I:- ANNUAL REPORT, 1596.
O. LUTE, Director.
TOR FLORIDA AGRICI'LTURIST
Hos. W. D. BLOXHAM,
GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA:--
Sir:-I have the hdnor to transmit herewith the annual re-
port of the Florida Experiment Station for the year 1896.
Very respectfully yours,
Lake City, Fla.,
Jan. 2, 1897.
Board of Trustees.
HON. WALTER GwYNN, President................... Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President. ............ Pensacola
HoN. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee.... Ocala
HoN. A. B. HAGEN, Secretary..................... Lake City
HoN. S. STRINGER. ............................Brooksville
O. CT.UTE. M. S., LL. D.......................... Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S...............Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S .................. .......... Chemist
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S................Assistant in Biology
JOIIN F. MITCIELL ............. Foreman of Lake City Farm
J. T. STUnBBS............Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARSH .....................Supt. Sub-Station, Myers
J. P. DAVIES, B. S....................Assistant in Chemistry
LIBRARIAN...... ............ ........ ..........Lake City
The Florida Experiment Station.
Report of the Director.
IlHo. W. D. BLOXBAM,
GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA:-
Sir:-The farm at Lake City has been newly sub-divided
into convenient fields, with lanes running from the barns to all
parts of the farm. To do this required a good deal of levelling,
improving and cleaning ditches, making bridges, and building
and repairing a large amount of fence.
In making new fences I have used barbed wire, the Page
woven wire and the Keystone woven wire. The barbed wire
carefully put up, with strands close together at the bottom,
makes a good fence. Animals are sometimes injured by the
barbs. Not considering this drawback, there is no better fence
than barbed wire. Those who wish to avoid the batbed-wife will
find the Page and the Keystone good fences. The top strand of
the Keystone is stronger, and hence bears a greater strain in
stretching than the Page. The gates made to go with the Page
are superior. I am convinced that some form of wire fence wih
gradually take the place of wood fences of nearly all forms. The
wire fence is but little more expensive-in some places it is no
more expensive; it is more sightly: it is more efficient; it does not
rot; it does not burn. This last quality is a very important one
In arranging the fields and yards careful attention has been
given to the water supply. We now have pure running water in
the yard at the horse stable, at the cow stable, in the pig pens,
and in every field but two. and in these two water is accessible by
simply opening the gate into the lane leading from the field to
the brook. In all work with animals, this constant supply of pure
water is of the greatest value.
Pipes have been laid to connect the gardens with the city
water works, so that, with the aid of a garden hose, beds of seed-
ling vegetables can be easily watered,-as also the hot beds, cold
frames, and propagating house. This has taken some labor and
expense, but the results will fully justify it for experimental
A good small propagating house has been built, a manure
shed and workroom for the horticultural department, a potato
house, seed room, and office tot the farm department, also a shed
for sheltering the cows from sun, wind and rain.
The great storm of September, 1896, blew down many trees,
destroyed a great deal of fence, ruined two small hay barns, and
injured other station buildings slightly. This made much extra
labor in removing fallen trees, digging stumps, burning rubbish,
The work of the Station has been directed mainly:-
t. To subduing, fencing, levelling, and ditching the land
at Lake City, De Funiak Springs and Fort Myers.
2. To setting out at Lake City an experimental orchard,
twelve acres in extent, of such fruits as will thrive in this-climiate.
3. To setting out at De Funiak Springs an orchard, five
acres in extent, of peaches. plums. persimmons, pears, etc.
4. To improving at Myers a grove of citrus trees, five acres
in extent, and setting out a% orchard of peaches, plums, persim-
mons, grapes, and some other tropical and subtropical fruits.
5. To improving and enlarging at Myers the plantations of
pineapples, bamboos, palms, and ornamental plants. Lists of
the trees, shrubs and plants now growing at the different stations
will be found at the close of this report.
6. To improving the gardens at Lake City, and to testing
varieties of vegetables.
r. To building a convenient propagating house at Lake
City, which will enable us to conduct experiments which would
be impossible without the house.
8. To testing at Lake City farm crops, including corn,
sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, cassava, peanuts, chufas, taro, vel-
vet bean, tropical yam, canaigre, prickley comfrey, arrowroot,
sachaline. cow peas, beggar weed, ramie, and others.
9. To work in the Department of Biology with the San
Jose scale and a parasite destructive to the same, and to the study
of many insect pests and vegetable diseases.
to. To analysis in the chemical department of typical
Florida soils, and of many soils, clays, earths, fertilizers, and
waters for different persons in Florida.
i To answering the numerous questions which come to
us from many quarters by every mail. This attention to corre-
spondence gives a great deal of work to all departments of the
station, but it seems to be of value in the present development of
The results of the work for the year have already appeared
to a slight extent in the bulletins of the station, and will appear
further as conditions will allow. Often valuable results depend
on the work of several succeeding years. I would note here
some of the work of the year.
IRISH POTATOEs.-April 3, 4 and 5, 1896, sixty-six varieties
of Irish potatoes were planted at Lake City to learn the best vari-
eties for Florida. A very severe drouth made the results of no
value. The test will be continued in 1897. From Early Rose,
Burbank, Beauty of Hebron, and Chili Red, planted in Mardch
some crop was gathered, but the conditions were so unfavorable
that the results cannot be called a test,
SWEET POTATOES.--Of these, from plants grown on our
own grounds and from others kindly furnished by the Georgia
experiment station, we planted forty-eight varieties. It required
much attention to keep the plants alive during the drouth, and
when the rains came the plants were so stunted that results were
not satisfactory. From plants of Bush Yam, Red Providence,
White Providence, and Yellow Nansemond, put out after the
rains came, a fair crop was secured of good quality. It
is probable that much good would result to Florida from more
careful attention to the varieties, fertilization and cultivation of
the sweet potato. Its value is very widely recognized, and yet it
is often grown in a haphazard way. Much attention will be
given this-crop in future years.
CoRnt.--Eightynine varieties were planted, but with 1tii
crop also the drouth interfered and rendered the test worthless.
It would be well for our farmers to consider the value of thb
corn crop compared with chufas, peanuts, cassava, taro, sweet
potatoes, Kaflir corn, etc., as food for stock. It seems probable
that these latter crops will yield a much greater value of feed per
acre than corn.
CAssavA.-In Bulletin No. 35 I published some account of
our work with this crop. The experience of the past year but
confirms the good opinion then expressed. If planted on well
drained land it stands drouth, flourishes during our heavy sunm-
mer rains, grows on any ordinary soil with a small amount :6f
fertilizer, keeps in the ground all winter and can be dug as
needed, yields from five to fifteen tons of roots per acre, is eaten
by all kinds of stock, when grated furnishes very nice pancakes
and puddings for the family, is eaten by some as a vegetable
when boiled like potatoes (but most people do not like it as well
as potatoes), and above all can be made the source of a great in-
dustry in the manufacture of tapioca, starch and glucose. The
seed is the canes of the previous year, kept through the winter in
banks, and in March or April cut into lengths of six or eight
inches and planted.like potatoes. H-ence to make a large planta-
tion for commercial purposes would require a crop the previous
ycar sufficiently large to furnish canes for planting the number
of acres required, The station will have about seven acres in
cassava in i897and in the spring of I898will be able to give small
amounts of seed to some who want to begin its growth. I have
seen advertisements in different papers of Florida of seed for
sale which could be secured this spring. I look for a large de-
velopment of cassava culture in Florida and other southern
PhIANUTs;-Of these we have grown the common Florida and
the Spanish.' Both do well. The Florida gives the larger, finer
looking nut, but the kernel of the Spanish variety fills the shell
full and is about as large as the kernel of the Florida. The Span-
ish is ripe about three months after planting, when the pigs can
be turned into the field and will soon be plump and sleek. Other
fields planted later, and the Florida variety, will be ripe later, so
that plenty of pig feed will be available from the first of July un-
til the next spring. Recent experiments show that an oil,
scarcely less valuable than olive oil, is furnished by the peanut,
and the meal. after the oil is expressed, is one of the best foods
for men. Florida is well adapted to the growth of the peanut.
and the crop should receive more attention.
CHLuvF.-The chufa plant looks much like a coarse grass.
It produces numerous small tubers, which have a pleasant nutty
flavor, and are eagerly eaten by pigs and children. It is a most
excellent food for pigs. They thrive on it, fatten rapidly, and
give pork of a pleasant flavor. The pork from pigs fed on pea-
nuts and chufas is rather soft and oily. hence it might be well to
feed the pigs. for a short time before killing, on corn to make
the flesh firmer. The chufa is cultivated about the same as po-
tatoes; it does well in all parts of Florida and in other southern
states, yields a crop much larger than corn, and the pigs harvest
it themselves. The tubers remain in the ground in good con-
dition until the next year, when they will grow, but it is better
to dig and pick up as many as are needed for seed and for the
children. There is no question as to the gr:et value of the chufa.
It should be much more largely grown.
TARO.-The tro (Colocasia antiquormn) is a near relative
of the calladium of the gardens. It produces numerous tubers
as large as a hen's egg and larger, which make valuable feed for
stock and are by nto means to be despised as food for man, but
we have become so accustomed to potatoes that any vegetable
that tries to crowd them out will have a'hard time. But the taro
will grow all summer and then remain in the ground in good
condition until the next year, giving it value as a food for swihe
and other stock. It does well in Florida. We shall have about
two acres growing this year, and shall be able to give away some
tubers in the spring of '98. Seed can now be bought of some
parties in the state.
VELVET liEAN.-The usetlness of this bean as a mulch and
fertilizer for groves and orchards, as a food for stock, and as a
plant to smother weeds and grasses that must be got rid of,
becomes better established year by year. It makes a thick dense
growth that smothers all other growths, it secretes much nitro-
gen from the air, if left on the ground it returns to the soil a large
amount Of vegetable matter, and if harvested it yields a good
amount of beans and forage. It grows well in most soils if
slightly fertilized, and on fertile soils is a most rampant grower.
Seeds can be bought in the market. Farmers and fruit growers
will do well to give it a trial.
TROPICAL YAM.-The yam grown by us is the Dioscorea
alata. It continues to do well, grows luxuriantly, yields good
crops of tubers weighing from two to twelve pounds, and is val-
uable for the table and for stock. From the time when the tubers
are large enough for use until they bVe begun to grow freely
the next spring they can be dug for the table or for stock any
day. After 4 tuber sprouts to grow it gives its substance up to the
growing sprouts, which run up in an astonishing manner, grow-
ing several inches.a day. If furnished with poles or strings to
run on they will grow forty feet. The vine makes a desirable
climber for shade ot screens. In the field the vines may be sup-
ported on poles or bushes, or left to wander on the ground.
CANAIGRE.-Within a few years this plant has come into
wide notice as a valuable source of tannin. It is a native of the
southwest, where quantities of it grow wild. It is dug, sliced,
and dried in the sun for shipment to the eastern states and to
Europe. Factories have been established in the southwest for
extracting the tannin, which is shipped east in barrels. I have
grown it on the station farm at Lake City for three years. It
starts growth in September, grows all winter, blooms in March
and April, and dies to the ground in May and June. Nothing is
seen of it during the summer. The root is somewhat like a small
beet tapering at both ends. It grows in Florida with ease, and
produces a fair amount of roots. Plantations have been estab-
lished near Orlando, and possibly at other places. It promises
to be a valuable crop.
PRICKLY COMFREY.-This plant has been grown for some
years as a forage crop in Europe and in some of the states of the
Union. It yields a large amount of green forage which is rel-
ished by stock after they acquire the taste for it. It has a long,
branched, fleshy root, much like a dock root, and is cultivated in
hills. I have now grown it for two years on the farm at Lake
City. It is easily cultivated, and seems well adapted to our soil
and climate. The green leaves are easily killed by a frost, but
they start again immediately. During the larger part of the year
in North Florida the plant will furnish an excellent green forage.
ARROWROOT.-This thrives well on our soil, producing its
long, spindle-shaped tubers in abundance. From these roots the
arrowroot of commerce is made, being simply a form of starch.
It is probable that arrowroot may be grown here on a commer-
cial scale for the manufacture of starch.
SACHALINE-.-Three years ago sachaline was boomed into
notoriety as a forage crop which was to revolutionize the cattle
industry. I have two species of it now growing on the station
farm, Polygonum cuspidatum and Polygonum sachalinense. The
latter is the true sachaline concerning which so much has been
claimed, but stock seem to eat the leaves of the first just as well.
Both grow luxuriantly on good soil, and both increase rapidly by
buds from the roots. Experience is not yet sufficient for me to
give an opinion as to thevalue of the plant It will be further
studied during the present year.
R.A~ .--Of this plant much has been written. If a cheap
and efficient method of freeing the fibre from the stem is discov-
ered the plant will doubtless become an important source of fibre
for the manufacture both of delicate and coarse fabrics. It is
rumored that such a method has recently been perfected. Ramie
grows on our station farms at Lake City and De Funiak luxuri-
antly if given some fertilizer. It is easily propagated, easily cul-
tivated, easily harvested.
BEGGAR WEED.-Among the forage and fertilizing crops o(
Florida the beggar weed deserves a prominent place. On any
good land it gives a large crop, comes on among the corn after
that is laid by, will make a dense growth in groves after the cul-
tivation of spring and early summer has been done, is eagerly
eaten by stock when green, is preferred by all stock to all other
kinds of hay, is exceedingly nutritious, and when left to decay
in the grove or field is an excellent fertilizer. Many farmers now
prize it highly, and as other farmers and fruit-growers know it
better they will become its fast friends. I have grown it yearly
since first coming to Florida, with.increasing interest.
THE FLAT PEA.-As yet there are no indications that the
flat pea (Lathyrus silvestris) will be of value in this state. I have
grown it now for four years, giving it good care, and it is spind-
ling, small, no good. Many of the plants have died. Possibly it
may be learned that some particular fertilizer, or culture of bacs
teria, may make it thrive, but at present no one can be advised
to expect any forage from it here.
CRIMsox CLOVER.-Our repeated efforts with this plant
have been continuously disappointing. Sowed in the fall a light
stand is secured, a few plants are green throughout most of the
winter, but are killed to the ground, if the thermometer goes
down to 28 degrees. In the spring a few plants make an insig-
nificant growth. \Vork with this. as with some other forage and
fertilizing crops, will be continued, hoping to obtain better re-
AALFALa.-VWhen sown in rows in February and March,
cultivated carefully, well fertilized and babied, alfalfa will grow
well and bloom the first year in June and July, but the long con-
tinued spell of warm wet weather in summer is fatal to nearly
every root. I have little expectation that it will be any good in
this climate and soil.
SwINE.-All breeds of swine seem to do,well in Florida
when kept up and looked after, and food for swine can be so
easily grown, and the climate is so propitious, that hog-growing
on a large scale may be as profitable as any branch of farming.
The native "razor-back," often spoken of with contempt, is
worthy of much more respectful consideration. It is hardy,
healthy, and so active in "rustling for itself," that all fields must
be carefully fenced against it, which is probably the reason of
much of the dislike which has been heaped upon it. But a "razor-
back"butchered fresh from the hammocks.having never received'
a cent's worth of care, gives pork of a flavor that cannot be sur-
passed. All epicures declare that no other pork compares with
it. A cross of a boar of almost any of the improved breeds on a
"razor-back" sow gives pigs in which the mother's satanic activ-
ity is greatly reduced without preceptibly injuring their ability
to take care of themselves or making the pork less delicious. On
the station farm at Lake City I have had for three years a fine
herd of Duroc or Red Jersey swine which have won the admira-
tion of all who have seen them. They have been entirely healthy,
are easily confined yet sufficiently active, are prolific, and with
our method of feeding give pork of a superior quality. We have
fed them mainly on peanuts, chufas, cassava and sweet potatoes,
supplemented with swill from the college mess hall, and corn.
There has been some demand in the state for breeding stock.
which 1 have supplied as far as possible at a price just sufficient
to cover the cost of growing. All persons to whom animals have
been sent have expressed much gratification at the quality. A
good deal of work has been done in testing the comparative
value of peanuts. chufas, cassava, sweet potatoes and corn as food
for swine. This work will be continued. All indications point
to the possibility of growing food for swifie on an extensive scale
at a cheap rate, and of being able to-put well-fattened animals on
the market without feeding them any corn. If any corn is fed it
may be done for the last two or three weeks to make the pork
firmer. The results of this work, when further perfected, will
appear in a bulletin.
CATTLE.-Much work in other directions has rendered sys-
tematic work with cattle impossible. In future years, when con-
S editions will permit, work with breeding and feeding cattle, and
in the production of milk, butter and cheese, may be taken up.
When entering upon the work I found a small herd of Jersey
cattle on the farm. These have been well cared for. They do
well. There is no doubt whatever but all of Florida is a good
section for the profitable production of stall-fed beef and for
making a superior article of butter and cheese. Wise attention
will enable us to grow oats, rye, sugar cane, cassava, rape, tur-
nips, cabbage, beets and sweet potatoes for green food all win-
ter, and some of these may be made available every month in the
year. Corn, rye, sorghum, Kaffir corn, Bermuda grass, St.
Augustine grass, beggar weed and native grasses will give pas-
ture or forage for soiling from March until January. Rye gives
good pasture all winter. Good water is abundant. Attention
should be given to shelter from rains, wind and sun. Through-
out the summer all animals in pastures should have good shade
to which they can retreat whenever they like. With these pre-
cautions the breeding of animals may be made a paying business
on small farms. All know that the keeping of range cattle has
long been one of the most profitable industries of the state. To
make butter and cheese of good quality for market will require
the use of ice for a large part of the year, but the rapid multipli-
cation of ice factories will soon put ice in the hands of all who
wiU pay a small price for it.
The stamping out of the very destructive Fluted Scale, at its
\only known appearance in FloriAa, under the advice and direc-
tion of the Experiment Station, is an instance of the great value
of the work of the station. Had this scale become widely dif-
fused in Florida the damage wrought would have been of the
most serious character.
. The discovery, by Prof. P. H. Rolfs, of a parasite which de-
stroys the San Jose Scale promises to be one of the greatest value
to fruit growers in all parts of the country. No discovery of re-
cent years is of greater importance.
In considering the amount of work done by experiment sta-
tions, the amount of money a station has to work with should be
considered. The less money a station has with which to pay the
salaries of trained workers the less the work it can do. If the
station has sub-stations for which it must pay for the services of
superintendents and laborers, the less money it will have for pay-
ing expert workers to carry on original investigations. In look-
ing over the experiment stations in the different states I find
that a number of them have large sums of money giveir annually
by the state legislatures. The list printed below shows the an-
nual incomes of a few of the experiment stations. The station in
every state receives from the general government in Washing-
ton the sum of $15,ooo a year. Deduct this $i5.ooo from the
gross income and there will appear the amount contributed by
the state annually for this work. In a few states, as in New
York. there is a state experiment station supported entirely from
funds given by the state, and another station which receives the
$15.ooo from Washington.
Incomes of some experiment stations.
New York State ..................... ........... $68,500
California ........................................ 33,810
W isconsin ................... ........ ......... 29,980
Massachusetts (Hatch and State) .................... 29,1o4
Olhi .................. ........................ 28936
Louisiana ................. .......... ............ 26,6oo
New Jersey (State and College) ..................... 26,000
Alabama ........ ............ ............ ........ 24,878
Pennsylvania .................... ........... .... 24,874
North Carolina ................. .................. 23,4oo
Georgia ............ ........ ....... ............. 22,000
Florida ............ .......... .......... ......... 16,200
It is scarcely necessary to call attention to the fact that an
experiment station having an income of $68,5oo, as in New
York, of $33,810, as in California, or of $26,600, as in Louisiana,
can do much more work than a station whose total income is
$16,200.97, which was the total in-ome of the Florida station for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896. Clearly it is unfair to expect
as much work from the Florida station as from the New York
station which has an income more than four times as great I
call attention to this matter not because I expect that Florida,
under present conditions, can give a large sum yearly to its ex-
periment station,but onlyfor the purpose of showing that where
a larger amount of work is done than we are able to do a corre-
spondingly larger sum of money is spent in doing it.
The land owned by the Florida experiment station on which
it must do its work does not enable the station to do the best
work, and does not do justice to Florida. A large Rart of the
land at the main station at Lake City has about 96 per cent of
pure sand, and it all slopeatoward a lake into which every rain
washes a large part of the fertilizers used. The land at De Fu-
niak Springs is poor; it is cut up by ravines, and washes badly.
The land at Myers is neavl all sand; it is low and wet, and in the
rainy season is kept from being overflowed only by numerous
ditches. It is not wisdom, it is not good economy, for Florida to
keep its experiment station on such land as will inevitably make
the work of the station give false testimony as to the productive-
ness of Florida soil. This subject should come before the legis-
lature at its approaching session, and a remedy should be pr6-
Lists of trees, shrubs and plants now growing on the farms
;anr in the gardens at Lake City, De Funiak, and Myers are ap-
pended to this report. They will indicate somewhat the extent of
our work, and the wonderful possibilities of the soil and climate
of Florida, and the interesting nature of our experiment work.
As my acquaintance with the state becomes more familiar my
strong interest'iit its development becomes deeper, and my con-
victions as to its great possibilities more assured.
During the year 1896 the bulletins mentioned below were
NO. 32. Cotton, its culture and fertilization.
No,.33. The present condition of orange groves.
o. :34, Insect enemies of truck and garden crops.
No. 35, Cassava. the velvet bean, etc.
No. 36, Insects injurious to stored grain.
No. 37, The pineapple at Myers;
The regular edition of our bulletins is 1o,ooo copies. We
are probably carrying a good many names on our mailing list
who are not really interested in the bulletins, but who have from
time to time applied for them because they cost nothing. An ef-
fort will be made early in i897 to weed out the mailing list, and
retain only the names of those who desire the bulletins. Of some
bulletins an edition of ia,ooo has been printed, and of one the
edition was 2o,ooo.
I respectfully solicit your attention to the reports of work by
Prof. P. f. Rolfs,, Biologist and Horticulturist; Prof. A. A. Per-
sons, Chemist; J. T. Stubbs, Superintendent of sub-station at De
Funiak Springs, and of W. A. Marsh, Superintendent of sub-sta-
tion at Myers, all of which are appended as parts of this report.
Very respectfully yours,
Lake City, Fla.,
Jan. 2. 1897.
Financial Report of
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
For the Year Ending June 30, 1896.
LAKE CITY MAIN STATION:
Salaries ......... .............. .......$4,o3453
Labor ........ ......... ..... ....... 2,722.94
Publications ........................ 1,995.14
Postage and Stationery ................ 116.54
Freight and Express ....... ........... 204-77
Heat, Light and Water ............... 198.60
Chemical Supplies ................... 104.34
Seeds. Plants and Sundry Supplies ...... 683.70
Fertilizers .............. ...... ..... 459.97
Feeding Stuffs ............... ........ 365.31
Library ........ ...... ...... ........ 108.27 -
Tools, Implements and Machinery ....... o19.o9
Furniture and Fixtures ........ ........ 17.o5
Scientific Apparatus ............ ...... .0oo
Live Stock ........................... 95.00
Traveling Expenses .................. 682.03
Contingent ........ ................ 19.06
Building and Repairs ................. 1.087.38 $13,oo4.71
DE FUNIAK SUBSTATION:
Salary of Superintendent ..............$
Labor ........ ....... ........ ......
Publications ....... ...... .. .....
Postage and Stationery ................
Freight and Express ..................
Seeds, Plants and Sundry Supplies ......
Fertilizers ...... ........ ....... ....
Feeding Stuffs .......................
Tools, Implements, and Machinery ......
Building and Repairs ......... .......
FORT MYERS SUB-STATION:
Salary of Superintendent ...... ........$
Labor ........ ....... ........ .....
Postage and Stationery ................
Freight and Express ....................
Seeds, Plants, and Sundry Supplies ......
Fertilizers ............ ..............
Feeding Stuffs .......................
Tools, Implements. and Machinery .....
Contingent ................ .......
Building and Repairs .................
Total expenditures for year ending June
30, '96 ........ .......... ........
Deficit, July 1, '95 ...................
Experiment Station Incidental Fund
on hand ........ ........ ........
Appropriation Experiment Station Fund.$r5,ooo.oo
State Appropriation Fund ............. 900.16
Experiment Station Incidental Fund
(Sales) ......................... 300.81
STATE APPROPRIATION FUND,
June 30, 1895, to July s, 1896.
For Experiment nStation.
Labor .......... ........ ......... ...... $ 48.95
Publications ..... ................ ....... 138.84
Postage and Stationery ................... 29.65
Freight and Express .................... 41.51
Heat. Light and Water .................... .40
Chemical Supplies ........................ .85
Seeds. Plants and Sundry Supplies .......... 67.98
Feeding Stuffs ................... ........ 9.00
Library ......... ........ ............ 4-75
Tools. Implements and Machinery ........... 7.45
Furniture and Fixtures .................... .25
Scientific Apparatus ... ................... .oo
Traveling Expenses ............ ... ..... 5.55
Contingent ........ ....... ............. 4.15
Building and Repairs ..................... 539.83 $9oo.i6
Biologist and Horticulturist.
DR. O. CLUTE,
Sir.-I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of work
in Biology and Horticulture for the year 1896.
P. H. ROLFS,
Lake City. Fla.. Biologist and Horticulturist.
Dec. 3o. r896.
'he work in the herbarium has been progressing moderate-
ly. As many plants as could be obtained easily were collected and
dried. Especial attention was directed to obtain those that are
of economic importance. One thousand three hundred and fifty
sheets of mounted plants have been added to the herbarium.
These sheets represent between nine hundred and a thousand
species. More than a thousand of these specimens were col-
lected in the state. The grasses of Florida were fairly repre-
sented in the herbarium before this year, but several species have
been added. As a whole, the herbarium forms an important ad-
dition to the equipment of the experiment station. Though the
collection is comparatively small, its value is increased by the
fact that the specimens are Florida species, and named by best
authorities in particular groups.
The past year was one during which there were compara-
tively few destructive diseases. This does not mean that they
were not present, but that the meteorological conditions were
such as to favor growing crops, and to injure- the parasites.
Tomato blight did not become destructive until four weeks
later than the usual time; this was due directly to the long con-
tinued drouth of the spring. When the summer rains set in, the
blight began its destructive work with unusual severity, but as
this was later than the 2oth of June the crop had been marketed.
The experiments conducted to obtain information regarding the
practicability of controlling the disease, after the field has been
severely infested and most plants attacked, gave a negative
answer. It would take several pages to publish thenotes cover-
ing this piece of work, so I willlsimply make a statement of the
summary deduced from this laor.-It does not pay to attempt
to control tomato blight after 25 per cent of the plants have been
infected. (Infection is indicated by a wilting of one or more
Report of Horticulturist.
ASPARAGUS.-ThiS very desirable vegetable has been given
a fair trial, but'the result is a failure as far as pjanting for market
is concerned. Tie fact that we do not have a winter, or rather,
that our winters are quite free from freezing weather, seems to
keep the plant active nearly the entire year. The winter merges
so gradually into spring that this plant does not seem to know
when winter, or when spring, has come. Even as far north as
Lake City stems are sent up all winter, so there is never a period
of complete rest.
Those who wish to plant it for home tidbits will have ao
trouble in securing a few meals from a hundred or two hundred
plants. The soil must be rich and the land well drained.
BErrs.-New Surprise, sowed August 28. produced market-
able beets February 28.
Bastian Blood Turnip, sqwed November 8, gave marketable
beets March io.
The same varieties sowed May 17 did not produce a crop
but died before reaching a marketable size.
BEANS.-White Valentine, sowed February 24, gave mar-
ketable beans in sixty days.
New Stringless, Golden Wax, and Lazy wife. sowed April 2,
gave marketable peas in sixty-five days.
Bush Lima, several varieties, gave no crop; only a very few
pods formed and the seed in these scarce.
Valeitine Wax, sowed August 13, produced marketable
pods in forty-seven days. a
Early Valentine, same as Valentine Wax.
Valentine Wax and Red Valentine, sowed August 24 pro-
duced marketable pods in forty-five days.
CARROT.-Chantenay, sowed November 8, produced mar-
ketable carrots by February 15. Sowed again March i8 and pro-
duced marketable carrots May r. Sowed again June I, produced
no crop. Sowed again September 14, failed.
CELERY,-Both kinds, self bleaching and green, were tested
with the confirmation that the green kinds are more hardy and
usually more productive, while the "self-bleaching" sorts were
usualy'the more delicate and better flavored. Both sorts were
used by the old and the new culture.
For home use the following varieties may be placed in about
this order:-(-) Boston Market, (2) Red Giant Solid, 3) solid
Ivory, (4) Crawford's Half Dwarf, (5) Dwarf Golden Heart, (6)
Giant Pascal. For-marketing the order would be changed only
Seed of the above varieties sown July 24 gave marketable
celery February 25;
CAu'LiFLt.Ob-The following varieties were found excel
lent and in the order named:-Short Stem, Early Paris, Early
London. Autumn Giant Early Paris makes a good variety from
which to grow seed. Autumn Giant requires more fertiizer
than the others to produce an equal amount of cauliflower.
CABBAGE.-Many varieties have been tested, and from the
general experience the following rule may be deduced-Early
quick-growing sorts, that produce a head below medium size,
are more profitable for market and for home use.
COLLARDS.-This class of the cabbage family stands more
abuse and neglect than other members, but it takes kindly to
good culture and high fertilizing. It finds no extensive markets
in the north.
CtcuMBERS.--White Spine still holds a prominent place and
can be relied upon for a crop.
EGG PLANT.-Early Long Purple, New York Improved,
Black Pekin and White Pearl are good for home use. Early
Long Purple is nearly two weeks earlier than the others. White
Pearl will doubtless become a good market variety, but at pres-
ent we should adhere to Black Pekin and New York Improved.
Early Long Purple does not give so large a crop as the others.
It takes about five months of warm weather to produce a crop
HoPs.-This plant failed to become established under what
would be favorable circumstances in hop-growing sections.
KoHL RAI.--This vegetable is new to some people, but it
will be found an acquisition to the home garden. In taste it is
neither turnip nor cabbage, but in a slight way combines that of
both. It is as easily raised as cabbage.
LETTUE.-Three sorts have been planted at the experiment
station. Among the loose-headed sorts Grand Rapids takes fst
There are several excellent varieties of the solid-headed
sorts. New Sensation, and Black Seeded Simpson have. dbue
well. Several varieties of the Cos sorts have been tried, but.none
of those that we have tried can be recommended.
LEEK.-London Flag. It will be interesting to some peo-
ple who are fond of this vegetable to know that it can be grown
without difficulty. The seed should be sown during late summer
or fall, and planted to the field when right size has been attained.
It is doutfol whether thiar~wgetable will ewerIe plantedgenerV
ally for home use, as a taste frit is not acquired quickly.,
Oasi -Dwarf Green, sowed in two-inch pots Matc& To.
gave marketable pods June Io, and continued to fruit until Au-
gust 22. The time of fruiting may be prolonged by applying
fertilizer from time to time.
White Velvet is an excellent variety, as is also Dwarf Pro-
lific. Long Green has more vitality, but is not so profitable.
As a rule the large green sorts have the constitution, while
the dwarf yellow-podded varieties produce an excellent vegeta-
bles but a*e more subject to disease.
OMoi6s.-Seeds of Bermuda Red and Bermuda White wee
sown in cold frame February 25 made good sets May 18.
Seeds of these varieties sown April i made fine sets. Seeds of
the same varieties sown May r8, under similar conditions, failed
during the June rains.
I'EPPERS.--Of the sweet sorts, County Fair was found excel-
lent, and Bell best for shipping. Of the hot varieties Chili and
Celestial are good.
PE4s.-McNeil, a local variety, proves quite successful for
field' culture, but is of inferior flavor and a poor producer. It
ades b:~er than the finer varieties on poor land. and stands a
light fi'ost better. On rich soil and for home use Blue Beauty
and Little Gem take the lead.
PARSLEY.-Double Curled and Moss Curled are both good.
The seeds should be sown during the fall so the leaves may be
used during winter., The old plants die during spring or early
summer without producing seed.
SPINACc.--There are many varieties of -this vegetable, and
all are used for greens. In Rhode Island it has become an im-
portant branch of gardening; as much as fifty acres being grown
in a single field,. The ,crop there is harvested during October,
about the time for us to sow. Round Leaf and Long Standing
sown December 26 gave us marketable vegetables March i.
This vegetable is easily grown. but is neglected in Florida.
SALSr---Sandwich Island and Long White have made a
fair growth, but this vegetable requires a deep, rich soil. Any
land that is usually considered good for other vegetables will not
be fertile enough nor deep enough for this crop. It should be
sotwn in December or January for May markets.
RAIrsH.-Every year brings decided changes in the novel-
ties of this vegetable. A few can be recommended as standard,
however. Some of the larger forms, belonging to the White
Strasburg kinds, will be found good for local markets; these re-
quire from forty to sixty days to become edible. Early Scarlet
and Glass are good for family tidbits; these mature in thirty to
forty days. If this time includes January we should add about
RHEUARB.-Roots of this plant may be set out any time dur-
ing the winter, and all the leaves pulled as soon as they are large
enough. Up to the present no plants have been carried through
the summer successfully. Roots planted February 5 gave good
leaves for pulling in forty-five days, and commenced to Oie May
30o One depauperated specimen succeeded in passing the sum-
mer, but was too much exhausted to make vigorous growth in
Tuvnisk-Early Kashmyr. sowed August 17, gave market-
able roots Octobes I, giving returns in less time than any other
variety, but by no means as productive as the standard varieties.
For home use the globe-shaped sorts are preferable. For mar-
keting the flat sorts will probably bring the greater income.
RUTA BAGA.--The larger varieties are preferable for stock
feed and the smaller ones for culinary purposes. In some sec-
tions these make a paying cap forr local market. By sowing in
August marketable roots may be gathered in November. By
repeating the swings marketable roots may be grown until late
ToMu.oEs.-After testing all standard varieties and many
others we are reluctantly forced to the conclusion that if any va-
riety is lss subject to the blight than others, the difference is so
slight that it is not profitable to make a practical application. It
is now five years since the fungus was discoered and the fbl-
lowing general rules may be stated in this connection. () All
other conditions being the scae, that tomato plant which is _ost
succulent (growing most rapidly) is most susceptible to blight
A plant may become so hard and woody that the blight cannot
infect it under ordinary circumstances. (2) All other conditions
being the same, that plant which has the freest circulation of air
about the top of the soil is freest from attack of blight. Toma-
toes staked and the lower leaves trimmed were comparatively
free from blight, while the check rows suffered severely.
Black Rot (Macrosporium Solani,) may be controlled prof-
itably by the use of Bordeaux Mixture. Phytoptosis (caused by
Phytoptus calcladophora, Nal), may be controlled profitably by
using sulphur spray.
The testing of varieties in vegetables is most profitable to
the community in which the test is made, and its value dimin-
ishes with the distance from that place. In some cases a variety
test is almost worthless fifty miles from the place where the test
is made, but it will be clear to the careful reader that we have
made these variety tests with a view of discovering some general
law in connection with each vegetable that will be of economic
:value to the vegetable growers of Florida. -These underlying
principles prevail throughout the entire state and over a much
These principles have been deduced from many observations
and over 4oo. pages of field notes. It is clear that it would not be
profitable to present these so the deductions from them have
been stated in the foregoing brief form.
A propagating.house has been erected during the past year.
It has been located at a convenient place in the garden. It is
not necessary to call attention to the greatly enlarged facility it
adds to the horticultural work. It is as necessary to the equip-
ment of the department as a laboratory. In fact, many of the
leading economic questions cannot be studied successfully with-
The house is 6o feet long (from east to west) and 28 wide.
It is divided into two equal spans 14 feet wide, with a cross ridge
14 feet wide at mid way. Through this ridge the two halves are
connected by a door. Each of the two halves is divided into two
rooms, thus giving four apartments besides the boiler room,
which also contains the potting bench. The height of the gable
is ten feet. The roof has a pitch of thirty degrees. All of the
apartments are heated by hot water, conducted in .two-inch and
one-and-a-half-inch pipes. It has proven to be an efficient and
economic method of heating.
The northeast section of the house is set aside for striking
cuttings and caring for plants which require considerable bottom
heat. This room is provided with benches and a goodly allow-
ance of hot water pipes. The bench used for striking cuttings is
provided with sterile, sharp sand. This room. like the otdirs, can
be kept dry or moist as the occasion may require. It caibe shut
off from the others and closed so as to make an independent sec-
tion for the special purpose.
The southeast section is set aside for growing small plants,
especially such as require an abundance of sun and warmth. In
other respects this section is similar to the one occupying the
The section to the southwest contains tiiy teid. e economic
and ornamental plaits. This section is to be used miiily for in-
struction to the classes and visitors. 'This section receives an
abundance of sunlight, but the temperature is kept lowest; it is
desirable, however, to keep it above 40 degrees, F.
The section to the northwest is set aside for the study of
plant diseases and plant physiology. This is the most important
section from a biological standpoint. This section is supplied
with an abundance of water pipe so as to maintain an even and
high temperature, thus allowing experiments to be carried on
during winter which otherwise would be interrupted and thus en-
tail the loss of much valuable time. The conditions of temper-
attu"e, moistre, and light bitng under control, there is noa~ger
of long the entire experiment by an untoward conditionauk the
Al of the sections are ventilated by a lifting aparatausich
opopthe ventilators at the gable allowing the heated air t& es-
cap without danger, from a sudden cold draft chilling the plants
in the apartment. The amount of hot water sent to any section
thay be controlled in the boiler room. Any section may be heated
without supplyiig the others with hot Witer thus placing the
temperature under successful control. Water tfy be lUed diO
rectly from the general system, or warm water from the boiler
may be used.
TERRACE NO. I.
The terraces prepared in the fall of 1894 ate now in such
state of tilth, and the soil is in such condition, that experimen-
tation may proceed with a fair degree of success. Terrace No. I
hasi~een prepared to test the effect of irrigation on certain crops.
This terrace also contains the cold frames necessary in connec-
tion with experiments on vegetables,
This terrace has been divided into plots of one-hundfeth of
an acre. This has been done for convenience in computation.
At times it is desirable to use several plots to increase the area
and thus red~ee the chance of error; this may be done by-using
several thbt*re contiguous. As a whole this plan has been fund
very coneiient. It has the further advantage of giving ts a
completetiistory of crops taken from the certain plots, aid the
The orchard of the Lake City station is located on an east-
ern slope immediately south of the Director's house. The plot
contains about twelve acres. It is divided by a ditch in which is
running water during the greater portion of the year. This land
was formerly a hammpck, but was cleared ever years ago and
has been producing farm crops of various kinds until the winter
of '95-'96. Great care must always be exercised in cultivating ,to
prevent severe washing out during heavy rains. The field is far
from an ideal one, but the best for this purpose under the con-
trol of the Director.
Nearly all of the trees were planted out during February,
1896. The very dry spring that followed was quite severe on
many kinds of fruit.
Following we give the names of varieties that have been
planted, and some deductions from the orchard note book.
APRjucT.-Japanese: five trees of this fruit were planted in
APPLES.-Jennings Florida; five trees of this variety were
planted on March 1, 1896. All of the trees have lived, but have
grown only a few inches.
Red Astrachan: of the five trees of this variety planted
March i. 1896, two are living, and three have grown only a few
Early Harvest; of five trees planted March i, 1896, three
are living; growth, a few inches.
Horse; five trees planted March 1, 1896; all are living nd
have made fair growth.
Red June; of five trees planted March i, 1896, four are
living; growth, a few inches.
KAKIc.-Ten trees of each'of the following varieties were
planted on the best part of the orchard grounds: C-atata, Hya-
kume,Okame, Taber's No. 23, Taber's No. ,2, Tabe's No. 129,
Tanenashi, Tsuru. Yeddo-ichi, Yemon, Zengi, Hachiya. Of
these trees only two are alive, one of Zengi and one of Tsuru.
MULsERRmES.-Six trees of Downings, five of Russian, and
five of Hicks were planted. All of these have become established
and some have grown'about a foot.
ORANGEs.-Early Oblong five tree of this variety were set
out; three are living and have made a few inches of growth.
Parson Brown; five trees of this variety were set out and all
Satsuma: one hundred trees were set out in a grove by them-
selves. They are budded on trifoliata, and were from.three to
four feet high. Some of the trees blossomed Two trees have
died. Nearly all of the others have npade excellent growth.
OLIVE.-True Picholine; three trees planted; all are dead.
Sevillana; one tree planted; now dead.
Santa Catarina; one tree planted; now dead.
Ascolana; two trees planted; both died.
Alivastra; three trees planted; all have made excellent
St. Augustino; one tree planted; now dead.
Rubra; three trees planted; all have died.
Grassaia: three trees planted; all have died.
Infrantoia; two out of three are alive.
Razza: three trees were planted; all are dead.
Piengente: three trees were planted; one is alive and has
made excellent growth.
Carrigiola: three trees were planted; one has made excel-
lent growth and another has grown a few inches.
Oblonga; two trees were planted; both dead.
Morinello;three trees were planted; one is alive.
Regalis; three trees were planted; all are dead.
Rossalina; three trees were planted; two are living.
-PEACHEs.-Bokara No. 2: two trees were planted; both have
Bokara; two trees were planted; both are dead.
Waldo; eleven trees have made excellent growth, four have
grown only a few inches, and five have died.
Elberta; three have made excellent growth; five have grown
a few inches, and twelve have died.
Triana; seven have made excellent growth, five have grown
a feiw inches, and eight have died.
Yellow St. John; one has made good growth, five have
grown a few inches, and five are dead.
Elma; one has made good growth, three have grown a few
inches, and six have died.
Early Cream; one has made good growth, five have grown a
few inches, and four have died.
Dwarf Japan Blood; two have made good growth, six have
grown a few inches, and two have died.
Victoria; two have made good growth, one a few inches,
and eight have died.
Stanley;four have made good growth, three have grown a
few inches, and three have died.
Bidwell's Late; three have made excellent growth, two have
a few inches, and six have died.
Mountain Rose; three have made good growth, one has
grown a few inches, and six have died.
Climax; two have made good growth, four have grown a
few inches, and six have died.
Florida Crawford; two have made good growth, and eight
Taber; two have made good growth, three have grown a
few inches, and six have died.
Sangmel; five have made good growth, one has grown a
few inches, and five have died.
Jewell; four have grown a lew inches, six have died.
Peen-to;four have made good growth, four have grown a
few inches, and three have died.
Ferdinand; five have made good growth, six have died.
Ceylon; five have made good growth; five have died.
Pallas; seven have made good growth, .four have died.
Honey; three have made good growth, three have grown a
few inches, and six have died.
Imperial; seven have made excellent growth, two have
grown a few inches, and one has died.
Thurber; seven have made excellent growth, two have
grown a few inches, and one has died.
Bidwell's Early; six have made excellent growth, three have
grown a few inches, and three have died.
Colon; three have made good growth, and seven are dead.
Oviedo; six have made good growth, three have grown a
iew inches, and one has died.
Angel;nine have made excellent growth, one has grown a
few inches, and one has died.
Floridl Gem; eight have made excellent growth, two have
PLixs.-Long Blue; one tree grew a few inches, another
S Wyant; one tree grew a few inches, the other died.
Maldewaka; one tree made good growth, the other died.
Communia,Varnesh Yellow, and Trabesche: both trees of
each variety died.
Botankio;.four trees made good growth, four grew a few
inches, and two died.
Ura Bena; two made good growth, and eight grew a few
Chabot; five grew a few inches, and five are dead.
Okute Smomo; nine made excellent growth, and one grew
a, few inches.
Hattankio: seven trees made good growth, and three grew
a few inches.
Satsuma: four made good gr-wtlih, and one grew a few
inches, and five died.
Kelsey; one made good grow th. one grew a few inches, and
Normand: three made good growth, six grew a few inches,
and one failed.
Hoyo Smomo; one tree has made good growth, four have
grown a few inches, and five are dead.
Yellow Japan: three trees have made good growth, three
have grown a few inches. and four have died.
Abundance; one has made good growth, seven have grown
a few inches, and two are dead.
Botan; seven have grown a few inches, three are dead.
Bailey: one has made good growth, eight have grown a
few inches, and one has died.
SPEARS.-Gauber; four trees have grown a few inches, and
six are dead.
Buffum; four trees have grown a few inches, and six are
Bartlett: six trees have grown a few inches, and four have
Lawson; one has made good growth, seven have grown a
few inches, and two have died.
Smith; two have made good growth, five have grown a few
inches, and three have died.
Mongolian; one has grown a few inches, and the other has
QUINCE.---Chinese: all (5) have died.
Apple; two have made good growth, two have grown a few
inches, and one has died.
L(,(;A. BERRY.-This extensively advertised fruit has been
cultivated on the Experiment Station for four years, but we can-
not recommend it. Those who contemplate the planting of this
fruit would do well to test a sufficient number of plants. It makes
vigorous growth, but sets only a small quantity of fruit.
TaA.-This interesting economic plant grows luxuriantly
on rich, moist land that is well drained. On ordinary sandy land
it is scarcely able to hold its own. While it may not be profit-
able to grow tea for market in Florida, it is possible to do so. It
is an excellent plant to use for an ornamental hedge. It is an
evergreen, and produces white blossoms an inch or more across
for several months during summer.
STRAWBERRIES.- The following varieties of strawberries
were bought and planted on November I 1896. The best piece
of land available for use was really too dry and light for this crop:
this, however, will make the test the more severe:
(1) krkansas Traveler, (14) Cloud.
(2) Aroma. (15) Eleanor.
(3) Beder Wood. (16) Enormous.
(4) Buraeh. (17) Equinox.
(5) Bsemark. (18) Gandy.
(61 Brandywine (19) Glen Mary.
(7) BlaelU. (20) Candy Belle.
(8) Barton. (21) Hoffman.
(9) Beecher. (22) Haverland;
(10) Belle. (23) Ivanhoe.
(11) Clyde. (24) Improved Westbrook.
(12) Creseent. (25) Louise.
(13) Columbian. (26) Lonah.
Lady Thompson. (39)
Louisiana Seedling. (40)
Murrays Early. (42)
Meeks Early. (44)
tlorthCarolina Seedling No.1(46)
Arizona Ever Bearing.
The strawberry field has been supplied with a water system
so that in case of a ,severe drouth or unfavorable conditions
water may be applied without serious difficulty.
During the past year a few ornamental plants have been
grown at the Experiment Station garden. These have always
occupied a minor position and were never permitted to inter-
fere with the experimenting with vegetables and fruits.
One new introduction promises to be a desirable ornamen-
tal for Florida. It is in the form of a shrubby climber, botani-
cally known as Solanum Wendtlandii. Its petals are nipped
by a temperature of 35 degrees, F., while the vine itself is frozen
by 30 degrees F. The plant may be banked up, however, as
orange trees are, thus protecting the buds over winter. These
will grow again in the spring.
For a border plant along walks, and any carpet bedding for
large beds, nothing has been found better than Alternanthera.
As these come in several colors they may be used to decided ad-
vantage. The beauty of this plant is not brought out, however,
until cool weather of the fall. Under ordinary occasions, the
root of this plant is not frozen, but will revive again in the
spring. It is best, however, to secure a supply in the fall and
protect these by a considerable bank of hay or other rough mat-
ter of this kind
(Cercospora Apii Fr.)
The Florida celery crop thus far has been free, in the main,
from the attacks of diseases, but the increased acreage brings
with it an increased liabilitty to diseases. That the soil and cli-
mate are both admirable for the production of first-class celery
has been demonstrated so frequently that it need not be repeated
here. If, then, it happens that our crop is failing, we must find
the explanation in some condition over which we have more or
For several years the Experiment Station has had its atten-
tion called to the fact that certain fields were failing, On an ex-
amination it was found that the above named disease is quite
widely distributed in the State, and when once.introduced it
seems to linger around the fields ready to reappear a& sbon as
the celery crop is again planted.
Appearance of the Disease.-This disease may begin in the
seed bed or it may not attack the crop until it is quite well ma-
tured. In the seed bed the larger leaves of the plants turn yel-
low, lose their upright position, and in a few days the blades will
be entirely rotted out or dried up, leaving the stump of the leaf
stalk sound but useless. One after another the leaves become in-
volved and the plant finally succumbs, not being able to produce
any more leaves. Or, under more fortunate conditions, the
plants may make considerable growth but be greatly dwarfed by
the extra strain of having to nourish the parasite or blight.
When such plants are set out the disease is less virulent and the
plants may recover almost entirely without any other help than
to be furnished with an abundance of food and good circulation
Plants that are in the field rarely contract this disease until
they are beginning to be marketable or until they are beginning
to be crowded in the row. The appearance here is much the
same as in the seed bed, except that the leaf-blade is much more
firm and is not so libhle to become ragged as in the seed bed.
Conditions which favor Blighting.-There is a considerable
difference in different varieties. As a rule those varieties that are
classed as self-bleaching suffered worse than the other kinds.
This tendency seemed to be present even in the seedlings. Then
again, plants growing in a poorer portion of the plant beds suf-
fered worse. The reason for this is obvious. Plants in a crowd-
ed bed suffer worse than those planted wide apart.
The conditions of the weather is the strongest factor in pro-
moting this disease: warm moist or foggy days cause the dis-
ease to spread with alarming rapidity. It should not be
thought for one moment that any amount of moisture and
any degree of temperature can originate this disease. It is
caused by a definitely known organism, and this must be brought
into the field,-with the seed, it may be, or otherwise. Such
weather is suitable, however, for the dissemination and growth
of this fungus. On the other hand, a dry atmosphere is fatal to
its dissemination, so during dry weather it may be cold or warm
and the disease will make slow progress or none at all As soon
as the night temperature goes below 40 degrees the disease
makes but slow progress and finally cannot be noticed any more.
A few light frosts are also very excellent to cut off the growth of
Another condition that favors its distribution is to have the
plants stand close together. This occurs in the seed bed and also
when the plants are about full grown.
How to Control Blight.-The foregoing information re-
garding the nature of this blight is of great importance in con-
trolling it. In the seed bed the plants should not be sprinkled,
but the water be applied by some method of irrigating. By mak-
ing a trench three inches deep between every fourth row, if the
celery is grown on the new plan, water may be applied in abun-
dance without moistening the leaves. This will give the spores
but slight opportunity to germinate. The water should be ap-
plied at about noon.
The plants in the seed-bed should be kept thinned out so the
air can circulate freely. This will de much to keep up the gen-
eral health of the plants, and to keep the atmosphere among
them dry. This is not practicable in the field but may be prac-
ticed in the spd beds.
If the foregoing suggestions do not prove sufficient, as is
the case in weather favorable to blight, we may use Bordeaux
mixture, or some other form of fungicide, with entire confi-
dence. Fungicides have been used with so much success that we
may consider the information as patent. This fungicide should
be applied at intervals of ten days or two weeks, according to
conditions of weather. It is not wise, however, to apply Bor-
deaux within a month otfhe time that the crop is to be put on
the market. This fungicide leaves a blue color on the leaves that
might work a damage in selling, so some other fungicide should
be tsed during the last month. Ammoniacal copper carbonate
and Eau Celeste will be found good. But it is well to apply
these with care lest the foliage be scalded.
What is the Blight?-This fungus is by no means new in
the older celery growing sections of the United States, but as
before mention.l it has not been severe in Florida. The spores
of this fungus mature about the time the leaf begins to turn
brown in spots, then they infect neighboring plants, anW so the
trouble may be transmitted to all the plants in the field.. "emov-
ing the diseased leaves lessens the source of contamination, but
by this time many spores will have been blown to other plants
and thus have infested fresh leaves.
It has been found that the cold of northern winters does not
destroy the vitality of. these spores. The cessation of the disease
with the approach of cool Weather is due rather to the better con-
ditions for the celery plant and unfavorable conditions for the
propagation of the disease than to the killing of spores.
From the foregoing statements it is quite clear that all in-
fested refuge of a celery field should be destroyed, either by burn-
ing or by burying it deeply.
BLIGHT OF TOMATO.
The specific fungus that causes what is popularly called
blight of tomatoes was discovered nearly five years ago but
spores of it are not yet known. As stated in bulletin 21 of the
Florida Experiment Station, this fungus lives, for the greater
part, in the soil. It has the power of adapting itself to live on
decaying vegetable matter and on certain living plants. It
seems to have the power of reproducing itself indefinitely under
either condition.' In the laboratory it has been cultivated for
months on vegetable matter without losing any of its vigor. It
seemed as ready to attack a susceptible plant after growing on
culture media as when taken directly from an infested plant.
The Fungus.-This small plant is of a low order, belong-
ing to a class called fungi.
The body of these plants is made up of microscopic threads
that ramify through the substratum from which they receive
nourishment. In a moist, warm place this fungus produces a
great downy mass of these microscopic threads, or mycelia.
When moisture is withheld small bodies resembling tobacco
seed are formed. For convenience we may call these sclerotia.
These sclerotia become hard and dry during a drouth, but on
the return of warmth and moisture they send forth mycelia,
which in turn, under proper conditions, produce sclerotia.
Dr. E. F. Smith has called my attention to -onidia spores
that he founl on a host with this fungus, but I have not been
able to establish any connection between the spores and this
fungus. If such spores could be fund it would explain consid-
erable in connection with this disease that is now not clear. Its
dissemination and general distribution lead one to search for
such spores, with the expectation of finding them The amount
of moisture contained in the soil is usually sufficient for the
growth of this fungus but by far the greater number of the
sclerotia are mixed with the uppermost portion of the soil so
that they usually lie dormant until warm weather and rains oc-
cur. It makes no perceptible growth until the soil reaches a
temperature of 15 degrees C. (60 degrees F.), As the tempera-
ture increases it becomes more and 'more favorable until it
reaches 36 degrees C. (98 degrees F.) A few degrees above this
is sufficient to kill it. It. however, requires a certain amount of
moisture to induce this sclerotium to produce mycelia.
From the foregoing discussion it is easy to account for cer-
tain peculiar phenomena connected with this disease.
The plants susceptible to the attack of this fungus belong
to many different orders. It does not attack all plants with
equal severity, and even plants that are closely related botani-
cally are not susceptible to the same degree. No general rule
has yet been established governing the preference of this fun-
gus. Annuals, biennials and perennials are subject to it Her-
baccous and woody plants are included among its hosts.
The following includes only those plants that have been
pretty definitely proven to be susceptible. There' are ~ilay
others that are suspected, but it requires considerable cati to
establish that it is that specific organism that caused the deth
of the plant. As this fungus grows on decaying vegetables at-
ter its presence does not indicate that there is a connection be-
tween it and the death of the plant It is, however, quite easy
to obtain it free from other organisms-i. e., to obtain pure cul-
To.rATo.--(Lycopersicum esculentum).-The annual loss
to this crop, due to attacks of this fungus, is very considerable
during warm, rainy winters and springs, but the tomato is by
no means the most susceptible plant. Any portion of this plant
in contact with the soil is liable to infection. The point of
greatest danger is at the ground level, just blow the green of
the stem and above the first lateral roots. An attack at this
place is usually fatal, though a vigorous plant may live for
weeks but is usually not fruitful.
The disease is manifested by a general drooping of the
tops, though these may be entirely free from the fungus.
When a leaf or fruit is attacked there are very few outward
symptoms except that sooner or later the fungus induces a rot-
ting of the part affected.
PEPPER-(Capsicum annuum).-This plant is attacked
usually at the ground level, and soon succumbs to the fungus.
The plant is of an upright habit usually, and grows free from
the ground, so its habits fortify it somewhat against attacks.
The disease is manifested by a generating drooping of the
leaves and a gradual drying up. In severe cases the plants wilt
and die in a few days, but lighter attacks may not be noticeable
for some time, except that the plant is losing its color and vigor.
While plants often recover they are usually not profitable, and
it will not pay to expend any energies on them.
EGG PLANT-(Solanum melongena).-This plant is #sey
"touchy" as to how it is being handled. Many sudden discor-
forts cause its leaves to become yellow and fall off. An after
application of caustic fertilizer, a sudden cold spell, tearing-the
roots in cultivating, exhausting the fertilizer, and several other
conditions cause the leaves to become yellow and fall off. The
same is true when slightly attacked by this fungus, but in the
later stages it wilts and finally dies. If the attack is severe the
plants wilt and die' in a few days. Artificially infected plants
have F ied in five days from the time of infection, but in the field
it requires two or three weeks for the plant to die. Plants
rarely mature any fruit after they are attacked.
TRISH PoTATo-(Solanum tuberosum).-In our state this
crop is grown mainly for early spring sales in northern markets,
so the growing season for this crop occurs mainly while the
fungus is least active. Even at this time of the year the loss is
not ineonsiderable, but the method of cultivation and the slow-
ness with which the plants die cause it to be overlooked. The
attacked plants are usually only stunted, and the real cause of
injury overlooked altogether. In severe cases the plants wilt
and dry up in a week or two, but this is rather the exception.
The second crop of Irish potatoes suffers worse than the
first. The general appearance of a plant suffering from this dis-
ease is quite the same, however.
Fti--(Ficus Carica).-The young plants of this tree suc-
cumb ;very quickly. This is especially so in the cutting bed.
In the field, after the trees have been set out, the danger of in-
fection is reduced to a minimum, so that the only place that
concerns us practically is in the nursery row or cutting bed.
The fungus strikes in quickly and seems to find the young
fig shoots an excellent medium upon which to grow. The in-
jury is confined to the portion of the plants near the ground
level. It rarely proceeds farther than six inches above the
ground. The greater number are' killed, however, by having
the portion of the plant at the ground level destroyed. The dis-
order is confined almost entirely to the bark and cambium
SWEET POTATOES-(BPtatas edulis).-The injury to this
species is confined quite closely to the beds for draws, and as
these are not usually prepared in our state the injury to this
crop is very light indeed, but it does attack a hill now and then
in the field. As a whole, however, we may say that the crop is
It is, however, of importance to know that this plant can
harbor the tomato blight.
The draws in the bed drop over, and on examination will
be found rotted off just below the ground, much as plants damp
off in a seed bed. Where the draws are crowded in the bed, as
is usually the case, the fungus spreads from one to another, in-
volving a whole section of the bed in a short time;
' MORNING GLORY, MOON FLowER-(Ipomoea. several
species).-Several species of cultivated ornamentals that are
known as morning glory and moon flower are attacked by this
fungus. Their habits of making a dense shade on the ground
about their roots is particularly inviting to this disease, and an
attack on the main stem is usually fatal to the plant. The
branches may be attacked where they touch the ground and the
distal end die, but the disturbance is not communicated to
more than a foot down the proxmal portion.
BErT-(Beta vulgaris).-This plant is only sparingly at-
tacked and cannot be said to suffer from this disease. The fact.
however, that certain individuals under particular conditions
will contract the disease is of considerable interest. The por-
tion attacked is the same as in other species. The habit of
growth works quitee a disadvantage to the disease the leaves
do not shade the ground sufficiently-to keep it moist, so that
condition works against it.
PEnANuT--(Arachis hypogaea).-Like the Irish potato, this
plant is much more subject to the attack of this fungus than is
generally known. The general methods of cultivation and the
moderate value attached to the crop have much to do with the
fact that it has not attracted attention. The general methods of
culture have much to do with reducing the amount of the 4is-
ease. it is very common practice to plant this crop between
rows of corn so the peanut will claim the ground and do most
of its growing after the fodder has been pulled. During the
time that the corn is being cultivated this fungus is being
starved ,6ut, and at the close of the season very little of it te-
mains in the field.
As the stems of this plant are near the surface of the
ground they are exceedingly liable to attack. Not only is the
plant severely attacked. but it produces sclerotia in great
-l iwas-(Phaseolus vulgaris).-The common bush garden
bean suffers considerable destruction from this fungus. Any
portion of the plant that comes in contact with the soil may be
attacked. Infection taking place through the leaves or pods
does not involve the entire plant, but when the stem of the plant
is attacked near the ground line it is usually fatal. A large
number of sclerotia are produced under proper conditions. It
often happens. however, that no sclerotia are formed and that
the death of the plant terminates the life of the parasite as well.
When beans are only slightly attacked it is indicated by a drop-
ping of leaves and flowers, and later by the slow growth of that:
The place of attack is often marked by a rusty color of the
epidermis, bti this color is also caused by several other fungi,
so it cannot be gaid to be characteristic of this one.
Cow PEA-(Dolichos katiang var sinensis).-Full grown
specimens of this plant rarely die from the attack of this fungus.
When the cow pea is attacked at the ground level some of the
roots and a considerable portion of the stem may be injured,
but it rarely encircles tlie whole stem, which would kill the
plant. The habits of growth of this soiling and fodder plant
make it fine for the production of sclerotia. Herein is the great-
est danger, in that the cow pea is a good medium for the pro-
duction of sclerotia, thus infecting the field severely.
This plant usually grows prostrate, so the stems come in
contact with the ground in various places. The places of con-
tact are often attacked, and as a rule the entire cambium layer
is destroyed. Under such circumstances the distal portion of
the plant is killed.
BEGGAR WEED-(Desmodium tortuosum).-lt is doubtful
if this plant dies from an attack in the field, but the peculiar be-
havior under artificial infection makes it of unusual interest. A
large per cent of the artificially infected plants show a decided
discomfort from the presence of the fungus. The habits of
growth of-beggar weed preclude the upper stem and leaves
from being infected, and the only portion attacked is at the
ground level. In some cases the infection causes most of the
older leaves torfall; in other cases large areas on leaflets become
dry and functionless. These areas do not include strong veins,
such as the mid rib of a leaflet, but the areas that show the dis-
tress are more or less angular. It looks as though certain fibro-
vascular bundles were rendered functionless and that the areas
supplied by' these had become dry from the effect. Whatever
the explanation may be, it is an interesting phenomenon,
CABBAGE--(Brassica oleracea).-As this is a winter crop, it
is quite unusual for it to be attacked. The lower portion of the
stem is usually too hard. The main danger arises from banking
the crop; thus raising the soil up to the petioles of the lower
leaves. This portion seems to be valuable, and at the same
time it furnishes the necessary conditions of shade and moist-
ure for rapid growth of the fuigut This parasite does not
Seem to cause much discomfort to the cabbage plant, but it
opens the way for the ever-present fungi and bacteria of decay.
A cabbage plant attacked by this fungus rots at the heart; that
is, the decay pushes toward the interior of the head, and has
its main seat in the stem and ends of the petioles included in the
CARELESS WEED-(Amaranthus spmosus).-This weed is
a favorite host of the fungus, although the general habits of this
Amaranthus is by no means favorable. The point of attack is
at the ground level and is usually fatal. In a three acre field
that is severely infested with this fungus there are very few
specimens of the Amaranthus, although considerable manure
and other rough matter is used for fertilizer. Many plants grow
to be a foot or two tall, bit it is rare for one to attain the age of
maturing seed. A. blitoides seems to enjoy immunity, and may
be found in various stages of development at the proper time of
DAruNE-(Daphne adora).-This small flowering shrub is
particularly susceptible to the attack of this fungus. The point
of attack is just below the ground level. From this the fungus
seems to work tpword in the cambrium layer, encircling the
whole plant. The'injury is rarely detected until after the mis-
chief has been accomplished. This arises from the fact that the
fungus does not penetrate the woody portion of the stem and
that the plant may sustain itself for several days after the cam-
bium has been entirely removed. The first sign is a wilting of
the leaves as if suffering from drouth, but this condition is not
relieved by an application of water as in case of actual drouth.
The myselitmu does not gb more than four or five inches above
the ground level, not miirethati one or two inches below the
SUMMER SQUASvi-(Cucurbita fielopepo).-This crop is
grown for early spring markets, so the greater portion of its
life is spent during that portion of the year when the weather is
too cold to permit the fungus to make much headway. In later
spring, when it becomes unprofitable to ship these squashes, the
field is abandoned; during this time the fungus destroys many
The fruit and vings are usually in contact with the ground,
so these are attacked. When the fruit is attacked the fungus
does not spread to the vine, but simply produces a great num-
ber of sclerotia. Finally, the fruit rots and separates from the
peduncle. The fungus does not seem to be able to pass down
the peduncle to the vine, and hence the disease is arrested at
that point. The vine is usually attacked from the under side,
which is in contact with the soil; it is often confined to a small
area on the lower surface and a short distance up the sides; this
is especially so on the harder portion of the stem and where it
is exposed to sunshine. The fibro-voscular bundles seem to be
too woody to permit the mycelia to enter. In some cases all of
the softer portions of the stem had rotted out, leaving only
these bundles as a connection between the parts of the plant.
While the distal end did not die soon, it spent a miserable ex-
istance, producing flowers but setting no fruit.
Summer squashes are the best natural media for producing
sclerotia in the field yet discovered. It is therefore very unwise
to abandon a squash field, if that land is to be used for vegeta-
ble growing during a following year.
WATER MELON-(Citrullus vulgaris).-The fruit of this
plant is rarely attacked, and this only when quite young, or, in
case of older fruit, where the hard epidermis has been broken;
the latter rarely occurs. The stem is often attacked, as its pros-
trate habits bring it in contact with the soil, and the dense foli-
age tends to keep the ground shaded and moist. That this
plant is not a favorite host is clearly demonstrated by attempts
to artificial inoculation. The greater per cent of these fail. Un-
der favorable conditions the fungus cuts off the flow of nonr-
ishment and kills the distal portion of the plant, or, if the attack
has been near the root, the entire individual may succumb.
Only a small portion of the plant is involved from a single in-
fection, and sclerotia are rarely produced in the field.
ENGLISH VIOLErs-(Viola sp).-The habits of violets are
such as to make them especially liable to the attack of this kind
of fungus. The stem, creeping along on the ground or just be-
low it. keeps in moist soil; the leaves shade the ground, prevent-
ing rapid evaporation, and at the same time regulating the
temperature; all of these conditions are very advantageous to
the fungus. The softness of the stem makes it quite easy for the
fungus to penetrate. After infection has taken place the fungus
spreads to all parts of the stem, so that when the growing end is
infected it is merely a question of time until the plant succumbs.
If other plants are within two or three inches they are quite cer-
tain to be attacked by mycelia spreading through the ground
or on top of it. Sclerotia are formed but sparingly.
CnHRvsAN"rHruE1 -(Chrysanthemum sinense).-It is very
common pract ice to collect vegetable matter and place in a pile
to rot. Such decaying vegetable matter is a good medium for
the growth ,f the sclerotia. After the organic matter has been
decomposed, further growth of the sclerotia usually ceases, and
in the course of a few months the fungus will have died out, but
it frequently happens that such vegetable matter is used before
the fungus has run its course. If such material be used to fer-
tilize chrysanthemums an infection is very liable to result. Any
portion of the plant is liable to be attacked. If a branch or leaf
receives the infection only the distal portion suffers and the dis-
ease does not extend more than an inch or two in the other di-
rection. The more common portion of the plant attacked is the
stem. near the ground: in such a case the plant soon dies. The
fungus does not extend upward in the plant for more than four
or five inches above the ground.
RAGWEED-(Ambrosia artemisiaefolia).-This weed is
common in many cultivated fields, and its general presence in a
field may be taken as an evidence that this fungus is by no
means abundant on that piece of land. The upright habits of
growth of this weed preclude the attack from any portion ex-
cept at the ground, and as the fungus finds this an excellent me-
dium to grow in the attack is usually fatal. During the attack
the plant seems to furnish the proper conditions for the produc-
tion of many sclerotia.
CANADA FLEABONE-(Erigeron Canadense).-This plant
suffers death from nearly every attack, but on the other hand it
is about as often fatal to the fungus, so the battle is determined
by numbers. This host suffers severely during its early stages;
that is, before the flowering stem begins to shoot up and while
the leaves are closely applied to the ground.
After an attack from this fungus it takes the plant a week
or two to die. Sclerotia are produced only in rare cases, so the
life of the fungus usually ends with the life of the host plant
FIRE WEED--(Erechthites hieracifolia).-This weed makes
a rapid growth and does not shade the ground much until it has
attained considerable size. This, together with the fact that
sclerotia are much more abundant in late spring and summer,
make the disease much more common after the plant begins to
bloom. The fungus attacks the host near the ground and
works upward, often as much as six inches. As the fungus ad-
vances a great number of sclerotia are produced. As many as
thirty or forty to the square inch have been counted.
The host lives until the fungus has encircled the stem. Af-
ter the death of the host sclerotia continue to form until the
stalk becomes dry.
H\'YDRA\ ;A--Hydrangia hortensis).-This plant suffers
more or less according to conditions under which it is culti-
vated. The younger plants are more easily infected than older
ones. The plant bed for starting cuttings is especially liable.
The cuttings seem to be less resistant than a growing plant. It
takes considerable time for the fungus to cause the death of this
plant, two or three weeks often escaping before any definite re-
sults are noticeable. The fungus does not extend far up the
stem from the point of infection, usually not extending more
than an inch or two in either direction. As a whole, this plant
must be regarded as rather an indifferent host.
RHUBARB-(Rheum Rhaponticum).-This plant makes
one of the best media that we have on which to cultivate this
fungus. The petioles are exceedingly susceptible and sclerotia
are produced in greatest abundance in the field. The root of
rhubarb is not acceptable to this fungus, so it confines its at-
tacks to the petioles; these are destroyed one after another un-
til no more are produced. The plant dies from gradual exhaus-
tion. It is quite difficult to raise rhubarb in a field infested with
this fungus The root has been used as a medium for this fun-
gus in the laboratory; at first the fungus seemed very indiffer-
ent, but as soon as a small amount of the root had been disso-
ciated the fungus grew vigorously. Only a few sclerotia are
formed on the root used as a medium.
The reader will learn from the foregoing discussion that to-
mato blight fungus lives in the soil and attacks plants from this
place, consequently any preventive applied to the foliage will
be almost useless for this disease. This point has been fully sub-
stantiated byexperiments. and is discussed at length in Bulletin
No. 21 (see pages 31 to 36) of the Florida Experiment Station.
It is desirable. however, to- repeat, briefly, the directions for
treating this disease.
Spray the ground for six inches around the stem of the to-
mato or other plant, and also the stem of the plant. If leaves
or vines are in contact with the ground, the ground at these
points should be sprayed also. Use Eau Celeste, Ammoniacal
solution of copper carbonate, or Bordeaux mixture. For the
preparation of these fungicides refer to Bulletin No. 23 of the
Florida Experiment Station.
ANTHa ACiNOSE OF BEAN--(Colletotrichum Lagenarium).-
Bean pods spotted with the "bean spot" have been sent to the
Experiment Station several times, and observations in the field
have shown that this disease occurs much more often than is re-
ported. As it has received careful attention by Dr. B. D.
Halsted, botanist of the New Jersey Experiment Station, it was
not necessary for us to do extensive experimenting on it.
Beans sent out from infested fields have become so badly
spotted during transit that they were worthless on reaching
SNew York city. This fact, that we may send out a shipment of
beans that are apparently sound and yet have them arrive on
the market unfit for sale, makes it of unusual interest.
Figure i represents three diseased pods in various stages.
The dark spots or pits are of a dull red or light brown color,
and are usually more or less circular until they run into one
another. In the center of these spots spores are produced in
countless numbers. The spores may be carried in the atmos-
phere to neighboring plants and an infection induced before the
pods are picked, or it may occur afterwards. (See plate).
This fungus occurs also on the leaves and vines. It is also
quite severe on seedlings. (See Fig. 2 on plate).
What makes this disease of unusual interest to market gar-
dens of Florida is that it attacks other important vegetables be-
sides the bean. Cucumbers, muskmelons, watermelons and
squash are attacked with greater or'lesser severity.
Dr. Halstead, alsopgoved that this fungus produced spot
disease on the egg plant and on the fruit of pepper. That this
fungus has so wide a range of host plants makes it exceedingly
common, and at the same time more difficult to combat. The
general appearance on the several vegetables is so different that
the identity of the disease was not suspected.
REMvEDtIE-The fungus develops in a short time from
the spores in a humid atmosphere. During a dry season it does
but little damage. excepting near the coast, where the atmos-
phere is quite humid. Beans should be sprayed with some
form of fungicide, beginning as soon as the disease appears. If
the seed is suspected, it may be sprayed before planting, then
the seedlings may be treated at short intervals of from a week to
ten days. If Bordeaux mixture is used it should not be applied
after the pods are well formed, but some such form as Eau
celeste should be used. After the beans are gathered for ship-
ping and before packing they may receive a spraying of sulphur
spray. This is a mild fungicide and will kill off most spores ad-
hering to the pods. This fungicide has been used also on the
vines in the field, but is not active enough to be advised for gen-
SAN JOSE SCALE PARASITE.
During the study of the San Jose Scale and combating it,
in 1895, the condition of this insect gavq rise to suspicion that
they were being destroyed by some native parasite. Dilligent
search for this agent was made without success. In the spring.
of 1896. Dr. Smith. of the New Jersey Experiment Station. vis-
ited California with a view of introducing parasites of the
San Jose Scale into New Jersey. Dr. Smith offered to supply
us with parasites of the San Jose Scale upon the condition that
he be furnished with specimens of these parasites when they be-
came established in Florida. if it was desirable to have these in
New Jersey. The Experiment Station gladly availed itself of
the opportunity to secure this valuable material. These were
sent directly. from California and placed in the infested fields
About this same time a fungus parasite of the San Jose
Scale was discovered in one of the orchards. This clue was
followed up, and after considerable observation it was found
that this fungus .was quite generally distributed over the in-
fested area and that at least two large orchards had certainly
been freed of San Jose Scale through the agency of this para-
site. Advantage of this was taken immediately, and the fungus
was disseminated to other orchards that were entirely free in
order to study the conditions of development, and also its rapid-
ity of dissemination. At the same time material was taken to
the laboratory and prepared on artificial media. This was also
taken to the field and trees infested with San Jose Scale treated
with it. The result in both cases was that the scale contracted
the disease and communicated it to other insects near by.
This subject is one of unusual interest and value to the hor-
ticulturists of the state. A bulletin is now being prepared in
which the biology of this fungus wil be discussed at length, and
the experiments in this connection will also be given in detail.
(Icerya purchase, Mask.)
This insect was imported to California from Australia on
some Acacias during the '7o's or a little earlier. The first im-
portation was very small, but the climate was so congenial and
the food plants so plentiful that the insect soon spread with
alarming rapidity. Let me give a specific example to illustrate
the rate of distribution: In October of 1895 a small colony cov-
ering a space of three or four inches on a limb of an Acacia tree
was noticed., In a little more than a year this colony had in-
fected orange, lemon and other trees growing in an area of
about 8ox oo feet.
The food-plants of this species are quite numerous and be-
long to widely different orders. They thrive on the different
species of citrus, the rose and the Acacias, also on worm-seed
LIFE HISTORY.-Figure 3 represents a limb of orange
with;iinsects attached in a characteristic way. These insects are
females; the males are quite different in appearance and are
found only sparingly. One of these females may lay as many
as 8oo eggs, from which minute red insects hatch. Their color
is a deep red, and they run about nervously but become quiet
in a few days, when they insert their beaks into the bark of the
food-plant and suck out the sap. About the same time the cot-
tony mass begins to exude from their sides, when they take on
their characteristic appearance. After the cottony mass has
been produced the insects are rather sluggish;. they can move
about, but do not venture to go farther than an inch or two. and
this only when disturbed, (See plate).
So far as known to the Experiment Station, this insect has
been found but once in IForida.
Immediately upon receiving specimens of it the Entomol-
ogist of the Experiment Station directed a letter to the proprie-
tor of the infested grove, advising him to destroy, by fire, im-
mediately, all plants and trees infested. Mr. H. G. Hubbard.
special agent of the Division of Entomology U. S. Department
of Agriculture, received specimens about the same time, and
proceeded immediately to the spot. He witnessed the destruc-
tion of property, and spraying of the plants and ground with
The work had been done so thoroughly that everybody
seemed satisfied that the inscet was killed out. Six weeks later
on visiting the place, thousands of the insects' could have been
collected, in spite of the fact that the proprietors had been very
vigilant in trying to exterminate the pest.
This time the same kind of measures were taken, that is,
all shrubbery that contained insects was consigned to the
flames,, and the rest of the area thoroughly saturated with the
About six weeks later a second visit was made to the in-
fested field. Thorough search was. instituted, and for the pains
of over two hours close search in the hot sun, the Entomologist
was rewarded by-finding five specimens. Even with all of this
vigilance the insect was not subdued. And even the cold of the
winter of '95-'96 was not sufficient to exterminate them.
In the above case the greatest precautions possible were
taken, and no pains spared in the attempt to exterminate the in-
sect. vet it will be seen that it was almost impossible to destroy
The reference is made simply to warn people who import
nursery stock to be exceedingly careful in avoiding diseased
goods. Under the present laws of California the danger is
greatly reduced, and it must be said to the credit of that state
there is now less danger of importing diseases from there than
from other states or foreign countries.
Figure 4 represents an insect that has been sent to the Ex-
periment Station repeatedly under the suspicion that it was the
Fluted Scale. It is therefore considered proper to consider it
briefly at this place and to insert the figure. In the northern
portion of the United States it lives mainly on the soft maple,
but that tree does not occur with us. In our state it has been
taken mainly on scuppernong grape and plum. It rarely be-
came abundant enough to cause serious damage, but its pres-
ence is of decided disadvantage to the grape and plum. One
orchardist has used kerosene emulsion with good effect, but or-
dinarily it is not so abundant as to need such treatment, and
simply picking the infested leaves and burning them will be
found the most practical way of dealing with it. (See plate).
P. H. ROLFS,
Biologist and Horticulturist
EXPLANATION OF PLATE.
IFrURE 1 represents three bean pods diseased with anthracnose.
Fl;uaE 2, a, represents a seedling bean affected with anthracnuse.
6. a whole bean with spot.
c, a half of a diseased bean.
Figures I and 2 were kindly loaned to us by Dr. B. D. Halsted.
botanl*.of the New Jersey Experiment Station.
Fr E 3 represents fluted sale or cottony cushion scale (Icerya
purchasi) on an orange twig.
FIOURE 4 represents Pulvinaria innumerabilis: often taken to be
the fluted scale.
,g0ires 3 and 4 were reproduced from Dr. Comstock's figures in
- Reportof Department of Agriculture.
Assistant in Biology.
To DR. 0. CLUTE, DIRECTOR:-
Sir:-Considerable improvement has been made in the En-
tomological Section of the Department of Biology and Horti-
culture (during the year 1896.
A laboratory has been fitted up where breeding experi-
ments may be more satisfactorily conducted, and the life his-
tories of insects studied in detail. The importance of a thor-
ough knowledge of the life stages of an injurious or beneficial
insect is quite apparent in arriving at conclusions for their
treatment. Observations may now be made in a much more
systematic and thorough manner than formerly.
During the summer fifty new insect cases were purchased,
thereby allowing of the distribution of a considerable portion of
the accumulated specimens to their systematic place in the col-
lection. Valuable material, however, yet remains unprotected
by tight cases. The formation and preservation of ait entomo-
logical collection in FlIoida is partiulaly difficult, from the
abundance of a small beetle (Tribolium ferrugineum, Fabr.)
which feeds upon and breeds among the dried insects if they are
left the least exposed. However, these new cases seem proof
against them, and it is believed that losses which have occurred
in the past need not be suffered in the future.
Several important books on entomological subjects have
been added to the Library during the year which are of much
value in entomological investigation.
The collection of insects has been considerably enlarged
during the year. The entire collection embraces approxi-
mately 4,900 specimens. The following table will illustrate ap-
proximately the number of specimens, the number of species,
and thet number of species that have been deftrmined in the
more important orders of insects.
.tonota.. ...... ...... .... .... oo 35 25
Orthoptera.... .......,.... ..... 200 33 15
Herniptera .. ........ ...... ... 750 175 125
Neuroptera.... .... .... .... .... 50 16 10
Lepidoptera...... ...... ...... .. 850 20o 1oo
Coleoptera.. .................. I750 475 149
Diptera................... ..... o 22
Hymenoptera............. ...... 698 346 67
Totals.. .......... ......... 4898 1505 548
From this table it will be-observed that there is a consider-
able number of species still undetermined. It is hoped that dur-
ing the year 1897 these may be determined by specialists in the
different orders represented. A considerable number of those
that have been named were determined by a careful comparison
with specimens in the Cornell University collection during my
stay there in the summer. In this connection I desire to ex-
press my thanks to Prof. Comstock and to Mr. Mac Gillivray
for their kindness and assistance in this matter.
Many specimens are being continually added, and it is
hoped that the insect fauna of Florida may eventually be quite
completely represented in this collection.
A. L. QUAwNTANCE,
Feb. i. 1897. Assistant in Biology.
Brief Notes on the More Injurious Insects of the Year.
A. L QUAINTANCE.
Thl- following brief notes will indicate, approximately,
those species of insects that have been most abundant in Flor-
ida. during the year 1896, particularly in the vicinity of Lake
Cit-. More detailed notes on these insects will be given in a
bulletin in the future.
MAR;ARONIA IIYALINATA.-This insect thas been abundant
throughout the late summer and fall, infesting watermelons,
cantaloupes and cucumbers. The fruit, leaves and tender vines
were attacked, and soon succumbed to their ravages.
MARGARONTA NTTIDALIS.-Observed in cucumber, water-
melon and cantaloupe patches with the preceding species. Not
nearly so abundant, however.
PRODENIA COMMELINAE.---Quite abundant during late
summer and fall, infesting tomato vines and potato vines. Late
tomatoes suffered severely, and fall potato vines were quite de-
LAPHYGMA pONGIPERDA.--At outbreak of the fall army
worm occurred during the later part of August, on the college
campus. The larvae were very numerous, feeding on crab
grass (Panicum sanguinale), quite eating up the grass on the
southern end of the college campus.
HELIOTHIS ARMIGERA.-This pest has been common dur-
ing the year, particularly during late summer and fall. The lar-
vae were observed feeding within pods of okra during August.
During September and November they were abundant on to-
matoes. feeding on the vines and leaves, not attacking the green
fruit around them.
PmrHoETj r TIUS CAROLINA--The tomatoo worm" has
been more than usually abundant during the falL Mny-
patches of tomato vines were saved only by going over them
and removing the larvae by hand.
EUDAMUS PROTEUS.-The larvae of this skipper has been
reported from the southern, eastern, central and northern por-
tions of the state as destructive to garden crops, particularly
the leaves of the bean. At Lake City the larvae have been
somewhat abundant, folding the leaflets of the bean plant and
feeding on the edge of the fold.
AI.EURODES RUBORUM, CKL--This insect was found in
great numbers infesting the vines of Rubus trivialis on the Hor-
ticultural Grounds of Dr. J. F. Appell, of this place. The pupse
and scales, or larvae, were abundant on both upper and lower
surfaces of the leaves. Adults were to be found in abundance
among thevines infested by the larvae. This insect is new to
science, and was named by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell as above.
CrcICAbD.A EXITIOSA.--Abundant during the spring in the
oat fields. doing appreciable damage. Later. during the sum-
mer and fall, it has been very abundant in the crab-grass (Pani-
cum sanginale) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) on the
DIEDROCFPHALA FLAVICEPS.-This Jassid has also been
abundant with Cicadula exitiosa.
RAPHIGASTER IILARIS.-This Pentatomid has been quite
severe during the year, particularly this fall. Potato and to-
mato vines suffered severely.
LEPTOGLOSSUS PHYLLOPUS.-This species has been some-
what more abundant and destructive than I have formerly ob-
served them to be. Nymphs were observed among the vines of
the Irish potatoes, where it would seem that they breed.
APHIS BRASSICAE.-This Aphid has been a greater pest
than usual, on cabbage and cauliflower, throughout most of the
APuIs GOssvPPn.-Quite destructive to cucurbitous Crops
during the spring and summer.
SCHISTOCERCA AMERICANA.-This large locust has been
reported from several localities in the state as doing much dam-
age to garden crops. During the fall of 1895 and the spring .of
1896 this species has occurred in much greater numbers than
usual. During the spring they were observed feeding on -ots,
peas and corn. Later, they came into the gardens, and werede-
structive to garden crops.
Report 4-ithe Chemist.
Da. 0. CI,'TE, DIRECTOR,
Lake City, Fla.:-
Sir:-I subtnit herewith a statement of the work done in
the chemical department of the Experiment Station for the
year ending December 31, 1896.
The work of the department has been largely of a miscel-
,laneous character, embracing the analysis of natural phos-
phates, commercial fertilizers, mucks, iron ores, waters, feed
stuffs, sugar cane, etc. In addition, the department is devoting
every available moment to an exhaustive chemical stiidy of the
typical soils of Florida. This line of special chemical investiga-
tion is now well undit way, but, owing to the wide scope nec-
essarily comprehended in such an investigation, and the limited
force available for carrying on the work, it will be some time
before any results will be ready for publication.
The following course is being pursued in collecting and
studying the soils Soil collectors are appointed in several lo-
calitie in each county, and accurate instructions are issued to
each collector, fully setting forth the plan to be followed in col-
lecting samples, and requesting such information as to the nor-
mal vegetation, i. e., trees, herbs, grass, etc., growing upon each
soil, as may be of assistance 'n studying soil characteristics and
interpreting analyses. In addition, all possible information that
will serve to throw light uponr the physical characteristics of
each soil is invariably solicited.
It is believed that, in thus studying the typical soils of each
county, no opportunity will be afforded for omission of any
prominent soil, and our investigation therefore will be sure to
include every soil that can possibly be of any importance to ag-
riculture. As soon as possible after being received, each
sample, after thj proper preliminary treatment, is bottled and
labled and carefully placed aside for analysis. We have already
on hand samples from about twenty-five counties, aggregating
nearly one hundred soils,and of this number about twenty an-
alyses have been completed. It is our purpose to push this work
during the approaching spring term and subsequent summer
vacation, and to publish a bulletin during the latter period
showing the progress made up to that time in this special line
In addition to his regular employment as instructor in the
departments of chemistry and agriculture in his college classes,
the professor in charge of the department finds it necessary to
carry on quite a large correspondence with the farmers of the
state on subjects pertaining to agriculture and agricultural
chemistry, and I believe that this correspondence is productive
of much benefit to agricultural interests, for the character of the
information sought is indicative of the fact that the farmers are
giving more and more attention to the scientific side of their
Below will be found such analyses as we have made during
the past year that seem to be of general interest, and I ask that
they be published as a part of this report.
A. A. PERSONS,
Chemist Experiment Station.
Some Misellaneous Analyses.
The analyses of Comptie root, Saw palmetto (leaves and
berries), and sponge, etc., given below, were made in response
to requests from farmers who were desirous of ascertaining
whether or not they possesed any appreciable fertilizing value.
They are published now for the information of others who may
be interested in the matter.
COONTIE, OR COMPTIE ROOT (Zamia integrifolia).
As A FERTILIZER.
Moisture (in air-dried sample) .... .... ..... 643 per cent.
Nitrogen ...... ................ .......... 1.33 per cent.
Equivalent to Ammonia 1.6i per cent.
Other fertilizing constituents undetermined.
SAw PALMEiro (Sabal serimrata).
As A FERTILIZER.
cc 0 0
Phosphoric acid (in air-dried sample .... .. 0.19 0.41
Potash .... . .. .. .... ... .... 0.86 0.52
Nitrogen...... ..... .... .... .. 1. 12 049
Equivalent to Ammonia 1-35 0.59
SPONGE (Crude product).
As A FERTILIZER.
Phosphoric acid..... ...... ...... ........... .Trace
I'otash...... ... ....... .. ...... ..... o44 per cent
Nitrogen.... ........... .... ........ 4-55 per cent
Equivalent to Ammonia................... .50 per cent
FLORIDA PHOSPHATE ROCK.
Insoluble Matter.... ..... ...... .......... ..... oo.t7
Moisture at 1oo deg. C ............................ 00.46
Phosphoric Acid*............ ...... .............. 38.86
Calcium Oxid .......... ................... 53-41
Carbon di-oxid .............. ...... ...... ..... 489
Ferric Oxid ........... ............ ......... none
Aluminic Oxid ....... ...0......... ...... .. 84
The above analysis is of interest chiefly because it is shown
to be probably one of the best samples of phosphate ever found
in a natural state in Florida, and among the very best ever re-
ported from any country. Unfortunately, it was found not to
exist in any considerable quantity.
*Equiv lent to bone phosphate; 84.71per cent.
ANALYSES OF MUCK.
I III IV V -, VI \VII
Moisture .......................... 27.68 10. 14.1510.55 4.87 8.88 13.06
Organic Matter .1................ 15 ,10 67.35 82.20 80.54 1.90 17.00 47.92
Ash .............................. 57.22i 21.071 3.65 2.9073.2273.48 39.02
Nitrogen .......................... 1. 2.80 0 1.20 0.50 0.70 1.0
The above samples of muck were selected indiscriminately
from a number of analyses of this material made in this labora-
tory. With the exception of Nos. II. and III., which are un-
usually rich in nitrogen, the analyses given above may be re-
garded as fairly representative of average Florida muck. This
material is destined to prove of incalculable value ii'bisilding up
the thin. exhausted. sandy lands of the state. Upon it we must
rely to supply a large portion of the humus which these soi.s
must have in order to become productive. As will be seen from
the above analyses, muck also provides quite an appreciable
supply of nitrogen-the most expensive fertilizing element the
farmer is called upon to apply to his soil. Probably the best
way to employ muck, after digging it out of the bed and
weathering it, is to ferment it in a heap along with stable ma-
nure, in the proportions of four or five loads of muck to one of
manure. This process of fermentation will serve to render the
nitrogen of the muck more easily available when the material is.
applied to a soil. It should require only a comparatively short
period (several weeks), if the conditions are favorable.
Another most excellent method of employing muck is to
utilize, when practical, the dried material as a bedding
for stock, horses, cows, pigs, etc., and as an absorbent
in poultry houses, closets, etc. When thus employed, it serves
to absorb the liquid manure derived from these various sources
and also becomes mixed with the solid excrements. After thus
serving its purpose as an" absorbent, it should be thrown to-
gether in a healp and occasionally stirred. The heap should be
kept covered .luring fermentation with some form of absorbent
(best gypsum. or land plaster, or kainit) to catch the ammonia
formed during the process, which, if not impeded, would vola-
tilize and escape. In the absence of gypsum or kainit, which
serve both chemically and mechanically to retard the escape of
ammonia from the fermenting heap, any form of absorbent,
such as sand, coal dust. or fresh muck, may be employed for
this purpose. Kainit is a most excellent material to employ in
this connection because it possesses the additional advantage
of supplying potash to the mixture. Wood ashes are known to
givr excellent results when mixed along with the muck and
stable manure in the fermenting process. They, too, contribute
potash to the mixture.
ANALYSES OF SUcAR CANE JUICE.
Total Solids..... ........... ......... 20.14 17.80
Sucrose.... .... ..................... 17.00 15.40
Glucose.... ................ ...... .... 1.30 0.85
Solids not Sugar ... ................... 1.84 1.65
Coefficient of Purity...... ..............84-3 86.5
Glucose Ratio.... .......... ........... 7.6 5.5
The above samples of cane juice were expressed from sam-
ples of red cane sent here for analysis by Mr. John T. Porter, of
Grand Ridge, Fla. A comparison of these analyses with those
of samples reported from other states will show that they com-
pare quite favorably with any grown elsewhere in the country.
The cane was grown on what may be considered the average
upland of west Florida. and may possibly be considered as fairly
representative of the average quality of cane grown in this state
on such soils. The stalks were of good size, and in this respect,
also, will bear comparison with the canes grown on. similar soils
of other southern cane producing states. It is now no longer a
disputed question that cane of superior quality and quantity can
be easily grown in Florida, and the cane industry has already be-
come one of large commercial importance.
ANALYSIS OF THE VELVET BEAN (FiUIT);
Frequent inquiries have been addressed to this office dur-
ing the past year seeking information in regard to the feeding
value of the Velvet Bean. Thus far it has only been found prac-
ticable for us to subject the bean (fruit) itself to analysis, but
this has served to indicate the high feeding value of the plant.
Numerous practical experiments in feeding the plant to stock
since the analysis was made have served to confirm the high
value indicated by the analysis.
The plant grows luxuriantly all over the state, and stock
of all kinds are exceedingly fond of it. In the near future it is
proposed to make a complete chemical study of the plant, in
different stages of growth, and publish the information for the
benefit of all who are accustomed to sending away to purchase
a large portion of the forage now being fed to stock in Florida.
It is safe to predict that this plant is destined to play an import-
ant part in solving the forage problem in this state.
Below the published analysis of the bean (immediately fol-
lowing) will be found an explanation of the chemical terms used
in reporting the analysis. The analysis of the bean, matured,
is as follows:
Moisture.... ...... ............................. 11.93
Crude fibre.... ........ ........ .................. 7.45
Crudi protein....... .......... ...... ............. 18.81
Crude fat........ .......... ................... ... 6.29
A sh...... ........ ...... ......... .... .......... 2.02
Nitrogen-free Extract.... ...... ........ ........ .53.50
Albuminoid Nitrogen.... ...... ..... ............. 2.87
EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS USED IN REPORTING THE ANAL-
YSIS OF A FEED-STUFF.
CRUDE FIBRE: "Crude cellulose" is another term' fre-
quently used. instead of "Crude fibre," to include the same fod-
der substance. It includes the woody structure or frame work
of plants. Its missions as a nutriment are as follows: It pro-
duces heat and energy, acts as an economizer of protein, and,
when it is present in excess of the requirements of the body, it
is transformed into fatty tissues. It is the most abundant of all
the non-nitrogenous constituents of plant food. Cotton and
flax may be mentioned as examples of almost pure cellulose.
The digestibility of the material decreases with the age of the
plat-i. e.. the older a plant becomes the less digestible be-
comes its cellulose. From 35 to 70 per cent of the quantity in
all ordinary fodders is digestible. Formerly, it was supposed to
he entirely indigestible.
CRUDE PROTEIN.-This term is used to designate all nitro-
genous substances in a feeding stuff. The larger. part of these
consist of albuminoids, of which there are a large number.
They possess greater nutritive value than the amides (other
forms of protein), which, as nitrogenous products, are are of
secondary importance. The most common forms of albu-
minoids are seen in the albumen (white) of an egg. casein (the
basis of cheese, or the curd of milk), fibrin (the lean of meat),.
and the gluten of grain. They are found in large quantities in
seeds and products derived from them, such as cotton seed, and
linseed meals, etc. As a food, they serve as the source for the
production of muscle, flesh tendons, ligaments, hide, etc., and
also for repairs of all wastes suffered by the body. They are also
resource of energy. It is well to remember that what has just
bein said applies to the albuminoids, and not to the amides, but
the term "crude protein" includes both. The amides may be
considered as partially formed albuminoids. They are 'found
largely in the juices of inmature plants, root crops, etc. They
are known to be inferior in feeding value to the albuminoids,
but when the latter are deficient, the amides, (particularly As-
paragin, the typical one) seem to act as a substitute for the al-
buminoids and they also seem to facilitate the thorough diges-
tion of the carbohydrates. All protein substance, whether of
vegetable or animal source, is composed chiefly of carbon, hy-
drogen, oxygen nitrogen and sulphur and, sometimes, phos-
phorus. Usually it has about the following composition:
Carbon.... ..................... ........... 52 to 54
Hydrogen.... ..................... ........ 7
Oxygen...... .......... ........ ... . .... 21 to 24
Nitrogen .... ...... .... ....... ........... 15 to 17
Sulphur. .. ........ ...... ........ ...... to 1.5
It will be seen from the above, that approximately 16 per
cent of protein substance is nitrogen. Albuminoids are the
most important nitrogenous constituents of a feeding stuff.
Hence, other things being equal, a plant which contains them in
the largest quantity is the most valuable. As plants mature.
their albuminoids accumulate in the seed. From this we learn
that where grasses whose seeds are so small as to largely escape
mastication, thus passing through the system undigested, are
to be employed as forage it is best to cut them young, before
the albuminoids have gone to the seeds.
CRUDE FAT.-The term "Ether Extract" is another way of
speaking of the same fodder constituents. Those ingredients
which are dissolved by ether are comprised within the terms.
They consist of a group of fatty substances occurring in the
largest amounts in cotton seed and bean meals, etc. Among
the substances included under "Ether Extract" may be men-
tioned: Neutral fats, free fatty acids, vegetable wax, resins,
chloropyll, etc. As a nutrient, crude fat seems to produce
heat and energy, manifestations of which ar bodily warmth
and the force to run its mechanism. It also serves to protect
albuminoids, by preventing their undue waste in the body.
When in excess, the fat of a ration may be transformed into an-
CRUDE ASH.-This term signifies the mineral matter of the
plant. It is the portion remaining after the plant is burnt It
consists of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium chlor-
ids. sulphates and phosphates.
NITROGEN-FREE EXTRACTt.-This term applies to all of the
organic nitrogen-free compounds, exclusive of the crude fibre
and crude fat. It comprises sugars, starch, dextrin, gum, lignin,
coloring matter, organic acids, etc. Of the above, sugar, starch,
dextrn and gums, have the same nutritive effects, so far as they
are digestible. The others are of an inferior value. As a nu-
trient, it produces heat and energy, and, like fat, also serves
as an economizer of albuminoids. An excess of it may, like-
Wise, be transformed into fatty tissue. In the animal economy,
it is regarded as a little less than half as valuable, pound for
pound, as fat.
ALBUMINOmt NITROGEN.--This term has been already ex-
plained under the head of "crude protein."
Probably, on no other single agency is the good health of
both man and brute more dependent than pure and wholesome
water, and, in no section, perhaps, is the necessity for employ-
ing pure water for all sanitary purposes appreciated to the ex-
tent that the great importance of the subject to life and happi-
ness demands. Hundreds of cases of typhoid fever, cholera,
diarrhoea, dysentery and other epidemic diseases that are annu-
ally occurring, are, in numerous instances, directly attributa-
ble to the employment for household purposes of polluted wa-
The impurities in waters may be said to be of two varieties;
those held in suspension and those held in solution. The
former are visible to the eye and can usually be removed by
straining, or .filtering. The latter can ordinarily be detected
only by chemical means. The following properties (chiefly
physical), are worthy of consideration in arriving at an opinion
in regard to the adaptation of a water to drinking purposes.
Manifestly, they are applicable only in the preliminary examina-
tion of a water:
(i). It should be colorless and odorless. If cloudy, or
muddy, or, if of a greenish or yellowish color, it should be re-
ejected, for such coloration is usually indicative of animal or
(2). It should not be too cold. The most desirable tem-
perature for drinking purposes is, approximately, from eight to
fifteen degrees Centigrade. hut waters are not to be rejected for
drinking for failure to come within these limits.
(3). It should possess an agreeable taste-neither sweetish,
flat. nor brackish. A certain degree of hardness and a certain
proportion of dissolved gases contribute to tihat sparkle" and
flavor that are highly desirable, but an over-amuttit of the pro-
ducers of either of these properties is to be avoided. The quan-
tity of saline matter in solution influences the degree of hard-
ness. and as just stated, a certain amount is essential to impart
to a water a good taste, but too much is generally to be avoided.
This point will be further considered under the remarks appli-
cable to the chemical examination of a water, which follow
these remarks. What has already been said is applicable
chiefly in the preliminary examination of a water where its use
is contemplated for sanitary purposes. While the points noted
are not without merit, they are not sufficiently reliable to war-
rant an unqualified condemnation of a water, for it is possible,
(though not probable) that a water may comply with nearly all
the above desirable tests and still fail to possess the necessary'
merit to be considered a good drinking water. While this is
true. still, generally speaking, it will be thecase that nearly all
waters will subscribe somewhat closely to the above tests before
being deemed worthy to be subjected to the more accurate con-
firmatory chemical and bacteriological examinations.
While the bacteriologist and sanitary engineer are both of
material assistance in arriving at a conclusion regarding the
purity of water, probably more reliance is to be placed upon the
chemical examination of a water than on any other available
means for ascertaining its purity, or its pollution. To the chem-
ist, therefore, more than any other, is intrusted the responsibil-
ity of saying whether, or not, any water is unfit for sanitary em-
ployment. The determinations ordinarily made by him and
which generally influence his decision (after a careful consider-
action of all eNxUrnal surroundings, etc.,) are the ammonias (free
and albuminoid the solid residue (total solidt), the chlorin, and
frequently the absorbed oxygen. Often times when the solid
residue occurs in sufficient quantity and is of a character to war-
rant it, a separation of it is resorted to, buit usually only the
above estimates are made.
Below will be found a table containing the analysis of fif-
teen samples of water obtained from various portions of Flor-
ida. Underneath the table will be found an explanation of the
chemical terms employed in reporting the analyses, and by
which the actual merits or demerits of a water may be inferred.
ANAi,-.vs OF WATER.
PARTS PEI BILLION
GRAINS PER U. S. GAJ.ON
INTERPRETATION OF THE TABLE OF ANALYSES.
AMMONIA, (Free and Albuminoid).
Animal and vegetable, as well as mineral matter. may be
held in solution in water. Waters, thus contaminated, are unfit
*The U. S. gallon. at the normal temperature (15.5 0), contains 58,38 grains.
for use. as they would be liable to produce any of the diseases
that have been previously mentioned. Animal and vegetable
matter (particularly the former), are the most dangerous con-
taminations to which potable, or drinking waters, are subjected.
These injurious constituents are reported in an analysis
mainly under the head of Free and' Albuminoid ammonia. It
is generally conceded that the spontaneous decomposition of or-
ganic matter in water first yields ammonia, thia-'nitrites and
finally nitrates. Hence. to ascertain the quantity of ammonia
present in anm water is a very important feattifeof a sanatary
examination. The term "Free ammonia" plilies to that por-
tion of the ammonia occurring as ammonium salt, an the term
"'Albuminoid ammonia" is used to designate the nitrogenous
matter occurring in the water in the form of organic nitrogen.
As to the free ammonia, a water may derive a portion of this
from the atmosphere, but usually, very little is obtained -from
this source. Most of it comes from decaying organic matter
which originally contained nitrogen. The albuminoid am-
monia is that which is gotten by the action of strong chemicals
upon the undecayed organic matter present in a water. It does
not exist as such in the water, but is formed by the treatment
to which the water sample is subjected in the laboratory. This,
of course, is more indicative of the presence of animal matter
than is the other ammonia, and the chemist regards its presence
in water as highly prejudicial to is healthfulness. Dr. Wank-
lyn, probably the most eminent authority, divides waters into
three classes. based upon the quantity (parts) of albuminoid am-
monia occurring in each million parts of water:
(I). Of extraordinary organic purity, containing. o.oo to 0.05
(2.) Good drinking water .................... 0.05 to 0o.o
(3.) Suspicious.... ...... ...... ..... ... ....... o o to 0.15
"Any water," says he, "containing as much as o.15 parts of -
albuminoid ammonia, per million parts, ought to be condemned
absolutely." Applying this rule to the waters reported in the
above table, it will be seen that No. 13 would be regarded as
very suspicious, and Nos. l, 2. 11. t4 and 15 emphatically con-
demned, while each of the other samples (so far as the albtnmi-
noid ammonia is concerned), may be regarded as a good drink-
SOLID RESIDUE, (Total Solids).
If water which has been in long contact with the earth he
evaporated to dryness, a solid deposit will be left. The amount
of this solid residue varies with different waters, and the differ-
ence in amount is due to the difference in the composition of
the soils with which the waters have been in contact. This res-
idue is most commonly composed of silica, iron, calcium carbo-
nate, and the sulphates and chlorides of magnesuim. sodium,
potassium, calcium, etc.
Dr. Wanklyn states that if the "solid residue does not ex-
ceed thirty or forty grains per gallon. the amount of solids af-
fords no reason for rejecting the water for domestic use." Ex-
perience seems to have demonstrated, however, that it is hardly
proper to fix this limit, arbitrarily, for many waters known to
contain much more than this amount have been employed for
indefinite periods, for drinking purposes, with most satisfactory
results. From authorities the following extracts are taken'
"The residue left after ignition of the 'Total Solids' gives a
rough idea of the mineral matters present, and the loss on igni-
tion should never reach 50 percent of the total residue."
"Something may be gained by observing the color of the
residue left on evaporation, which should be pure white. It
should blacken very little on heating and should give off no
fumes. The residue of bad waters blackens very considerably,
or gives off the odor of burning horn, or of nitrous fumes."
Applying the rule laid down by Wanklyn it will be seen
that Nos. I, 2,. 6, to and it contain enough total solids to con-
demn them. Probably it would be better to report as "sus-
picious" Nos. I, 2, 6 and I I, instead of condemning them, on
account of their total solids.
The chemist, in considering the presence of chlorine in wa-
ter, regards it as pointing to common salt, which may be as eas-
ily detected as any component of animal sewage. Naturally,
though, some common salt will be found in any water which
has percolated through the earth. Sometimes, in the vicinity
of large salt deposits, waters become rather heavily charged
with chlorine. When the source of chlorin in a water is of this
character it is not a matter of as much serious consequence,
since it is that form of chlorin which is of animal origin (from
sewage). which is known to produce objectionable, and, per-
haps. fatal results. Hence, it becomes necessary for the chem-
ist to know something of the locality whence a water sample
was obtained before he is warranted in deciding whether the
amount of chlorine found exceeds the amount that should nor-
mally occur in water of any particular locality. Then, having
this information, if more than this normal quantity is found, he
may generally properly infer that the excess came from the salts
of animal secretion. But there is still another point to be consid-
ered in this connection, if the sample is a deep water, viz., the
depth of the well. etc. Indications of sewage, or other danger-
ous pollution, cannot be inferred from high proportion of
chlorin in deep waters" (Leffman and Beam). It is probably
true that too much dependence should not be placed in the
amount of chlorin in a water when ascertaining its purity (in
the absence of other tests), for vegetable matter may exist in
dangerous quantities without its presence being indicated by
the chlorine present
"Over five parts of chlorin, per hundred thousand parts of
water is generally considered as indicative of sewage, or animal
contamination" (Bartlcy). This is a fraction less than three
grains (2.9), per United States gallon. Reference to the pre-
ceding table will show that six of.the water samples reported
(Nos. I. 2, 6, to, 13 and 15) contain chlorin in excess of the
limit prescribed by Bartley, or they go beyond what might be
termed the "danger limit."
SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS IN LOCATING A
The necessity for exercising the greatest care in locating a
well cannot be too strongly urged. The location chosen should
not be in close proximity to either the privy, horse lot, pig stye,
or even the kitchen. If located near the latter, proper recepta-
cles should be ever at hand for catching all slops and washings
from the kitchen that thev may be carried for some distance
(best to the pig stye) to be emptied. This precaution is ex-
tremely important, otherwise, this refuse will surely find its way
into the well and serve to pollute the water.
If possible, the spot selected for the well should be higher
than the surrounding ground, in order that the flow of surface
water from it may be facilitated. No water should be allowed
to enter the well directly from above. It should find its way
into the well only after it has percolated through the soil which
serves to purify it by filtration. It would be an excellent idea
(in the case of open wells), to cement them from top to bottom
and then keep them constantly closed.
In the sandy soils of Florida, without doubt, the safest and
most economical form of well is that which is known as the
"driven well" The pipe should be sunk to a depth of at least
twenty-five feet. Such wells are most likely to be exempt from
all forms of surface contamination.
DR. O. CLUTE.
DIRECrOR OF FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION:-
Sir:-I have the honor to submit herewith a report of dth
operations of the DeFuniak Sub-Experiment Station for the
year ending December 31, 1896.
There has been built on the station during the year a la-
borer's house, planked up and down and battened, containing
two rooms 14x2o and 8x2o, with good brick chimney.
We have also rebuilt eighty rods of farm fence. This fence
is built with six-strand barbed wire, with ten-inch base board,
good pine posts eight feet apart. We have rebuilt the fence
around the horse lot with good heavy posts and boards ten inch
base, five six-inch boards, making a good, strong, five-feet
fence, with good double gates. Cost about $15.oo.
ORCHARD.-We have planted si hundred and nine (609)
fruit trees, assorted. The estimated cost of trees, planting, and
fertilizing one time, $r2l.8o. Of this number, ninety-four (94)
or over 15 per cent, died from the excessive wet spell during
July. In addition to these deciduous trees we planted twenty-
five (25) Satsuma oranges; all lived, and are looking well; six-
teen rose vines, four Loquat (three died), and ninety (90) grape
vines, containing twenty varieties, which are doing well.
NITRATE OF SODA ON OAT-s-The experiment with nitrate
of soda on oats was continued, or rather repeated. A plot of
one acre was sown to oats broadcast, five pecks of seed to the
acre, planted November 14, 1895, on land that had grown sugar
cane and other truck crops. The oats had no fertilizing until
April 2. Part of the plot was fertilized with nitrate soda, 160
pounds to the acre. The oats were harvested June 12. -The
part fertilized gave a yield of thirty-five bushels clean oats to the
acre, with a good heavy straw. The part unfertilized gave ten
bushels light, chaffy oats, with hardly straw enough to cradle.
This fertilizing is done by broadcasting the nitrate of soda on
the oats just before they commence to head. This experiment
has been repeated with like good results for four years.
Cow PEAs.-This oat crop was followed by cow peas,
without fertilizing, planted July i in four feet drills, step
dropped. Worked out once. Harvested October i; yield,
eleven and one-third (Ii 1-3) bushels per acre, thus giving two
crops from the same land in ten and one-half months.
We had another plot of these peas following a plot of rye.
This was earlier planted and on a plot of ground that had been
well fertilized the year before, but no fertilizer was given to the
rye or peas this year. This plot was harvested, vines and peas,
for hay, yield, three (3) tons pt acre.
RIcE.-All wet land was planted in rice, in three-and-one-
half (3) feet rows, bedded up, fertilized with 200 pounds cot-
ton seed meal to the acre. Average yield of twenty (20) bushels
per acre. This crop had no special care; .was grown on land
that would grow nothing else.
CHuFAS.--Planted chufas in the young orchard, four rows
of chufas between each row of trees, which gave about three
and one-third (3 i-3) feet to the chufa rows. Fertilized in the
drill with complete fertilizer, 200 pounds to the acre. Dropped
the seed one in a place, from eight to twelve inches in the drill.
Cultivated once with sweep and hoe. Yield, 156 bushels per
acre. We have had hogs on these since ripe; they grow and
look well. The growing of this crop is simple. It promises to
be an important crop wherever hogs are grown in the south.
CAssAv.A.-Another productive root crop that we continue
to grow is the cassava. This year our crop was not so produc-
tive as usual: the drouth in spring set back all slow-growing
crops, and cassava was quite late in sprouting. The roots were
more woody, and the bark, I think, more bitter than usual. The
stock did not relish the root as formerly, unless the bark was
taken off. Our yield this year was about six tons per acre.
This being a productive plant in this cotintry, as a feed plant, it
should be tested further in comparison with other feeds, that we
may he able to say what the crop is worth.
SWEET POTATOES.-We planted two varieties of sweet po-
tatoes, a West India variety and a vineless yam. This vineless
variety proved to be quite productive without fertilizing. The
rod left to measure proved quite poor, compared with earlier
planting, which had been harvested and could not be measured.
SThese poorer rows yielded 226 bushels per acre. This was on
fresh land that had been in truck patches the year before.
CRIMSON CLOVER.-In the summer and fall of 1895 we
made several plantings of crimson clover, commencing in Au-
gust, but it was October before we got the plants to stand. This
planting was on a rather poor piece of land, and the growth was
poor, but made some light seed. These we planted last Septem-
ber on some cow pea vines. Only a few plants are to be seen,
and these are small. I do not think much of crimson clover for
BURR CLOVER.-We had seed of burr clover planted and
treated same as the crimson: this made rather a better growth,
and has the advantage of re-seeding itself, but does not give
much promise with us.
RAMIE.-We planted a plot of ramie in the spring of 1895.
This was allowed to grow without cultivation, that the roots
might spread for further planting. We have now more of this
seed than we will want to plant at this station. The plant grows
with ease, and yields a large amount of stalks.
J. T. STUBBS,
To DR. O. CLUTE,
DIRECTOR R OF FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATIOX:--
Sir:--I have the honor to make the following report of the
work done on the sub-station at Myers during the year ending
December 31, 1896:
The ditches that were first dug on the station were not suf-
ficient to carry off the water rapidly enough during the rainy
season, and last November they were deepened, and others
added to the system, greatly to the benefit of the land and
plants. They are still unequal to the task during a part of the
rainy season. The condition of the soil of the station has im-
proved, and the character of the wild growth has changed for
the better; and we hope for better results during this year.
ORc\ARD.-During January and February of 1896 there
was set at this station an experimental orchard of the following
varieties: Pears, peaches, plums, persimmons. quinces, apples.
apricots, prunes, olives. Scarcely any were lost from setting,
and they made a fair growth until the heavy rains came in July,
when the peaches and phlms assumed a sickly hue, stopped
growing, and a number died. I noticed one peach tree that
looked better than the rest, and on examination found that it
had been set where a pile of roots had been burned. I took
ashes from the stove and put around several others, and they
immediately put on a good healthy growth. All the trees had
been fertilized with blood and bone and sulphate of potash. but
none of them made satisfactory growth except those that had
the ashes. Others were given lime and potash, but it had no
apparent effect. I think if we could have hard-wood ashes for
the peaches, plums and persimmons they would make good
growth. The Japan persimmons made the best growth of any,
and stood the water better.
GRAVIES.-Twenty-three varieties were set, and all made a
good growth until the rains came. when they stopped, and shed
their leaves. and died back: some died entirely. Lack of drain-
age seems to be the principal difficulty with them. The holes
were dug through the hard-pan for all trees in orchard and for
the grapes, except one of each variety.
No difference could be seen in the growth of the trees or
vines where the holes were dug through the hard-pan.
C!TRI'S.-Buds of different varieties grew well during the
summer, but in the fall a good many showed die-back. They
have not been given much fertilizer of a nitrogenous nature
The trees always seem to have good color, but make little
growth. If we can control the die-back a permanent grove can
be made. otherwise not.
OLIvEs.-A number of varieties have been set. They do
not make much growth, although they have been fertilized well
with blood and bone and potash. A number have had an appli-
cation of lime with no apparent effect.
MAcNGOES.-The trees do not grow well on this soil for
some reason. The leaves look as though they had been singed
around "the edges. The only tree that is doing well is one
around which I have been putting ashes from the stove, and it
tias made a very fair growth: others have had applications of
lime. but it seems to do them no good.
PAL.Ms.-Several varieties of palms have been planted, and
all promise to do well. Phoenix reclinata and Phoenix pumila
seem to be the most robust in habit.
PINEAPPL.s.-The plants are now in very good condition.
They were at first all set level, and during the rainy season the
soil became saturated and the water would stand right up to
the surface for days. The plants could not stand such condi-
tions: the roots would die. and the plant would have to throw
out a new set of roots before it could make any progress. The
plants have nearly all been reset, and the land thrown up into
beds ten feet wide, with paths five feet wide, which constitute
shallow ditches so that the water is carried off very soon atfer a
The pines under cover show a decided advantage over
those in the field in appearance of plants and fruit, both in size
and quality. The size of the shed has been increased from one-
tenth acre to one-fourth acre in extent, and filled with choice
plants. Pines under cover gave their first crop in 1896; those in
field are just now giving their first crop since the freeze of 1894-
'95. placing them a year behind those in the shed, which were
set at the same time and given the same attention aside from the
Tht- following vegetables have been cultivated:-
IlISH PoTATOEs.-November 22, 1895, two square rods
were planted. They were fertilized with 40 percent acid phos-
phate. to pounds sulphate potash 90 per cent, 15 pounds cotton
seed meal. applied one-half at planting and one-half when plants
were eight inches high. The tubers were of splendid quality,
but very few of them (only a peck) produced on the plot.
TOMATOEs.-Acme. Livingston's Perfection; planted seed
in field October 25; one-twentieth of an acre; fertilized with
cotton seed meal at rate of 700oo pounds, blood and bone at rate
of 300 pounds and sulphate potash at a rate of too pounds per
The seed came up well and plants grew well until they were
about four inches high, when they stopped and refused to grow
any more. The only plants that did anything at all were some
that stood where a large pile of palmetto roots were burned.
An extra application of potash and blood and bone was put on
the plot, but it made no difference in the result; the plants sim-
ply would not grow.
November t6 set the following varieties: Golden Sunrise,
Acme, Livingston's Beauty and Perfection on one-half acre.
The land was prepared three weeks before setting with the fol-
lowing mixture: 200 pounds acid phosphate, Ioo pounds blood
and bone, 50 pounds sulphate potash. The plants grew very
slowly, and January 2, ioo pounds cotton seed meal was added
and March 23. ioo pounds cotton seed meal and 25 pounds pot-
ash. The plants produced very little marketable fruit-just
about enough to pay for the fertilizer.
ONIo;s.-Nov 4, 1896, White Bermuda onion seeds were
sown. Fertilized at rate of one ton per acre with acid phos-
phate, blood and bone, and sulphate potash 90 per cent. The
seed came up well, and that is all: the plants died in a short
CELERY.-November 16, 1895, White Plume, Giant White
Solid, Giant Red Solid, Dwarf Golden Heart, Boston Market,
Giant Golden Heart, and Crawford's Half Dwarf were planted.
They were fertilized in the trench as follows: 325 pounds blood
and bone. Ioo pounds acid phosphate, 75 pounds sulphate pot-
ash 90 per cent to one-tenth of an acre. The plants grew very
well, and when they were large enough to bleach, fearing that
the earth would rust the stalks, we slipped funnels of paper over
the plants and then drew up the soil around the plants. In a
few days I noticed some of the plants wilting, and on examina-
tion found that nearly all the plants had rotted. A few of each
variety were saved, and the most brittle and best flavored were
the Golden Heart, Giant and Dwarf, also the Giant Solid both
Red and White. Probably the paper put on to assist blanching
helped the rotting.
CASSAVA.-One-half acre was planted.. Heavy rains in-
jured the crop, so that the experiment in fertilizing was a fail-
WATER MELON.-January 8 planted several varieties. Fer-
tilized the hills sometime before planting with a mixture in the
following proportions: 60 pounds blood and bone, 2o pounds
acid phosphate, o2 pounds sulphate potash. Used one-half
pound to the hill, and when the plants had the fifth leaf one-half
pound to the hill. The plants made a spindling growth, and no
melons at all.
On March 25 Cook's Favorite was planted. Fertilized in
hill with six shovels of stable manure and two quarts of pal-
mettO ihes. Vines made a fir*, viogronisgrowth, and wer tull
of large melon not quite ripe when the heavy rains came pd
CANTALOUPE.-\We have failed entirely with them so fa;:
LF rT-CE.-The February drouth destroyed the crop.
RVE.-November 4 sowed one acre using three pecks seed
Fertilized with 2oo pounds blood and bone, ioo pounds cotton
seed meal, 20oo pounds acid phosphate, too pounds sulphate pot-
ash go per cent. Seed and fertilizer harrowed in together. Pro-
duced a good trop.
RYE.--December 5 sowed one acre, using one bushel seed;
fertilized with 400 pounds blood and bone. 150 pounds acid
phosphate, 15o pounds sulphate potash. Seed and fertilizer
sown broadcast and plowed in. Produced a good crop. No
difference could be seen in the two methods of fertilizing and
On this land we find that where stable manure is used in
connection with other manures the best results are obtained.
We have tomatoes planted with stable manure and fish compost
that are looking fine, and have just commenced setting fruit.
Irish potatoes also looking well. The flesh of the tubers is clear
and free from specks.
W. A. MARSH,
List of Trees, Shrubs and Plants Growing in the
Open Ground at Myers.
TROPICAL AND SUB-TROPICAL FRUITS.
1ulsa Cavendlisltli. Ctvendlisl.
Musa orientum. Hart's Choice.
IMusa palustris, Daeea banana.
Musa Paradisiaca, Horse banana.
Musa sp., Apple banana.
Musa sp.. Baracon or Red .la-
.Msa sp., (ioldeni or Tahiti.
Musa sp.. Large Fig.
Anona muricata. Sour Sop.
Anona glabra. Custard Apple.
Anona squamosa. Sweet Sop.
Caries papaya, Tropical Paw.paw.
Crecentia Cujite. Calebash tree.
Lucuna mammosa, Mammee Sa-
Excoeearia sebifera, Candle-nut
Rubus flavus, Tropical raspberry.
Fieus glofierata. Cluster fig.
Mammea Americana, Jamaica ap-
Angcardium occidentale, Cashew
Lueuma rivicoa, Egg fruit.
Achras sapota, Sapodilla.
Adansonia digitata. Monkey
aanugifera Indiea, Mango.
Mellicoeca Bijuga, Spanish Lime.
Aegle 3Marmelos, Elephant apple.
'ersea gratissima, Avacado pear.
Camellia Thea, Tea.
Coffea Arabica. Arabian coffee.
Coffea Liberica, Liberarian coffee.
Coffea Bengalenais, Bengal coffee.
Coceolol0a Floridiana. Pigeon
Coccoloba uvifera, Sea grape.
Eugenia Michelli,Surinam cherry.
Eugenia Brasillensis, Brazil
Tamarindus Indica, Taimarind.
Passaflora edulis, Ofanadilla.
Psidium GuaiWavr Brailian.
Psidium Guaiava, Peruvian.
Psidlum Guaiava, Red Indian.
Psidium Guaiava, White Allsla-
Psidium Guaiava, Yellow apple,
Psidilun Guineense, Guinea guava.
Pasidlm Oualata, Araca.
Psidium Guaiava, Caloutta sople.
Psidium Cattleyanum, Cattley of
Psidium Lucidium, Chinese yellow
Belair premium. lemon.
Villa Franca, lemon.
Sour Rangpur lime.
Corsican citron No. 1.
Corsican citron No. 2.
Seedling pomelo or grape fruit.
Select pomelo or grape frull.
Royal pomelo or grape fruit.
Seedless pomelo or grape fruit.
Triumph pomelo or grape fruit.
Citrus aurantium dulcis.
Tardiff or Harts Late.
Sour (var bigaradia).
Citrus aurantium nobilis.
Mandarin or China.
Dancy or Red Tangerine.
Kumquat, or KinKan (C. Japon-
Enville or Enville City.
Tabers No. 72.
Tabers No. 2:1.
Petite De Augen.
A bizea Slipulata.
agerstrdoa, red, white and pur-
S, SHRUBS AND FRUITS. \
Ep hyllum eruneatum.
BAMBOOS AND GRASSES.
white, pink, purple.
liunbusa argentea, striate.
Bambusa uargentea, yellow stem.
Bambusa arundinaria falcata.
Bambusa arundinaria Fortunei.
Bambusa (Dendrocalamuns) meli-
Bambusa Spec. B.
Bambusa phyllostachnys aurea.
Ramlnbsa phyllostachmys bamhu-
Bamblisa phyllostachmys nigre.
Rambusa Phyllostachmys Nigre
Bambusa phyllostachmys mitis.
Bambusa phyllostachmys viridi-
Agave rigids sisilann.
'PAL.MS AND CYCADS.
Mad. Alfred Carrier.
Duchess de Brabant.
Etoile de Lyon.
Bede de Or.
Amaryllis, single rod.
Amaryllis atg o.
Cannas. native and fine hybrids.
List of Trees and Shrubs Growing on Sub-
Station at DeFuniak Springs.
KAKr OR JAPAN PERSIMNION.
Tabor No. 72.
Taber No. 29 (129).
Tator No. 23.
lDayUne de Ete.
Stump the World.
Old Mixon Cling.
Yellow St. John.
Heaths Late White.
Honey Seedling No. 67.
Dwarf Japan Blood.
Natural Seedling 81.
Honey Seedling 83.
Honey Seedling 96.
Honey Seedling 80.
(RAPES (Young Vines 1895).
Madam S. Currinie,
Duchess De Brabrant.
Seve de Or.
Table of Contents.
Amount of work depends on income..
Anthracnose of Bean ...
A frequent disease ... ..
Attacks other vegetables...
Rem edies ............ .....
Botanist, Report of ......
The herbarium... .... ..
Plant diseases... ..
Celery Blight, Report on .... .
Appearance of the disease...
... ..... 15
*. . 48
. . ... . 20
Favorable conditions ................. 35
How to control....... ........ ..... 36"
What is blight?......... .... ...... .. 37
Clute, Director, Report of.. .......... ... 5
Chemist, Report of... .. ... ....... .......... 60
Systematic study of soils .. ............... .... 61
M miscellaneous analyses .. ...... .... .. .. . 61
Analysis of comptie root. ..... .......... 61
of saw palmetto leaves, berries.............. .... 62
of sponge .... ... ........ .. 62
of Florida phosphate rock. ................. 62
of muck, seven samples......................... 63
of sugar cane juice, two samples................. 64
of velvet bean, seed.. ........ ........... 65
explanation ot terms . ... ..... 66
water analyses........ . .. .. 68
interpretation of water analysis ..... .. ...... . .70
suggestions for locating a well... ...... .. ..... 73
Director, report of. .... ... ....... .. .. 5
farm divided and fenced ............. .. ... .. 5
Director, report of, Continued.
barbed wire tencing...... .............. ..... 5
Page woven wire fence ......... ................. 5
Keystone wire fence.............................. 5
water in yards and fields. ............... ......... 5
water for irrigating cold frames. ...... ........... 6
propagating house built. ... ............ 6
work of station 1896. ..... ................... 6
Irish potatoes ...... ........ . ....... ... ..... 7
sweet potatoes...... ......... ..... 7
corn ............. .. ..... ... ...... 8
cassava ........ ......... ......... 8
pea nuts...... ... .. . . .. ...... 8
chufas ......... .............. .. ....... 9
velvet bean .... ......... ... ... .. 10
tropical yam........ ....... .... .... ... 10
canaigre .................. ... ......... o10
prickley comfrey. .... ...... 11
sachaline.............. ........ ... I
ram ie ....... ... ...... I
beggar weed ...................... ........... 11
flat pea ......... ...... ...... 12
crimson clover ..... .... ...... I2
alfalfa ... ..... ............ ................. ...... 12
swine ............ ............ ... .... ........ 12
cattle ............ ..................... .... 13
income of some experiment stations................. 15
income of Florida experiment station............... 15
inferior land of our stations.......... .... ..... 15
itemized expenses................................. 19
sources of income. ..... J.. .... ...... ......... .. ... 15
DeFuniak Springs Sub-Station, Report of .............. 75
improvements ............. ................... 75
fruit trees planted ............. ......... ..... ..... 75
nitrate of soda on oats................... ......... 75
cow peas....................................... 76
chufas ........... .. ....... ; .............. 76
DeFuniak Springs Sub-Station, report of, Continued.
cassava ............................. ........... 76
sweet potatoes.................................... 77
crimson clover............................. .... 77
burr clover..... ......... ..................... 77
Entomologist, Report of.............. ................ 55
laboratory............................. ......... 55
entomological collection........................... 55
library ..................................... ..... 55
Expenses Florida Experimen Station .................. 17
Fluted Scale, Report on. ............................ 50
life history. . 50
discovery in Florida ............. 51
stamped out .... ... ... 51
Horticulturist, Report of ... .... ....... ..... 21
vegetables tested..... .. ... ... ..... 21
conclusion as to vegetable testing. 26
orchard ...... ...... ....... 28
planted in 1896. 29
location of........... ....... 28
fruits planted. .. 29
apricot .. ... ..... . .. g29
apple .. . . 29
kaki....... ... .... .. .. . 29
Logan berry. ...... ..... .. 33
mulberry . .... 29
orange. ........... .... .. 29
olive. . .. ... 30
plum ... 32 .. ... 32
ear ..... ........................... 32
quince .... .............. ... 33
Propagating House, description of. 26
terrace No. .. ... ... .. ... 28
Insects of the year, brief notes on. ......... 57
Letter of transmittal.. .... ... 2
Myers Sub-Station, Report.o...... ....... ............ 78
ditches. .................. ... ..... .......... .. 78
trees and vines planted........................... 78
apricots........ ........ ........................ 78
citrus.........--. .... .... .... ................ 79
grapes............................ ........... 79
mango.................. .......... .. ......... 79
olive........................ ................... 79
peach................. .. ...................... 83
pear...... .... ...... ....... ..... .. ............. 78
plum ................ .... ................... .. 78
persimmon........................ ....... .... 78
prune.......................... ................ 83
quince. ................ ....................... 78
Marsh, W. A., superintendent at Myers ................ 78
Ornamentals, at Lake City............................ 34
at DeFuniak Springs ........................... 84
at M years ........................ .. ......... 84
Palms at Myers...................................... 79
Parasite of San Jose scale.............................. ..49
discovery of.............. ..................... 49
artificial culture of.................. ............. 50
artificial infection of healthy scale................. 50
great importation of ......................... 50
Persons, Prof. A. A., report of......................... 60o
Pineapple at Myers. .................................. 79
Pulvinaria innumerabilis ................. ............. 52
Quaintance, A. L., articles by. ........................ 57
Rolphs, Prof. P. H., reports of .................. .. 21
Rev at M yers......................................... 50
San Jose Scale, paper on........ .................. 49
Strawberry, varieties planted....... ............. 33
Station Staff, list of....... ........ ...... ..... .... 4
Stubbs, J. T., superintendent at DeFuniak Springs...... 75
Tomato blight, paper on ....... .... 37
fungus.. .... ................... .. ... .. 38
Tomato Blight, Conirnued.
plants attacked.. ....... ... ............. .... 38
treatment ........... ...... .. 47
Trees, planted at Lake City.. ...................... 29
DeFuniak Springs. .......... . ...... 75
M yers...... ................ ........... 78
Trustees, list of ......... .......................... 4
Vegetables at Lake City............................. 7
Myers.. ... .. .... ......... .......... 8