Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
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Title: Annual report, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City, Fla.
Manufacturer: Times-Union Publishing House
Publication Date: 1889
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026754
Volume ID: VID00002
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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,_1.,,.. .... ..,


BULLETIN No.4

ANDI


ANNUAL


REPORT


OF THE


EXPERIMENT STATION



OF FLORIDA

AT THE


STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,


LA.I'E~ CIT'Y, ~FLA.


JANUARY. 1889.


*1~l" j

,3;


REV. JAS. P. DEPASS, DIR CTOR.
vvz., tvs- ,- S-1 $ .i,$
~~~/ 1/ ..'' ) '" i


TIMIS-IUNIOT PUBLISHING ROU8E,
JAORPONVtLLK. FLA.


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TNTRODUCTION.


On coming into office as D )etor of the Experiment
Station, which was January 22d of this year, I received no
notes of unreported experiments from my predecessor, and
hence had no material for Bulletin 4. due January I-t. Hav-
ing had many calls for this Bulletiu, and a great many
applications for literature on peach growiiig, after mature
deliberation, I thought I could not better serve tihe pub.
lie, supply the missing link between Bulletins 3 and 5, and
meet the requirements of the law, than by giving my experi-
ence of over twenty years in cultivating the peach. While
this Bulletin does not pretend to be an exhaustive treatise of
the subject, it is written in the hope of being of some service
to those who are engaged, or may wish to engage, in the busi-
ness of growing this fruit, either for profit or home consump-
tion. I have now growing on the Station a number of varie-
ties, said to do well in Florida, andshall this fall collect others
from this and other States, and, if possible, from those foreign
countries whose climate and soil induce the hope that their
best varieties may prove valuable acquisitions. In future Bul-
letins, as facts develop, I shall report them, both as regards
the good and the bad, and if I introduce fruit worthy of di*-
tribution among our people, I shall .take special care iii doing
so. I shall be greatly obliged to any person originating'
new peach to send me samples, for which I am willing to pay,
and will purchase buds or trees of any promising variety tor
trial. I shall be obliged also to have my attention called wt
any new insect or disease that may affect the peach or any
deciduous fruit in the State.









PEACH (;oWGVING IN FLORID.%_


Before the war the people raised peaches in abundance-
for home use, planting in favored spots, such as their gardens,
horse and cow lots, and they rarely missed a crop. After the
war an effort was made to introduce the early and choice sum-
mer varieties of other States, but failure and loss was the re-
sult. There are few, if any, of the most popular varieties of
other States that will succeed in Florida. In consequence of
this failure, the opinion very generally obtained that peaches
would not grow here, nor was it until the introduction of the
Peen-to, or Peen Tan.* in 1874 or 1875T that public attention
began to he directed to this fruit, and public interest revived
ii favor of its cultivation.
1TIIE soil. AJDAPTEDi TO ITS GIO;WT.

Perhaps there is no fruit we have more generally adapted
to our soil than the peach; still it is a known fact that there,
are exceptional placeswhere it does not thrive. Whileno one
tan determine these localities without a trial, still it is well to
note that land which is too thirsty, as well as too wet -is not
suited to the peach, unless water can Ie supplied in the one
instance, and drainage in the otli-r. The miere fact of land
having a lay siib-soil, or clay in the soil, or ua absence of clay-
near the .iirfnee is no criterion to judge of its adaptability to
this firit, or any of the deciduous fruits that grow in our
climate. T have fully demonstrated this in my own experi-
'ence, and have seen the tree thrive and fruit in all classes of
soil common to our State. It is a fact, beyond question, that
trees in the same orcrlardl, of the same kind,nd,ad, as far as the
eye can judge, the soil in all essentials; similar, receiving the
same treatment, vary both as to growth and fruiting. While
this is rare, still the fact exists, and there is no accounting
for it, so far- as I know. But, geneillvy, throughout our
entu'e State, where proper attentiion is paid the peach, the
grower will be rewarded for his labor and outlay, if he will
abandonn the idea that it does not require either noi attention
or too much care. or is overfed or not-fed at all.
*-Peen-t, s til iiiuni amnliung the conuuou classes of China. butthe-tanda-
rin llictionarirs u- th 1w onls Pien Tnu. which means fat peach.







FRESII GRON).
Whether the land be high or low, hannock or pine, fresh
land is the best, and always the best. Fresh hammock land is not
only costly, but difficult to prepare for an orchard. It is also
hard to work. Pine land can more .easily and cheaply be put
in order, and is easier cultivated. It is better to cut the tim-
ber down and dig the stumps, but it is not necessary. The
peach grows among the deadened timber,.and does not sustain
as much injury from falling limbs and trees as they decay, or
when the storms come and go, as one might expect. The
Providence that paints the lily and the violet, and watches
over the life of a sparrow, seems to care for the poor man's
orchard, in which lies, in part t le-st, .his resources of daily
life. An orchard looks better elear of timber and stumps, but
these can be removed gradually. as tiine and opportunity ad-
int. The hammock is richer, as a rule, in plant food, but the
difference in the cost of clearing and cultivatingis largely in fa-
vor of pin- land, even though more fertilizingT is necessary
every year; but lhanmnoek land needs fertilizing also, and it is
only a question of a few years when the expense in this line
will be equal. While fresh land is always best, still it is not
: necessity. Old land, already devoid of tree- and stumps,
with much less trouble and expense, can be lIneprlred for an
orchard; In preparing an old fteld, first break up t lioroughly.
then check off the distance you wish the trees to stand; dig
the holes two feet deep by three feet square. and prepare as
stated under the head of t,'tiizi/inq, and you can plant in the
hope of good fruit. Another good plan in preparing'old land
is to place in the holes hannmock mold, muck, or soil from
the depressions in pine land several weeks before planting, to,
which may l.e :ddld a pound or two of any complete fertilizer,
or five or ten pounds of compost as per formula under head of
.frtiliziuy.
*TIMKi T'o I'I.ANT.
The very best time is from the middle of December to.the
middle of .Janiury. It is iurc.better to plant before than af-
ter this time. In December the tree is dormant or inactive;
imd the early varieties, stii as the Peen-to type, awake about
the first of January, are in full bloom by the middle of the
month, and begin to put t t leaves a weei or so later. When
the tree is in bloom, oi inh half leaf, to transplant it is to en-
danger its life or health. When a tree is set back by reason
of too late planting, or becomes sickly through neglcct, it is







cheaper and better to dig it up :ad replace it with anotlier.
This year.on the Station. although the season was favorable,
in consequence of late planting, which was done in February,
I o1. a large number of thrifty trees, and those which lived,
although well cultivated and fertilized, did not do so well as
they would had they been planted earlier. I feel it a duty to
say, that while there is o1ne chance for deciduous fruits doing
well planted after January, there are at least five against them.
The first effort a peaeh tree makes in growing after being doir-
mant. i sending out delicate white, silk-like roots, which, if
exposed tp ir, witlhr directly. .\ tree planted in December
has in a month many of these little feeders, from one to five
inches':bn, on all its large roots. These rootlets play an im-
jportant part in its nourishment, :and hence, if dug up when in
bloom or in leaf (for when a tree begins to leaf its roots cease
to grow, nor do they begin to grow again until it is in
full leaf) suffers the loss of these roots, and if a shortdry spell
follows, their loss is easily seen in the want of vigor, and often
death.
TH DEiEPT TO PL.AIT.
In dry and sandy soils, trees should be placed deeper than
in wet or stiff land. The roots should be carefully trained in
their natural directions, and the dirt packed around them.
When the hole is filled, if the season is dry., water should be
fr ,applied. If planted when irrigation is used, or the land
is 8a wet, they ought not to be placed deeper than they
grew ait rnnrserv. This is determined by tle earth marks
abovetlie roots, and then allowance of an inch or two should
be-nade for the soil to settle.
PRIK NG;.
Universal experience has demonstrated tie absolute ne-
cessity; of pruning early and often. In California, where the
peach is developed as near perfection as anywhere on this con-
tinent, some of the most. successful growers begin to prune
ihen the tree is very small. Their plan is to plant the dor-
mant bud, and when it is two feet high to pinch off the top
and cause it to branch. They then rub off the sprouts, saving
fi1e or six wood buds within six inches of the top, and train
these to produce a low head and short body. The object of
.prtning is to keep the tree healthy and vigorous. If left alone
it runs to wood, bears only at the- ends, and is of little value.
Headed back every year, and limis which grow too fast pinched







off and made to branch, the petch lives to an old age, and
hears much fruit. The Monthly Monitor, printed at Bronson,
Levy county, Fla., says, in its September issue: "There are
numbers of native' trees in this county from fifteen to thirty-
five years old that bear heavy crops of the most delicious peaches
every year." Another tree is reported, thirty-seven years old,
bearing fifteen bushels. Cutting back forces the lateral limbs
to grow, and as the wood made one year is that which brings
the fruit the next, the cutting back must be done. Limbs
which grow down, or too straight. should he cut off; nor
should the branches be allowed to crowd each other. The
most desirable form of tree is either bowl or wine-glass shape.
Old trees that have been neglected should be cut back and
made to put out new wood. This sometimes kills the tree,
but it is better to kill and replace with another, than to let it.
live and profit no one. As a rule, bearing trees should be
pruned in early spring, taking off about one-third of the growth
of the previous year. The judgment of intelligent growers,
however, should govern them in this direction, for sometimes
more should be taken off. Summer bearers, if not pruned in
spring, will not fully mature fruit buds for another season.
The fall growth should all be cut off. This is mainly the
cause of winter blooming. This growth, the next year,:ma-,
tures its buds in early fall; sheds its leaves, and bursts into
bloom after the first cold spell. This growth is produced af-
ter the fruit drops in summer, and has not time to mature fully
before winter.
FEIRTILZlIN'G.
This should be regulated by the character of the soil.
Peaches do not require the richest land, nor will'they do well
on poor land unless regularly and properly fed. But even the
richest land will soon be exhausted by this greedy feeder, un-
less its strength is sustained by prudent fertilizing.
The great difficulty in the way of growing this fkrit in
Florida lies, first, in fertilizing, and, second, in the supply of
water in the dry seasons. Water and fertilizing very greatly
advances the maturity of fruit, and for early varieties this is
exceedingly desirable. In seasons when we have a fine sup-
ply of water the early fruit ripens from two to four weeks
sooner than when the spring is dry. The same is true of late
fruit when the summer is wet. But whether dry or wet, the
tree must be fertilized. If neglected it will take a year, or
longer, after hearing a good crop to recuperate, or to send out
its roots in fresh soil in search of food. Any fertilizer that







possesses the three great elements of plant food, potash, phos-
phoric acid and nitrogen, will serve the purpose. But the
question which will interest the inexperienced grower most is
the cost of fertilizing. Commercial fertilizers are costly, and
are not in the reach of every grower. I have found a compost
of the following proportions to be cheap, and beneficial to
third-class pine land, and prepared in the following way: I
build a pen, and commence the compost by placing in the bot-
tom of it 2,0011 pounds of stable or cow manure. (muck may be
used, but it is not as good as either of the other two), 333
pounds each of kainit. cotton seed meal, or crushed cotton
seed, or cotton seed whole, and acid phosphate. Then begin
again with stable manure, and so on. When I complete a
layer I wet it thoroughly, and so on to the top of the pen. Then
I cover the whole with dry dirt, and the pen with a shed. In
a month's time I remove the dirt, break the pen and mix, and
then shovel back and wet again, covering with dirt. In an-
other month the fertilizer is ready for the orchard, and when
removed must le well mixed again. The stable manure and
cotton seed or meal will be completely decomposed. Five or
ten pounds s of this compost, well mixed in the hole several
weeks before, either on old or new ground, in which a tree
is to be planted. will give it a healthy start and a vigorous
growth through the year. On a one-year-old tree ten pounds
may be used, and on three or five-vear-olds double the amount.
This compost has been found excellent for all kinds of field
and garden crops. It takes time and trouble to make it, but
it saves money, and gives good results. Every farmer and
fruit grower should have a compost pen with a cover to it,
which should receive the refuse of the house and kitchen, es-
pecially of the stove and fireplace, the chicken coop, the sta-
ble and the cow lot. One who is dependent upon his own ef-
forts for success and neglects this. may expect to live poor and
die poor, and experience the mortification of seeing others
prosper who follow what he neglects;
Lime and copperas may be used with profit around peach
trees. I have tried both, and think that good has resulted
from their use. From one to three pounds of copperas
(sulphate of iron), according to the age of the tree. The lime
may be used n larger quantities. On dry lands the mulching
of trees with pine straw. wire grass, or green mosshelps to
retain moisture, and, to some extent, serves as a feeder. The
drawback to mulching is. that it becomes the harbor of such
insects as the grayand black cricket. grasshoppers beetles and
pumpkin bugs, which feed on the tender shoots and buds. It







is not safe to use fertilizer of any kind when setting a tree. It
should be put in the hole, and well mixed, several weeks be-
fore, and if used at all at planting it ought to be put on top of
the ground.
WORK. IS NECESSARY IN A.. 4lCHiARD.
Weeds and grass must not he allowed to grow. They
choke young trees directly, and are a serious injury to old
ones. The plow and hoe must come into early use. A good
-cultivator, after breaking with the plow in early spring, is the
best tool to use. Care should be taken not to break, or jar, or
mutilate the roots of young trees in working, nor Ahould the
*dirt be banked on them.
'UTTIN(G IBAiK.

It is the almost universal experience of growers that in
preparing trees for planting they should be freely cut back.
Some contend they ought to be cut back to four feet, and
others to two. I incline to the latter opinion. I am certain
that every inch over four feet left on is a loss. 3Be careful it
cut away every branch, and leave no fork. It is here that the
borer does much harn. The tree should be trained to five or
six buds within six inches of the top, and all other sprouts
kept pinched off.
Many planters prefer large, well branched trees, but this
is a mistake. A tree dug with the greatest care will have its
roots more or less broken. It is not reasonable, therefore, that
with broken and mutilated roots it can be sustained as before.
Moreover, it is very susceptible to drought, and with a heavy
top in a dry spring will more readily wilt and die than if cut
back freely when planted. To purchasers, I suggest that they
request nurserymen, who know what is best, from long expe-
rience, to prepare their trees as they should be for planting.
This will protect them from loss, expense in freight and pack-
ing, and they will have better and healthier trees.

THE BEST STOCK ON wiI'II TO Ir D) AND I;:RAFT.

In Europe the plurn is used largely as stock to bud and
graft upon. The object is to get a small tree. In France and
England the peach is not cultivated in open ground to any ex-
tent. They are forced to plant by the side of walls, and to se-
cure small stock the Myrobblan plum is used. This plum has
been introduced in Florida for the object of avoiding the ray-







ages of the borer and rootknot worm, but it is not a protee-
tien against either. The claims of various plum stocks have
been advocated as better for the peach than its own roots, but
thsa.far none of them have proven sufficiently successful as to
warrant unqualified recommendation. At present great hopes
are entertained by a few that the Marianna plum will serve as
a protection against the borer and rootknot. This is yet to be
demonstrated, and my experience does not permit me to say
more than it is worthy of further trial. The peach is a coarse
feeder and a rapid grower, and as yet no plum has been found
to keep pace with it. The peach, when budded or grafted on
plum stock, generally outgrows the plumn .id the wood does
not heal or adhere as readily as when on its own stock.
A question has been sprung in the Nurserymen's Asso-
-iation whether it is best to grow stock from the seed of
native seedlings or from imported seed. and the advice has
uniforlny been to use native seed. The only reason I can see
for this is, that the diseases of more northerly climates may
thus be avoided. The yellows as yet has not made its appear-
ance in our State, so far as I am informed, and such writers
as Downing strongly urge against the planting the seed from
stock in regions where this fatal disease prevails.
Candor compels me to say, that seed from a healthy re-
gion are as good as from Florida, and both philosophy and fact
sustain the opinion. But very great care should be observed,
first, that the seed are from healthy, thrifty trees, and, secondly,
that they have matured well. In importing trees from other
States the risk is very great, and the.-s:ek budded may have
in it the germs of a fatal disease; and the Ihyer is not only a
loseiypbut he imperils an interest which promises to become one
of Fbrida's foremost industries. The judgment of some of
thbt and most prudent growers is against buying stock for
Wing purposes in States north and west of Florida. They
contend that the stock is not so vigorous or healthy as that
grown from seed of our own native varieties. The trouble
lies, doubtless, in the fact. that trees taken from nurseries
whose soil is richer and heavier than ours suffer from the
change. If stock has been forced by heavy fertilizing, and
transplanted into thin, light soil, even though it be fertilized,
it will feel the change very quickly. The same is true of ham-
mock land. Trees taken from hammock are not likely-to be
vigorous on pine land, and the transplanting them into ham-
mock is only a happy transition to richer food. The prefer-
ence of growers for laIge stock coinpels the producer to meet
the demand by forcing his stock by high fertilization. The







large and thrifty-looking tree, grown in rich land, may, for a
while, show better, but good, healthy, medium-sized stock,
under the same attention, will do better in the end.
(;EYER.I. IEMARLKS.
Suckers should not be allowed to grow, but should be
taken off with a sharp knife close to the root.
Dead limbs and all sickly-looking branches should be cut
off.
Winter 'iln, ing is the result of not cutting away the fall
growth in the spring, of careless work, neglect of fertilizing,
and want of water. The want of water can be supplied, to
some extent, by pruning, work and fertilizing.
Fertilizing can be done any season of the year, but the
best results are obtained by attending to it in January and June.
The distance Iliveni to trees in orchard is from twelve to
twenty feet.
Wrten irrigation, with sub-drainage, becomes general and
its advantages demonstrated, deciduous, as well as citrus,
fruits will, doubtless, attain a perfection that will be surlpris-
ing.
The enemies which trouble us, in imy opinion, are very
greatly overestimated as to the injury done by them.
The borer, common to every portion of the State, scarcly
ever injures a tree after it has passed its fourth year. A keen-
bladed knife is the surest, cheapest and quickest way of get-
ting rid of it. The Entomologist suggests other remedini, to
which I refer the reader.
The enrcduio is more to be feared, because it does greater
injury than all the others; but it may be gotten rid of, to. a
very great extent if the directions given by the Entomologist
are carried out with care. It does not infest East andl South
Florida, except generally where there are old-field plum or-
chards.
2T7e curled leqtf or, as some term it, "Freincling,'; does
not harm us, and is very little noticed.
The scale is also very rare. For remedy see article by
Entomologist.
Rootknot produced by a diminutive worm, has occa-
sioned widespread alarm among growers of late years. have
noticed its effects in the knots produced on the roots for years,
but gave it but little attention, as I did not observe any .eil
results from it, except in planting young trees.
I have planted thousands of trees affected with it in thin
land, but planted them deep, from eight to ten inches, and







they have lived and thrived as well as others not affected.
This leads me to suppose that possibly this is the best remedy
for and against this enemy. Trees perfectly free from. these
pests have been planted in soil where they were, and ina short
while they were full of them. I would not advise the purchase
of trees thus affected, but I suggest, lest they are in the soil,
that trees be planted deep in high and dry soils. Of course,
on wet lands, unless drained, this would not do. Somie have
thought that the use of muck in the holes was a protection.
My opinion is. that the preparation of the soil enabled the
trees;to resist the injury from the worm by putting on new
and vigorous roots. The rootknot worm An/iq/lida is found
more largely in old land, still new land is sometimes infested
with it. In addition to the remedies suggested by the Ento-
mologist, I advise those whose trees are suffering to dig holes,
by the side of them, fertilize them, andl, after several weeks,
transplant in these holes, cutting them back freely. If any
one should follow this suggestion, or any remedy recommended
by the Entomologist, I would be pleased to have their experi-
ence reported to me.
VARIKTIES.
1 :1i indebted to the nurserymen of Florida for the names,
in part, 'f the following list of varieties of the peach.
These will all be planted on the *Experiment Farm, and,
after careful testing as to flowering and fruiting, a revised list
will be made showing results, most likely reducing the list now
presented to fewer varieties, with synonyms:
I'EEX-TcO AND SKIEI-DLINcS O THE PEEIx-TO.--Shape flat
or globular, mostly semi-cling; ripen fromMay 1st to Junel 0th.
S3mI-CLIN ; .-Peen-to, Florida's Own, LaBelle, Southern
Queen, Alpha, Barrs' Daisy, Bidwells No. 7, Yum Yum, Lot-
tie, Orlando, Maggie. Seminole, June Beauty. Beta, Bidwell's
Late, Bettie. Wonder, King; July 1st to 15th.
F5tESTOXES.- Waldo Prolific, Angel, Pearson, Kerr's
'Free-
HoXEY AND ITS SK)EDLIXGS.-Shape oblong, curved;
freestones; ripen from May 15th to July 1st. Ellenora, Early
China, Climax, Pallas, Kite, Early Cream, Home's Favorite,
Julia,
Ho.s- -PEEN-T-OO COossEs.-Archer. Alachua, Florida.
CnrAsTnSE CmrNx SyEEmnLis.-Albert Sydney, Countess,
Thurber, Elberta.
BLOOD PE&cHES.-Red Ceylon, Indian, Cabler.
PIySLsx TYPE.-Amelia.








A3LELI. \AND is, NEY CtORss--Jaleienne.
N'i Iv -CI IN.- --Ripenc during June and .July. Dowl-
ing's Red, Big Red. Golden Press, Silver Press, Latleine,
Elma, Edith, Sunset, La Magriitiii-.
N'ArijvE Fitl:i:r-s N.:.-Golden Clear, Silver Clear, Per-
feotion, Florid:a Crawford. Paragon, Mammoth, Colossal, Ches-
sers, Victria, August Early, Augiiut L'tte, Watsoen' August,
Augustus, Powers' September, Jabkson's Prolfir:, ;iblmin's Oc-
tober, My Favorite Yellow. My Favorite White, Thomas' Late.
These freestones ripen from July 1st to October 15th, in about
the order named.





ENTOMOLOGIST'S REPOIAT.

rSTE('T IKX.*.lIJES.

The insects that attack the peach in Florida are not very
numerous, hut with the increase in orc:h:rds these ipsts wilt
most likely become a source of expense and amnovanice.
The Il-rv, of the S.',it,,,,,, e.vitiosat, usually kiown ais Lthe
borer," is by far the worst enemy of the young tree. Its
habits have been discussed in a former Bulletin by Professor
Asliihme:ad. and shall give but brietly his conclusion:
There is but one brood within the year.
The moth, or p>.i feet form, issues from thle cocoon in
April, when it. mates, and during that month lays the eggs,
near the gruniii. upon the trunk of the tree; the eggs hatch,
peun.trate the bark, and begin borrowing in the inner bark.
To prevent the deposit of the eggs then would be a rea-
suonible and prailuicl inference. Various methods have bieen
proposed, hilling up the tree one or two feet in March, wrap-
ping the trunk with tar paper, and coating the tilluk with
poisoned whitewash, soap or clayey paints. I prefer this for-
milla::
For~vuila 1. Take one potiud of common glue, soak over
night in cold water, theu dissolve it in a half gallon of hot wa-
ter, add o one ouei of Londoni purple: .-tir until iiheC color is
uniform. add hot water until lhe mixture measures two gallons.
During March remove the soil from the stem and crown
roots, cut out all borers fouild. a;,id apply the warily glue freely
over the trunk for the lower two feet. at least.








Hill up the tree until the earth is above any cut surface
of the trunk, and in most cases trees nearly girdled will soon
repair the damage done by the borer.
Small fires at sunset in the orchard during April will de-
stroy many moths, and this practice is recommended.
The nurculio, Jonotrachelus nenuipher, threatens to be the
worst foe to the peach and plum family.
There is some controversy as to its food where fruits ar-e
absent, with the preponderance of opinion that it subsists upon
the foliage of the plum or.peach.. My judgment is, that the
latter theory is correct, from experiments made by myself and
others with arsenical poisons.
After hibernation, during the short winter in Floridal
the beetles take wing early in January, and as soon as the
peach blooms fall, the females begin to pierce the fruit, laying
eggs, one in each incision, usually three or four a day, until
the stock of about 100 eggs is exhausted, when she dies.
The eggs hatch into soft, yellowish, footless worms that
gradually reduce the juicy fruit to a mass of filth and rotten-
ness, causing it soon to fall to the earth, where the worms en-
ter and transform, emerging in May or June as perfect bee-
ties. Then they attack the ripening fruit, tearing open the-
tender swarm- of bees. ants, wasps and weevils, and soon by fungoid
spores that destroy the fruit.
These pests feign death if disturbed, and drop to the-
ground, and this habit can be put to use over small areas, or-
with choice trees, by violently shaking or jarring the trees.
preferably in the early morning. The beetles can be gathered,
or a flock of chickens will render good service, and soon learn
to haunt the trees during the morning round of visits.
This method is impracticable with large orchards, and
spraying the trees with an arsenical mixture just as the fruit
"sets" has been found very efficacious.
Formodat Stir slowly eight quarts of sifted flour into.
eight quarts of cold water, set it on the fire and stir until it
boils and is thick paste; to this add four ounces of London
purple, mix thoroughly, dilute with water until fifty gallons.
are prepared.
Foirmnnd 3. Yellow soap, four pounds, dissolve in a gal-
lon of hot water, add four ounces of London purple, mix, di-
lute to fifty gallons with warm water.
Formula 4. I. Three pounds of sal soda, one pint of hot
water. heat: add slowly four pounds of rosin, and gradually






two pints of hot water. When dissolved add hot water to
make five gallons.
II. Sal soda, one pound; arsenic, four ounces; water, half
a gallon; heat. When dissolved add I to II, and dilute
with water to fifty gallons.
Apply these solutions to the tree in a fine spray once, at
the time of the setting of the fruit. I prefer solution 2 for
the curculio alone, but No. 3 for plant lice, and No. 4 for scale
and curculio.
The London purple is cheap, efficacious, distinctive in
color, and very diffusible. More than one pound to 200 gal-
lons of water burns the foliage, the heavy dews and frequent
rains giving it greater continuous action than stronger solu-
tions in other climates.
It is hardly necessary to remark that these are powerful
poisons, and stock should be kept out of orchards after their
use; though applied once to the fruit, at setting, there will
not be a trace of it at maturity, while the beetles eating the
poisoned foliage will be destroyed before they deposit eggs
within the fruit.
The peach louse, IThyzus persicue, is occasionally found
beneath the leaves of tender sprouts, causing them to curl and
die. Spraying with a soap mixture, either formula 3, or a
quarter of a pound of soap to one gallon of hot water is a sure
remedy.
A scale insect, probably an Aspidiotuw or t.ytilasis,
has been reported from some sections as occurring on old
or feeble trees, but I have not observed or investigated it.
It can easily be destroyed by the use of formula 4, applying
twice, at an interval of two weeks between .sprayings, in Oc-
tober or February.
Tender shoots of the peach, especially those just starting
from a bud or graft, are often seriously injured by various in-
sects, usually termed pumpkin bugs, chinches, etq These are
the .Raphiflaste hilaris, green soldier bug; the Metapodius
femoratus, and -,eptoglosst phyllcpus, l.eag legs. They punc-
ture the juicy stems, which at once wilt as if scorched. The
damage done is very annoying, and often quite considerable.
The normal food of these bugs is probably some of the sun-
flower, thistle and golden rod family, for they seem to delight
in assembling upon the plants when in bloom. Destroy these
food plants and spray tender shoots with formula 3, reduced
to half strength, would probably be the best remedy.
Katydids, grasshoppers and crickets are troublesome in
the early spring, before grasses and weeds have started, eating








the foliage and girdling the young stems. In must cases clean
culture,-with a flook'of chickens and guineas in the orchard-
will prove a remedy, but if not available try Formtuha 5.
Paris green, one ounce; chopped grass, pea leaves or
peach leaves, eight ounces; syrup enough to ma ke the nmas
cohesive. Make into small bllls and place under chips or
boards near the trees. Every morning uncover, gather and
burn the crickets, snapping beetles and other insects you will
find. Of course, these should not be fed to poultry.
Termites. white ants, etc.., only infest trees that are
planted in proximity to stumps, or in fields covered with pine
chips.
Barn stumps, roots. chips and scraps of wood before
planting the trees, but if this cannot be done, clear away the
decaying wood of the tree. and brush with solution Yo. 3..
The same remedy is available in the case of the black fire
ant," Sqolenopsis xyloni. This often attacks young shoots, or
makes its colonies at the base of trees and as it both bites and
stings when disturbed, it is not to be despised, and can be de-
stroyed with insect powder. fresh lime, kerosene emulsion, or
by tearing open the hills and saturating the nests with hot
water.
The Roothi n. This disease in nurseries, or with yoing
trees, has done considerable damage, and is the source of some
diversity of opinion as to prevention or cure.
The United States Bulletin No. 20, of the Entomological
Department, at Washiigton, D. C. is a study of the cause-
and its habits. and its conclusions are:
The cause is a microscopic nemrtotde worn. This is par-
asitic in a number of native plants along the Gulf coat.
The remedy is to plant non-infected trees in fresh or ster-
ilized soil; to bud or graft into healthy, resistant stock, and
use artificial and strongly potassic fertilizers.
JAs. C. N. i.. f. D.,
Entomologist-









/ ANNUAL REPORT OF EXPERIMENT STATION.

LAKE CITY, FLA, February 1, 1889.
To 11is Erel'lency Frur,-is P. Fleming, Gov'eruir of Floridu.-
Sin-I have the honor to submit herewith a brief report
of the operations of the Florida Experiment Station, in obe-
dience to the provisions of the Act constituting said Station,
approved by the President of the United States of America,
March 2, 1887.
The changes in the Directorship and Staff occurring so
near the time prescribed for this report, and the- confusion in-
cident thereto. have greatly hindered me, so that only a brief
summary of the past and present experiments can be given.
I am. your Excellency, yours obediently,
JAs. P. DEFPS,
Director Florida Experiment Station.



In consequence of tle lateness of the season when I as-
sumed control of the Florida Experiment Station, at Lake
City, Florida, but little has been accomplished in experimenta-
tion.
The disadvantages have been almost unsurmounltable. Of
the 100 acres of the Experiment Farm, forty or more are with-
in the limits of Lake Alligator. thirty-five are yet original for-
est, and of the remainder nearly one-half is but partially cleared
of roots and stumps.
I will plant from three to six trees of the leading varieties
of peach, pear, plum, fig, apple, quince, nectarine and apricot,
and a variety of grapes- and strawberries, that may prove of
value in Florida.
These will receive careful tests as to adaptability for this-
climate and soil, and the future will approve or reject the re-
stlts.
A small nursery of peat and peach stocks has been planted!
/ for experiments in budding and grafting.
The experiments instituted by my predecessor with vaSi-
ous forage plants, such as timothy, wheat, blue grass and a va-
riety of cloversi have ieen continued, with very unsatisfactory-







results. Such plants as pronlise well will be given further
time, and, when practicable, correct inference as to their value
will be given in future Bulletins.
The seeds of many new forage plants such ;s serradilla,
Titcies, lupines and pease have been planted, and ensilage
plants. as teosintlle, millets and various sorghums are being
tested as to growth and availability.
A small herd of Jersey cows are at the Station, and espe-
vial foods, with their effects upon milk and butter, will be a
subjrct of future investigation.
Small areas of oats, corn, rice, cotton, peas, potatoes and
sugar cane are being planted to ascertain the effects of vary-
ing quantities of fertilizers.
From the lack of suitable apparatus and rooms little has
been done in entomological research, and until both are sup-
plied, little should be expected in this department.
A collection of insects has been begun, and plans formu-
klted for experiments with insecticides, in connection with the
study (of tie life-history of insects that affect the tobacco plant,
which is the subject selected for this year's work.
There being few published reports on the insects of Flor-
ida, and these not reliable, makes the study of the habits of
those insects known to be destructive quite an undertaking,
and one that will require the labor of several years at the
least.
In Botany, it is contemplated to investigate the distribu-
tion and habits of our common weeds, and to ascertain their
value in any degree for forage, land improvement, or medicinal
nses.
Studies in cross-fertilizing will be carried on whenever
practical, and efforts made to propagate new and valuable
crosses of fruits, vegetables and plants suitable to Florida.
In the Department of Chemistry I submit the report of
Professor J. M. Pickell, Ph. D.
"Soon after the passage of the Hatch Act, ?March, 1888,-
the Board of Trustees of the Florida State Agricultuial Col- '
lege effected a temporary, or rather preliminary, organization
of the Station. To my duties as Professor of Physics and
Chemistry, at the College, were added those of Chemist at the
Experiment Station. Owing to the small number of teachers
at the College, I taught, in addition to the class in Chemistry,
one in Latin and two in English Grammar. As soon as prac-
ticable, I was relieved of these classes, and, in April, 188,.
was able to do some analyses for the Station. These were
analyses of soils of the Station Farm, and some waters fromt







Lake City and Jacksonville; Florida. The former were pub-
lished in Bulletin No. 3.
UI1) to this time, all Station work had been done in the?
College Laboratory. This consisted' of two small rooms, and/
a very meager outfit. of appiratus. the amount. of which may
he inferred when 1 state that the entire cost of chemicals,
apparatus, gasoline machine and fittings, and gasoline, fiom
November, 1884, to April, 1888, was $1,091.40.
The Laboratory had no supply of water other than as
brought by hand in buckets.
In JAne, j 1M88 I was directed byithei Board of 'Trustees
to get up a plan for the building, which should serve as haeiad-
quarters for the Director and Staff of the Experiment Station,
as well as a Chemical Laboratory for the Station, and for St-
dents' practice.
The building was to cost not less tha il ,000( (p8I00i firot
the Kxperiment Fuind and $2,000 from the College Fund).
I was engaged until late in the summer on the details of
the plan. T'he contract was let, toward the latter part of Jiuly,
the building to be complete by Novemberl 15, 1888,but, owing
to the epidemic and the many rainy days, it Was;not completed
until the middle of Decenmber.
The necessity of having an assistant in Chltemistry was
shown to the Roard of trusteess at their amnnal meeting ifn
June, 1888, and Mr. Joln J. Earle, a recent graduate of the
University of South Carolina, was employed at the opening of
the fall term, October 5, 1888. Mr. Earle had received good
training in Analytical Chemistry, and has proven a most in-
dustrious and competent assistant. During the fall.and win-
ter many requests for anAlyses of muck, soils' waters, etc, bave
been made, and, as far as practicable, the work hias liee done,
and the results will be given in future Bulletins.
The new Laboratory is rapidly :approaching completion,
and will be the equal, for its size, of any in the S~Oth itn equip-
meit and personnel."
In conclusion, I may remark that it is the. fa ( ~'p i'
Director and hig Staff to make this Expe ime0.1. iti.oni ~)
eminently practical one in its results to the itRi st of FlPo.
ida. Respectfully submitted. .. '







FINANCIAL. REPI'(OT TO THE TREASURE (I F THE UNITED
STATES, FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1888.
RXPER IUNENT STATION OF I.OlI1DA.
1 K,,. CR.
SApril -P.aid J.1 Kost. salary. March. $100; salary S. B.
Mann, $15; Elmore Young. work, -3.. $Sl .00
May 3- .. E. Young, series ..................... 59.75
3- .1. K,.st, expenses of Station, April........ 208.32
SII-- W. 1). Barnes. Trustee, expense of attending
at Lake Citv ............. ...... --.-- 10.50
7 11- E. S. Crill, Trustee, expense of attending
meeting at Lake City..... .......... 10.40
11- )orr & Bowen, printing...............-..-- I..S
20- A. E. M:Clure............................ 115.00"
June .. Knst, salaries, as per account. uand print-
ing Bulletin. No. I.................... (K07.29
8- A. J. Russell. expenses attending meeting
Trustees at Lake City ................. 10.48
11- .1. Kost, lumber and labor................. 170.84
S1- J. E. Young, nails, etc..................... 12.24
J. E. Young, advances for labor............ .74
22- H. H. Emmons, lumber and labor......... 68.75
:--- Times-Union, publishing Bulletin No. 2 .. 10.00
:-:- .J. Kost, Director, salary, June ........... 166.66
30- J. Kost, expenses of Station.............. 25.87
:t- ,W H. Ashmead, salary, June............. 100.00
:10- A. H. Curtiss, salary, June................ 50.00
30- G. T. Maxwell. salary, June............... 50.00
30- .. F. Appell, salary, June................. 50.00
30- Parker & Wood. tools..................... 94.75
Julv 1;- J.. E. Young, advance for labor............. 92.00
Laboratory building ...................... 3,000.00
Apparatus, chemicals, etc., for Laboratory, 1,885.00
Office furniture for Director ..-....-..... 250,00
Water works and tax..................... 750.00
One two-horse wagon and mules.......... 450-00
Farm tools................................ 75.00
Implements on hand...................... 600.00
One wagon and harness................... 44.75
A. H. Curtiss, salary for May............... 50.00
G. Troup Maxwell, salary for May........ 50.00
Carpenters' tools for Station ............... 27.60.
Two cows for breeding.................... 150.00
Hogs for breeding ........................ 60.00
Sheep for breeding.... .... .......... 100.00
Station Library.........................- 250.00 v
Clearing land and fencing, etc............. 2,625.00
i ling ......................... .. .. .... 600.00
Dairy and other stock................... 1,586.11

Total.......................... ... $15,000.00
188 I DR.
tair/h-(l1. prbpriati6n General Government U. S...... $7,000.00
April-Appropriation General Government U. S.......... 3,750.00
Tuly--Appropriation'.General Government U. S ......... 8,750.00

STotal .................. .......... $15,000.00
S.\, JAs. P. DEPAss, Director.
"'. IV-




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