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 Annual report 1894
 Annual report 1895














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026754/00005
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1895
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026754
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 08521110

Table of Contents
    Annual report 1894
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    Annual report 1895
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Full Text



The Floida State Agricultural College.


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,


g ,ANNUAL REPORT 1894.
LAKE CITY, FLA., Dec. 29. 1894.
Hos. HE S. MITCRELL,
GaOernor of Florida,
Sm: In accordance with the law of Congress, providing for estab-
lishing the Agricultural Experiment Stations, I submit this report of the
operations of the Florida Experiment Station for the year 1894.
THE FARM AT LAKE CITY.
A good deal of work on the Lake City farm has been with forage
crops. It has included the cultivation of rye, sorghum, teosinte, millets,
spurry, cabbage, kale, rape, collards, cow pea, flat pea, corn, sugar cane,
crab grass, Bermuda grass, liiuea grass, Fort Thompson grass, St. Angus-
tine grass, and Para grass.
Root-crops for stock-feeding have also been grown of the following
kinds: cassava, sweet potato, turnips, ruta-bagas, pea-nnta, ehnfas, and
goobers.
A herd of good Jersey Red swine has been procured, and experimentsI
begun to test the value of cassava, sweet potatoes, pea-nuts, chufa, and
goobers compared with corn as food for swine. In this experiment the
cost of producing pork on these, and other foods grown in Florida, will
appear, and it is hoped to prove conclusively that pork can be grown as
economically in this State as in any part of the world. This would
doubtless help in increasing the meat-producing industry among us to the
point of growing what is consumed in the State, and of exporting a large
surplus.
THE GARDEN AT LAKE CITY.
In the garden at Lake City have been tested varieties of tomatoes,
egg-plants, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, beets and peas Considerable'
attention has been given to celery.
THE SUB-SflTION AT DE FUNIAK SPRIGS.
Here work with cotton, upland rice, cassava and peanuts, has been
in progress. A number of varieties of peaches are being tested. Land
is being cleared, fenced and ditched with a view to planting a large
experimental orchard of deciduous fruits.









THE SUB-STATION AT FORT MYERS.
At the Fort Myers sub-station a good deal of attention has been given
the pine-apple, and to the orange, lemon, lime and grape-fruit. Other
tropical and sub-tropical fruits and vegetables have been planted, and will
be planted in much greater number as soon as the land is prepared.
Land will be cleared, ditched, and fenced immediately for increased
experiments with all these fruits.

CHEMISTRY.
The Chemist of the Station has given much iime to the analysis of
soils, clays, phosphates, fertilizers, feeding-stuffs and waters. Work with
one or more of these goes forward most of the time.

BIOLOGY.
The insect and fungoid pests of fruits, and of farm and garden crops,
are among the most serious difficulties in the way of all branches of agri-
culture. These pests have been studied as much as time would permit.
Many parties have been directed to the use of insecticides and fungicides,
which have saved crops of great value. Work presses upon this depart-
ment from all sections of the State.
The original investigations into the cause and cure of tomato blight
have continued, and the Jiscovc.rie: announced last year have been
confirmed.
VETERINARY.
When Dr. A. W. Bitting was Veterinarian he did valuable work,
which, at the time of his resignation, had not been published. His
services were secured for two months in the summer of 1894 to carry
forward this work and to prepare some notes for publication. This
resulted in the three veterinary bulletins which have been issued.

When taking up ihe work as Director of the Experiment Station in
September, 1893, there came into my hands no notes as to work that had
been done, and no plans for work in progress. Hence all had to begin
anew. No bulletins had been published in the year 1893 up to Septem-
ber 1st, and there was no record of work done from which to prepare
bulletins.
After consideration of the conditions, plans were made for practical
work at Lake.City, DeFuniak Springs and Fort Myers, and work was
laid out for the Chemist and the Biologist at Lake City. As valuable
results are reached they will be published. I shall not'be in haste to rush
into print. The interests of the State will be served by carefulness and
accuracy, even though such work must be done somewhat slowly.










BULLETINS.

Between September 1, 1893, and December 31, 1894, the following
bulletins have been issued:
No. 20, Soils and Fertilizers.
21, The Tomato and Some of its Diseases.
22, Fertilizers: How to Make and How to Use Them.
23, Insecticides and Fungicides.
S24, Annual Report, 1893.
S25, Leeches or Leeching.
26, Big-Head.
27, The Pine-Apple.
28. Liver Fluke. Southern Cattle Fever.

BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
HON. WALTER GWYNN, President...........................................Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President.....................................Pensacola
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee ....................Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGAN, Secretary ..............................................Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER........................................... Brooksville
HON. S. J. TURNBULL........................... .......................Monticello
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY......................................... ....................DeLand

STATION STAFF.
O. CLUTE, M S., LL.D ...................... .............. ................... D director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S.......................................Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S.................. ......................................Chemit
C. A. FINLEY.................................. .......................Director's Secretary
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S....................................... Assistant in Biology
H. K. MILLER, M. S....................................... Assistant in Chemistry
JOHN F. MITCHELL......................................Foreman of Lake City Farm
J. T. STUBBS..................................Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARSH ....................................... Supt. Sub-Station, Fort Myers

EXPENDITURES OF THE FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION FOR
THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1894.
STATION AT LAKE CITY.
D deficit July st............. ............................................. .. ..............$ 48 27
Salaries .................................... ..... ............... ..... .... 5,892 05
Expenses of Director ......................................... 209 57,
Expenses Entomologist ....... .............................. ..................... 505 35
Expenses Chemist.................................................. 124 92
Expenses H orticulturist................... .................... ............... 9 70
Trees, Seeds and Plants ..................... .. ................. .. 129 04
Fences and Buildings ..................... ...................... 715 82
Tools ........................................... ............... 92 20
Fertilizere...................... ... .................... ................................ 354 02
Stock ............... ..................................... ... ......... .... 62 50
L abor .................... ................... ...... ............ .................. 2,010 85
Feed .................................... ........... .................. ........ 376 13
Drainage........................................ 48 85










Bulletins ........................................................ ................. 387 97
Stationery, Postage and Printing....................... .............. 75 25
Contingent-Sundries.................................... 97 94
Entomological Supplies and Labor....................................... 190 94
Furniture and Equipment......... ......... ............... 140 70
Expenses Board of Trustees........................... .................. 177 25
Library...................... ................. ................ 83 75
W ater Supply........................................................... 100 00
Tobacco Experiment...... ......................... ................ 169 41
G as and Lights................................................... .................. 38 97
$12,041 44
DE FUNIAK SUB-STATION.
Salary of Superintendent ....................................... ..............$ 650 00
Trees, Seeds and Plants.......... ........................................... 29 25
Fences and Buildings ..................................... 17 95
Tools........................... ........... .................................. ....... 13 80
Fertilizers...................................... ...... 19 54
Stock ..................................................................... ............... 9 23
Feed..................................................... 123 35
Labor .......................................................... 420 75
Stationery and Postage.......................................................... 4 70
Gas and Lights................................................ 85
Contingent-Sundries........................ ........... 6 00
Eq ipment........................................................................ 1 00
$ 1,296 42
FORT MYERS SUB-STATION.
Salary of Superintendent....................................$ 650 00
Trees, Seeds and Plants ................................................... 21 85
Fences and Buildings ................................. .............. 54 80
Tools.................................... .......... 36 20
Fertilizers....................................................... ........................ 112 00
Stock...... ... .............................................. ............ 42 00
Labor .................................... .............. 663 79
Feed........................................ .. ................. .................... 103 98
Drainage........................... ..................... ......... ..... 15 00
Stationery....................................... ..... ..... .......... 5 00
Equipm ent ................................ ........................................... 2 00
$ 1,706 62
STATEMENT:
Appropriation......................................... ......................$15,000 00
Incidental Fund from Sales....................................... 176 17
$15,176 17
Expenditure Lake City Experiment Station....... $12,041 44
De Funiak ........ 1,296 42
Fort Myers ........ 1,706 62
Balance to Credit Incidental Fund..................... 131 69
$15,176 17

C. B. COLLINS, Treasurer. 0. CLUTE, Director.









The Florida State Agricultural College.




AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,




ANNUAL REPORT, 1895.

LAKE CITY, FLA., 28TH DECEMBER, 1895.

HON. H. L. MITCHELL,
Governor of Florida,
SIR:
In accordance with the requirements of.the Hatch Act
establishing the Experiment Stations, I submit this report of the
Florida Experiment Station, including a statement of the practical
work for the year 1895, and of the receipts and expenditures from
the Hatch Fund for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1895.
Very respectfully,
O. CLUTE,
Director.














Annual Report, 1895.





CHEMISTRY.

A thorough chemical study of the typical soils of Florida has been be-
gun, and some progress made in the work. The results as far as the work has
gone, will be published in the fall of 1896. This work will continue for sev-
eral years.
During the past year about 100 analyses of sbils, fertilizers, waters,
minerals, feed-stuffi, etc., have been made. This work has been done for
parties living in Florida, and free of charge. If charged for at the usual
rates, the work would have cost those for whom it was done not less than
$3,500. ,Most of this work is of general value, as it contributes to a
knowledge ot the resources of the State.

BOTANY.

In Botany much work has been done in the study of plant diseases.
Many plants of the local flora have been added to the Station herba-
rium.
We are frequently called upon to identify plants from different parts of
the State. This work has been done as far as other duties would permit.

ENTOMOLOGY.

The battle against the San Jose scale has been vigorously continued at
DeFuniak Springs, by the local fruit growers, under the direction of the
Experiment Station.
Another case of San Jose scale was discovered; this time at Orlando.
All the affected trees were burned.
Many insects have been sent for identification from all parts of the State,
and requests for information as to the best methods of fighting them. The
resulting correspondence takes much time, but probably the State could be
served in no better way.









FARM, LAKE CITY.

At the Lake City farm the main work has been as follows:
Cassava, the propagation, planting, fertilization, cultivation, harvest-
ing, feeding, preservation of canes for next year's crop. A most promising
crop.
(Alfalfa, endeavor to learn if it will do anything here. Negative results
thus far.
Flat Pea (Lathyrus sylvestris). Negative results.
Sachaline (Polygonum Sachalinenses). Promising.
Canaigre (Rumex hymenosepilus). Promising.
Prickly Comfrey. Very promising.
Velvet Bean. Very promising.
Tropical Yam. Very promising.
Dwarf Essex Rape. Promising.
Japan Rape. Promising.
Rye, for fertilizing soil, for mulch and for pasture. Good.
Indian Corn. Test of varieties.
Sweet Potatoes. Test of varieties.
Crimson Clover. Very little success.
Peanuts, Common Florida, as food for hogs. Excellent results.
Peanuts, Spanish, as food for hogs. Exellent results.
Goobers, as food for hogs. Excellent results.
Sweet Potatoes, as food for hogs. Excellent results.
Chufas, as food for hogs. Excellent results.
Jersey Red Swine, their adaptation to conditions in Florida. Most
promising.
Results of crossing Red Jersey on the Razor Back. Good.
Many other tentative experiments have been in progress, with a view to
more extensive work soon.

GARDEN, LAKE CITY.

Variety tests with peas, egg-plant, kohl-rabi, lettuce, okra, peppers,
radish, were carried on.
Pears. The LeConte pears were very productive in our garden, and
all over the South, so that the.market was glutted and the crop would not
pay for picking for market, but I fed many bushels to the hogs, for which
purpose they are superior.
Pear Blight is working great havoc in some sections of Florida. Cut
off the diseased parts and burn is the only remedy now known. This is
sometimes effectual.









FORT MYERS SUB-STATION.

About seventeen acres of saw palmetto land have been cleared, grubbed,
and broken. The whole twenty-five acres have been inclosed with a good
barbed wire fence. Three thousand yards of ditch have been dug three feet
deep. The house and barn bave been repaired and painted. The upper
story of the house has been ceiled. The barn has been lifted and placed on
blocks. A pineapple shed covering one-tenth of an acre has been built and
stocked with the choicest varieties of pines.
On the morning of December 28,1894, the mercury stood at 420. About
nine in the morning the wind began to blow heavily from the northwest. At
noon the mercury was at 520; at six p. m., at 430; at six o'clock on the
morning of the 29, at 220. This was the lowest point reached, though the
weather continued cold for several days.
The effects of the freeze on cocoanuts, pineapples etc., was serious. Nearly
every cocoanut tree was killed. The old pineapple plants were killed to the
ground, but gave plenty of suckers during the year. The pineapples recently
set were not injured. Mangoes and Avocado pears were badly cut back,
but not'killed. All the pines in the shed had been set only a few months,
and were all uninjured. Old trees of the orange, lemon, lime and grape-
fruit were not seriously hurt, the fruit on them still being fit for market, and
the leaves not sufficiently hurt to fall off. But young stocks of these trees
were badly hurt. Lemon and sweet stocks lost nearly all their leaves, but
sour stock and buds on trifoliata stock were uninjured.
The weather following the freeze was pleasant, and many trees put out
new growth. On the morning of February 8, 1895, at 9 o'clock the mer-
cury was at 310, and at 6 a. m. of February 9, it was at 290.
This extreme cold weather and the newness of the soil seriously hin-
dered experiment work. Still a good deal was done with vegetables, grains,
and root crops, and in preparation for putting out groves of citrus and other
fruits.
Among farm crops and vegetables work was done with asparagus, beans,
cabbage, corn, crimson clover, cow peas, rice, rye, barley, oats, peanuts, Irish
potatoes, Kaffir corn, Jerusalem corn, millo maize, teosinte, lentils, seradella
rape, and watermelons.
The work with pineapples has been continued, and the results have
been favorable. The guava gives much promise. Citrus trees of many va-
rieties have been planted and budded. Bananas are sometimes cut down by
frost but most years give good returns. Sisal hemp thrives. Though tropi-
cal fruits were injured by the freezes of December '94, and February, '95,
many were not killed. The mangoes have sprouted from the .larger branches,








also the avocado pear, also the sapodilla, tamarind, rose apple, mammee ap-
ple, anonas. The cashew nut was entirely killed.
The work in clearing and subduing land, and in ditching and fencing
during the last two years has prepared the way for much better and more
extended work, which will now be entered upon.

DeFUNIAK SPRINGS.

The clearing, fencing, and ditching done in 1894 gave facilities for
largely increased work in testing farm and garden crops during.1895. The
land on which these crops were grown was entirely new, being the first year
in cultivation, hence it was rough, and required much hand labor.'
Sugar Cane. Planted Keni Keni, a green cane from the Sandwich
Islands, March 2, having previously broadcasted 600 pounds of acid phosphate
per acre. April 27, applied 400 pounds cotton seed meal per acre, before
plowing out. August 20, applied 300 pounds nitrate soda per acre, broadcast
on surface. The yield of cane was nineteen tons per acre. This was the first
crop on the land. On old land two years ago we obtained thirty-one tons of
cane per acre.
Work was done with two varieties of oats, nine varieties of cabbage, three
varieties of garden peas, forty varieties of beans, twenty-two varieties of red
peppers, ten varieties of turnips, eight varieties of carrots, four varieties of
parsnips, one variety of mustard, twenty varieties of beets, twenty-two vari-
eties of tomatoes, thirteen varieties of watermelons, twenty varieties of musk-
mellons, seven varieties of squash, six varieties of pumpkins, six varieties of
cucumbers, twenty-two varieties of sweet corn, eight varieties of millet, four
varieties of field corn, forty varieties of beans, chufas, peanuts, castor beans,
ramie, crimson clover, bur clover, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, and rice.
Further work in these lines will be done, and the results published from time
time.


BULLETINS.

During the year 1895 four bulletins have been issued, as follows:
No. 29, The San Jose Scale.
30, The Culture of Tobacco.
31, Some Market Vegetables for Florida.
32, Cotton, its Cultivation and Fertilization.








The Board of Trustees is now composed of the following members:

HON. WALTER GWYNN, President....................................... Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President..................................Pensacola
HoN. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee..................Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGON, Secretary........................ .................Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER......................................................Brooksville
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY....................................................DeLand
HON. J. F. BAYA.. ............................................................Lake City




The Staff of the Station is named below:

O. CLUTE, M S., LL. D ......................................................Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S....................................Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S....................................................Chemist
C. A. FINLEY................ ................. ...........Director's Secretary
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S....................................Assistant in Biology
H. K. MILLER, M. S.................... .................Assistant in Chemistry
JOHN F. MITCHELL..... ............. ...........Foreman of Lake City Farm
J. T. STUBBS.......... ...............Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARSH.....................................Supt. Sub-Station, Fort Myers








FINANCIAL REPORT.


Florida Experiment Station, in account with the United States Appropriation,
1894-5.

DR.
To Receipts from the Treasurer of the United States as per ap-
propriation for fiscal year ending June 30, 1895, as per Act
of Congress approved March 2, 1887..............................$15,000 00

CR.
By Salaries. .................... ..... ........... $ 5,783 78
L abor.................................................................. 3,680 56
Publications.......................................................... 839 58
Postage and Stationery............................................. 201 27
Freight and Express.................................................. 230 95
Heat, Light, and Water......... ....................... 360 97
Chemical Supplies ........................... ............... ...... 64 03
Seeds, Plants, and Sundry Supplies............................. 705 58
F ertilizers .............. ... .......... ..... ... ........ ... ............ 500 10
Feeding Stuffs........................ ... ..................... 420 26
L library ........................... ................................... 64 76
Tools, Implements, and Machinery............................. 204 20
Furniture and Fixtures...................................... ... 156 13
Scientific Apparatus ............................................... 75 55
Live Stock ............. ............................................ 155 25
Traveling Expenses............. .......... .................... 738 78
Contingent Expenses............................................... 68 25
Building and Repairs........ .................................... 750 00


$15,000 00
Respectfully submitted,
O. CLUTE,
Director.




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