BULLETIN No. 14,
STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,
Lake Citu, Florida.
ANNUAL REPORT-HORTICULTURE, CEREALS, STOCK, ETC.
JULY 1, 1891.
REV. JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
DACOSTA PRINTING AND PUBLISHING HOUSE,
.Gentlemen of the Board:
I have the honor to submit the following as my annual report:
The land which was cut down and only in part ridden of stumps
at your last meeting, has been put in condition, and now every foot
of it is in cultivation. I have found it necessary to rent about fifty
acres additional land, not only for experiments, but in order to assist
in feeding the stock of the Station. The experience of this and the
past year demonstrates that I have endeavored to inake too wide a
range of experimentation with the limited scientific help I have had at
command. It will be necessary, therefore, to confine myself to fewer
experiments in the future, unless the assistance necessary to carry on
the work be furnished. It is found by this year's experience that so
great is the demand in each department for scientific investigation
that it is impossible for one man to meet the duties of two or more,
as has been the case since the Station was established.
The Station land is uniformly sandy, thirsty and poor, and in some
places almost sterile. That recently cleared produces well, but, unless
it is kept up by liberal fertilizing, in two or three years its fertility will
have passed away. It is a matter of regret that I do not possess a
greater variety of soil to experiment on. In calling your attention to
this matter, it is in the hope that you will aid me in this direction to
the extent of your power. It certainly can only be a matter of time
when the demands of our varied climate and soils will call for a
wider range of experimentation to meet their conditions than are fur-
nished on the Station.
It has been my plan not to fertilize extravagantly except in a few
instances, and then only to a limited extent, testing the capacity of the
soil to respond to heavy fertilizing, but moderately, watching the
results with care, in order to encourage our people in those methods
which would result in prosperity to them.
While experiments in those crops which constitute the common
farming of our State have received special attention, still I have not
neglected to introduce anything new which gave promise of success
which I could command, in order to increase our agricultural
resources. In this line of effort I take great pleasure in acknowl-
edging the assistance of the Department of Agriculture at Washington,
the officers of which have not only readily responded to every request,
but in many instances have anticipated our needs. In this connec-
tion I wish also to acknowledge a package of seeds of many varieties
of deciduous fruits which I have recently received from "China
through the kindness of the Rev. Dr. Young J. Allen, President of
the Anglo-Chinese College and a distinguished missionary, whose
residence is at Shanghai.
When I took charge of the Station, the low prices of black and
white seed-cotton, our leading agricultural products, together with the
scarcity of labor and its increasing high prices, led me to forecast the
time as near at hand when our people would be forced to either re-
duce the area of these crops or abandon them altogether for others
that are more lucrative. In view of these facts and the adaptability
of our State to the growth of rare and luscious fruits, the production
of vegetables, and the finer grades of tobacco, I was induced to give
special attention to experiments in these lines. Already the area of
black seed cotton from these causes have been reduced twenty-five if
not thirty-three per cent. this year, and the indications are that an-
other year a still larger reduction will be made.
The orange, which is now almost entirely confined to South Flor-
ida, I have reason to believe, so far, at least, as the Satsuma is con-
cerned, can be grown profitably in the northern and western coun-
ties of our State, and possibly other popular varieties. Laboring
under this conviction, I have made some experiments which are en-
couraging, and have some plans to propose, which I will at the proper
time submit for your action.
It affords me pleasure to state that the chemists have promptly
responded, as far as possible, to every demand upon them, working
with unremitting care to render the Station of practical value to the
people. The information furnished through this department, if util.
ized, would be of great service in advancing our agricultural in-
This department has been embarrassed by urgent applications for
analyses outside of the regular work of the Station. The public seems
impressed that it is my duty to have analyzed any and everything sent
me, and while, if I had the chemical force, I would cheerfully comply
with these requests, still the necessities of the case have forced me to
reluctantly decline a great many urgent applications.
The Station has reached that stage when it is necessary to have
two more chemists, if the range of investigations is pursued designed
by the law, and also if the pressing necessities of progressive agricul-
ture are met. And I would here also suggest the election of a Horti-
culturist, as this department requires unremitting attention.
The scientific positions in connection with the Station are such as
to require constant study and research, and unless the Director and
his staff have more time for this than their pressing duties will now
allow, they will not be able to keep abreast with agricultural science.
The inadequate force now employed, in view of the work required,
renders it impossible to pursue that range of investigation so neces-
sary to meet the wants of our people.
The sub-Stations, one located in the western portion of the State
at DeFuniak, under the superintendence of L. W. Plank, and the
other in the southern portion of the State at Ft. Myers, in charge of
Dr. L. C. Washburn, have no special reports to refer to your consid-
eration. The work done on these stations the past year has been
mainly that of land preparation, still each have made commendable
efforts to a limited extent on some lines of experimentation, such as
fruits, vegetables, cereals, forage plants and other things.
In view of the pressing demands made upon the Station for scien-
tific work and the embarrassment of the fund by the maintenance of
the sub-Stations, thus preventing the employment of.scientific hClp
in a measure, it becomes my duty to recommend to the Board their
disc ntinuance. At most they can never be otherwise than simply
trial points to test the adaptability of new fruits, plants and methods
of cropping mostly beneficial to the communities in which they are
located. This involves cost to an extent which the fund at the dis-
posal of the Board will not admit of, provided it carries out the design
of the law, besides also the benefits to the people at large is inade-
quate to the outlay. They require also a class of men who cannot
afford to devote their entire attention to this work, which the present
conditions require for the salary paid, besides the facilities for distribut-
ing what information they may acquire are too limited to accomplish
much good. They are too remote from the station for the Director to
visit them as often as he should, which from the nature of the case is a
necessity; besides the time required and the expense attending such
visits and their support could be more profitably employed in the
interest of general agriculture. Experiments such as are conducted
on them could be made in different counties of the State, through the
medium of intelligent and progressive farmers and fruit-growers, of
such crops and fruits adapted to each section, the Station furnishing
free the necessary fertilizer, giving results to the farmer. This wider
range of experimentation would not only be less than half their present
cost, but a corresponding result would be obtained in interesting
more farmers and fruit growers in improved methods of horticulture
and general farming than the present one, and this, as now, could be
done under the suggestions of the Director, to whom reports
could be made and by him published. Out of these sub-Sta-
tions there will always be questions arising of an embarrassing nature;
besides to keep them supplied by proper men in their constant stages
of development is a problem not easily solved. The present neces-
sity of the Station for the employment of scientific men could be
more easily met if the fund was relieved of their support and their
employment would more largely benefit the sections in which they are
located, if not the immediate neighborhoods, in connection with the
plan suggested above. This seems to be the prevailing opinion in
other States where sub-Stations have been tried, unless they have been
liberally sustained by State aid, which has given them scientific help.
This State, however, has never contributed a cent to the Experiment
Station, and the support of sub-Stations from the fund appropriated
by the general Government will always be an embarrassing problem
as long as they are continued.
Applications for the bulletins of the Station are constant.
Every new publication increases the list of names, and requests for
back numbers are frequently made. To meet the demand I have is-
sued 7,500 copies of the April Bulletin No.i 3. Besides this another
encouragement is the many letters received appreciating the work the
Station is doing, and another is the desire expressed by some to have
the bulletins b6und for permanent use.
Letters of inquiry are frequent on almost every branch of horti-
culture and general farming, some of which require a good deal of
time to answer.
In addition to this there are many letters of inquiry as to
Florida's resources, the prices of lands and the prospect ot new indus-
tries. To comply with these requests not only requires time, but the
want of available literature is quite embarrassing. I have tried to
devise plans to meet these inquiries, and see no other way than to
have printed articles on various subjects and have them ready for dis-
tribution. This not only involves expense but time in their prepara-
tion. However, to meet this emergency, I have solicted articles from
prominent and reliable gentlemen throughout the State, who have
devoted much time to special pursuits, but these, with one or two
exceptions, like myself, are too busily engaged to devote the time to
their preparation which they require.
The great drawback to the northern tier of counties of East and
Middle Florida, in cultivating the peach and plum, is the curculio.
This beautiful portion of our State, if rid of these, would become famous
for these fruits. In West Florida I have heard but little of them.
The people of these sections should grow these fruits for the home, if
for no other purpose. In Milton I learn that a canning factory has
been built. This is the right kind of progress because the factory was
established before the fruit and vegetables were planted in such quanti-
ties as were needed-it encouraged planting. Fruit and vegetable grow-
ing in Santa Rosa will follow as a necessary consequence. No less than
an acre should be set for a home orchard and four would be much
better. A proper selection from early to late peaches; say from May
to October would give the family this delicious and healthy fruit for
six months in the year. If care should be taken to prevent the cur-
culio for two or three years they would soon disappear or be so reduced
in numbers .as to do but little injury.
The varieties of early peaches adapted to the various sections are
For South Florida, the Peento and its sports, among which are the
Bidwell Early and Bidwell Late,Barr's Early and Barr's Late, the Queen
of the South, Cream, Yum-Yum, Florida's Own, Waldo, Angel and
Honey. There are other varieties of the Peento, doubtless equally as
good but not so well known. The noyau or bitter almond flavor of the
Peento is more marked when ripening in dry weather and on poorly fer-
tilized land. Of all our early varieties the Peento is the daintiest when
grown under favorable circumstances, and a few trees are worth the trou-
ble and expense of protection in any part of the State. North and West
of Marion county the cold snaps of spring render the crops too uncer-
tain to be planted for shipping on accou.,t of its early blooming This
is also true of its sports except the Waldo which blooms in February.
The Waldo is a clearstone and thus far the best peach as an early
variety for East and Middle Florida. It ripens almost as early as the
Peento does south and is of -excellent flavor. As a shipper it is the
best. I have tested its keeping qualities by carrying several in my
valise when ripe for two weeks, and after traveling hundreds of miles
they were firm, with no evidence of decay.
The Dwarf Japan Blood ripened this year on the Station. This
is a freestone, large medium size but ordinary as to flavor. It is pos-
sible it may prove a better peach when the trees are older. It blooms
in February, is showy and as a shipper may prove valuable. It is
worthy of trial.
There are two kinds of pears fruiting this year, the LeConte and
another, the name of which is unknown. The LeConte has fruited
for several years but very lightly. This year the trees were fertilized
and cultivated the same as the peaches, and the crop was so large as
to compel the thinning of fruit to save them. The unknown also
bore heavily, having fruited last year for the first time, and from time
to time the limbs had to be relieved of their fruit to save them from
breaking down. The unknown is a very late pear.
I have budded eleven other varieties on LeConte stock which
are growing very fast and which will be carefully watched to note
their adaptation to our climate.
JAPAN OR ORIENTAL PLUMS.
Of these I have nine varieties growing. The Kelsey fruited this
year and is an exceedingly large and choice variety. It is a heavy
bearer and ought to be on every farm and garden in the State that
will produce them, if for no other purpose than for family use. The
others have not as vet fruited, but have in some other sections of the
State, and are highly spoken of.
FERTILIZING THE PEACH, PLUM AND PEAR.
Mistakes are made in using the wrong kinds, too much and too
little fertilizer. Different soils require different grades and every man
must be the intelligent judge of his own soil. For instance, first class
pine land ought not to be fertilized as heavily as lower grades, nor
new lands as old lands. But there is no land that is cultivated awhile
in Florida but what should be fertilized to a greater or less extent for
all crops that are planted upon them, and this is especially true of the
peach, pear and plum.
One has but to ride through the country and he will be struck by
this fact, that the trees nearest the dwelling are the thriftiest, the
healthiest and the most fruitful, while those that are farther away are
not so good. Indeed, the farther the trees extend from the dwelling
the poorer and less productive they are. This is because the trees
nearest the houses are fertilized every day in the year, more or less,
by means of what is naturally the waste of the house and kitchen,
the droppings of chickens and in many other ways. This alone
teaches the necessity of fertilizing.
Nitrogen, Phosphate and Potash are the main elements of a com-
How to obtain these in their cheapest form is a question of much
importance. The nitrogen supply is obtained mainly from nitrate of
soda, dried blood, cottonseed meal, cottonseed, horse an'd cow manure,
pea vines and muck. The quantity in muck depends mostly upon its
state of decomposition and the vegetable matter which composes it.
Its cheapness depends upon the cost of gathering and hauling it. To
be made most available it should be composted with other things. To
use it alone large quantities and air exposure are a necessity.
Cottonseed meal is the best and cheapest source of our commer-
cial supply, because it is not so readily available and not so quickly
leached by the rains in winter and early spring in our light sandy soil.
Potash is obtainable from sulphate of potash, kainit, ashes and
other commercial manures. Of these I prefer kainit, because while it
contains about 23.90 per cent. of sulphate of potash, corresponding
with 12.80 pure potash, it has about 34 per cent. of salt-the chloride
of sodium. This, aside from attracting moisture, does to some ex-
.tent serve as a protection against injurious insects.
S Phosphate is mostly used in the acidulated form, called acid
phosphate, because it is more available as plant food in this form.
The phosphates of Florida will readily and cheaply meet this demand.
The soft phosphate, if dried and powdered or ground fine, will be
available. But it is not so easily available as when treated with acid.
I have tried the Charleston "Floats," which is rock ground very fine
and not treated with acid. The first year results are not so percepti-
ble, but they are better the second, and if the supply is kept up from
year to year there is no doubt but what this is the cheapest and best
form of applying it. This is doubtless true of soft Florida phosphate.
Those interested in the use of phosphate are referred to Bulletin 13.
It may not be out of place to caution purchasers against buying Florida
phosphate as a complete fertilizer. Should any be advertised as such,
it would be wise before purchasing largely to buy a small lot, demand
formula and send sample to State Chemist for analysis and opinion.
Phosphate used alone is not apt to produce the results desired. On
some of our lands it may be all that is required to produce good crops,
but it is not safe to rely on it.
In our light soils lime and iron are needed. These are not by
some classed as fertilizers but stimulants, still they are necessary in
order to have healthy and fruitful trees. It is thought also that all
land possesses enough of these to meet the demands of plant life, but
their application, especially on old land, is too manifestly beneficial to
neglect their use, at least in limited quantities. I have found, espe-
cially on old land, fine results to follow their use in the form of
copperas or sulphate of iron and common lime. The Station or-
chard, which is planted on very old land, has received very great
benefit from their application, and so has my private orchard, where
their value was tested years ago, and reports published in the press-
of the State. The following formula was used on the Station orchard
with fine effect:
STATION COMPOST NO. I.
2,000 Ibs. stable manure.
333 Ibs. kainit.
333 Ibs. acid phosphate.
333 lbs. cottonseed meal.
This was composted in a covered pen several months before used
and constituted one layer in a pen ten feet square. It was made thor-
oughly wet and another layer put on and wetted, and so on until the
pen was full, when three or four iirches of dry dirt covered the top
of heap. In breaking the pen this is thoroughly mixed and fr'm 1o
to 25 pounds scattered around each tree. When putting this out I
added one pound each of copperas and lime to each tree.
The following formula may suit some localities where the soil is
better than that of the Station :
2,600 pounds stable or cow manure or pond muck.
Ioo pounds copperas.
ioo pounds kainit.
Ioo pounds cottonseed meal.
ioo pounds acid phosphate.
The three last ingred ents ought to be mixed before composting.
It is cheaper and better mixed by the party from whom it is bought.
When copperas is used, scatter it after compost is applied and expose it
to air for some time.
The pear in some portions of the State has developed the blight
which is very destructive. It is a matter of congratulation that thus
far this disease is only confined to certain localities, yet in time it may
become general. It is sometimes first noticed by the tops of limbs
dying back. Again while the leaves and limbs and even the entire
tree presents a healthy foliage, the bark around the body or limb, or
partly around, becomes hard and dry, when upon being cut into, shows
the lining to be red, which in time becomes black and adheres to the
body of the tree. This extends sometimes evenly and again in spots, but
spreads until the disease accomplishes its work of destruction. Various
opinions obtain as to the origin of this disease, but thus far nothing
definitely has been settled, and hence the treatment is but a matter of
experiment. The pear trees of the Station are not diseased, but the
Past two years have fruited lightly. This season they vere loaded
down with fruit, the limbs having been in part relieved to prevent
them from breaking down. They were fertilized and cultivated as the
peach and plum, and like them have made a fine growth. The
plum thus far has not been assailed with any enemies except the
curculio. The borer has attacked it when budded on peach stock, and in
rare instances when budded on the Marianna plum. The Marianna
plum, thus far, is decided to be the best stock to bud on, and where land
is wet, as it is thrifty and a fast grower, it is a good stock for the peach.
The enemies of the peach are the borer, curculio and scale insect.
The latter is rarely met with and easily destroyed by the kerosene
The knife, thus far, is the best remedy for the borer. The cur-
culio, which is the great enemy of the peach in Northern and Middle
Florida, may be destroyed by the arsenic poisons. The Station was
not troubled this year but very little by these pests. But few of the
early peaches, such as the Peento and its sports, and the Honey, were
stung by it. Nor was the Kelsey plum of which it is exceedingly fond.
Still there are years in this section when a crop is almost rendered
worthless by them. This seems to have been the case in several sec-
tions of the State this year. Paris green i oz., whitewash 20 gallons,
was applied by force pump to a part of the Station trees the past sea-
son. To four rows March iith and ten rows April roth. The ap-
plication on early peaches should be made earlier than March i1, and
applied every three weeks. A week after the first application the
leaves ought to be carefully observed to note whether they are injured
by spots or made yellow. If so, the Paris green must be lessened in
quantity in subsequent sprayings. See paper by J. J. Earle, Assist-
ant Chemist, in this Bulletin in regard to mixing lime and Paris green.
This has been considered almost universally a disease of a very
damaging character to the peach. While at this stage of investigation
I am not prepared to state dogmatically, it is or it is not an enemy,
still I have doubts as to its being so damaging as it is claimed so gener-
ally to be. This opinion I have expressed both privately and in the press.
In looking over the Station to select an experimental orchard I had in
mind this object as a point of investigation. I made no mistake in
selecting land where the root-knot worm abounded. Trees with no trace
of them were planted in March, rather late to plant out an orchard, but
by selecting dormant buds mostly that had not started and other
trees, which were bought and placed in cold wet land to check
growth, and by careful planting and watering when planted, on what
is said to be an Indian field, I got a good stand. The trees were fer-
tilized but lightly after they began to grow. These grew thriftily,
and upon examination in a few months were nearly all full of
the root-knot. They are still. A year after planting, in 1890, they
were in full fruit and leaf, but many were killed by the cold snap of
March, 1890. In their places others were planted and they mostly
have the root-knot, but are flourishing. Those that stood the shock
of the March cold, thrived and bore heavily this year. I have lost
several trees from disease, but upon careful investigation not one was
attributable to the root-knot. Indeed, of those trees thus far examined
which died but one had it, and it is not conclusive that it was the
cause of death. In my private nursery I have noticed for years that
side by side two trees were growing and so near that in digging one
tree both were obliged to be taken up, their roots being intertwined,
one had the root-knot and the other had not. The fact to be ob-
served here was that the larger and thriftier tree was from one-third
to twice the size of the other and it had the rootknot. 'These root-
knots were invariably planted in my orchard with a few that were not
affected whenever I desired to enlarge it, and those who know my
place acknowledge the thriftiness and bearing quality of my trees. In
planting out trees in light, thirsty soil, when placed deep and watered,
they invariably grew off and did well whether they had the root-knot
or were free from it. When planted shallow or as they grow in
nursery and not watered, the first dry spell would cause the leaves,
to yellow, irrespective of root-knot, the bark to harden, and either
death would ensue or an existence which was palpably a failure. For
when once a young peach tree gets a set back so far as to harden its
bark, in my judgement, it is better to dig it up and replace it with
another. At any rate it should be cut back to from one to two feet
from the ground, fertilized and watered, unless the season be good,
and kept free from grass and weeds. Of course I have a theory in
regard to this matter, and when demonstrated as to its correctness
or falsity, I will give it to the public.
Good fertilizing and good culture with judicious pruning, in an
experience of over twenty years, has always sufficed to meet the de-
mands of the peach, whether it had the root-knot or was free from it.
Sixty varieties of grapes were planted in the vineyard. The
vines were one and two years old. They suffered severely in the
March cold of 1890, at which time many were in bloom and all in
leaf. Some were killed outright and others so badly weakened as to
be worthless, a number of which have since died. The missing ones
were supplied, but they suffered again by the cold snap of March the
ist of this year. The effect of this cold was to so weaken some
varieties that they succumbed to the dry weather of April and May.
Besides this there were evident signs of disease among the vines, which
were sprayed April i4th without any apparent results.
SOwing to an unaccountable delay the spraying machines ordered
for the Station did not arrive as soon as was expected, and hence their
treatment was delayed too late to accomplish good results.
Quite a number of varieties fruited very full, but the quality and
size of the grapes, which were no doubt affected by the spring drouth,
do not warrant me in making a report as to their merits.
The vineyard was planted on old and very poor land, and, while
it was fertilized and carefully cultivated, still, everything considered,
they did not meet my expectations.
The cultivation of the grape is becoming a very important in-
dustry in Florida, and almost every section of the State where they
have been tried seems to be adapted to their growth. The area has
very largely increased this year, and several vineyards are becoming
widely known for the quality and delicious flavor of their wines.
Grapes for shipping and table use, however, appeal to take the lead,
and the prices reported through the press represent them as being
The apple in Florida has not proven a success. In Jefferson
county the crabapple grows wild and it appears there are several varie-
ties of them. Around Monticello they grow quite luxuriantly and,
bear heavily. Many years ago, I am told, large numbers of them
were grafted and budded with improved varieties. These all failed.
This failure, however, may have been caused by an itijudicious selection
of varieties. In Leon county, which joins Jefferson, there are several per-
sons who have tried to produce the early Southern varieties, and have
claimed success. In Hamilton and as far south as Levy county I
have known a few trees to bear, but they have not encouraged a gen
eral effort to cultivate it. I have budded a few of each of about a
dozen of the Southern varieties on LeConte pear stock, and they are
growing off finely. It is barely possible that this valuable fruit may
become acclimated at least in one or more varieties. C,ire will be
taken to test their adaptation at various points, in the hope at least
of finding some section where they will bear and add to our stock of
JAPAN PERSIMMON OR KAKI.
This is one of the most delicious of oriental fruits. Grafted on
our native stock it succeeds finely, fruiting wherever the native variety
does. The growth is slow, but its fruiting qualities are good. It
makts a beautiful tree and produces a showy fruit, and gathered
when grown and hard, bears shipping to the most distant
points. It ripens up after being plucked, and when fully
ripe will keep for weeks if kept in a cool dry place. I have kept
them for two months after taking them from the tree. It is my opin-
ion that this fruit does not receive the attention it deserves. It cer-
tainly would be very profitable and popular if grown in sufficient
quantities to produce a demand for it.
Its two great enemies, so far as I have discovered them, is a worm
which eats into the roots, and the birds. A general cultivation of
them would, however, meet the demands of the birds, and proper
efforts may control the grubs. There have been complaints about the
difficulty of getting them to live when transplanted, but I am con-
vinced that this largely depends upon their preparation for transplant-
ing. I have found a very small percentage of them to die, but I
have cut them back freely and also cutting away lateral roots, taking
great care to pack the dirt firmly around their roots and supporting
them with a stake to prevent di placement.
The Department of Agriculitre sent me the past spring fifteen
varieties, freshly imported, out of which I have lost but three. I shall
plant native seed on which to propagate them. half of which for five
years will be given as per agreement to the Department at Washington.
The figs embraced every variety I could find in the State, but
the cold of March, i89o, killed not only these but others which were
on the Station when I took charge of it, and w' ich were good size
trees. A few have sprouted out from the roots and are growing
slowly. Cuttings of eight varieties from Smyrna were sent me from
the Department at Washington which I have rooted and are doing well.
It is a curious fact that this healthy and delicious fruit is not
more generally cultivated in the eastern and southern portion of our
State. Planted in protected places near the houses or on the south
side of forest or fruit trees, it will stand the colds of spring time,
and fruit heavy. It requires rich soil and should be fertilized if not
near the houses. A dozen trees planted in a chicken yard will furnish
shade and rich diet for towls and all a family needs.
OSIERS, OR WILLOWS, AND FOREST TREES.
Seven varieties of Osier cuttings sent from the Department of
Agriculture have been rooted and are growing finely. They consist
of the Salix viminalis alba, Salix viminalis, Silix viminalts patula, Sa-
lix purpurea pyrimadalis, Salix Holis, Salix purpurea graciles and Sa-
lix uralensis serotena.
A variety of forest tree seed were also sent me, which came up,
but succumbed to the dry spring.
Five rows of watermelons were planted for an early patch on the
5th ot February. They began ripening by the ioth of June. The
varieties were Kolb Gem, Pierson, Strawberry and Rattlesnake.
Holes two leet square by fifteen inches deep, and ten feet apart
were dug, and a large spade full of green stable manure was put in
them, on top of this a double handful o- unkilled black cottonseed.
The earth was then thrown in and mixed with a handful of blood and
bone, when five seed were planted to each hill, after being soaked for
twenty-four hours in tepid water. On cold nights the plants were
protected. During the dry weather they were watered from a barrel
half filled with chicken house manure, and then filled with water and
allowed to remain a few hours before using; with a round stick holes
were made near the stock and filled. The vines b re well and the
melons were fine, weighing from twenty to thirty pounds. Another
patch planted the 5th of March and fertilized with less manure, side
by side with others, grew melons weighing from twenty to fifty two
pounds, and were but ten days later.
Muskmelons planted at the same time and fertilized like water.
melons, developed the same results as to the time of ripening. Melons
need a complete fertilizer, and if the soil is poor a rich hill in which
to plant them is necessary. Of watermelons I planted also Cuban
Queen, Florida Favorite, Henderson's Green and Gold, Winter,
Pineapple and others.
Kolb's Gem made the heaviest melons, the meat of which was as
good as any. Out of the above varieties the most fastidious taste
ought to be satisfied.
Canteloupes planted were Chicago Market, Delmonico, Osage,
Baltimore and Bird. These were all good, but Delmonico, accord-
ing to my judgment, was the best by very great odds.
Several varieties of strawberries were tested, but the Station soil
is too thirsty for them. Another year I will test them near the lake
on moist land and in larger quantities, in order to study their enemies.
Quite a number of varieties were sent me by dealers to test, but
all of them were too late to fruit. They were planted on fresh, moist
land, but all died except the Everbearing, which have grown well
and multiplied finely.
TREES FOR DISTRIBUTION.
Those who desire them must send in their names before the ist
All who receive trees from the Station are expected to take care
of them and report to the Director their failure or success.
The trees sent out will be small, some of which will be dormant
buds. Instructions will be sent with trees as to their treatment, culti-
From one to three trees of each variety will only be distributed to
each person. It is desired that the people will send in their names
promptly and assist me in testing trees, which may be of value to the
State. I propose to make the nearest railroad depot the point of dis-
tribution for each section. Trees for each neighborhood will be sent
to some party who will distribute them. The name of each person
will be tagged to the trees desired. Trees will be free, and the freight
paid to the point of destination.
The following is the list of trees for distribution:
May.-Peento, Queen of the South, Barrs' Daisy, Bidwell
Early, Waldo, Prolific, Angel.
June.-Honey, Horn's Favorite, Dowling's Red, Big Red,
Dwarf Japan Blood, Blood, Indian Blood, Stanley, Miccosukee,
July.-Golden Press, Golden Clear, Silver Press, Silver Clear,
Onderdonk, White Cling.
August.--August Early, August Late, Watson's August.
October.-My Favorite (white), My Favorite (yellow), Gibb's
Kelsey, Satsuma, Botan, Ogon, Nasu, Long Fruited, Chabot,
Yellow Japan, Simonii, Pissardii.
LeConte, Kieffer, Bartlett, Clapp's Favorite, Gilbert, Petite,
Wallace Howard, Astrachan, St. Michael, Yellow Transparent.
OSIERS OR WILLOWS.
Salix viminalis alba, Salix viminalis, Salix viminalis patula, Salix
purpurea, Salix Holis, Salix purpurea graciles, Salix uralensis serotena.
PLOT I.-This was a small plot 28x30 feet, width between rows
three feet, length 28 feet. The seed were sowed September i6th in
boxes (it is not necessary to sow in boxes) to protect them from sun.
The plot was at the same time prepared for plants. Every two feet on a
row a hole was dug with the hoe, making 140 holes, into which two
pounds of compost No. i, given above, was put and well mixed with
soil, leaving a well defined hill as a mark for the plant. The seed bed
was laid off in shallow rows four inches a part and the seed sowed,
covered lightly, the dirt pressed with hand on seed. The plants
were kept watered by a sprinkler and transplanted when ready. By
the time the plants were ready to transplant, the manure in the hill
had passed through heat so as not to injure them. The 2d of Decem-
ber the first cabbage was cut for the table. From that time until June
this patch furnished all the cabbages necessary for a family of ten
persons, besides many of them were given away to hands and other
parties. This was done by sowing seed in November, December and
every month afterwards until March. When six or eight cabbages
had been cut their places were supplied by plants. When the plants
were set a teaspoon of kainit and cotton seed meal was given each
plant. In this way the patch was perpetuated. This experiment was
made solely in the interest of the family. It demonstrates how a
small plot can keep a large family in this excellent vegetable ,indefi-
nitely. The amount of seed required after the first paper is very
small, say one-fourth of a paper at a sowing.
PLOT NO. 2.
The growing of spring and summer cabbages have long since been
abandoned by Floridians on account of their enemies. The cabbage
worm and lice scarcely ever fail to disappoint the most hopeful and
sanguine, and after a few trials the conviction forces itself inevitably that
all effort in this direction is unavailing and time and money thrown
away. The result has been that the fall and winter are considered the
only seasons in which our climate would produce this popular vegeta-
ble. In consequence of this Florida has been made dependent largely
during the fall and winter on the Northern States for cabbage. Annually
our merchants order a great number of large crates to meet the de-
mand of both town and country trade. To prevent this and supply
our home demands, I commenced the following experiment. I selected
a plot 168x63, and laid it off in three feet rows. On each row every
two feet I dug holes and fertilized some of them with three ounces.of
Paine's Vegetable Food, others with same amount of Mapes', and also
Bowker's, while seven ounces of Station No. I competed with six
ounces Station compost No. 2 in others. These proved to be good fer-
tilizers. They were mixed thoroughly in the soil and after a week
from five to ten seed were planted in each hill. At the same time a
seed bed was sown to supply vacant places if the seed failed to germi-
nate in the hill. The seed were planted in hill in order to verify
whether cabbages would head unless transplanted. The stand was
not good owing to dry weather, but the seed bed supplied the missing
In due time the worm made its appearance and began its work
of destruction. By May i2th the cabbages were literally honey-
combed with them, when they were sprayed with the following mix-
ture: One ounce of Paris green to twenty gallons of weak soapsuds.
This killed the worms, and in a few days the buds began to head, and
by June ioth there were hundreds of edible cabbage in the patch;
they are there to-day, July 27th. There were no lice to trouble us
The popular opinion is that the use of arsenic poisons, sprayed or
sifted on plants, is dangerous to health and life. Three weeks after
spraying I made cold slaugh of a cabbage and it was perfectly healthy,
From then until now they have been eaten by scores of people with-
out any evil effect. When it is considered that twenty gallons with
only one ounce of Paris green sprayed 800 cabbages, there was not
enough arsenic to each, if all a plant received at the time of spray-
ing had been eaten, to have injured a child. The commonly prevail-
ing opinion that plants absorb poison sprayed or sprinkled upon the
leaves is most certainly an erroneous one. Hence, this deadly poison
and London purple should constitute a necessary and indispensable
article to every one who either cultivates a kitchen or truck garden.
So successfully have I used this poison, from the seed bed to the
heading period of cabbages, and so harmless when used on the cab-
bage, that I unhesitatingly advise every family to procure it and
keep it by them for immediate use. A tablespoon well mixed in four
or five pounds of flour and sprinkled over the bed when the seed are
sown, and repeated after the plants are up, will protect them from
botlh the flea beetle and the cut worm, and thus prevent that de-
lay and disappointment which has so often discouraged the gardener
in time of seeding.
i. The experiment is a demonstration that spring cabbages can be
protected from the worm. The lice pest, it is reasonable to suppose,
can also be destroyed by spraying with Paris green or the kerosene
2. Cabbages planted in hill will head equally as well as when
3. A handful of salt dropped in the bud of each cabbage during
the dry spell was a great help to the growing plants.
4. Ashes, dust, salt and lye used before the Paris green receipt
had no perceptible effect on the worms.
5. The cabbages may be sprayed by a spraying pump, or if the
patch is a small one, by a small hand syringe.
6. The experiment demonstrates that seed sowed thickly causes
the plant to grow spindling, but if only one-half to one inch apart in
drill they are more stocky.
7. In transplanting a hole should be made by a round stick
deep enough to let the plant .down to the leaves, whether it is four
or eight inches high. A little water poured on each when transplanted
settles the earth around the roots.
8. To protect against cutworms take one teaspoon of Paris-green
to two pounds of flour; mix well and sprinkle around and between
plants. An old mustard box, the top perforated with holes by a nail,
will serve the purpose admirably.
9. During dry spells a handful of salt dropped on the bud will
attract moisture and keep the plant growing. The cabbage needs salt,
and for this reason kainit is a good fertilizer for it. But kainit must
not be used on the bud in the place of salt, as the potash in it will
to. The seed bed in the fall is sometimes assailed by bugs and
grasshoppers. Paris green will kill the insects, and the bed being a
small one can be protected from other enemies, such as birds, chick-
ens, etc., by a frame.
ii. A frame covered with wire webbing, small mesh, protects the
plants against chickens and birds and makes a convenient frame over
which brush or an awning can be thrown as a shade when the sun is
12. The cabbage bed should be worked every week or ten .days
by both plow and hoe and dirt thrown to plants. A garden hand
plow serves the purpose on a small plot.
This vegetable was not planted with the object of estimating
quantity per acre or its sugar-producing qualities, but in order to test
fertilizers which would produce it on our dry and sandy lands.
Several varieties of common red turnip beet were selected.
The plot was broken up and fertilized with 1200 pounds stable
manure, 400 each kainit and cotton seed meal and 200 acid phos-
phate, and left for two weeks for assimilation of soil and fertilizer.
Seed were sowed in a drill October ist, and a stand too thick for rapid
growth was obtained. Draws for missing places were taken out where
they were thickest, and it was not until January a mess was ready
February zd, with garden plow, a furrow was run very near
them and fertilized with salt and gas lime equal parts at the rate of
iooo pounds per acre. A part of the fertilizer was also distributed
between beets and furrow covered. In a little while the beets began
to grow afresh, and in a few weeks they were ready for the table.
During the dry months of April and May, when they showed signs of
suffering, they were again fertilized with salt. This gave them new
energy and they began a new growth. Some of those beets are still
there and promise to remain at least until they are a year old. A
peculiarity is that while they were in size from an egg to a saucer they
have been without an exception tender and delicate. The beets, like
the cabbage, are greatly benefited by salt applications not only when
planted but during dry spells.
On February 3d two small plots on the same kind of soil, dry,
sandy and hilly, were seeded and fertilized, one at the rate of one-half
ton of Paine's Vegetable Manure and 750 pounds of salt per acre. The
other with Statibn compost No. 2, one and one half tons, and 750
pounds salt per acre. These grew off rapidly, producing tender large
beets, and are still remaining in the ground without rotting.
On March 12th another small plot was sowed in drills and fertil-
ized with Station compost No. i at the rate of one ton per acre. The
soil was fresher and better, being moist but tiled. The growth was
rapid, the roots large, weighing from one-half to three pounds each.
A few in good condition still remain July 27th.
The egg plant in South Florida in some localities is troubled by a
disease which at times very materially interferes with the grower's
profits. This vegetable, one of the most valuable to ship North and
West, and very popular, is easily raised, and when planted in early
spring lives till frost, and bears heavily. I planted it quite largely with
the object in view of studying its disease and enemies, but on the Sta-
tion it developed none.
THE McNEIL PEA,
Which originated in this town (Lake City) and popular as a shipper,
being a good bearer and hardy, was also tested. It is a little later
than the very early varieties, but a bunch pea of good size and full
pod. This pea is very scarce and all raised were saved for seed.
It is a popular market pea and for that reason greatly desired by
Other kinds of vegetables were tried and studied, but nothing of
importance worthy of mention was developed, such as
Okra; Tomatoes; Parsnips; Spinach; Carrots, yellow and white;
Pepper, seven kinds (Large Bell, Red Cluster, Sweet Mountain, Nor-
cross Giant. Mammoth Golden Queen, New Sweet Spanish); Oyster
Beans; Squash (Giant Summer or Crookneck, Yellow Bush, Giant
Summer, Cashaw); Beans (Mohawk, Valentine, German Wax,
Speckle German Wax, Black Wax); Lettuce; Radish; Cucumbers;
Champion of England Pea; Extra Early Pea.
The following crops were planted on old land unfertilized
RED AND WHITE TEXAS OATs.-The stand was medium, and
heads medium; weight per bushel, medium.
NINETY DAY OR SUMMER OATS -The stand good. This is an
early but light oat. Planted in January, it ripens first of May, abd
is very popular in this (Columbia) county because of its earliness, and
has the reputation of being a sure crop. For two years this oat
has been planted on this Station and did well.
THE DEPASS OAT (it should be called the Anderson oat, because
Dr. Lewis Anderson, of Ninety-six, South Carolina, improved it
through twenty years of patient effort) was introduced into Marion
County by me about twelve years ago. My name was given to it
by the farmers simply because I introduced it in the county and
to distinguish it from other varieties. It is thought by some to be
the best for that section, and has been adopted by them to the ex-
clusion of other varieties. It is red, rust proof, grows high, heads
heavy and weighs35 pounds to the bushel.
BLACK BARLEY was sowed broadcast on very old and sandy
land, on which rice had been cultivated the two previous years, at
the rate of one bushel per acre, and fertilized with kainit, 800 pounds
per acre, and planted the middle of January. Seed were furnished
me by Rev. James Stanton, Ormond, Fla.
This test was promising. The stand was a good one and to my
surprise, it grew off rapidly, making very fair heads, considering the
very dry weather of April and May. Encouraged by this trial I
shall plant early in the fall another plot. It was also drilled and the
indications were as promising.
Such other things as Sorghum, Sugar Cane, Corn, Wheat, Kaffir
Corn, Flour Corn, Pinders, Cotton, Tobacco, Sweet Potatoes, Rice,
and Corn and Sorghum for ensilage, were planted and will be duly
reported in Bulletins.
A silo of corn and sorghum has been put up and a future report
will be made of it.
Sixty grasses, both foreign and domestic, were tested on the
Station this year under the direction and supervision of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture at Washington. Fifty-nine of these were a total
failure, not one giving any promise of success. This may be attrib-
uted to the time of planting, which began on the z9th of January.
The experiments in grasses and forage plants will be continued this
fall and the coming spring, in the hope of doing better than last year.
THE TEXAS BLUE GRASS I found on the Station in the spring of
'89 when I took charge. It was sowed in drills, on one of the best
pieces of land on the Station, was fertilized and did well, seeding fully
and the next season spreading over the entire plot. From that
time until now it has neither been worked nor fertilized, and it has
held its own against weeds, other grasses, blackberries and broom
straw, making an early fall, winter and spring pasture. Last Decem-
ber I sowed in drills on a highly fertilized sandy hillside seed which
came up and formed a splendid stand. The growth was slow and unsatis-
factory. It may be that another season will show better results, but
I am doubtful. From the experience I have had with this grass it is
my opinion that on low rich land it will make an excellent pasture,
and it may do well on good, firm, high land, but when it is hilly and
light it does not promise to be of much value. Time, however, is
required to decide more fully on its merits and the experiment is fully
THE BURMUDA GRASS can be propagated both from the grass
and seed. It is a mistake that the grass itself grows so easily as is
generally stated, unless the soil is good and the seasons specially
favorable when planted. After it obtains a hold on the soil, either
on sandy hills or moist or good uplands, it is tenacious of its claims
and rights and difficult to get rid of. For two years I have cultivated
where it had a limited hold at first, but to-day it is a thousand times more
deeply imbedded in the soil than ever, and promises to stay there,
spreading constantly. It makes a beautiful lawn in the spring and
summer, and in many places in East and Sotth Florida it is possible
that it would do well in winter, if top dressed with fertilizer in fall,
and kept mowed especially after each frost. Cattle are very fond of
it and seemingly prefer it to any other kind, even when native grasses
are highly fertilized and growing rapidly.
During the past year the Station has lost every horse it owned.
The disease apparently assailed everything that came in contact with
it for any length of time, but it was entirely local. During the year
I lost two very fine mares, which I had brought on the Station for
The Station mare Daisy was the first to develop the disease but
not the first to die. The first symptom noticed was lameness, without
any apparent swellings or bad feet. This gradually increased, slug-
gishness ensued, then occasional spasms, then lying down with ina-
bility to get up, and when helped up trembling in all the limbs, finally
not able to stand when helped up.
The first horse that died was my own, a fine gray mare. She,
after being here a month, became lame. For six weeks this lameness
in turn grew worse and better. A pressure of work forced her in the
plow and hauling for a few days, after which she was very lame
and thought by some to be foundered, but I did not,- She grew
better, and hone was entertained of her recovery, but suddenly her
stiffness and lameness increased, and after two months from the
first attack she died.
During the fall the two Hambletonians-the stallion and mare-
showed lameness. This was thought to be diseased hoof and they
were so treated. The lameness and general soreness increased, when
the horse's head under his eyes and lower jaw began to enlarge and in-
crease in size very rapidly. (His appetite remained good, and it is a
singular fact that all through the sickness the appetite of the horses
remained good until they became helpless and could not eat.) With
this development the lameness and stiffness of joints became more
manifest with tremblings all over and general uneasiness. When he
laid down it was with difficulty that he got up again. After awhile
after lying down he h'd to be assisted up, and finally was unable to
stand when lifted on 1. ; feet.
Mona, the Hambletonian mare, had all the symptoms of tie horse
with the exception of the enlargement of the head. Her shoulders
and joints enlarged however, which would disappear under treatment
with liniment. When she died, on being cut open, it was found that
the ribs on both sides were all broken, some of them in three places,
caused by her weight in lying down. They were so soft in places as
to be cut easily with a knife. The broken ribs on one side of her
were observed at least two months before she died. Her brain,
liver, kidneys, lungs and stomach did not show signs of disease or
general inflammation. In the region of the kidneys the backbone
was quite soft. The horse's kidneys were said to be seriously affected.
In January the mules showed the same symptoms of lameness,
but it soon passed away.
In the meantime another mare of mine became lame, which was
used in a buggy and, being in foal, was thought at first to have dis-
eased feet, then rheumatism, but finally her face and jaws began to
enlarge and the fatal disease rapidly developed. In the meantime
she foaled a colt and in three weeks died.
With the exception of the last mare of mine and the mules, Dr.
J. C. Neal, nominally the veterinarian of the Station, attended the sick
horses until in December when, perceiving they grew worse, I em-
ployed a Dr. Williamson who professed to be a skilled veterinarian.
His treatment failed. At the suggestion of my superintendent I em-
ployed on the Station mare Mona and my mare Clara, a Mr. Silas, who
had some reputation in curing horses afflicted in this way. His
treatment, h wever, did not avail. Horses which have their
heads to enlarge under this disease are said to have the "big
head," but I am satisfied it is only a symptom of the disease. Mani-
festly every horse and mule that was sick was similarly afflicted, and
those which died showed by every action that the same disease killed
The books do not describe it, which is said to be unknown North
and West. Blind teeth are said to produce it, but this is a mistake,
since four of the five had no blind teeth. A year before the horse's
head began to enlarge I had blind teeth taken from him, and hence
they could not have produced it in him. The enlargement of the
teeth is evidently a result of the disease.
The treatment pursued by different parties vary much, and is
very severe. I can suggest nothilig. I am told by those who seerh
to be familiar with it, that mules do not have it. However, it is clear
the mules had the same sickness that killed the horses, although they
recovered and are in fine condition now. The Station is without a horse.
Quite a number of horses in this county have been sick and a number
died. The Hon. D. N. Cone lost five, and Mr. Silas, who
attended two on the Station, Mona and my mare Clara, informs
me that he is constantly traveling, attending sick horses, a pecu-
liarity of the sickness being that they get down and are not able to
rise without help. A skilled veterinarian would no doubt be of great ser-
vice to the State, especially to study the diseases peculiar to the cli-
mate and prescribe remedies suitable to recovery.
The cows consist of two Jerseys and one high grade Jersey.
These cattle have not developed the amount of butter for which they
have been celebrated, although itey are in fine condition. While
I have made no tests either in the laboratory or with separators, still
they have been fed highly, fed as much so as cows which represent
from two to three pounds of butter daily. The largest yield I have
received, churning the old-fashion way, was one pound per day. I
propose very soon to make chemical tests and have ordered apparatus
for this purpose and will purchase at an early day a separator. From
my experience I have grave doubts that the Jerse) is so far superior
to our native stock for our climate, if the latter are carefully selected
and properly treated.
I had the misfortune to lose the Holstein-Fresian cow. In at-
tempting to rise up, when in her stall; she slipped and broke her neck.
Her mate, a magnificent beast, is in good order and health. This ani-
mal in passing through acclimation had to have his head tied up day
and night through early spring, summer and fall, to keep him from
eating sand. It was with difficulty that he could be led to water and
be kept from eating it. Salt was always kept in his trough; he was
fed on green and dry food, ashes and lime were given him, and
indeed every device and treatment was used, but they failed. Noth-
ing accomplished the cure but the rope. After the first season he
showed no more disposition toward this morbid appetite. Persons who
buy cows from Northern and Western States will do well to take the
precaution to protect against this disposition of fine grade cattle by
keeping them on a board floor or tying their heads so high as to pre-
vent them from reaching the ground. I have known cattle to eat
sand a little at a time, but eventually to die from it. There is but
lttle doubt in my mind that instead of acclimation fever affecting
imported cattle that this is the main cauge of so many dying in Florida,
brought from States north and west of us.
My efforts with cattle have been mainly to produce feed cheaply
that would produce a good flow of rich milk. In Florida the all impor-
tant question is cheap feed. With corn at from 60 cents to $I. io, and
oats from 50 to 80 cents per bushel, the dairy can not be of much
profit in our State. Sweet pota'i, -; are an excellent feed, but it is not
demonstrated that they can be raised cheap enough under the present
system of cultiva ion on old land. I am now running experiments
in potatoes with this object in view. If the representations made are
correct as regards the enormous yield of cassava per acre, its value
as a rich feed for cattle, and the cheapness of its cultivation, then
the problem of cheap feed will be solved But this has to be dem-
onstrated, which I hope in time to do. There are some locations
in Florida where stock farms would be very valuable, possessing
meadows which yield early spring grass which should be utilized
in this department of agriculture. For no State offers a better
market for butter and meat products, nor can any climate be found
healthier or in which fine cattle can be bred more successfully than
ours The great question is cheap feed.
The hogs I have tried have been the Razorback, the Poland
China, the Berkshire and the cross between the Poland China and
Razorback. Without going into detail to any extent I will state that
I bought a pure Razorback with six pigs, when pigs were six weeks
old. After keeping them a month on the Station I took the six pigs
and penned them in my yard and fed them on slop from the kitchen.
I reduced the number in six weeks to one and kept it until it was
ten months old, then I returned it to the Station and fed it five months
in the horse lot. It weighed, when Alaugthered, 320 pounds and net-
ted 280 pounds. At the same time I slaughtered a Berkshire, three
years old, which weighed 317 pounds and netted 258 pounds. I also
slaughtered three pigs ten months old, fed on slops for six months and
then on corn for four months, and they netted 125. 148 and 159 pounds.
The lightest was thorough-bred Poland China. The next, a cross
between Poland China and a tolerably well kept country hog,
with some good blood, and the last and best, a cross between Poland
China and Razorback. The Razorback I observed fed enough to
keep it from rooting, did not develop the phenomenal snout so char-
acteristic of this abused breed. Crossed on improved stock it cost
more to feed them, but if fed properly when young, with proper treat-
ment they develop into a compact, broad-back and heavy hog. Starve
them and give them the range for a living and we have the piney. woods
rooter, in which, if allowed to become two years old before fattening,
we have a hog which takes time and money to bring it to an edible
I have a trio of Jersey Reds which make large hogs, the chief
characteristic of which is their prolificness. These I will cross on
other hogs, and test their growth and fattening qualities. The Poland
China did not do well on the Station.
Persons living in East and South Florida, and for that matter
any where inthe State, can save their hams and shoulders by grind-
ing them into sausages. If, when fresh, they are hung up and
smoked several days, then cooked and packed away in hot lard, they
will at the expiration of six and eight months be as fresh and as
nice as when they were put up. I kept them that long and expected
to keep them a year, but after eight months they were gone.
The experiment in chickens was to determine whether fine breeds
or any breeds could be raised profitably as a business for market in
our State. This question has often been discussed and a great
many people were of the opinion that a chickery in Florida,
as an independent business, would be profitable. With this
object in view. I bought eleven strains and, to keep them pure,
prepared separate pens for them. I also bought an incubator
.with brooder, and made elaborate arrangements for a complete
test. I employed a man specially to take charge of this ex-
periment, who was skilled in the use of the incubator and who
had large experience in the business. Poultry journals were taken
and the best feed was furnished. There were as many hens
outside of the yard, and were allowed to run at large and feed
where they would, as were inside the pens, while those in the pens
were fed on meat and the richest of egg-producing food, There was
a good yield of eggs and the fowls of each breed sustained their
reputation in this line, but the great trouble was that, while the incu-
bator worked all right, the eggs would not hatch except in limited
numbers. The eggs did not appear to be fertile.
The chickens outside without the feeding and attention, such as
those inside the pens received, with the run of the woods and the
fields, played as many eggs, and hatched more than the incubator did.
The experiment was a demonstration that the cost of feeding
chickens for the market, when the price at ten weeks old was twenty-
five cents, could not be a profitable business. For at the lowest price
food could be purchased, a chicken ten weeks old would cost twenty
cents. It therefore would take i,ooo chickens to make a profit of
To run a chicken farm a man must like the business. He must
have peculiar adaptation for it. He must study their diseases and
know how to physic them, and in a word, be up in the business fully.
If prices such as I paid for stock, ranging from $5 to $8 per
trio, could be had, then a chicken farm would be profitable. But to
raise them for market or for the value of eggs, at the rate that food is
worth and the attention they demand, is an uncertain and, in my judg-
ment, an unprofitable business for any one to undertake.
If a person lived near a large city where the refuse of large
hotels could be had for the hauling, such an industry might be made
My opinion is that the profit in chickens lies in each farmer having
from twelve to thirty hens, with one to three cocks of the best breeds,
which have the run of the barnyard, the kitchen yard and the fields,
and which can mostly feed themselves. If hen houses are built and
places prepared for them to lay and hatch in, they will keep the
family in eggs and poultry with some to spare.
The Wyandottes, White, Red and Silver Wing, and Plymouth
Rock, both White and Barred, are good layers, good watchers, good
mothers and fine table fowls both when young and old.
The Leghorns are the best layers. Between the White and Brown
I should select the Brown. The Brown Leghorn is a very thrifty
chicken and one of the best foragers.
Experiments in Florida phosphates will be very generally made,
but all interested in them are referred to Bulletin 13 and to Dr. Pick-
el's report in this number, in which very valuable information on the
subject is fully given. From them it will be seen that their use, in or-
der to obtain the best results, must be in connection with other ele-
ments of plant food. Farmers and fruit growers should not be misled
by the extollation of soft phosphate or of acid phosphate as all that is
necessary to be used to secure either good crops or fine growth of trees
or much fruit. Those who make these claims are not careful observers
and their knowledge of the elements of plant food is limited. Phosphate
can onlyperform its part (and it is a very important part) as plant food,
but nitrogen and potash are as essential factors, and to make each ac-
complish their best results, all must be used in such quantities as the
character of the soil demands. Experiments with Florida phosphates,
hard or soft or acidulated, would not likely develop any new facts than
.those referred to in this and Bulletin 13, unless it be that soft Flor-
ida phosphate is more readily available than hard rock ground fine.
The tiling has been of great service in draining springy land. It
has proved a decided success also in converting land which was boggy
into good dry soil. The kind used was the box tile made of heart pine.
It was made by taking 20 foot pieces, 1x4, for bottom and top,
and Ix2 for sides. To form a joint the bottom extended four inches
on one end and the top four inches on the other. Crate slats were
sawed four inches long and slipped under each nail between plank to
give vent to water. This size plank would give a two inch tile large
enough for ordinary purposes. It was necessary to place these tiles
from 15 to 30 feet apart. The ditches dug for them varied from 18
to 36 inches deep, The value of underdrainage of land cannot be
too highly estimated. It is costly but then it pays. The fall neces-
sary to success need not be very great, but care should be taken that
the tile be laid on an incline or else it is liable to choke.
In accordance with your action at your last annual meeting, held
June Ioth, 1890, I have erected on the Station a Director's dwelling.
[his is a commodious eight-room two story cottage. The rooms are
15x18 feet, and, with its outdoor buildings, cost in round numbers
$2,626. I have also completed a laborer's house, which was in part
built by the hands of the Station.
The buildings on the Station and their approximate value are:
i Director's dwelling ... . .$2,626 oo
1 Foreman's . . 800 oo
2 Laborers' cottages ... ....... 350 oo
i Horse stable and barn . ... 1,125 oo
SDairy ...... .......... 150 oo
i Cow stable. .............. 500 oo
i Fertilizer; tool and wagon house .. 550 oo
i Hay barn ...... .. ..... 250 oo
2 Silos . . . 75 oo
I Chicken run with houses . ... 350 oo
i Incubator house. .. . 50 oo
i Shed for machinery ... .. ... 350 oo
These buildings are in good repair and meet the present demands
of the Station except a couple of sheds for general purposes.
JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1891.
Salaries . . . ... .
Labor, freight and merchandise . .
Laboratory and entomology . .
Incidentals . . . .
Expenses of Board Trustees .. ....
Periodicals . . . .
Bulletins . . . .
Postage and stationery . . .
Expenses of Director . . .
Fertilizer . . . .
Farm machinery and hardware . .
Feed and seed . . . .
Building . . .. ...
Traveling expenses of Board Trustees and Di-
rector . . . .
To A. and M. Colleges . . .
Land and rent . . . .
Insurance . . ... .
Fruits and flowers . . .
W ater tax . . .... .
Membership of Directors' Association .
H ogs . . . ....
Veterinarian . . . .
Expenses of exhibit at Ocala Exhibition .
DeFuniak sub-Station .. .....
Fort Myers ....
Assets of Station . . .
Cotton, laboratory, etc. . .
June 30 -On forage experiment from Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington.
ist quarter-August .
2d quarter-October .
3d quarter-January .
4th quarter-April ..
$ 499 84
. .. 3,750 00
. 3,750 00
$15,499 84-$15,499 $4
F. J. PONS, TREASURER.
999 98-$I5,499 4
ANNUAL REPORT OF J. M. PICKEL, CHEMIST.
Rev. J. P. DePass, Director Agricultural Experiment Station:
SIR--The following brief summary of the work of the chemical
laboratory during the past year is respectfully submitted:
Potash.-The claim is made that the ash of saw palmetto root con-
tains a large per cent. of potash. An analysis of ashes, prepared and
sent on by Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond, over a year ago, was
found to contain only I.io per cent. of potash. We were lead to
suspect that the root from which this ash was prepared was an old one
that had been long dug and exposed to the rain. We found this to be
true; the root had been kicked about on a beach for two or three
years. This induced us to make some experiments as to the effect of
exposure to rain on the content of potash. The ash of a freshly
dug root freed from adhering dirt contained 40 per cent. of potash
and 20.per cent. of phosphoric acid (equivalent to 43.6 per cent. of
tricalcic phosphate. The ash from apiece of the same root exposed three
months (during the dry season, however,) to rain contained only 34.75
per cent. of potash and 20 of phosphoric acid. Doubtless the per
cent. of potash will be much further reduced still when the rainy sea-
son is over. The difference in the solubility of potash and phosphate
is incidently strikingly brought out. This percentage of potash is sur-
prisingly large. The ash of only a few of the hard woods contains so
much potash. The ash of the White Oak and of the Ash contain
respectively about 46 per cent., that of the Dogwood and the Hickory
28 per cent., those of the Post Oak, Red Oak and Magnolia 22, 25
and 19 respectively. It would require about twenty tons of thoroughly
air-dry palmetto roots to make one ton of ashes.
Tannin.-It has been.long known that there is tannin in the root.
of the saw palmetto, but statements as to the quantity and value are
conflicting. One of the most intelligent and observant gentlemen of
this State informed the writer recently that he had several years ago
sent a number of tons of the roots to a tannery in New York, and that
they were pronounced as of practically no value. An analysis by the
Massachusetts Experiment Station reports only a trace of tannin. On
the other hand as high as 12 per cent. has been claimed. Senator O.
B. Smith, of St. Augustine, sent to the Director of the Station some
weeks ago a piece of calfskin tanned in twenty-eight days by the pal-
metto root. The work is beautifully done; the texture, color and
general appearance of the leather are fine. We have made some
determinations, and have thus far found from 4 to 6.25 per cent. of
tannin. These determinations were made in the intervals of other
work, and are not final nor satisfactory. The investigation will be
continued. Oak bark contains from about" 6 to 14 per cent. of tannin.
The palm or leaf of the palmetto contains little or no tannin. Our per-
centages have reference to the root only, that is to the entire root,
both the fibrous and non-fibrous part. We have found that al-
most all of the tannin resides in the part of the root which remains
after the fiber is extracted. This fact is an important one; and natur-
ally suggests the running of a tannery in connection with fiber extrac-
tion. In fiber manufacture the non fibrous part has, of course, here-
tofore been a waste product. It is not improbable that where the
entire root contains 4 to 6 per cent. of tannin, the non-fibrous part
alone will contain 8, o1 or 12 per cent. This point is being followed
up. Points worthy of investigation in this connection are: Whether
or not different species of the the saw palmetto may not contain differ-
ent quantities of tannin; whether or not, the same species may not at
different seasons of the year, as well as at different stages of its age,
etc., contain different quantities of tannin.
The camphor tree, as is well known, thrivesin Florida; and it is
a question if the production of camphor might not be made a profitable
industry. We have now in the laboratory a quantity of the outer
leaves and twigs pruningss) of a camphor tree, awaiting an opportun-
ity for extracting the camphor, determining its kind and percentage.
The question of how the "soft phosphates," particularly such as
contain much iron and alumina, car best be utilized, continues to be
often asked. It is not at all likely that low grades can find extended
use as long as the high grades are so abundant, except possibly in a
local way where the deposits are close to the crops to be fertilized.
Perhaps the best way to utilize them is to grind them to a powder and
broadcast them in large quantity. The action of soil and weather will
slowly, but surely render them available as plant food. It should be
borne in mind, however, that they contain no nitrogen and practically
no potash, and that these elements must be added. The composting
of these phosphates, particularly such of them as contain considerable
corbonate of lime, with muck, is to be recommended.
We are sometimes asked also as to the practicability of converting
these low grades by means of sulphuric acid into soluble or superphos.
phate. Last winter a rock which analyzed,
Moisture .. 1.77 per cent.
Silica . .. 36.90
Phosphoric acid 21.49 equivalent to
46.91 tricalcic phosphate.
Ferric Oxide 0.44 "
Alumina . 3.06 "
Lime .... 28.oo "
was finely pulverized and treated with sulphuric acid of 1.5 specific
gravity in the proportion of four parts by weight of the rock to three
parts by weight of the acid. After,mixing and standing two days it
Moisture at 1150 C . .. 22.32 per cent.
Total phosphoric acid. .. 12.50 "
Water-soluble phosphoric acid .. 1131 "
Insoluble 1.o8 "
Reverted c" .. 0.II 1 "
After standing 89 days, a larger portion of the same rock treated
according to the same formula (4 parts rock to 3 parts of acid 1.5 spe-
cific gravity) analyzed:
Moisture at 1150 C ... . 18. o per cent.
Total phosphoric acid. . 12.79 "
Water-soluble phosphoric acid 7.56 "
Insoluble 1.80 "
Reverted 3.43 "
It will be observed that, when freshly made, the superphosphate
contained ii.31 per cent. of phosphoric acid soluble in water, and
o. i per cent. of reverted; but that after standing three months, the
water-soluble phosphoric acid had dropped to 7.56 per cent. and the
reverted had risen to 3.43 per cent. Reverted" phosphoric acid is
acid which, having been made soluble in water, has "reverted," or
gone back, into a form no longer soluble in water (or rather no longer
easily and readily soluble in a small quantity of water). Reversion "
is due in part, so it is thought, to the presence of iron and aluminium,
and this is one of the reasons that their presence in large quantity is
objected to. Another deleterious effect is that they tend to render
the superphosphates "sticky," and thus prevent their drying out
readily and becoming pulverulent. In this particular instance the
drying out process was slow, and even to the last the goods were
somewhat moist, not so much so, however, as to prevent their being
sacked and transported.
In the commercial valuation of fertilizers, phosphoric acid solu-
ble in water is estimated at about 8 cents a pound, reverted at about
7 Y cents, and insoluble (in phosphate rock) at about 2 cents. At
these rates, a ton of our superphosphate (three months old) is worth
$18.70. The rock from which this superphosphate was made contained,
in round numbers, 47 per cent. of phosphate; a 75 per cent, rock
would give a fertilizer containing 18 or 20 per cent. of water-soluble
phosphoric acid. Where there is long transportation, and consequently
much freight charges, it is far better for the farmer to buy the high
In a previous year several samples of muck were analyzed and a
few additional ones this year. In all about twenty samples have been
examined. In all of these the percentage of moisture, organic matter,
ash and nitrogen has been determined, and in eight of them all the
fertilizer constituents. The analysis of these eight is as follows:
Moisture, maximum 89 per cent, minimum ii per cent., average 49
per cent.; organic matter, maxitnum 68 per cent., minimum It per
cent., average 30 per cent.; ash (including sand and "dirt"), maxi-
mum 69 percent., minimum 0.3 per cent., average 20 per cent.; nitro-
gen, maximum 2.88 per cent., minimum 0.44 per cent., average i.iT
per cent.; potash, maximum 0.77 per cent., minimum 0.004 per cent.,
average 0.14 per cent.; phosphoric acid, maximum 0.24 per cent.,
minimum o.or per cent., average o. o per cent.; Insoluable Matter,
maximum 56 per cent., minimum 0.13 per cent., average 17 per cent.
This has reference to wet muck. The averages for barnyard manure
may be put at about the following : Moisture, 70 per cent.; organic
matter, 22 per cent.; ash, 8 per cent.; nitrogen, 0.41 per cent.; pot-
ash, 0.40 per cent.; phosphoric acid, 0.28 per cent.; insoluble matter,
7 per cent.
So far as any conclusions are warranted by the limited study of
Florida muck, they may be stated thus:
I. Muck is exceedingly variable in character and value.
2. Muck is to be regarded as a nitrogenous fertilizer, containing
much more of that element and much less of phosphate and potash
than barnyard manure.
3. Hence, in the use of muck as a fertilizer, -one should expect
that it would need to be supplemented by phosphate and potash.
4. Some mucks which contain a high percentage o! organic mat-
ter, contain a high percentage ot nitrogen ; others with large quantity
of organic matter have, on the other hand, but little nitrogen. One
should expect the first to possess value as a nitrogenous fertilizer as well
as a mulch ; whereas the latter could be valuable mainly as a mulch
and mechanical improver of the soil.
5. While not all muck with high percentage of organic matter
contains also a high percentage (2 per cent. or more) of nitrogen, we
have found no muck with less than 50 per cent. of organic matter
which contained as much as 2 per cent. of nitrogen.
6. In judging of the value of a muck, at least three things should
be taken into account : (i) the quantity of organic matter (the greater
this the better the muck, other things being equal); (2) the kind of
.plants from which the muck has been Iormed (muck from succulent
weeds, grass and mosses would likely contain more nitrogen than that
from woody and fibrous substances); (3) the degree of decomposition
(except, perhaps, for purposes of mulching, the more disintegrated
and decayed a muck the better, other things being equal).
The plant food in muck is generally understood to be in quite an
inert and unavailable form. In view of the fact that much of our
Florida muck contains a surprisingly large per cent. of nitrogen, the
best methods of composting or otherwise treating it, to render the ni-
trogen soluble,"is a subject worthy of careful study and investigation.
The composting of muck with finely ground phosphate rock, contain-
ing a goodly per cent. of carbonate of lime, is to be recommended as
likely to give good results.
ANALYSES OF THE ORANGE.
Though isolated analyses of the orange have been made, no com-
plete and extended study of it from the standpoint of chemistry has,
so far as known to the writer, been attempted. A beginning in that
direction was made last winter; to carry forward the work to a satisfac-
tory degree of fullness will doubtless require, several seasons. The work
for this season was interrupted and will not be finished under several
months. The work was to include a test of the keeping qualities of the
leading varieties of the orange; the determination of the percentage
of peel, pulp, seed, juice, sweetness (per cent. of sugar), acidity (per
cent. of acid), and nutritive constituents; the quantity of plant food in
the orange, as a whole, and incidentally in the peel, seed, pulp and
juice separately In attempting to carry out all these phases of the
undertaking, difficulties of an unusu l nature in plant analysis were en-
countered, and much of the work of this season can be regarded as
only preliminary, furnishing experience by which we may be guided
in the future.
The nutrients in several grasses and weeds were determined dur-
ing the year, and the importance of the beggar weed as a forage
pl.nt emphasized. Assuming (what is quite probable) that the digesti-
bility of properly, cut and cured beggar weed is equal to that of
average meadow hay, the former is a more valuable feeding stuff than
A large number of samples of what was supposed to be kaolin have
been received; only two of them, however, have been analyzed
quantitatively, the others were merely examined and pronounced up
qualitatively. Some of these samples are apparently of good quality
and promise well, though neither of the two samples analyzed were
The composition of one or two rocks and clays analyzed during
the year suggested the possibility of their being utilized for the manu-
facture of cement, and in the intervals of other work some hur-
ried tests in this direction were made. They met with only a moderate
degree of success. The subject is, however, one worthy of more ex-
tended and careful consideration.
BUREAU OF INFORMATION.
One of the most useful features, perhaps, of our 'work has been
in the capacity ot a bureau of information on all matters of chemical
industries. All sorts of substances are sent us with request for infor-
mation as to their value. These are all promptly examined and the
senders informed as to result. Whenever this preliminary exami-
nation indicates something of probable value, the sample is labeled
and set aside for future quantitative analysis. These examinations
require no inconsiderable amount of time and often the exercise of
In addition to this, information is sought, questions asked on a
wide range of topics, involving the application of chemistry to agricul-
ture. It will not be amiss to illustrate this side of our work by giving
a few of the questions which we have been called upon to answer:
A desires to know if potash, in the form of wood ashes, has not
a.better effect on sour soils, or soils containing soluble salts of iron,
than when in the form of sulphate of potash.
B desires to know what effect ashes or sulphate of potash would
have on bone meal, and what effect lime would have on bone meal in
C desires to know how the potash in feldspar can best be made
D desires to know for what agricultural uses certain soils, of
which he sends samples, are best adapted, and what treatment and
fertilizers are best suited to develop their good qualities.
E desires to know the value of raw phosphate as compared with
bone. Is the phosphoric acid in the raw phosphate in soluble condi-
tion as immediate plant food ? Will it answer in the place. of bone
F desires to know the value per ton of low grade phosphate as
compared with ordinary stable manure and the best method of pre-
paring it for use.
G desires to know if a certain substance would make a good base
for a commercial fertilizer; if any of its elements would injure vegeta-
tion, and what should be added to it to make a first rate fertilizer.
H desires to know if soft phosphate can be made soluble by sul.
phuric acid and the formula therefore.
I desires to know the best method of drying fish scrap.
J desires to know the value ot fish scrap as a fertilizer, and the
best method, of utilizing it as such.
K desires to know it a given sample of water is safe for drinking.
It is not pretended that all questions of the foregoing kind can be
answered, but they are always promptly replied to, and the best intor-
mation we have given. The time consumed in the correspondence is
by no means inconsiderable.
One or two lines of chemical investigation which might in the
near future be profitably taken up, are:
i. What conditions in our Florida climate are most favorable to
nitrification ? The end in view in this investigation would be mainly
to ascertain the best method of utilizing Florida mucks, many of
which are rich in nitrogen.
2. Can the low grade phosphates be profitably utilized as a fertil-
izer, and if so, in what form best-in a finely pulverized condition
merely or as superphosphate?
3. Careful analyses of representative samples of artesian and other
waters used in irrigation. There is a suspicion that some of them con-
tain saline substances which in the course of time, by accumulating in
the soil, might prove an injury to vegetation.
4.' A careful study of the vergin soils of the State and of the vege-
tation thereon. Study of this kind, based on carefully made chemical
and physical analysis, would tend to reveal the minimum of each par-
ticular plant food consistent with ,fertility, and would furnish a basis
for the intelligent application of fertilizers.
J. M. PICKEL, CHEMIST.
ANNUAL REPORT OF J. J. EARLE, ASSISTANT
To Rev. Jas. P. DePass, Director:
SIR-Below is given a statement of the analyses that have been
made by me from August ist, 1890, to July 31st, 1891:
ORANGES.-Analyses of fifteen varieties' of oranges have been
made, with a view:
First-To determine the amount of peel, pulp, juice and seed, a
well as the percentage of sugar, acid, solids, etc., of the juice of each
variety taken separately.
Second-A complete analysis of the ash of each variety, also a
complete analysis of the ash of the seeds, pulp and peel of each variety
taken separately, these analyses being made with the object of deter-
mining the amount of potash, phosphoric acid, lime and other ferti-
PHOSPHATE RocK.-Twenty-six complete analyses of phosphate
rock received from farmers throughout the State.
Four special analyses of acid mixed with phosphate rock contain-
ing a high percentage of alumina, the results of which were published
in Bulletin 13.
GRASSES AND FEED STUFFS.--Fiften analyses of some of our com-
mon grasses, rice hulls, chicken food, etc.
ASHEs.--Ten ash analyses, including the ash of grasses, saw pal-
metto root, oak leaves, pine straw, etc.
TANNIC ACID.-Four analyses of the tannic acid in saw palmetto
root and leaves, finding from 4 to 6 per cent. in the root and a trace
in the leaves.
MUCK.-Eighteen samples of muck, mainly to determine the per-
centage of ammonia; complete analyses of the ash of some were also
Besides the above analyses, I have made over fifty qualitative tests
of limestones, marls, clays, kaolins and small grade phosphates.
NOTES ON INSECTICIDES.
BY J. J. EARLE, ASSISTANT CHEMIST.
Insecticides which contain arsenic are actively poisonous in the
vegetable as well as in the animal kingdom, and should always be used
with extreme care. As their value depends almost entirely upon the
amount of arsenious acid (oxide) which they contain, it will be well to
know the composition of some of the most common.
ARSENIOUS ACID (oxide) is the ordinary white arsenic of com-
merce. It is a white impalpable powder which dissolves very slowly in
cold water, one part of arsenious acid requiring about eighty parts of
water for its complete solution.
PARIS GREEN.-An analysis of this article gives:
Moisture at 2120 . . 1.34 per cent.
Copper oxide .. . 33.35" "
Arsenious acid (oxide). . 61.25 "
Acetic acid. ......... 3.93 "
Insoluble matter. . 0.13 "
This was a very good sample. The article as found on the market
varies considerably in the amount of arsenious acid which it contains.
It is also often adulterated, failures in its use being no doubt due
to this adulteration. Paris green is sparingly soluble in water.
LONDON PURPLE is a waste product produced in the manufacture
of the aniline dyes from coal tar. It contains on an average:
Calcium oxide (lime) ...... 21.82 per cent.
Arsenious acid (oxide) . .. 43.65 "
Rosaniline ........ .. .12.46 "
The arsenious acid is combined with the lime to form arsenite of
lime, which is insoluble in water, and with the rosaniline to form ar-
senite of rosaniline, which is completely soluble in water.
Experiments carried on at the North Carolina Agricultural Experi-
ment Station show that the "blistering" or "burning" of the leaves and
twigs of trees which have been sprayed with arsenical solutions is due
entirely to the arsenious acid which had become soluble in water and
that the injury was in every case proportionate to the amount of sol-
uble arsenious acid, that is, the more the soluble arsenious acid, the
greater the "blistering" and "burning." In no instance did injury re-
sult when all of the arsenious acid was in an insoluble form.
In this connection it would be well to know the relative solubility
of arsenious oxide, Paris green and London purple in water. One
pound of each were carefully mixed with one hundred gallons of
water and tested for soluble arsenious acid after standing one hour
and ten days respectively. The following results were obtained
Amount that went into Amount that went into
solution in one hour. solution in ten days.
Arsenious'acid.............. ....... ....... f lb. of lb.
12 I 18
Parisgreen................................. -- of I b. of l b.
So1000 00 I
I ondon purple................................ of I lb. of I lb.
Knowing that the injury to the plant is proportionate to the arse-
nious acid soluble in water, we can easily see that in freshly made
mixtures, London purple is far more injurious than either Paris green
or arsenious acid, and that Paris green is slightly more injurious than
arsenious acid. In mixtures that have stood several days, however,
the arsenious acid, becoming almost entirely soluble, is far more dan-
gerous than either the Paris green or London purple.
Solutions of Paris green and London purple can be safely used
after standing, but those of arsenious acid should never be used except
when freshly mixed.
USE OF LIME.
If a compound can be found which will combine with this pois-
onous arsenious acid, as fast as it becomes soluble in water, to form
an insoluble compound, this objection to its use will be permanently
displaced. Such a compound is lime. In solutions of arsenious acid
and Paris green, caustic lime, or common lime of commerce, combines
with the soluble arsenious acid to form the insoluble arsenite of lime,
and in London purple it displaces the rosaniline in the soluble rosani-
line arsenite to form the arsenite of lime. From one to two pounds
of lime in solutions containing one pound of arsenious acid. London
purple or Paris green in one hundred gallons of water is amply suffi-
Numerous comparative tests have been made upon plants in
various stages of growth with solutions of arsenious acid, Paris green
and London purple, respectively, in water without the addition of
any lime and with solutions of the same strength mixed with lime.
In every instance in which no lime was used, the plants were more
or less "blistered," and in no instance where it was used was there the
least "blistering" of the plants. This is an important fact and should
be carefully noted.
The following formula of arsenical solutions, partly taken from
Bulletin 9, of this Station, will be useful:
London purple, Paris green : Thoroughly mix one pound of the
poison with about one and one-half pounds of lime in two hundred
gallons of water. Dissolve a little flour paste in the water to make it
sticky; stir frequently. Applied to trees it is a sure cure for all insect
Arsenious acid or white arsenic: Boil one pound of white arsenic
in about five gallons of water containing one and one-half pounds of
lime (Prof. Kilgore); the arsenious acid is soluble in an excess of
boiling water, but as fast as it goes into solution it combines with the
lime to form the insoluble arsenite of lime After boiling thirty mili-
utes allow to cool and make up to two hundred gallons with water
containing flour paste. It will have the same value as the above
Bordeaux mixture: This fungicide is prepared thus: One pound
sulphate of copper (blue vitriol), dissolve in one vessel in one gallon
of hot water, in another vessel one pound of lime is slaked in one
and one-half gallons of cold water, and when cool pour into the copper
solution and strain, add two gallons of water, and it is ready for use.
Solutions containing one pound of Paris green, London purple
or arsenious acid in one to two hundred gallons of Bordeaux mixture
can be used with perfect safety without the addition of lime, as the
mixture contains enough lime to convert the soluble arsenious acid
into an insoluble form. Such a solution will be valuable both as an
insecticide and fungicide.
NOTE.-Credit is due Prof. Gillette, of the Iowa Station, and
Prof. Kilgore, of the North Carolina Station, tor the discovery of the
valuable use of lime in insecticides containing arsenious acid.
FT. MYRRS SUB-STATION.
By L. C. WASHBURN, M. D, Supt., Ft Myers, Fla.
The pineapple is one of the most delicious of all fruits. It is a native
of the tropical parts of the American continent. It was first discovered
in 1513 by Balboa, growing wild in Central America. It is a member
of the Cactus family, with great tenacity of life. The slips may be
left in the sunshine for a month and grow after being planted out. It
is very hardy, will withstand a great deal of dry weather and a great
amount of wet weather, yet is a shy bearer if improperly handled.
It is propagated by means of suckers and slips, as the plant produces
no seed. There is a little plant growing out of the crown of the fruit
and a row of plants growing out of the summit of the stalk at the
base of the fruit. These are slips and will ripen fruit in two years
from planting out. From six to twelve slips may be expected from
one stalk. The suckers are the little plants growing out of the stalk,
usually near the ground. A pineapple plant is expected to produce
from one to six suckers a year. The suckers will ripen fruit in one
year or less after planting the same, as they will if left growing on the
old stalk. The slips, if any difference, produce the finest specimens of
fruit. The pineapple tree attains to a height of three to seven feet, ac-
cording to the variety, climate, soil, etc. It is not an air plant as it
has been improperly termed, as it will not grow nor reproduce itself
in the air alone. Again, it is said that it will grow and produce as
well on poor land as rich; which also is a mistake and has caused plant-
ers to lose both in money and time. On our poorest pine lands, without
fertilizers, the trees will be small and the fru;t weigh from one to two
pounds each, while on the same lands, well fertilized, the trees will be
strong aind the fruit from twice to four times as large. This is a sun
plant and does not do well if much shaded, but watermelons and
cowpeas, planted so as to shade the ground, may be an advantage, if
not permitted to cover up the pineapple plant itself. The thousands
of islands around the peninsula of Florida are highly fertile and the
pineapple does well upon all of them south of the 27th degree of
North latitude. The piney woods of our main land here seem to be
better adapted to the pineapple than any other known country.
People that are engaged in the cultivation of the Red Spanish pine-
apples, in the Spanish American countries, can scarcely believe that
those they see growing here are the same variety, being superior in
size, succulence and flavor. The same rule, I think, would hold good
for other varieties. We grow the Sugar Loaf, Prickly Cayenne,
Queen, Moscow Queen, Ripley Queen, Lady Beatrice, Mount Serrat,
Lambden, Porto Rico, Egyptian Queen and some other varieties.
The pineapple must be planted out where you want it to stand, as it
will do no good if transplanted. No trouble to get it to live, but it
will stand from year to year and never make a tree or fruit. The
authorities at Washington make a great mistake in planting out slips
and suckers obtained from tropical countries before sending them to
their destination. When the suckers and slips are received at Wash-
ington they should be sent at once to their destination, as they can
be kept for months and then do well. Our land must be cleared of
saw palmetto, pine trees, stumps and roots, at a cost of $40 per acre, as
labor is high, and can be made ready for pineapple plants in two weeks.
I would set the rows three feet apart, north and south, opened out,
with two furrows. I would put well-rotted muck, marl, stable manure
or sea grass freely in these trenches, and spade it up and mix well
with the soil, pulled in from each side. I would set the plants out
in these rows two feet apart (6,400 per acre). slightly below the level
of the ground, and gradually hill up the plants as they grow with a
hoe. Never let a horse go through the field after having planted. If
planted out with suckers hoe in fertilizers between the rows in six
months, but if planted with slips hoe in fertilizers between the rows
in one year, so the feeder roots can reach it. Cultivate shallow with
a hoe and pull the grass from about the plants so as not to shake or
jar them. Some growers put the slips 4x4 feet to secure large fruit,
others plant out r8xI8 inches all over the ground and claim better re-
sults. The pineapple will ratoon from year to year, but it is best to
take them all up and replant with fresh slips after the fourth crop.
Do not pull the short leaves from the base of the slip, as they help
to hold the plant firmly in the soil. Planted out, with 6,400 slips per
acre, an acre will ripen about 5,000 pineapples in two years. These
will average over three pounds apiece of our smallest varieties, say
eight tons of fruit per acre. The rest of the 6,400 plants will fruit
later on and scattering, so there are ripe fruit in the field at all times.
The pineapples are worth about ten cents apiece here. If culti-
vated on a large scale the better plan would be to start a factory and
chrystalize the fruit and -work up the peelings into extract. The
flavor of the pineapple is characteristic and its extract highly prized
for use in soda fountains and the culinary department. It is claimed
that $500 to $1,ooo. net proceeds, can be made each year from an
acre of pineapples. This is one of our most healthful fruits and its
juice is one of our best remedies for diphtheria and other forms of
sore throat, being detergent and antiseptic.
Pineapple cider is made by putting the peeling of one pineapple
into two quarts of sweetened water and it is ready for use in twenty-
four to forty-eight hours-a pleasant, healthful beverage for sick or
well, the equal of the best apple cider.
Pineapple wine is the equal, if not better, than any made from
grapes for all purposes.
This favorite fruit can be grown in this part of South Florida to
supply the United States with its increasing demands, and is destined
to become one of Florida's great industries. It is well to .prinkle
cottonseed meal on the young plants once in two months, as it
forms a coating and prevents the plants from being injured by sand.
There are no known enemies to the growing pineapple here, but rats,
raccoons and opossums will eat the ripe fruit if permitted. Pineapples
grown in Florida, from some cause, are proven to be superior in size
and quality to those produced in other countries. They are like the
orange in this respect. Our growers here sell pineapple slips at $5
per I,ooo, and suckers at $ro per 1,ooo at the farm, and an extra
charge if required to deliver them. Plant any time of the year.
From August to March is probably the best.
Paris green or London purple .. i pound.
Flour or starch cooked into a paste with
water. ..... .... 5 pounds.
Hard-water . .. 150 to 250 gallons.
Directions.-Stir the arsenite into the water, then add the paste,
and thoroughly mix. Apply with a sprinkler or spraying-pump.
DIscussroN.-This is the standard treatment for all gnawing
"worms" and bugs. Instead of the flour, one pint of liquid may- be
added to each 150 gallons of water. The use of the flour or glue is
to make the poison adhere better to the foliage. When no adhesive
material is employed, the poison is completely washed off by the first
rain. Instead of water, the *" Bordeaux Mixture" may be used.
This will protect the plants from both insects and fungus pests.
Only the weakest solution should be used on the peach and plum
Paris green or London purple . i pound.
Flour ............... 10 pounds.
Road-dust, lime or coal ashes. ... ... 20 pounds.
Directions.--Mix the arsenite with the other substances. Apply
with a bellows, bag or sieve.
DIscussioN.-In this formula the flour is used for its adhe-
siveness; the dust, lime or ashes as a dilutent only. Wood-ashes
are not so good as coal-ashes, since the potash contained in wood-
ashes is like to render the arsenic more or less soluble. The coal-
ashes must be sifted and only the finer part used, and should be
as dry as possible. This compound may be applied by a bellows,
or it may be sifted on the plants with a common seive or from a tin-
bucket having the bottom perforated with fine holes, or from a bag
of thin or coarse cloth. On a large scale, Paris green has been used
dry for poisoning cotton caterpillars without dilution.
No. 3.-KEROSENE EMULSION.
Soft Soap . .. .I quart.
Water. .. ....... . .2 quarts.
Kerosene Oil. .. . . I pint.
Directions.-Boil the soap in the water until entirely dissolved.
Remove from fire and add the kerosene. Churn the soap solu-
tion and oil for ten minutes, or until thoroughly emulsified, or force
the oil and soap through a spraying pump three or four times,
spraying it back into the same vessel. When properly done the
oil will not separate from the soap after cooling. One-fourth pound
of hard soap may be used instead of a quart of soft soap. Dilute the
emulsion with its bulk of cold water before using.
Hard Soap . . . pound.
W ater . . . .. I gallon.
Kerosene Oil. .. .. . .... 2 gallons.
Copper Sulphate (Bluestone) ........ ... ................ 4 pounds.
Unslaked Lime .. .............. ............... 4 pounds.
Water........ ............................. .. ...... 22 gallons.
DIRECTIONS.-Dissolve the bluestone in sixteen gallons of water, using a glass, wooden
or earthen vessel. In another vessel slake the lime in six gallons of water, then strain
the lime and stir it slowly into the bluestone solution. It is then ready for use.
Directions.-Boil the soap in the water until all dissolved. Re-
move from fire and add the oil. Churn for ten minutes or spray back
into the vessel until thoroughly emulsified Dilute with nine parts of
cold water to one of the emulsion before using.
DiscussoN.--These two formulas are about equally effective,
but the (A) formula is easier prepared and will be the one most fre-
quently used by farmers. This is the best of all remedies for
plant-lice and soft, smooth worms," while they are young.
No. 4.-KEROSENE OINTMENT.
Lard .. . i pound.
Sulphur (powdered) .......... 2 ounces.
Kerosene Oil . . . pint.
Directions.-Mix the lard and sulphur, then add the oil. Keep
in a tightly closed can. Apply by rubbing.
DIscussIoN.-Formula No. 4 is chiefly valuable for killing lice
on poultry and domestic animals.
No. 5.-CARBOLIC ACID EMULSION.
Soft Soap. ..... . . i quart.
Water .... .... ........ I quart.
Crude Carbolic Acid . . .. .i pint.
Directions.-Make into emulsion as directed by formula No. 3.
Before using dilute with one-half its volume of cold water. Apply
with a stiff brush.
DIscussIoN.-Formula No. 5 is highly recommended for cleans-
ing apple and other fruit trees infested by scale and bark lice, and for
smearing the base of the trunk to protect from the borer. Should not
be applied to the foliage.
No. 6.-POTASH SOAP.
Potash Lye (concentrated) .. . .. i pound.
Fish Oil or Cotton-seed Oil . ... .3 pints.
Soft Water. .. . . 3 gallons.
Directions.-Boil the lye in the water until all dissolved. Then
add the oil and boil for two hours. Replace evaporated water
with hot water from time to time. After two hours of boiling remove
from fire. When cold the soap should be solid and may be cut with
a knife. Use one pound of this soap to eight or ten gallons of hot
water. Spray upon lice infested plants and trees, or rub on branches
with a stiff brush or with the hand.
DIscussioN.-The potash soap has been highly recommended for
plant lice, and is easily and cheaply made. The liquid as applied to
the plants costs about fifteen cents to 1oo gallons. The soap may be
made in winter while other work is slack and will keep for any length
No. I.-TOBACCO DECOCTION.
Tobacco Stems or Tobacco Dust . t pound.
W ater . . . 3 gallons.
Directions.-Place the tobacco in the water and boil for one-half
hour. Remove from fire and let stand, covered, until cool. Use
without dilution as a wash or spray. The liquid may be made when
convenient, and stored away in bottles or casks, which must be
DISCUSSION. -Formula No. 7 is recommended for use against the
flea-beetle, cucumber-beetle and plant lice. It is especially valuable
for use in conservatories and on house plants. May be applied with
a syringe and is an excellent fertilizer for plants. It may be used to
rid animals of lice, instead of the kerosene ointment.
Pyrethrum Powder or Buhach" I tablespoonful.
Water . ... ..... 2 gallons.
Direciions.-Stir the powder into boiling water and use immedi-
ately. Apply with a spraying pump, syringe or sprinkler.
DiscussIoN.-Pyrethrum may be apphed either wet or dry.
When used dry, the pure powder is blown upon infested plants with a
bellows. The wet way seems to give most satisfaction. This pow-
der is very apt to lose its power when kept any length of time and is
in general very unreliable.
No. 9.-WHITE HELLEBORE.
Hellebore powder is always used pure. May be used as a decoc-
tion or dry powder as directed for Pyrethrum.
DIscussION.--Hellebore powder is the best remedy for the
worms" which attack the currant and gooseberry.
No. xo.-BISULPHIDE OF CARBON,
DIscussIoN.-This substance is a clear, badly-smelling liquid,
and is always used pure and undiluted. It is the best thing for killing
the weevils in beans, peas, etc., and the insects which infest cereal
grains. It will also kill or drive away ants, gophers and burrowing
vermin, if poured into their holes and the opening stopped up. Bi-
sulphide of carbon is very inflammable, and is poisonous when
breathed, and, therefore, great care must be exercised in using it. It
should never be used in an artificially lighted or heated room.
I do not know that I could give the readers of this bulletin more
valuable information at this time than the formulas from Bulletin 78
of the North Carolina Experiment 'Station.
J. P. DEPASS, Director.
EXPER IMENT STATION
STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,
LAKE CITY, FLA.
TOBACCO AND ITS CULTIVATION.
October 1st, 1891.
REV. JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
PRATT BROS., BOOK AND JOB PRINTERS.
The experimrntn in Tobaceo was conducted mainly for
the purpose of studying the enemies of the plant, from the
seed bed to the gathering of the crop. and the cheapest and
best method of destroying them.
In this bulletin, however, we will discuss the following
points in their order :
1st. The time of sowing.
2d. The preparation of seed beds. The character of
land to select.
3d. The preparation of field. Fertilizing.
5th. Cultivation. Sprouting.
6th. Protecting against insects.
7th. Harvesting the crop. The curing shed or barn.
8th. Preparing for market.
9th. Bulking the crop.
10th. The year's experiments.
1st. THE TIME TO PLANT.
It is conceded that as early as it is possible to get a bed
of plants ready to transplant after the season of frosts
should be the aim of every grower. Early plants grow off
well, and the first crop is not so subject to enemies as when
planted late ; will give more time for suckering, thus in-
creasing the production and bringing the crop earlier in the
year on the market.
I have found that the superstitious month with some
for the first sowing of seed was January, and the day of
the month the 7th. Of course no practical and sensible
man will be influenced by such superstitions, however
strongly urged by the old and experienced tobacco grower.
Tobacco seed can be sown in this section any day from
the 1st of January to the last week in June. I have sown
early in December, and by protection had plants ready for
the field by the middle of January. It is, however, an ex-
ceptional year when such plants, if transplanted, are not
destroyed by frost. This year I sowed February llth and
again on March 12th, and by the 25th of April the plants
were ready to transplant. It was from the latter sowing I
obtained plants, the first being destroyed by the flea beetle.
THE PREPARATION OF THE SEED BED
should have special attention.
New or fresh land is the best, but not a necessity, for
the seed bed. To those who have the land and time and
means to prepare it. new land has some advantages; but
old land properly prepared will answer all purposes and it is
much cheaper to use it. The question of burning land is
also a doubtful one. I tried both burnt and unburnt lands
this year and the unburnt lands gave the best results by
odds. I fertilized the unburnt, however, but did not the
plats on which the burning was done. But the demonstra-
tion was clear that this year as well as the last beds sowed
on unburnt lands produced strong, stocky and healthy
Burning brush on either old or new land is costly. It
is contended in its favor that it-
]st. Kills grass seed.
2d. Destroys destructive insects and worms, which
will prey on the plants.
3d. It enriches the soil.
Experience teaches that on fresh land on the station
the beds which were burnt were not freer from grass or
weeds, nor from destructive insects, nor that the soil
was in better condition than the unburnt when the- latter
was fertilized. Old land treated the same way gave, within
the past two years, similar results. If unburnt old land is
treated for insects (as see below), and it is not a demonstra-
tion that it has more insects than new land, for it is my
opinion new land should be treated the same way, then this
advantage of the new over the old is not demonstrated in
this respect. It is the custom of some farmers to fertilize
new land after it is burnt. I concede. that it ought to be
done, since doubtless this was the reason of my failure in
plants on new land burnt but unfertilized.
I would suggest that each planter try both plans on
both old and new land and demonstrate the better way for
himself. Surely if old land can be utilized as a seed bed,
with or without burning, it will very greatly cheapen the
production of tobacco, especially when the acreage planted
is a large one.
The bed, whether burnt or unburnt, should be prepared
at least one month before the seed are sowed. To do this
select a moist plot of ground that is well drained, with sun
exposure. Break it up deep and pulverize the soil. Then
broadcast the fertilizer and harrow or rake it in. Let the
bed remain for a month, when harrow it again, lay off rows
six inches apart, the furrow must be very shallow, sow seed,
cover with hand and roll with hand roller, or press the dirt
to seed by hand. Too much stress cannot be laid on the ne-
cessity of manuring several weeks before sowing seed, be-
cause the heat which manure passes through when put in
the ground will destroy the germ. I knew an acre thus
killed out entirely by chicken house manure, which was
placed in the ground one day and sowed the next.
A tobacco seed bed ought to be handy to water, so that
the bed may be sprayed or sprinkled every evening with
enough water to prevent the drying out of the seed or
plants during a dry season. Sandy soil dries rapidly to
the depth which seed ought to be planted, and if the
seed germinate and have not sufficient water to keep
them alive, they easily die before seeing the sun. In wa-
tering seed bed, care should be taken not to make a crust
so hard through which the tender plant cannot force its
way. This is one reason why I urge the planting in
rows, as preferable to broadcasting; it permits the water-
ing of beds before seed are up, and when the plants are
just up, besides if grass or weeds show themselves later
on they are easier managed.
Before sowing the seed, as a protection against the
flea beetle and other insects that may destroy the plants,
the bed ought to be thoroughly sprayed or watered with
a decoction made by mixing 1 oz. of Paris green with 15
or 20 gallons of weak soap suds.
After the plants show themselves, the same can be
used. It would be better, however, to mix 1 oz. of Paris
green in 20 gallons of hard water, and spray the plants
with it. Hard water is made by mixing lime in water
and allowing the lime to settle before using it. Two
pounds of lime to 20 gallons of water, well mixed, would
be a proper proportion. Pyrethrum (insect powder) may
be used in the place of arsenic or Paris green, either dry or
in decoction, but it is not so good, besides it is costlier and
as bought from the stores is unreliable being too generally
The seed bed is an absolute necessity to a crop of to-
bacco. Here is where the greatest care should be taken
to protect against failure. I have had bed after bed of
plants ruined by the flea beetle, attributing the failure of
plants to bad seed. This year this destructive insect per-
formed its work as last year in the early sowings, and after
finding it in the bed and knowing it was the cause of fail.
ure, I began experiments for its destruction. When the
beetle~ was conquered the plants grew. I have known
farmers to lose their entire crop because of the failure of
the seed bed, doubtless on account of this insect, when they
attributed it to poor seed. Tobacco seed being very small
and the germ very small, a very small insect can do it per-
manent damage. The beetle attacks the plant from the
time it germinates until it is large enough to transplant.
There are some soils not infested with it, and when such is
the case it is not necessary to provide against it. But those
who do not know this, in my judgement, would act wisely
by working against it, or at least by being prepared for it,
since the remedy is cheap, so that if it is observed immedi-
ate measures may be taken for its destruction.
The amount of seed commonly estimated to plant an
acre is one teaspoonfull, sowed on a bed twenty feet square.
To insure against failure I would advise the grower to pro-
cure a larger amount of seed per acre by four or five times,
to sow a larger area. and make two or three sowings at in-
tervals of from two to four weeks.
The seed bed, if planted on the slope of a hill, should
have the rows running up and down the slope and not trans-
versely, with a drain on the upper side to turn the water
from above, for this will enable the water in a heavy rain-
fall to run off without damaging the bed so much.
The protection against exceptional cold spells
should be taken into consideration when laying off the
beds. A high, cold wind from the North or North-west and
North-east is very destructive to plants in bed, while a frost
enforces another sowing unless due protection is provided.
A cheap protection against frosts, if not the cheapest, is an
awning made out of cheese cloth, stretched over the beds
and secured to corner posts, two feet high. If a cold wind
is blowing the whole bed and sides should be covered.
A bed can be fertilized with well decomposed stable or
cow manure. It must be made very rich. A cow pen well
tramped would serve a good purpose, also a hog pen and
cotton y-ed with germ killed and well rotted, cotton seed
meal and fowl house mauire. The Station composts, No.
1 and 2, have been found good. These must be used ac-
cording to the character of the soil. If the soil is poor, at
the rate of from 2 to 4 tons of the compost should be used
per acre : of cotton seed meal from I to 2 tons : cotton seed,
from 1 to 3: tons, and stable and cow manure, from 10 to 20
THE CHARACTER OF LAND TO SELECT
on which to grow tobacco in Florida is light, sandy loam,
with or without clay subsoil, that is, neither too wet or too
dry. A clay soil does not make good tobacco. Wet land
well drained, is best adapted to its growth. New land needs
less manure than old, but the leaf is heavier and coarser.
Light sandy land makes the lightest leaf and the finest
It is a common statement that land where the lime rook
abounds, or what is termed the rotten limestone lands, is
not adapted to the plant. This is a mistake. The simple fact is
that there is but little land in the State where cotton and
corn are cultivated but what will raise tobacco profitably.
THE PREPARATION OF THE FIELD
is of the greatest importance. The land should be broken
up in January and harrowed if turfy. Three weeks at least
before transplanting, old land should be laid off in furrows
-it is not necessary to treat new land thus if not fertilized-
three or four feet apart, according to its fertility, and the
fertilizer placed in rows and covered. In covering fertilizer,
either the foot or hoe should be used, and then only the ma-
nure covered, which should be dropped from eighteen to
twenty-four inches apart in furrow. This leaves a small
bed, which marks the place for the plant and gives the ma-
nure time to pass through a heat and thus prevent its killing
the plant when put in.
tobacco plants is as easily done as cabbage plants, and in
the same way. They live as readily and the same rule gov-
erning the one will hold good for the other. There should
be droppers and planters, the planter always carrying a few
plants in order to supply the places which a careless drop-
per may miss. It greatly facilitates the growth of the plant
to have the planter followed by one who will pour a little
water on each plant after being set to pack the earth around
the roots. Even if the season is a good one, this is a good
plan but not thought to be necessary, if the ground is wet
and rain is expected. If the plants are ready and the sea-
son dry, watering is necessary. It is a matter of great
economy to get the plants out as early in the season as pos-
sible, because the sooner the plant begins to grow, the ear-
lier the work begins and the more readily will grass and
weeds be subdued, besides the worms which eat the leaf
will not be so destructive on first and second crops. The
plants are ready to transplant when they have four leaves,
although they may be flat on the ground. If the ground,
however, is very dry, it does not hurt to wait for a season,
even if the plant grows to six or twelve inches high. I
planted out a smallplot this year in a dry season without
watering, when the plants were from fifteen to eighteen
inches high, putting them but little deeper than they were
in the seed bed. While they did not do as well as when
smaller in a fair season, still, as will be seen below, they
made a fair crop. A gentleman of this, Columbia County,
Mr. .Wm. T. Henry, a successful tobacco grower, tells me
that he succeeds as well with large plants as small and me-
dium sized ones by planting them in the ground so deep as
to leave the bud and a few leaves out. His experience is
that the'stock puts out latteral roots and the plant makes
as much and as good tobacco. A few days after transplant-
ing, the patch in field should be gone over and where a
plant has failed to live, another should be put in its place.
of the field should commence as soon as the plants are set.
A Planet Junior cultivator run between the rows will break
or loosen up the soil and thus prevent evaporation of mois-
ture. Care should be taken not to run too close the plant
and cover it with dirt. The grass and weeds must be kept
down, and for this purpose the cultivator and hoe will be
necessary. In cultivating tobacco, deep plowing is an in-
jury, as also is the bedding of too much dirt to the plant.
Tobacco does not require as much work as cotton, because
it grows more rapidly, shades the ground sooner and ma-
tures quicker. The natural tendency of tobacco is to put
out sprouts at each leaf. These, when one or two inches
long, must be pinched off close to the stock and not allowed
to grow. This is called
By allowing these to grow they dwarf the leaf, which is
the valuable part of the tobacco. By keeping the sprouts
down the strength of the plant is thrown in the leaf, which
makes them broad and large. Another point to be carefully
watched is to prevent the plant from running to seed. To
accomplish this, as soon as the plant begins to bloom or
shows a tendency to do so, it must be stopped, unless yon
wish to make seed and not leaf. Usually the plant is topped
when it has from ten to fourteen leaves. The tobacco plant
is very tender and brittle and the sprouting and topping can
be easily done by simply pinching them off with the thumb
of tobacco are very destructive. The cut-worm begins its
work on the plant as soon as it is transplanted, and this de-
structive worm often does its work to the plant in the seed
bed. The spraying recommended for the flea beetle will
serve as a good protection against them. In the field,
however, it has been found that Paris green mixed with
common 'flour, in the ratio of an ounce to four or five
pounds, and sprinkled around and on the plants, will, to a
great extent, destroy this worm. A perforated tin box, such
as a mustard box, or any other can will serve the purpose
of distributing the poison.
The bud worm is very justly dreaded, because its work
is very destructive. It is a small worm, comparatively,
that eats into the bud of the plant, doing great damage to
the leaves. This pest can be largely controlled by sprink-
ling in the bud from time to time arsenic or Paris green in
the same proportions as for the cut worm and prepared in
the same way.
The horn worm is very large and very destructive to the
leaf. The fly lays its eggs in the night upon the leaf. These
worms after hatching grow very rapidly. The best method
and the only one used is to pick off the .worm and eggs at
regular periods. It is estimated that a patch or field should
be wormed every other day. If the season is propitious
they multiply very rapidly, and this worm with the bud
worm are the enemies which injure the plant after it begins
to grow to any size, and they should be very carefully
Spraying the leaves of tobacco with any poison or dust-
ing it for the purpose of killing the horn worm is said to in-
jure the texture of the leaf and also the flavor of the tobac-
co. If arsenic kills the bud worm, which sometimes de-
stroys the bud and always injures the leaves in the grow-
ing plant, it is possible that spraying may not have a dam-
aging effect. This, like many other current opinions, not
having been tested, may be false. That the worm can be de-
stroyed by spraying and thus largely cheapen the labor of
making tobacco, is beyond a question. But if the leaf and
quality of tobacco is injured thereby it would be folly to do
it. But as the matter has not been settled as to the iujury
of tobacco if sprayed, it will be a part of the Station work
next year to make experiments on this line.
The tobacco grower has very valuable friends in the
hornet, the wasp, the dirt-dauber and this class of insects.
These feed on the bud and horn worm and some years are
very valuable, rendering the work of worming very light.
These insect friends were of great service on the Station
this year and also in this county. Their value to the farmer
generally in destroying pests cannot easily be estimated,
and it is well for farmers generally to know that instead of
trying to destroy them they should have them protected not
only for the sake of tobacoo but other crops.
Mr. Geo. C. Mattox, of this county, a successful farmer
and tobacco grower, states that cow peas planted around
the tobacco field attracts the wasps to the tobacco. This is
worthy of trial, especially with small planters, for anything
of this kind, which will encourage these insects is worth
is very irregular. From the time it begins until the crop is
gathered, it is daily work. This work embraces the period
from the first ripening to the last. Tobacco begins to
ripen from six weeks to two months after being trans-
planted. After the first crop is gathered the plant puts out
suckers and it will sucker from three to four times, provid-
ed it is planted early enough, thus making as many crops
in a season.
The best way to harvest is to gather the entire stock
when ripe by cutting it off near the ground with a sharp
knife. This should be done by bending with left hand and
cutting from below up. The leaves should not be stripped
from the stalk. Care should be taken not to allow sand to
get on the leaves, as it very generally injures the sale of the
crop. By cutting off close to the ground the plant begins
at once to put out suckers. All should be pinched off ex-
cept one, and it should be treated as the original plant.
The third and fourth crop should be treated in the same way.
The fourth crop is a small one but the leaves serve as a
filler or for smoking tobacco, and if gathered it makes an
excellent fertilizer. The stalks should all be saved for this
purpose and are valuable with which to mulch fruit trees.
t will very greatly increase the third and fourth crop if
cotton seed meal is worked around the plant after the sec-
ond cutting or even the first. The great trouble with in-
experienced growers is to determine when the tobacco is
ripe. Experience, however, soon settles this matter and it
is not difficult to learn. The novice ought not to be deterred
from planting because of the want of this knowledge. Color
of leaves does not prove the best rule to determine the ripe-
ness of the plant, although when the leaves begin to lighten
in color oe spotted it is a good sign. A better rule is that
when the top leaves between the stems will readily snap
in the fingers.
THE CURING SHED OR BARN
may or may not be a costly building in our climate. For
those who are beginners it is not necessary to build a barn es-
pjoially for the purpose if there is a gin house on the prem-
ises or a log house that can be used. t have seen the very
best quality of tobacco cured in a log house, the joists of
which were not six feet above the floor. A common wagon
shed will' serve the purpose to begin with, if closed on the
sides by rough-edge boards. The tobacco crop of the Sta-
tion is cured in the upper part of a wagon and tool house.
A great many persons will doubtless begin the cultivation
of tobacco by planting from one-half to five acres. In their
interest the above is written. For those who are deter-
mined to make it their business and who wish to build barns
they can do so cheaply with rough lumber.
The points to be observed are ventilation when needed
and the shutting it off. There should be doors at each end
of the barn large enough to drive a wagon through. There
is no necessity for a wooden floor, but the sills ought to be
laid on brick or rock in our climate to prevent rotting and
the space between the sills and thp ground closedwith
plank. Frames from the top to the bottom should be built
inside on which to place poles or laths on which to hang
the tobacco to dry. A sharp hollow spear that will fit a
lath, made sharp enough to pierce through the stalk should
be used. The stalk pierced and slipped on the lath or small
pole and repeated until the pole is full, not allowing the
leaves to touch each other and then put in place on the
frames, is the cheapest, easiest and most expeditious way
of hanging tobacco in the barnes. It, however, may be tied
by strings to a pole, or with a knife a slit may be cnt in the
stalk and one end of the small pole or lath may be sharpened
and pushed through but these methods are both costly and
tedious. Care should be taken to economize all the space
possible and the number of stalks to each lath or pole is to
be settled by the distance of frames apart on which they
are to rest. A shed 30 by 60 feet and from 10 to 14 feet high
is sufficiently roomy to cure five or six acres of tobacco.
Persons who desire to build fancy barns can do so, keeping
in view the necessity of ventilation both above and below.
PREPARING THE CROP FOR MARKET.
The leaves are ready to stri) fr )m the stalk when the
stems are sufficiently dry as to show no sap when pinched.
Before stripping, however, the leaves should be moist en-
ough so that they will not crumble or break in handling. If
the weather is dry the tobacco becomes very dry, but by
giving it ventilation at night by opening doors and windows,
or during a rain, the condition can be obtained for handling.
In assorting those which are ragged, the top and bot-
tom leaves should be put to themselves and tied into bun-
dles ranging in number from twenty-five to fifty according
to size. These are for fillers. The better leaves should be
assorted according to size and tied in bundles or hands from
twenty to thirty in each. These are for wrappers. In strip-
ping tobacco the leaves should not be smoothed out by the
hand, but put into bundles just as they are on the stalk.
The different grades should never be mixed in packing,
but kept to themselves. In packing into boxes or bales the
tips should lap each other and care should be taken to pack
firmly and evenly. The ends of the packages should not
touch the box sides, for ventilation is needed here to some
extent to prevent moulding. When boxed keep on a board
floor and under no circumstances allow the box or package
to remain on the ground. The boxes should be as light as
possible and uniform in size, but the dry goods boxes of
merchants serve an excellent purpose.
BULKING THE CROP.
I mean by bulking that the farmers of a county would,
I think, find it to their interest to store their crop in their
county town for assortment and sale, securing or building
a house for this purpose. An expert should be employed
who will carefully assort and bale the tobacco in the same
way as the Cubans do. Wrappers, binders and fillers
should be packed to themselves. In this way the crop
would realize more money, amply repaying the cost of ex-
pert. On this line much could be said.
THIS YEAR'S EXPERIMENT
was not begun with the view of estimating the amount of
tobacco that could be made per acre, still below I give re-
sults on this line, but as stated, in order to study the ene-
mies of the crop. In the foregoing pages my experience is
given in regard to them.
The season was unusually dry and in transplanting and
afterwards, the patches on the hillsides had to be watered
Three plots were planted : one on fresh bottom land, un-
manured, containing 7,225 square feet. This was the rich-
est and in every way best adapted to tobacco. The yield
per plot was 125 pounds and per acre at the rate of over 750
The second plot was on a dry hill-side and old land.
This plot was replanted several times and watered before a
stand was obtained. The yield was 75 pounds to the plot,
consisting of 8,360 square feet, or per acre in round numbers
The third plot consisted of tiled land. on slope of hill
and planted several years in vegetables, in early spring this
year in green peas. After the peas were removed tobacco
plants averaging from 15 to 18 inches high were planted, the
object being to place them in the ground as deep as they
were in seed bed. The spectacle presented a few days af-
terwards was very discouraging and reminded one of a to-
mato patch planted in dry weather with same size plants.
Many of the lower leaves dropped off, the top wilted down
almost half way to the ground and every indication of fail-
ure and death was apparent. In a few days, however, the
plants straightened up, new leaves began to grow, and the
plot consisting of 7,200 square feet, less than one-sixth of
an acre, yielded 75 pounds or over 450 pounds per acre.
The hill-side and tiled plots were fertilized with Station
compost No. 1 at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre. The
crop was cultivated with Planet Jr. cultivator and hoe un-
til the ground was shaded, and the grass and weeds kept
down in same way with each successive crop.
The experiment last year in tobacco was made on a cab-
bage patch, the plants put in the hills after the cabbage was
cut. Thosewho grow vegetables will be able to utilize their
land in a tobacco crop and get it off before it is time to pre-
pare land for vegetables in the fall.
The later tobacco is planted in the field the more liable
is it to be injured by insects. The crop planted, last year,
when seed was sowed as late as June 19th and plants set
out as late as July 12th, the insects were very troublesome.
If these pests can be controlled late in the season, Florida
gardeners in the tobacco crop -have an industry of very
great profit to them. The harvesting of this late planting
began the middle of September. Cigars made from this to-
bacco tested by experts in one of the largest factories in
the State were said to be as good as any raised in Cuba, ex-
cept the Vuelta Abajo.
Chickens, turkeys and guineas are useful to worm the
crop, and where they can be given the use of the patch they
will do good work for the small farmer.
The Board of Trustees has authorized me to purchase
fifty dollars' worth of seed for free distribution to those
who desire to cultivate tobacco. I have, through Mr. F. S.
Yznaga, who is connected with the celebrated manufactory
of Havana cigars of V. Martinez, Ybor & Co., Tampa, Fla.,
made arrangements to have them purchased fresh in Cuba.
If I succeed in securing them I will distribute as much as an
ounce to each applicant as long as they last. The seed to
be purchased will be the Vuelta Abajo, conceded to be the
finest variety raised. I would suggest to the farmers of
each county to settle on one kind of seed and uniformly
work together to make their county famous as to the char-
acter of their tobacco. In this way every advantage there
is in soil, climate, curing and handling is secured, and if
the crop of the county is bulked, assorted and packed, ic
would be but a short while before each county would have
established a special character and brand that would large-
ly increase its profits. Farmers testing various kinds of
seeds, at the same time will doubtless get the tobacco mix-
ed and this will surely injure its sale.
It is my purpose on the Station and its sub-stations to
test various kinds of seeds from different countries, if they
can be obtained, in order to settle, if possible, which will
produce the best wrapper.
The Vuelta Abajo makes the best filler and a good
wrapper. As wrappers bring the highest prices, to raise
them is the first consideration. Various opinions obtain as
to whether seed from this or that country will make the
finest and highest-priced wrapper. This the Station in due
time hopes to be able definitely to settle.
JAs. P. DEPASS,