.
Lime, CaO...... 56 Water, H20... 18 Water, H20,... .. 8
Lime, CaO,...... 56 Lime, CaO,.... 56 Water, H20,........ 8
Lime, CaO,..... 56 ime, ....... 56 Lime, CaO,......... 56
Total...... ...... 3io 272 234










Tri-calcium phosphate is composed of phosphoric acid and three
Equivalents of lime. Bi calcium phosphate differs from this in that
it contains only two equivalents of lime, water taking the place of the
other equivalent. In mono calcium phosphate only one equivalent of
lime remains, water having displaced the other two. Tri calcium'
phosphate is a white substance scarcely at all soluble in pure water.
But if the water holds in solution nitrate of soda, common salt, ammo-
niacal or other salts, or carbonic acid, it will be to some extent dis-
solved. The water in the soil contains all these ingredients.
Hence it is that plants have the power of absorbing even tri-calcium
phosphate; still, however, the solubility is so small that the process of
absorption is slow. Bi-calcium phosphate is more soluble than the
tri, and the mono is easily, readily and completely soluble, and is im-
mediate and rapid in its action on plant growth.
The manufacture of superphosphate (sometimes called acid phos-
phate) consists in the conversion of tri-calcium phosphate
into mono-calcium phosphate. This conversion is brought
about by the agency of acids. Formerly muriatic acid
was used, but its use has been abandoned for the reason,
among others, that one of the products of its action on the tri-calcium
phosphate, calcium-chloride, has been found injurious to plants.
Sulphuric acid is now almost universally used. Its action on pure
tri-calcium ph6sphate may be illustrated by the following scheme:
A.
Tri calcium phosphate........ 310 parts Mono-calcium phosphate.... 234 parts.
Require Sulphuric acid........ 196 give Calcium sulphate ............ 272
(Land plaster or gypsum).
Total............. ......... 506 Total........................ 506 "
-or-
B.
Tri-calcium phosphate......0oo parts gie Mono-calcium phosphate. 75.48parts.
Require Sulphuric acid...... 63.22 i Calcium sulphate.......... 87.74 "
Total.................... 163.22 Total .................... 163.22
It will thus be seen that every 75.48 pounds of superphosphate,
even if made from perfectly pure tri-calcium phosphate, must of neces-
sity contain 87.74 pounds of calcium sulphate or anhydrous gypsum,
or, to express it in hundreds, the purest commercial superphosphate
must contain 53.75 per cent. of calcium sulphate and can contain only
46.25 per cent. of mono-calcium or superphosphate. As a matter
of fact, however, they seldom or never contain more than 16 to 25,
possibly 32 per cent.; this results partly from the fact that the
material (rock or bone) from which the superphosphate is manufact-
ured, contains impurities, and partly from the fact that the super-
phosphates themselves are purposely diluted.
As scheme B shows, ioo pounds of pure tri-calcium phosphate re-
quire 63.22 pounds of pure sulphuric acid for its complete reduction.
In practice, however, the quantity of acid necessary to reduce ioo
pounds of rock depends on the quantity of phosphate and on the
quantity and nature of the impurities in the rock; that is, one must
have an analysis of the rock in order to know how much acid to use.
The impurities commonly occurring are carbonate of lime and mag-









I4

nesia, oxides of iron and aluminium, and calcium fluoride. The phos-
phate will not be reduced completely unless enough acid is used to re-
duce these impurities also. As the products of this reduction add noth-
ing to the commercial value of the superphosphate, the acid consumed
-by the impurities is just so much unavoidable loss. (It should be
statedthat a small amount of carbonate of lime is beneficial, in that the
gas, liberated from it by the action of the acid, tends to give a spungi-
ness and lightness to the superphosphate, thereby enabling it to dry
more thoroughly and speedily.)
The following scheme will show how much acid is consumed per
roo pounds by each of the impurities under consideration. The acid
in all estimates in this article is supposed to be pure (ioo per cent.).
In practice this is never true; the acid itself will contain as high as
fifty per cent. of impurities (mostly water), and this must be taken into
account.
C.


.' A 0 .0 0.0


Ioo lbs. each of lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. Ibs.
Ferric oxide............ require 183.8lbs. Sulphuric acid. 33.8 250...

Magnesium ...... 116.6 8 1 52.. ...
Calcium fluoride......... 125.6 14. .... .. ..
Sandandinsolublematter none .... ..
THE QUANTITY OF ACID NECESSARY TO REDUCE ANY GIVEN ROCK WHOSE
ANALYSIS IS KNOWN.
This can be easily calculated from the foregoing data. The fol-
lowing table is a special case given as an illustration. (No allowance is
made here for the impurities of the aeid.) If the acid contained 25
per cent. of impurities, one-third would have to be added to
the weight of acid given in the table.

S0 RESULTS OF TEE ACTION OF THE ACID ON
P. THE ROCK.

NUMBER OF POUNDS OF THE DIF- 'g 4 ,
FERENT CONSTITUENTS IN 100 LBS. ; Es 00, 5B
OF ROCK. 0 -" r .U g -";
.. d U
lbs. lbs. lbs. bs. lbs. lbs. lbs. bs lbs. l bs.
Water........... ........2.65bs. none 2.65 .... .... .......... .......
Organic and volatile matter 1.82 unknown ............ ................1.82?
Sandand insoluble matter.. o 38 none ....................... 038 .
Ferric Oxide............... .48 0.88 o.16 ... ..... ..... 1.20 .... ..
Alumina...... ........ ..... 2.96" 8.52 1.59 ..... ..9.90 ...
Calcium carbonate ......... 341 3.33 o.61 1.49.... 4.60....... ... ...
Calcium fluoride........... 1.86 2.37 ....... 095 3 24 ......
Tri-calcium phosphate...... 86.45 54.46 ... .. .. 70 .......64.5....
Totals.....................Ioo.oo 69.56 .1 1.490.95 8354 1.209.9064.5 .38 .82?
Grand total (acid and rock) ......... i169.56 168.79.









It will be thus seen that the theoretical quantity of acid necessary
to reduce 1oo pounds of this particular rock is sixty-nine and one-half
pounds. In practice it is usual to take less than the theoretical quan-
tity,. so as to be sure that there be left over, in the superphosphate
mixture, no free unconsumed acid which would be injurious to vege-
tation.
It will be further seen that of these sixty-nine and one-half pounds
only fifty-four and one-half pounds are consumed in the reduction of
the phosphate, the remaining fifteen pounds (or 21 Y2 per cent. of the
whole) goes to the impurities. It will also be observed that the sand
and insoluble matter consume no acid and are not changed by it. The
amount of acid consumed by the organic matter depends on the nature
of the organic matter and can be determined only by actual trial.
It will be further noticed that the product of the action of acid on
the rock is a mixture, containing superphosphate, calcium sulphate (or
land plaster), water, sand other substances.
The weight of this mixture in any particular case is theoretically
equal to the weight of the rock and acid together; but in practice this
will not be the case, for the following reasons:
The carbondioxide and hydro-fluoric acid are gases and will pass
off into the air.
The calcium sulphate and aluminium sulphate have the power of
-absorbing and chemically combining with water. This water they
will take up from the atmosphere, even though they be stored away in
a dry place under shelter. In addition to this, almost all substances,
particularly such as are in a fine powdry condition, have the power of
absorbing from the atmosphere, and mechanically holding, moisture.
Making due allowance for all these sources of uncertainty, our
ioo pounds of 86 per cent. phosphate rock, acted upon by sixty-nine
and one-half pounds of acid, would result in a mixture weighing not
far from 200 pounds. Of the 200 pounds, sixty-four and one-half
pounds (or 32.25 per cent.) is superphosphate, seventy-six pounds (or
37.5 per cent.) is calcium sulphate or land plaster.
Commercial superphosphates are of necessity a mixture of mono-calcium
phosphate and gypsum, and usually also of other compounds; even if made
from an ideally pure rock (ioo per cent. rock)-a condition never
attained and not desirable-they cannot contain over 46.25 per cent.
of superphosphate. In reality, however, superphosphates in the trade,
sold as fertilizers, contain only about 8, io to 15, rarely 20 per cent., of
soluble phosphoric acid, equivalent to 14, i6, 25 to 32 per cent. of
mono-calcium or superphosphate.
OXIDES OF IRON AND ALUMINIUM-THEIR EFFECTS ON SUPERPHOS-
PHATES.
The presence of these oxides in any considerable quantity is
regarded, as is well known, very detrimental to phosphate rock,
Why is this ? In order to answer this question, we must first get an
understanding of what is meant by reversion.
The differences (see page 18) between tri-calcium, bi-calcium and
mono-calcium phosphate have been explained. Among those differ-










ences that of -,l,,t[iirtv is the most important in an agricultural point
of view. The mono calcium is easily soluble in water, the bi-calcium
scarcely at all so, and the tri-calcium still less so. The manufacture
of superphosphate, as already pointed out, consists in the conversion
of the tri-calcium or bone ih. i'.phjte into mono-calcium or soluble
phosphate. It was long ago ol1,ser '. e that superphosphates have a
tendency to deteriorate, and in most cases do actually deteriorate,
become, that is, less soluble than when first made Illie explanation
of this fact is that the mono-calcium phosphate c',es back, or reverts
into bi-calcium phosphate. Hence it is that the latter is often called
"reverted The reversion can under proper conditions become com-
plete.
There are several explanations of the cause of this reversion.
In the first place, if mono-calcium and tri-calcium phosphate come
into intimate contact, they react on one another, producing bi calcium
phosphate. The mono-calcium extracts from the tri-calcium and
appropriates to itself one equivalent ot lime, thus ljcorlini;b bi caclic
and reducing the tri-calcic to the bi-calcic form. P, u .
CaO1 cao ) cao CaO)
CaO -P20 and H20 -P205 give CaO P205 and CaO P205.
C H20) H20) HO)
'rtl-..k .b .h- -[.h:L, Mlono-calcic phosphate Bicalcic p osphate Bicalcic phosphate
3xo parts. 234 parts. 272 parts. 272 parts.
544 parts. 544 parts.
(It will be remembered that Ca O stands for lime, H2 0 for
water, and P2 05 for phosphoric acid.)
In the manufacture of superphl,.,phatc an excess of acid must be
avoided.' Hence it will happen that a small amount of tri calcium
phosphate will quite likely remain over unreduced for lack of acid;
and being intimately mixed with the monocalcium ihi,'lph1.i- will
cause -the reversion just ex.\[llinid If the manufacturer possesses
sufficient knowledge and -.kil, he i-an, and will, reduce this cause of
reversion to a minimum.
A second cause of reversion is the action of lime, or also the car-
bonate of lime, on the mono-calcium phosphate, thus:
CaO) CaO)
HaO 2Pa05 CaO C02 CaO >-P205 H20.CO
H20) H20)
and give and
CaO CaO)
H20 P20a CaO CO2 ta0o P205 H20.C02
H20z H20)
Monoca'cium phos- Calcium Carbonate. Bi-calcium phos- Water and C I, -.,
phate. phate. 1: '' c
234 roo 272 18 44
234 0oo 272 18 44
468parts 200 parts 544 parts 36 parts 88 parts
668 parts. 668 parts.
The reversion caused by lime never takes place, of course, in the
superphosphate heap of the acid works, for the reason that there is no
lime left after the action of the acid. The lime, or carbonate of lime,
is all converted into sulphate of lime, which does not react on mono-
calcium phosphate. This reversion, therefore, is not one that con-











cerns the manufacturer, but does concern the farmer. Lime should
never be composted with super or acid phosphates unless for some special
reason it is the object of the farmer to convert the superphosphate into
the less soluble precipitated phosphate. All productive soils contain
lime, and necessarily, of course, reversion will take place there, not
however, perhaps, till the soluble phosphate has been thoroughly
spread throughout the soil.
We now come to a third cause of reversion, namely, the presence
of iron and aluminium. This is the most serious of all, because there
is no remedy. These elements will generally be present in the rock
as oxides, but sometimes also as phosphates. The iron may be pres-
ent also as sulphide (iron pyrites), but in this form is regarded harmless.
The iron and aluminium unite with the superphosphate and form
phosphates of iron and aluminium, which are exceedingly insoluble com-
pounds. Hence the especially injurious effects of iron and aluminium.
WHAT IS THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF IRON AND ALUMINIUM PERMISSIBLE
IN A ROCK?
This is a question that is constantly being asked. I am not aware
that any fixed amount can be settled upon beyond which these ele-
ments are fatal. Even the smallest quantity of them is to that extent
injurious. One part by weight of sesqui-oxide of iron can cause the
reversion of 1.45 to 2.2 parts of superphosphate; and one part of oxide
of aluminium, 2.28 to 6.8 parts. From this it follows that 3 to 4 per
cent. of oxide of iron and 2 to 3 per cent. of the oxide of aluminium
can cause the reversion of 4.3 to 8.8 and 4.5 to 20.4 per cent. of su-
perphosphate. But it should be remembered that what is 2 per cent.,
3 per cent., 4 per cent in the crude rock becomes only about two
thirds that amount in the finished superphosphate; therefore, instead
of "4-3 to 8.5 and 4.5 to 20.4 per cent." we should say "about 2.6 to
5 and 3 to 13 per cent." These estimates are, of course, very uncer-
tain; depending, among other things, on how well the superphosphate
dries out in each particular case. In Table IV are given some super-
phosphates manufactured on a very small scale in the laboratory.
During a period of fifty days only one sample reverted to the extent
theoretically possible according the above estimates. It perhaps rarely
happens that the amount of reversion theoretically possible actually
takes place. No. ro7, which contains very nearly twice as much alu-
mina as 183, suffered only a little over half as much reversion. In
many cases 6 or 7 per cent. of alumina would not prove fatal.
It should be borne in mind that what is here said of the detri-
mental effects of iron and aluminium is meant to apply to superphos-
phates only. Where the crude rock is used direct as a fertilizer with-
out treatment with acid, the presence of iron and aluminium seems to
make little difference.
HOW LOW A GRADE OF ROCK WILL IT PAY TO WORK ?
This is another question often asked. It is one of great practical
importance. For while there is doubtless great abundance of high
grade rock in the State, there are also, it would seem, vast deposits of
low grades, running up to 30 to 40 per cent. of phosphate. It is im-
2











portant to know if this low grade rock can be worked. The question
cannot be answered definitely. Accessibility to railroad or water trans-
portation, ease or difficulty of mining, etc., effect the question. But
these are not the only things to be considered. The kind of impuri-
ties contained in the rock also effect the answer to the question. Take
for example a rock containing 30 per cent. of phosphate. Whether or
not it will pay to work such a rock manifestly depends largely on what
the remaining 70 per cent. consists of. A 30 per cent. rock is theoret-
ically capable of producing a superphosphate containing 14 to 18 per
cent. of the mono-calcium (or water soluble) phosphate, equivalent to
8 to i per cent. of soluble phosphoric acid, and this is but little below
the average standard of commercial superphosphates. If, however,
as is likely to be the case in low grade rock, there is 3 or 4 per cent.
of ironoxide and alumina present, the question of reversion comes in.
But supposing iron and aluminium absent, whether the impurity is mostly
'sand or mostly lime makes a great difference in the cost of manufacture.
Suppose two cases; first, the rock contains 30 per cent. of phosphate
and 70 per cent, of sand; secondly, the rock contains 30 per cent. of
phosphate and 70 per cent. of carbonate of lime. The amount of acid
necessary in the two cases, for the complete reduction of the phosphate,
will differ greatly.
Fir t case:
bs. of phosphate require i8.9 bp. acid g .Soluble phosphate.... 2265 lbs.
70 lbs, of sand re ne 1 .9 d......... give C alciumSulphate .... 26.32 lbs.
70 lbs of sand nonSand ..................... 7o.00 lbs.
Second case:
r Soluble phosphate.... 22.65 lbs.
30 lbs. of Phosphate require 18.9 lbs. ac!d I Calcium sulphate .... 121.52 bs.
70 ibs. of Calcium carbonate require 68.6 Ibs. acid give Carbon dioxide........ 30.80 Ibs.
L Water................. 12.60 lbs.
87.5
In each case the same amount (22.65 pounds) of soluble phos-
phate is produced, equivalent to 13,6 lbs. of soluble phosphoric acid,
worth, at eight cents a pound, $i.o9. In the first case nineteen
pounds of acid, worth about 38 cents, are required; in the latter case
over four and one-half times as much acid, worth $1.75. In the first
case a more concentrated goods, containing as much possibly as 18
per cent. of soluble phosphate, is made, equivalent to 11 per cent. of
soluble phosphoric acid; in the latter case the finished product could
hardly contain more than 14 per cent. of soluble phosphate, equivalent
to 8 per cent of soluble phosphoric acid. In the first case the princi-
pal diluent is sand, worthless, of course, as a fertilizer; in the latter,
gypsum or land plaster, which, on clay soils in particular and on all
soils deficient in lime, has a certain fertilizing value.
A ton of the first goods, containing, say, 220 pounds of soluble
phosphoric acid, would be worth, at eight cents a pound, $17.60; the
acid to make it, 253 pounds at two cents, costing $5.06. A ton of
the second, containing, say, 160 pounds of soluble phosphoric acid,
would be worth $12.80; the acid to make it, 782 pounds, costing
$15.64. This is a supposed case intended for illustration. In
actual practice, it would rarely, perhaps never, happen that a 30
per cent. rock would produce an i per cent. or even 8 per cent.
goods. (See table IV.)










It must be borne in mind that what is said here is merely thrown
out as a "pointer", and that in practice the value of each kind and
grade ot rock must be determined by actual experiment. We hope
during the coming winter to investigate these and many other prac-
tical points in superphosphate manufacture, as applicable to Florida
rock.
THE PURIFICATION OF LOW GRADE ROCK BY CHEMICAL MEANS POSSIBLE.
In a previous paragraph, the possibility of purifying low grade
phosphate rock by mechanical means was touched upon. A chemical
process of accomplishing this result has been successfully practiced in
Europe. In the great alkali works, hydrochloric (muriatic) acid is
made as a waste, or by product, accumulates in vast quantities, and
becomes a drug on the manufacturer's hands. This acid has been used
in the reduction of low grade phosphate. The weak solution of mono-
calcium phosphate thus produced is treated with milk of lime, which
precipitates the phosphate as bi-calcum phosphate. This known as
"precipitated phosphate." It is in the form of an exceeding fine pow-
der, finer than can be turned out by the best powdering machine, and
hence has a value approaching that of mono calcium or superphosphate.
IS IT PRACTICABLE FOR THE FARMER TO MANUFACTURE HIS OWN SUPER-
PHOSPHATE ?
Where there are large deposits of rich rock they will, of course,
be worked up by regular manufacturers; but there is, doubtless, much
rock of good quality scattered in pockets in comparatively small
quantity broadly over the State. On many farms deposits of this kind
will be found. The quantity is too small to justify the erection of large
works, but sufficient to supply the wants of the individual farm for years.
It is certainly of vastly great importance that the farmer be able to util-
ize this rock. It is in reference to such deposits that the question is
asked. As is known, the rock must, by some means or other, be got-
ten into a comparatively fine powder before the acid is applied. This
is accomplished by the large manufacturers by running the rock through
ore crushers, then, in cases where necessary, through burstone mills
geared very much after the manner of wheat or corn -nills. The finer
the powder the more quickly and completely will the acid do its work.
In the case of the farmer, however, where celerity of work is not so
absolute a desideratum, coarser powder could be used, and the acid
allowed to work upon it correspondingly longer. Small ore-crushers,
to be geared to engines or horse power, can, doubtless, be had at prices
within the means, if not of a single farmer, certainly of a neighbor-
hood. Moreover, much of the Florida rock is so soft that even with
a hammer and a hard maul a ton or two a day could be re-
duced by a single man to a comparatively fine state. This might be
further improved by sifting. The acid can be applied to the rock in a
wooden box lined with sheet-lead. The box may be of any convenient
size, ten or twelve feet long, four or five feet wide, and one to two feet
deep. The bottom of this should be covered with a certain known
number of gallons of water, then sulphuric acid poured in carefully










and exceedingly slowly, for great heat will be generated. As the acid
is being poured in the contents of the box should be constantly stirred
with a wooden paddle. The water should never be poured into the acid,
bnt the acid always into the water, otherwise a dangerous explosion may
occur. The quantity of the acid to be mixed with a given quantity of
water depends on the strength of the acid. After the acid and water
are thoroughly mixed and have somewhat cooled down, then a known
weight of pulverized rock, depending on the amount of acid put into
the box and'on the grade of the rock, should be shoveled in spadeful
by spadeful and constantly stirred with a wooden hoe. If the rock
contains considerable carbonate of lime, strong foaming up will take
place as the rock is added to the acid. The mixer should never breathe
Sthe gases that rise from the box; he should stand in such a position
in reference to the wind that the fumes will be blown away from him.
If the rock contains any fluoride of calcium, hydrofluoric acid, a vola-
tile, invisible gas of most active and violent properties, exceedingly
dangerous to breathe, passes off in the fumes. The mix-ure should be
allowed to stand an hour or two in the box, then shoveled out and pre-
served for two or three months under shelter, when it will be ready for
use. The superphosphate will sometimes harden upon standing, and
will have to be pulverized before fit for use.
The greatest difficulty in the way of manufacturing superphos-
phate in this small way is, that the farmer cannot know, without chem-
ical analysis, whether or not his rock contains enough phosphate, anid
not too much iron, aluminium and lime to justify his working it.
In a future bulletin we hope to have something of a more practi-
cal kind, based upon experiments, to say on this subject. It is touched
on here merely to show the difficulties in the way.
Even if he cannot manufacture his rock into superphosphate,
there is no reason why he should not utilize it in the form of fine
powder (the "floats" of the trade).













III.

PHOSPHATE AS A FERTILIZER.

Is phosphate alone sufficient to keep up the fertility of the soil ?
It would seem superfluous to ask that question. One need, how-
ever, only to recall much that has appeared in the newspapers within
the last few months to be convinced that such is not the case. There
is apparently a wide-spread belief, at least one not infrequently hears
remarks to that effect, that nothing further is needed for our poor
sandy lands than phosphate.
Chemical analysis of plants has shown always and invariably the
presence of the following constituents:
Water (oxygen hydrogen), Potash, Sulphuric acid,
Carbon, Lime, Chlorine,
Phosphoric acid, Magnesia, Soda,
Nitrogen, Ferric Oxide, Silicon.
A number of other constituents are sometimes met with. Numer-
ous experiments have demonstrated that plants can grow and thrive
without either of the last three constituents' (Chlorine, Soda, Silica),
but no plant can grow, if even a single one of the remaining nine are
lacking. The writer has seen growing side by side in different pots
two stalks of corn, one of which was a magnificent specimen of luxu-
riant growth, the other only a few inches high and withering away.
The only difference in the treatment of the two was that the former
was supplied with all the elements of plant food, whereas the latter had
all except a few drops of a solution of iron-hardly sufficient in quan-
tity to be weighed. The withholding of any other element of plant-
food produces similar results.
It will thus be seen, therefore, that phosphate will be of no avail
unless the soil already has a sufficiency of all the other elements of
plant-food, or unless they are supplied in case the soil hasn't them.
Ville, the great French agriculturist, regards phosphate, nitrogen,
potash and lime as constituting a complete fertilizer, that is containing
all the elements of plant-food that need be supplied by man; this he
does on the ground that all the other constituents are always, with
rare exceptions, found abundantly present in the soil and in the atmos-
phere.
THE RELATIVE MANURIAL VALUE OF SUPERPHOSPHATE, RAW GUANO,
STEAMED BONEMEAL, COPROLITE POWDER AND THOMAS PHOSPHATE.
Numerous experiments to determine the relative manurial value of
the foregoing forms of phosphate have within the last ten
years been made by Prof. Wagner at Darmstadt, Germany. Only
one series of those experiments is at my command-that with wheat;
but as the others gave similar results, this one will serve as an illustra-
tion. The average of many experiments are given in the subjoined
table. The increased production, caused by superphosphate, over the











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11 *'lIl :;il l "v I .,.:. 1; 111 !::: i:.l;i:::-1 C. LL. I :ir :l'. i a ::1 Ma. u- -1.
i. l I I: J : [1. ; :o,,it r ; III. .: 't- I.l t. i a Ii.: I;" L :: ir.. L
nIlu. L- E~ tCILLT pr: por.ti;.A i.o r bl dare. e e r:.murI. E 'Illi m I rii .;
nr I---.i %:rr-Li anf. I r:rk I-,la:=r 1'!:.'. c. .'e. "6irr e- vth L"' prtpar*Lu
Tf:.L '-, 'f! '::k' |, ;i..ihrf ir. : I:IIICr ii- i .':- lfl I l'al. j n' l:rr~ [c'ha
Ai. ,-.ur che L% cder il.e L.etllr.

P X'.:. F, M .A N K K$ F2:. I1K-:N : M. K [v I-:;

T!itw rw.:ls car e i .Tni miunyer V expr-L=IIIM by. -urL --W%:, -r
tHI H .'A',~Ni. M ..- rl.I II L... URIri l 'I .i L L i *.il .i' I i~ r.l I fli.- i ;j. a

a ;jir.I==- a *u iu*-: *yb ofrj ::I :..) bo.:k.I=- Tbmt ts:reciz-.? iijt!












had for their object the determination ofthe relative manurial value of
insoluble phosphate in Peruvian guano, coprolite powder, bone meal,
Thomas phosphate. Below is given an extract or two from his tables.
In these estimates the product of the not-manured plots is set equal
ioo, the increase of the manured plots over this is expressed in per
cent. It is to be regretted that super (or soluble) phosphate was not
included in these experiments.


Coprolite powder .
Peruvian guano .
Thomas phosphate .
Bone meal ...


SAND Y SOIL.
OATS.
Fertilized in the spring.
12 per cent.
22 "
8 "
6 "cc


POTATOES (Irish).
Fertilized in the spring.
35 per cent.
13 "
16 "
16 "


2. FERTILE LOAM.
PEAS. SUGAR BEETS.


Coprolite powder
Peruvian guano .
Thomas phosphate .
Bone meal. .



Coprolite powder .
Peruvian guano ..
Thomas phosphate ..
Bone meal ..


30 per cent.
10 "
38 "
44 "


9 per cent.
13 "
8 "
9 "


POTATOES (Irish).
7 per cent.
5 '
6 "
I5 "


3. POOR LOAM.


BARLEY.
i per cent.
cc t


MUCK OR PEAT SWAMP.


Coprolite powder .
Peruvian guano .. .
Thomas phosphate ..
Bone meal ...


4. OATS.
30 per cent.
36 "
18 "
26 "c


OATS. POTATOES (Irish).


3 per cent.
51 '" "
23 "c
21 '" "'


24 per cent.
27 i" "
3 "
9 14


HUMUS SOIL.

5 BARLEY. 6. CARROTS.


25 per cent.
19 ,"
4 "
6 "


25 per cent.
46 "
20 "
38 "


In the experiments I, 2, 4, 6, the following quantities of fertili-
zers were used per acre, and half these amounts in 3 and 4: Nitrogen
44 pounds, phosphoric acid 176 pounds, potash 88 pounds, slaked
lime 182 pounds.
The point of interest is that coprolite powder (or ground phos-
phate rock) shows very considerable manurial value, particularly on
sandy soil and soil rich in peat, muck and humus.
Experiments are not wanting which show that rock phosphate,
even when in the form of phosphate of iron and aluminium, is to very
considerable extent soluble in humic acid; that this solvent action is
diminished or entirely prevented when lime is mixed with the phosphate.
The reason of this latter fact is not far to find. The lime being more
easily acted upon, appropriates to itself and neutralizes the acid, thus











giving it no chance to act orthe phosphate. Ground phosphate rock
is especially to be recommended for soils rich in humus and muck or
peat, and therefore for bringing fresh and sour lands into condition.
It would quite likely pay to compost it with muck and barnyard ma-
nure, but, for the reason just given, lime should not form a part of
these composts.

VOELCKER'S EXPERIMENTS.
The following field experiments by Voelcker are quoted by Storer
as showing the value of finely ground natural phosphates, "even on
rich soils:"
EXPERIMENTS WITH OATS ON MODERATELY HEAVY LAND.
CROP FROM ACRE.
FERTILIZERS ON ACRE. ----------
GRAIN (bushels). STRAW (tons).
6% cwt. ground coprolites .... 65 I 3-5


5 coprolites treated with sul.
phuric acid (superphosphate) .
o1 cwt. ground redonda phosphate,
3Y4 bone meal with sulphuric
acid . ... .
4% cwt. precipitated phosphate ..
No manure ..... ......
3 cwt. raw bone meal . .
20 tons dung. .... . .
10 and 5 cwt. coprolites
with sulphuric acid. . .
o1 tons dung and 6Y2 cwt. ground
coprolites. . . .
5 tons of chalk .........
3 caprolites with sulphuric acid
and 2y, cwt. Peruvian guano .


FERTILI


72%
78%


66
60
61 1-5
70 2-5

67

62%
72

644


2
2

2
I 9-1o
IX
1 3-5
2 1-10

2


EXPERIMENTS WITH PEAS ON LIGHT LAND.
CROP FROM ACRE.
ZERS ON ACRE. ------
GRAIN (bushels). STRAW (tons).


No manure. . . .
5 cwt. ground coprolites .
5 ground coprolites treated with
sulphuric acid (superphosphate),
5 cwt redonda phosphate .
4 precipitated phosphate .
3 bone meal . .
3 treated with sul-
phuric acid . . .
3 cwt. coprolites treated with sul-
phuric acid and 22 cwt. Peru-
vian guano .. .


39 2 I-7
42 2Y4


44%
43/3
40%
43%

42%2


3
2I

2 1.7

2%














On these particular soils and for these particular crops, it would
seem that the increase production due to superphosphate over that of
the natural phosphates is so small as to hardly justify the expense of
manufacture.
The high value of Redonda phosphate is especially to be noted.
This phosphate contains scarcely any lime, but consists almost wholly
of phosphate of alumina, and would be valueless for manufacture into
superphosphate. This kind of rock is by no means valueless as a fer-
tilizer, however.

MARK'S FORMULAS.

The fertilizers used in Marek's experiments, quoted above, were
compounded according to the following formulas. They may be sug-
gestive and useful, and we therefore give them:


CONTAINING:


NO. I. COPROLITE FERTILIZER.
xoo6 Ibs. Coprolite meal ...................
640 Sulphate of ammonia............
220 potash...............
200 Slakedlime......................
NO. 2. STEAMED BONE MEAL.
xoo8 lbs. Steamedbonemeal ..............
44 Sulphate of ammonia .............
a22o potash...............
250 Slaked lime....................
NO. 3. THOMAS PHOSPHATE.
Io58 Ibs. Thomas phosphate..............
275 Sulphate of ammonia...........
220 potash..............
NO. 4. PERUVIAN GUANO.
1155 Ibs. Peruvian guano...............
33 Sulphate of ammonia.............
140 potash...............
497 Slaked lime ....................


Nitrogen.
lbs.


55



46.0
8.8


Phosphoric
Acid.
Ibs.

220
.........220


220
............


48 220
66 ... ..
........ ...........-


Potash
(K20).
Ibs.


Lime
(cao).
lbs.


.... ...... 314

140

.... ... 273

1 2


455


55 . .


40 81
70 . .
.... ... ... 374


The lime in these formulas is added in order to equalize that con-
stituent in all the fertilizer; it would, of course, not be used in a form-
ula of which superphosphate forms a part.

WAGNER'S. FORMULAS.

Wagner recommends the following combinations of s-uperphos-
phate, potash and nitrogen. The numbers indicate pounds per acre,
and is a medium application:
FOR TOBACCO.

Soluble phosphoric acid, 36 pounds, or 18o pounds of a 20 per
cent. superphosphate.
Potash, 72 pounds, or 36o pounds of a 20 per cent. sulphate of
potash.
Nitrogen, x6 pounds, or 135 pounds of nitrate of soda.











FOR CEREALS.
Soluble phosphoric acid, 45 pounds, or 225 pounds of a 20 per
cent. superphosphate.
Potash, 45 pounds, or 90 pounds of a 50 per cent. chloride of
potash.
Nitrogen, 22 pounds, or i80 pounds of nitrate of soda.
FOR PEAS, BEANS AND OTHER LEGUMINOUS PLANTS.
Soluble phosphoric acid, 45-55 pounds, or 220-270 pounds of a
20 per cent. superphosphate.
Potash, 62-70 pounds, or 310-350 pounds of a 20 per cent. kai-
nit.
Nitrogen.-Very little, if any, nitrogen need be applied. Legu-
minous plants contain more nitrogen than any others, and it would
seem that they, of all others, should be most bountifully supplied with
that element. But this is not the case. They are endowed, as num-
erous experiments have demonstrated, with the remarkable power of
themselves getting their nitrogen to a large extent from the atmos-
phere.
FOR POTATOES (IRISH).
Soluble phosphoric acid, 27 pounds, or 135 pounds of a 20 per
cent. superphosphate.
Nitrogen, 31 pounds, or 200 pounds of nitrate of soda.
FOR BEET ROOTS, CARROTS, CHICORY.
Soluble phosphoric acid, 54 pounds, or 270 pounds of a 20 per
cent. superphosphate.
Nitrogen, 36 pounds, or 225 pounds of nitrate of soda.
FOR TURNIPS.
Soluble phosphoric acid, 45 pounds, or 225 pounds of a 20 per
cent. superphosphate.
Nitrogen, 40 pounds, or 270 pounds of nitrate of soda.
As legumes possess special powers of gathering up nitrogen, so
tubers and roots possess very great power of absorbing potash. Un-
less, therefore, the soil is unusually poor in potash, it will not be nec-
essary to supply that constituent in their case.
FOR FRUIT TREES.
Soluble phosphoric acid, 1-5 pound, or i pound of a 20 per cent.
superphosphate.
Potash, Y pound, or i pound of a 50 per cent. chloride of pot-
ash.
Nitrogen, I pound of nitrate of soda.
Quantity for a full grown, well developed tree.
FOR CUCUMBERS, MELONS, SQUASHES, ASPARAGUS, STRAWBERRIES.
Soluble phosphoric acid, 45 pounds, or 220 pounds of a 20 per
cent. superphosphate.
Potash, 67 pounds, or 135 pounds of a 50 per cent. chloride of
potash.
Nitrogen, 27 pounds, or 180 pounds of sodium nitrate.











It should, of course, be borne in mind that these are general rec-
ommendations, to be changed to suit peculiar local conditions of soil
and climate. The quantity of each constituent given is neither the
highest nor lowest that may be uied, but is intended to represent a
medium application. If blood and bone, dried blood, cotton seed
meal or fish scrap are used as sources of nitrogen, instead of nitrate
of soda, it should not be forgotten that they contain considerable
potash and phosphoric acid, and that these two constituents of the
formulas can be diminished correspondingly.



CONCLUSION.

How can the farmer best utilize the small deposits of phosphatic
material that are found on his own farm or in his own neighborhood ?
To the small farmer that is the most vital of all the phosphate questions
before the State. In order to answer it experiments of the following
kind should be made:
I. To test the effect of composting muck, farm-yard manure,
cotton-seed meal, etc., with finely pulverized phosphate rock, and
"phosphate clay."
There is reason to expect that some of the phosphate would be
converted into superphosphate and that it would be otherwise rendered
more available as plant food.
II. To determine the relative manurial value of superphosphate,
pulverized phosphatic rock, and composts such as are described under
I, the tests to be made with various crops and on all kinds of soil.
That the superphosphate, pound for pound, is far more valuable
for immediate production than the insoluble or tri-calcic phosphate
has long ago been settled; but the former costs four times as much as
the latter. Would, or would not, the same money laid out in the
latter be in the long run the better investment ? But more particularly
in cases where the farmer has phosphate on his own farm, can he
afford to pay out ready cash for the superphosphates of the large
manufacturers ?
III. To determine whether, or not, the farmer can economically
manufacture his own superphosphate.
Considering the difficulties in the way, no one would hesitate to
answer this question in the negative, but for the fact of the phos-
phatic deposits at the farmer's door and on his own land. This makes
the question worth asking and attempting to solve.
COST OF SULPHURIC ACID.
The following are New York quotations for June 2, 1890:
Clear and most concentrated, 660 Baume; best brimstone acid:
Single ton, I Y4 cents per pound; io ton lots, I cent per pound;
50 ton lots, i cent less i per cent. per pound. Carboys cost $1.50
net.









28

(Note.-Carboys would doubtless be received back by the dealer
in acid, the buyer paying return freight.) 660 Baume acid will con-
tain only about 80 per cent. acid.
FREIGHT RATES ON SULPHURIC ACID, NEW YORK TO JACKSONVILLE,
RELEASED, CLYDE LINE.
In carboys, boxed, 32 cents per ioo pounds.
In iron casks, 18 cents per pound.
Rate, quoted May 30, 1890.
PRICE OF S. C. PHOSPHATE ROCK IN CHARLESTON.
The following quotations per ton have obtained during the past
winter and spring: "Alongside vessels, crude, $5.75; hot-air dried,
$6.25; dried, $7.25; ground rock, $8.50."











29


TABLE I.





[ANALYSES MAINLY BYJ. J. EARLE.]
The name and post office of the sender is given with each sample; 3
where stated by the sender what county the deposit is located in, the u ,
the name of the county is given in brackets. It is not known to us
what counties the others are from. 6 0 0".
V 0
S 'a

91 J. H. Ruff, Ft. White............................................ 57-30 13.20 28.81
92 Ft. White ......................................... .. 6130 9 59 20.82
93 s. C. Withrow, Hernando... .................................... ..... 34.50 20.00 43.65
98 Eichelberg, Ocala ................. .............. ............. .... 40.30 87-97
105 ..... ................................. ... 3 3 5.00 76.4
6 ............................... 2.90 778 34.48 75.26
107 ............................. ....... ... 435 53229. 65
xo8 I ... ............. .................. 1.50 4.14 35.r1 76.75
109 .......................................... 84 7-40 35-40 77.27
11o ................. ..... ..... ....-.......... ..o.5 1.78 37.3281.46
I .................................... ... 253 8.57 33.68 73.52
112 .. ............. ... ......... .............. 95 00oo.oooo0.oo
114 J. P. DePass, Lake City, [Levy county]....................... 17.0742.56 11.59125.30
116 [Levy county].......................... 0.45 82.42 6.o4 13.18
124 J. E. Young, Lake City, ]Columbia county] .................... 3.30 58.24 .96 26.15
125(a J. E. Young Columbia county ........ ...... 12.42 44.05 14.72 32.13
125 olumbia county] .................. 2.0034 6723.6851.69
19 E. T. Paine, Jacksonville....... ................ ............... 123 13.38 32.92 71.86
120 Jno. T. Arnold, Sanford............... ....................... 5.75 40 99 17.4037.98
121 ... .... ......... 8.85 21.61 24.6053-70
122 ... ..... ...... ....... .. ........... 3.50 32.17 2o-52144-79
123 ". 2.20 7.87 3.4868.71
127 J. P. DePass, Lake City, [Levy county]........................ 7.15 4-3433.0472.12
128 Jno. Thompson, New Waldo, [Alachua county]................. 0.7011.13 2.56 5.58
129 W. W. Breese, Waldo .......................................... 1.05 23.01 24.2452 91
130 ........... 4.65 76.98 2.80 6 Ix
131 W.M. Smith, Archer, [Levy county]........................... 2.22 18.65 27.98 61.87
132 J. M. Jackson, Bronson, [Levy county ....... ....... ........ 1.25 32.96 I.oo 24.00
133 5. -90 71-43 7 68 16.76
144 T.V. Moore, Fruit Cove, [Polk county] ....................... 0.90 945 3340 72.90
145 .. ............ 40026.8 25585584
148 J. F. Miller, for Mrs. Eskridge, Mansfield, [Citrus county]..... 2.60 7.13 34.1674.56
169 S, B. Thompson, Lake City, [Columbia county] .............. 2.40 58.18 10.24 22.35
171 J. F. Baya, ............... 2.75 4641 1752 3824
172 C. L. Peek, Starke,..................... ... ................... 4.60 11.82 3.56 29.6
177 ". [Bradford county] ......................... 9.95 17 2025.58 5584
179 J.E. Young, Lake Citty [Columbia county]...................... 145 8 68 13.80 30.12
18o Dr. Smoke, Mikesville, ...... 6.90 34.57 14.4431.52
181 24.55 39.25 12.52 27-33
182 L. W. Lipsey, Citra, [Marion county] .......................... 3.75 1 0234.9276.22
183 L.W. Lipsey, [Marion county]............................ 1.85 1.4038.6484.34
184 A. J. Camp, Campville.......................................3.70 3450 21.88 47.76
185 C. G.Adams, Sorrento ...................... ........... 8.75 11-57 30.84 67.3
186 W.C. Barnard, Archer, [Lev county]..................... .. .. 1.05 .7 036.9680.68
187 R. B. Hodgson, [Levy county] ...................... 6.35 2.80 33.64 73.43
188 J. P. DePass, Lake City, [Levy county]......................... 195 0 7349276.22
189 1 [Levy county]......................... 2.55 2.2537.0080.76
190 H. B. Peacock, Luraville..................... .......... 6.20 62.23 0.76 i.61
191 C.L. Peek, Starke............................. ........ .... .4o 88.35 2.56 5.58
192 Dr. J. C. Neal, Lake City, [Alachua county]................... 29.70 5.35 24.4 52.47
193 C.H. Robinson, Lenard......................... ......... 1.30 66.70 7.68 16.76
194 J. H. Coon, Lake City, [Columbia county]..................... 2.966390 9.72 21.22
195 L. F. Frink, ................................... 3.50 2.6235.8 78.19
200 Jas. P. DePass, [Levy county]............. ........ .. 1.70 .0o 36.8480o41
201 ........ ................... 2.6088.75 2.28 4.79
202 Mrs. Mosten, ........................... 2.40 4.50 3248 70.90
o3 Murphy & Jackson, Manatee............. ..... 1.65 o.4533.2472.56
204 ....... 5.65 50.50 3.04 8.46
205 2...... .....--- .... ..... -5.s 5.78 2 04 4.45
207 A. Wil's, Starke........................... ...... ........- 4.1038.58 5-78 12.57
ao8 k.A Wills, ....................... .................. 7822.07 1.52 3.32














TABLE I. (Continued.)





[ANALYSES MAINLY BY J. J. EARLE.]
The name and post office of the sender is given with each sample;
where stated by the sender what county the deposit is located in, the
name of the county is given in brackets. It is not known to us
what counties the others are from.




209 ...................... ....... ..... .... .......... ..... .......... .o80
210 ....................................... ...................... 1.50
211 P. W. Pope, Jacksonville........................................
211 (a) Josie McDonald, Archer, [Levy county] ............. .. ..... 3.55
212 F. S, McDonald, .......... .. 2.15
213 Preston King, .................... 330
214 Charlie McDonald, ....................... 45
215 i. S. White, Live Oak, [Hamilton county] ................. 12.68
216 [Suwannee county....................... 480
217 W. G. Tousey, Seffner, [Hillsboro county]...................... 2.30
218 W. Davis, Starke............. .... ......................... 2.30
219 Jim Perryman, Archer, [Levy county]......................... .6
220 Anderson Mattair, [Marion county]................. ... i.00
221 J. N. Jones, Starke ............. ... ................- ........ 95
222 W. Gwynn, Sanford.................................... ..... 1585
223 .... ........................................ 19 59
224 J. H. Welsh, Welshton, [Marion county] ........................ 0.50
226 J. P. DePass, Lake City, [Levy county]............................ .
227 B. T. Paine, Jacksonville .................... .....................
228 Dr. J. C. Neal, [Alachua county]....................... .... 2.62
229 Jno. F. Rollins, Jacksonville....................... .. .. .... 2.00
230 7.45
231 J. .. Young, Lake City, [Columbia county] ................. ... 1 85
232 J. P. DePass, .................................... 6.00
233 ...... ...... ......... ................. 6.50
234 G. P. McDonald, Lake City, [Levy county]...................... 0.95
235 ..................... 2 75
236 W. J. McDonald, Archer, [Levy countyJ. .......... ............ 4.45
237 ." .. .. ... 2.79
238 C. W. McDonald, ............... 1.95
241 J. S. McFall, Wildwood, [Marion county]....................... 2.71
242 A. J. Russell, Tallahassee, [Wakulla county]. .................. 3.33
243 .....Emmons, Lake City, .................... 2.25
244 Ellis & Hardgrave, Citra, [Levy county]........................ 0.86

TABLE II.


Contents of Iron and Aluminium in some
Florida Phosphates.
[ANALYSES BY J. J. EARLE.]

M oisture.............. ..... ..... .... ...
Organic and volatile matter...............
Sand and insoluble matter................
Ferric oxide...............................
Alunina....................... ............
Lim e .....................................
Phosphoric acid...........................
Carbonic acid..............................
Fluorine and undetermined................
TABLE III.
(Calculated from Table II.)
Moisture..................................
Organic and volatile matter ...............
Sand and insoluble matter................
Ferric oxide...............................
Alumina.................................
Calcium carbonate.........................
Tricalcium phosphate......................
Aluminium phosphate .. ..........


2.58 2.65
4.00 1.82
34.67 0.38
..... 48
8.60 2 96
24.6 49.80
23.68 39.60
0.89 I 50
0.98 0.71


1.66 2.5 2.65
2.62 4. 1 82
6.50 34.67 038
0.02 .... 0.48
2.6o 584 2.97
7.27 341
747 3 836i44


4.95 2.30 10.78 2.36
4.-0 3.53 2.80 2.70
13-30 5-78 16.35 .104
.8o .... 40
6 00 8.61 4.60 5.12
38.40 39 6.48 46.40
30.70 35.5626.88 38.63
2.03 1.58 2 95 242
0.63 2.45 093



4.95 230 10.78 2.36
4.00 3.53 2.80 2.70
1330 5.78 16.35 1.04
. o.S. ..... 0.40
6.- 5.97 4.60 3.67
4.62 3.58 6.70 5-50
67.6930 58.68 79 92
. 6.28 ..... 3.46


t o





0 a

75 34.7422
342 3479 75.95
..5 34.8075-96
2.15 33-8873-95
2.5034.28 74-83
5.10 33.52 73-17
0.053836 83.73
56.22 6.92 15.9
6.4033.16 72-38
38.02 19.444243
3038 21.88 47.76
0.13 3848 84.00
0.2 38.36 83.73
975 32.3670.20
54.6 7.6016.59
32-45 6.4035.80
1.00 3836 8373
..- 36.45 79.56
4505 15.86 3462
557015 3533.50
23-50 .3468.41
2537 24 .52.40
39-30 22.764970
2870 20.7245 23
32.40 16.37 35-74
0.10 39.52 86.26
3.90 35.32 77.07
13.05 32.877176
-55 33.51 73.38
150 36.32 79-30
34-39 18.57 40.53
31.96 19.44 42-43
6357 2. 4.49
279 36.63 79.96


1 1 1 -- -













TABLE IV.
[ANALYSES BY J. J. EARLE.]
Superphosphates made by treating 12 parts by weight of Florida rock with 9 parts by weight of sul-
phuric acid, of r.5 specific gravity (about o6 per cent. acid). The rock was powdered so as all to pass
through a sieve of forty meshes to the linear inch.


Condition and Appearance of Pow-
dered Rock immediately after Treating
it with Acid.



Becomes barely moist ..................
Becomes a thin mush containing clumps
Becomes a very stiff mush...............
Becomes barely moist.. ..............
Becomes barely moist...................
Becomes a stiffmush...................
Becomes tough, like dough ............
Becomes a stiffmush, with clumps in it
South Carolina and other rock simi-
larly treated :* *
South Carolina. ................. ......
Cambridge Coprolites...................
French Coprolites. ..................


Condition 50 Days
After Treatment.




Dry and crumbly...
Dry and very hard.
Dry and very hard.
Dry and very hard.
Dry and very hard.
Dry and very hard.
Dry, hard and tough
Dry and very hard.


Bordeaux Phosphate................... .....................

German Phosphate....................... ...... ...........
Spanish Phosphate.................... ............. .....
Rio Grande Bone Ash................... ............... .....


Rock. Superphosphate.


S '.4 I 0 I
S0 I I 0


S38.64 8 o


2.8 33.64 73.43 8.02 1960.77
15.32 29.80 65.068.80 14.722.93
7.87 31-78 68.-75.4 19.061.14
7.13 34.16 74.567.47 17.52 l.8o
1.40 38.64 84.365.00 i 164.62
II 57 30-84 67.32'2.43 19.50 1.16
2.80 33-64 73-438.02 19o060.77
66.70 7.68 16.767.25 5.500.01
0.45 33.24 72-566.28 18.420.oo


....... ........ ....... .... 9'. to 15% ....
5.91 26.47 57.78 .... io .
27.78 20.71 45.25 --- 7% ****
( 4.58 (21.46 46.85 .*
S to 5to15 I .
S1.29 (32.03 69.92 ....
{35.89 17.561 138.33 .... 8 to 16
S4-95 34.88! 76.14 ...-
f52-5 20.151 43.99 ....
12.63 3697 (8.7r ... 2
....... 3984 86.97 S: 14


*From Report of South Carolina Commissioner of Agriculture, 1880.

TABLE V.


SPECIFIC GRAVITIES.
[BY J. M. PICKELL.]

3 Samples Taken at Random. '3


Color, grayish white; coarse grained, friable..................
Color, light cream; irregular texture, containing crevices and
holes, friable..... ....................................
Color, deeper cream; irregular texture, containing crevices and
holes, friable ................... .... ...... ..... .. **
Color, deeper cream ; irregular texture, containing crevices and
holes, friable.. ................ ........... ............
Color, deep cream; fine grained, soft, easily scratched with
finger nail ............................................
Color, light cream; fine grained, soft, easily scratched with
finger nail ............ .................... ................
Color, deep cream; texture similar to 195 .......-.............
Color. light cream; texture similar to 195 .....................
Color, light cream; texture similar to 185 ......................
Color, brownish; hard, flint-like, conchoidal fracture...........
Color, cream; comparatively soft, conchoidal fracture ........
Color, yellow; texture similar to 123 ..........................
Average specific gravity .........................


Some of these samples are hard enough to scratch common window glass, others are
so soft as to be scratched with the finger nail; 185, in particular, leaving a white mark, like
chalk, when drawn across a board.




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