i-pmiVtrml Of E T180HT
Bulletin No. 24. January, 1894.
AII[hULTUVfAL XPERIMINT STATION
Arrual Report, 1893.
0. CLUTE, Director.
The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment
Station, Lake City, Fla.
TH VA'NCE PRINTING CO., JACKSONVILLE.
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
HON. WALTER GWYNN, President...................................Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice President..........................Pensacola
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee ........Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGAN, Secrctary................................Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER ...................................................Brooksville
HON. S. J. TURNBULL .......................... ..................M..Monticello
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY ................................................DeLand
O. CLUTE, M. S. LL. D .......... ....................... .................Director
J. N. WHrPNER, A. M...........................................Horticulturist
P. H. ROLFS, M. S......................... .........................Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M S............................. ........................Chemist
WM. G. DEPASS......................................Assistant Agriculturist
C. A. FINLEY..............................................Director's Secretary
L. C. WASHBURN............Superintendent Fort Myers Sub-station
J. T. STUBBS .................Superintendent DeFuniak Sub-station
To the Hon. H. L. Mitchell, Governor of Florida,
To the Honorable Board of Trustees
of the Florida Agricultural College,
I submit to you herewith my first annual report as
Director of the Florida Experiment Station, being for the
period extending from September 18th, 1893, to Decem-
ber 31st, 1893.
Very respectfully yours,
LAKE CITY, FLA., January 18, 1894.
To the Hon. H. L. Mitchell, Governor of Florida,
To the Honorable Board of Trustees
of the Florida Agricultural College,
My term of office as Director of the Florida Experi-
ment Station began on September 1st, 1893, hence this
report, so far as my own work is concerned, embraces
only the last four months of the year 1893. When I
entered upon duty there came into my hands no unpub-
lished notes of experiments either complete or incomplete,
hence it was necessary for me to initiate work.
One of the first things that came to my notice in re-
gard to agriculture in Florida, is that the State does not
produce enough forage and grain for home consumption.
Large sums are now paid annually for forage and grain
grown north of us. If this forage and this grain, espe-
cially the grain for feeding stock, can be grown in Florida
these large sums will be saved, it will be made possible
to produce the meats consumed in the State, and a large
production of valuable fertilizers will result as a by-
product. Hence I began immediately to experiment with
the growth of winter forage. Plats have been sown with
oats, rye, barley, wheat, rape, turnips, ruta-baga, kale and
collards, with a view of learning the profit of growing
these as forage crops during our winter season. It seems
to me that with our cheap lands and our incomparable
climate, we can grow better fodder and at less expense
than any other State. I hope to prove this, and shall
leave no means of doing so untried.
I shall continue to work with the crops mentioned
above, and shall add to the list various millets, Kaffir
corn, Milo maize, Teosinte, Guinea grass, Flat pea (Lathy-
rus silvestris), Polygonum sachaliense, goobers, chufas
and sweet potatoes.
My experience as Director of the Michigan Experi-
ment Station with the Flat pea was most encouraging, and
as soon as seed can be procured I will try the plant here.
The prices of cotton just now are very low, and much
discouragement exists among cotton growers. It there-
fore becomes necessary to learn if more productive varie-
ties of cotton of better quality can be grown at less
expense. To this subject careful attention will be given.
Tobacco growing is just now in a very depressed state,
owing to the uncertainty of the tariff. It has been made
clear by years of successful experience that a superior
article of tobacco can be grown in Florida. But much
remains to be done in learning the best varieties, soil,
cultivation, fertilizers and curing. To this work the
Station at Lake City will give attention.
Many Florida farmers desire to grow sugar cane to
make syrup and sugar for home consumption. It would
not be surprising should this State again produce large
quantities of sugar as a commercial article. Experiments
in growing cane, including varieties, soil, fertilizers and
cultivation will be made in the near future.
The production of up-land rice may become a much
larger and a much more profitable industry than at pres-
ent. I shall procure promising varieties from Japan,
China, India and other rice growing centers. Attention
will also be given to the growth of low-land rice, as there
are large acres of Florida where this rice can be profitably
The climate and soil of Florida give it unexampled
facilities for the growth of truck and fruit. This indus-
try is yet in its infancy. Much remains to be learned as
to varieties, seasons, cultivation and fertilizers. We shall
from year to year carry on experiments to discover what
may be done in all these directions. The experiments
in truck farming will be carried on mainly in Lake City.
Olive culture is so valuable an industry wherever the
olive will thrive, that we should try to learn if it will thrive
in this State. To this end I shall have olive trees set at
our three stations, and in other parts of Florida, this
spring. The fig is one of the important fruit crops of
the world. We should learn if the fig can be grown and
cured on a lage scale in Florida. A few trees will be set
out this spring, and others as fast as I learn of promising
The annual report of Prof. J. N. Whitner, Horticultur-
ist of the Station, is printed in the appendix; marked A.
Investigations as to the insect pests of the various
farm, orchard and garden crops, and also as to fungoid
diseases, are among the most essential helps to modern
agriculture. Much has been learned by investigation in
all parts of the world in the last few years to aid the
agriculturist to conquer these foes. But much more re-
mains to be done. A department of our Experiment Sta-
tion will devote much time to this work. This department
is now led by Prof. P. H. Rolfs. It gives me much
pleasure to call your attention to the fact that under him
Florida is not behind other States in original valuable
discoveries in this line. Prof. Rolfs is the discoverer of
the cause of the disease known as tomato blight, one of
the most destructive fungoid diseases to which the
tomato is subject in this State. He has pointed out a
remedy which promises to hold it in check. His work in
this immediate direction will be carried on during the
coming year with careful attention. Prof. Rolfs is not
unfrequently called to different parts of the State to inves-
tigate various pests, and to advise as to remedies. He
recently discovered the presence at DeFuniak Springs of
a most destructive enemy to several varieties of decidu-
ous fruits. I refer to the San Jose scale, which is found
at that point diffused through several orchards. I am
now in communication with the fruit growers of DeFu-
niak, and with the Department of Agriculture in Wash-
ington, as to the steps necessary to exterminate this scale
before it has made further progress. The seriousness of
the matter cannot be overestimated. If this scale is
allowed to spread, the fruit industry will be ruined
wherever the pest gets a strong hold. I shall give much
attention to this, and hope next year to be able to report
that every scale has been wiped out.
The work done and in progress in regard to tomato
blight and San Jose scale, is but a sample of the imme-
diate service the Experiment Station can do for all the
agricultural industries of the State. Diseases of the
pineapple, the citrus fruits, the peach, the pear, the man-
go, have already received attention, but all need constant
study by men trained for the work. A brief report of
Prof. Rolfs is appended, marked B.
As to the insect pests of citrus fruits, I call attention
to the fact that the Department of Agriculture in Wash-
ington has a special agent in Florida for this work-Mr.
H. G. Hubbard, Crescent City, who is considered the
ablest man in America on the insects that infest citrus
fruits. The Department of Agriculture has also a Sub-
Tropical Laboratory at Eustis, for the study of the dis-
eases of citrus fruits. This laboratory is in charge of
Prof. W. T. Swingle and Prof. H. J. Webber, who are
most thoroughly trained. As they have a well equipped
laboratory, and are in the midst of the "Orange Belt,"
they have every advantage for the pursuit of these spe-
cial lines. From the investigations of these three men
we may expect most valuable results.
As the pests and diseases of the citrus family are thus
in such competent hands, our Florida Experiment Station
need not take up this line of investigation, but give its
efforts in other directions.
The dependence of modern agriculture upon chemistry
is most intimate. Knowledge of soils, fertilizers, the
constituents of various crops, and the nutritive value to
man or beast of the food crops, comes directly from chem-
ical investigation. The chemist of the Experiment Sta-
tion, Prof. A. A. Persons, is largely employed in answering
the numerous questions in his department which come to
my office, and in analyzing material sent in from all
parts of the State. He is also at present engaged in de-
termining the nutritive value of the orange, work which
has not heretofore been done in Florida. For a report of
the Chemist see appendix C.
Dr. A. W. Bitting, the former able veterinarian of the
Experiment Station, was called in June last to a more
lucrative position in the Indiana Experiment Station. It'
has not been possible as yet to resume work in this de-
partment. The large and increasing livestock interest of
this State, and the presence among our stock of certain
diseases that are peculiar to the State, make it important
that we enter upon investigations as to livestock diseases
as soon as possible. "Big head," "leeches," "salt sick-
ness," are three very serious diseases, concerning which
Dr. Bitting had made important studies before leaving
Florida. It is is a misfortune that his work should be
lost to the State. I append a brief report of his work up
to the time of his resignation, marked D.
The branch Experiment Station at DeFuniak is under
the charge of J. T. Stubbs, Esq. He has done as well as
could be expected considering the conditions. The work
is in a very undeveloped state, owing to inferior location
and lack of funds. I hope to put more money into sub-
dueing more land, and in planting orchard fruits and
small fruits. Probably it will be well to confine tests
with deciduous fruits and small fruits mainly to the De-
Funiak Branch Station. Something can also be done
here with farm and garden crops. A report from Mr.
Stubbs, marked E, is submitted.
At Fort Myers, in Lee county, south of the Caloosa-
hatchie river, the Experiment Station has a branch. It
is located on the bank of the river about one and one-
fourth miles from the Fort Myers postoffice. The loca-
tion is a very good one. The soil is about the same as
that of other large portions of South Florida. The work
here has been from the beginning in charge of Dr. L. C.
Washburne. The place is not in as good order as it should
be. This may in a measure be due to a lack of money
and to the large amount of labor required to open up a
new farm. Much should be done without delay to put
the work here in better condition.
The sub-tropical portion of Florida, including the im-
mense area south of the 25th parallel of latitude, has a
climate that enables it to grow products that cannot be
produced elsewhere in the State, nor in the United States.
Some of these can be profitably grown and marketed
during the winter. To lead in discovering fruits, vegeta-
bles, and farm crops adapted to this section, and in learn-
ing the fertilizers and methods of cultivation, is a most
important work for the development of Florida, and for
the Station to enter upon. I hope that this work can go
on with increasing success. A report from Dr. Wash-
burne is attached, marked F.
In closing this report permit me to call your attention
to 1he unsatisfactory location of the Experiment farm at
Lake City. The land so slopes and is so lacking in tenac-
ity that after every heavy rain we find that much of the
surface has been carried into Alligator Lake. More val-
uable use could be made of the present farm by putting
it into permanent pasture of Bermuda grass, or by plant-
ing it to groves of nut-bearing trees; but we ought not to
depend upon it alone for our most important and delicate
experiments. Other land, level in character, should be
added to the present farm.
At DeFuniak Springs also our forty-acre piece is badly
divided by ravines, which receive;the water from many
acres, so that during heavy rains the ravines become tor-
rents. Here good land adjacent to our present farm
should be added to it. In a State where there is so much
good land, well located, it is not wise economy for any of
our Experiment Stations to be confined to an unfavorable
Very respectfully yours,
Report of Horticulturist.
FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION, January 13, 1894.
President Oscar Clute, Director,
SIR:-Practical work in this Department has been
chiefly directed toward improving the cultural condition
of the grounds of garden and orchard, in order that more
reliable results in future experiments might be expected.
The lands of this Station belong to that class which is
known in Forida as "light sandy hammock;" they are
also "high and rolling." The forest growth of these lands
consists largely of water oak, magnolia, hickory, pine,
beach, live-oak, etc. The tenacity, or cohesive properties,
of the particles of soil being weak, and the clay sub-soil
somewhat distant, most of the organic matter washes
away very soon after the restraining effect of the roots of
the forest growth is destroyed by decay. To prevent so
serious a loss, terracing for garden and orchard, and hori-
zontaling for field and cultivation, should be adopted
before a plow is ever used. Nor is it advisable, on these
light soils, to make the terraces or horizontal beds on a
dead level, but allow a fall of 4 to 6 inches ,to the 100
feet to carry safely into hillside drains all surplus water
after very heavy rains.
In the cultivation of vegetables special attention was
bestowed upon cauliflowers, early cabbages, celery and
tomatoes as a table fruit.
Celery seeds of Giant Paschal, Golden Dwarf, and
Self-Blanching varieties were sown September 29; they
should have been planted in July. Seeds of Early Paris,
Autumn, Giant, Late-Algiersl cauliflowers; Early Walch-
eren Broccoli, and several varieties of cabbages, were
sown October 6. The first of the Brassicas to head was
the Charleston Wakefield cabbage, January 12; next,
Early Paris cauliflower, January 15; then Broccoli, Feb-
ruary 12, and Autumn Giant and Late Algiers cauliflow-
ers, March 6th and 15th, respectively.
The Early Paris, besides being from one to two months
earlier than the others, is of more delicate flavor, and
occupying less space, because of its compactness of
growth, may be planted closer. The later varieties, how-
ever, are not so liable to be injured by frost while in flower.
The Charleston Wakefield cabbage, a seedling of the
Jersey Wakefield, though considerably larger, produced
firm, handsome heads in 98 days from sowing the seeds,
and 40 days from the date of transplanting. It was
entirely free from insect disturbance, while plant lice were
infesting other varieties in the same field.
The experiments with celery pointed to the greater
excellence of the Giant Paschal over all others, when
matured and consumed during cool weather, which early
July planting will ensure. Both dwarf and giant varie-
ties were ready for use, well blanched, 12 to 18 inches,
solid, tender and crisp, in six and one-half months from
ORCHARD VINEYARD, SMALL FRUITS, ETC.
As a beginning, we have three varieties of the olive
(Olea Europaea), viz.: Mission, Picholine and Gentili,
now under experiment.
Bearing olive trees are to be found in several places in
this State, and also on the coast of Southeast Georgia, but
no one, so far as known, has engaged to any extent in the
cultivation of this fruit now so profitably grown in Cali-
fornia. DD. Morse, of San Mateo, Cal., gives the follow-
ing interesting information respecting early varieties, etc.:
"At the third State Convention of Olive Growers held
last July (1893), Mr. Howland, of Pomona, stated that
his olive trees, embracing nine varieties, were planted five
years ago the 17th of last April, and were two years old
when planted. Seven of the varieties commenced to bear
the second year, and have borne regular and steady crops
ever since. Two of the varieties bore for the first time
last year." He says: "All the bearing part of my
orchard-five years old-returned me over $400 per acre
last season, the fruit being made into oil. The Pedulina,
Rubra and Columella paid me about $7.50 per tree."
When the people of Florida can be assured results
corresponding to those described above, olive culture will
become a leading industry in this State.
Upwards of three hundred plants of the citrus trifo-
liata were set out last March, to determine its value as a
barrier hedge plant, and is growing well. We have some
choice varieties of the orange-Dancey's Tangerine, Mal-
tese Blood, Mediterranean Sweet, Satsuma, etc.-budded
a year ago on this popular trifoliataa) stock.
In the Station orchard are quite a number of fine
fruit trees in bearing, among them young Satsuma oranges
and well developed LeConte pear trees. Besides these are
peach trees, without label or record of name, and in
an unthrifty condition from the ravages of the borer
(}Egerisexitiosa), Japan persimmons and oriental pears,
no names, and a lot of promising looking fig bushes which
are believed to have been imported from Europe by the
United States Department of Agriculture.
Forty Italian grape vines, representing as many differ-
ent varieties, with roots well preserved, were received
from California and planted out February 13 with the
hope that some of them might develop sufficient merit to
warrant grafting upon native stock. In the old vineyard
are a few vines left, some with fruit, but the varieties are
Mr. J. C. Rogers, of Morristown, N. J., sent us about
two dozen Enhance strawberry plants for trial in this
climate. They were planted November 20, grew rapidly,
began bearing the last of February and continued to bear
uninterruptedly to June 30. The fruit is of good size,
of rather irregular shape and very sweet, but does not
ripen uniformly. We are also experimenting with the
Everbearing (Australian) strawberry obtained from Cali-
fornia. Since it seems to be impossible to grow the rasp-
berry in Florida, we are deeply interested in the Logan
plant, of which we have a few. This plant is a cross be-
tween the rasp and blackberries and originated in Cali-
fornia. Two of our plants, though not planted until the
1st of May, produced ripe berries 15th of June.
J. N. WHITNER, Horticulturist.
Report of the Botanist and Entomologist.
Dr. O. Clute, Director,
Dear Sir:-The past season has been an exceptional
one for fungus and insect diseases of plants. The pro-
longed cold of the winter, followed by a cool, moist spring,
seemed to make conditions proper for the development
of these disorders.
Some qf the tests of fungicides for tomato blight were
deemed complete enough to report on, and were published
in Bulletin No. 21. Other tests were carried on, but they
should be repeated two or more times before any conclu-
sions are drawn from them.
The effect of Bordeaux mixture and ammoniacal solu-
tion of copper carbonate was tried on egg-plant-blight, or
tomato blight. The field was particularly well adapted
to the test, inasmuch as this disease was exceedingly
abundant. The field was divided into thirteen plots, six
of which were used for checks and seven were treated.
The first application was made on June 23rd, the second
on July 8th, the third on July 19th, and the fourth on
July 29th. Further work on this will be done in other
At the same time there was present on the egg-plant
the leaf-spot fungus, Phyllosticta hortorum, Speg.; the effect
of the above named fungicides on this was also noted.
Where egg-plant can be grown free from diseases it is
a profitable employment, but the above named diseases
are so generally distributed that it is usually unprofitable.
'The Kelsey and other plums suffer severely from the
shot-hole fungus; several fungicides were tried on trees
at the- station. The treatment was begun on March
13th. There seemed to be an advantage from using
Bordeaux mixture and Eau Celeste, but no difference was
detected between those treated with Par Odium and the
Paris green and London purple were used as prevent-
atives from the attack of the plum curculio. While
there was a decided advantage in using these arsenites,
the exact amount could not be ascertained for unavoidable
The tests made in the peach orchard for remedies for
curculio were very similar to those on the plum trees and
the results in a great degree the same.
While testing some tobacco seed it was found that some
seedlings assumed strange forms and in a few days would
die, apparently damp-off. On further study it was dis-
covered that Heterodera radicicola was responsible for the
disorder. The seedlings were grown on moist sand that
had been brought in from the field ten months before and
had been kept in an air dry condition during the entire
time up to its use in the germinator. The sand had been
selected as being "clean."
When the seedling was attacked at once on sprouting,
it assumed the shape represented by Fig. 1 and succumbed.
When attacked after the radicle had grown several times
the diameter of the seed the form may be represented by
Fig. 2; if, however, the radicle had grown several times
this length Fig. 3 shows the form it took. When a seed-
ling had become well established before being attacked
the edematous condition would be at the point of attack;
it was not uncommon for an established seedling to have
two or several such enlargements, making it appear like
a small string of beads. Fig. 4 represents a seedling at-
tacked just below the cotyledons, though this was not
more common than for them to be attacked at some other
point. Fig. 5 represents a healthy seedling. All magni-
fied ten times.
The irritation is produced by the nematodes from the
outside; that is, it should not be understood that the
guest enters the tissue of the host, but the enlargement is
--) ''* v
brought about by an external presence. The effect is
quite evenly distributed throughout the entire diameter.
The result is brought about by an cedematous condition
of the individual cell, and not by a multiplication of cells
at the point of irritation. The cotyledons are arrested in
their development while the caulicle fails to appear at all.
The radicle continues to develop for a time but later suc-
cumbs, probably from the want of response of the foliage
All the forms figured above appear as seedlings in the
seed-bed, and make it look promising for a heavy stand,
but in a week or two they all "damp off."
From the foregoing it is plain that seed-beds should
not be made on lands infested with root-knot (Heterodera
radicicola). Old land is apt to be infested, but we can be
certain of the infection only by observation of the trouble
in some crops grown.
Thirty-six cases for holding entomological specimens
were purchased to hold the Hymenoptera and the Dip-
tera. These orders have been placed in order, Packard's
Guide being used for the sequence of families.
Twelve cages for rearing insects were added.
Four hundred herbarium sheets were added to the
collection. The specimens were mostly collected in
Florida. The work of mounting was done by students.
Lake City, January 8, 1894.
~-. r-.,', 2
I C', f
Report of Chemist.
LAKE CITY, FLA., Jan. 15, 1894.
D. O. Clute, Director, Lake City, Fla.,
DEAR SIR:-I respectfully submit the following report
of the work done by me as Chemist of the Florida Experi-
ment Station for the year ending December 31, 1893.
My time has been consumed in the analysis of various
agricultural products, etc., for the Station and for various
parties throughout the State. The samples analyzed
were more than one hundred in number and included
phosphates, fertilizers, soils, mucks, marls, mineral waters,
feed stuffs, etc., and, in addition, a chemical study of the
orange was undertaken with a view to ascertaining the
comparative nutrine value of different varieties, and also
the amount of fertilizing constituents removed by them
from the soil during growth. The investigation was pre-
liminary and will be continued the present year.
This Department also issued a bulletin in September
on "Soils and Fertilizers," which has met with a generous
reception from both press and people of the State.
A. A. PERSONS,
Chemist Experiment Station.
Report of the Veterinary Department.
To O. Clute, Director :
The diseases which have been given special attention,
are known by the local terms, "big-head," "leeches" and
"salt sick." The first and second are confined almost
exclusively to the horse, and the last to cattle. It is diffi-
cult to estimate the loss caused by these diseases, but it
certainly amounts to thousands of dollars annually.
Some idea of the loss may be gained when we consider
the number of attempts that have been made to import
animals into this State, or even change from one locality
to another, that have ended in failure.
"Big-head" is known in veterinary literature as osteo-
porosis. It is very generally distributed over the State.
Some localities of comparative small area, in the phos-
phate region, claim to be exempt. The term "big-head"
is a misnomer description of a symptom of the disease
and not of the disease itself. This has caused a misun-
derstanding on the part of many and been fruitful of
much irrational treatment. Horses of all ages are subject
to attacks, young horses succumbing more readily than the
old. Those between the ages of three and six years,
usually enlarge more about the face than those that are
older. This can be accounted for by the fact that the
teeth are in a very active growing condition at that period.
The disease is sometimes confused with other diseases, as
pus in the facial sinuses and caries of the teeth because
these may also produce similar enlargements. Alto-
gether too much stress is placed upon the enlargement of
the bones of the face for the recognition of the disease
and as being the essential point for attack in the treat-
A careful study of the symptoms of the disease and
the characteristics which differentiate it from other dis-
eases has been made. The history of all cases that came
under observation were taken in order to determine some
of the probable causes. The pathology and treatment
received as much attention as the cases at our disposal
would permit. To determine the efficiency of certain
remedies, a large number of cases will be necessary for
"Leeches" is recognized as bursatti. It has been
chiefly reported by English veterinarians in India, but
has received but very few notices in this country. This
disease attacks animals that graze on low or marsh land,
becoming more and more abundant as one proceeds
southward. It is characterized by an indolent sore,
exuding a thick serum, the tissue filled with little
hardened nodules known as the "leech." The points of
attack are the heel, legs, mouth, lips and breast-points
most readily abraided. Such sores refuse to heal under
the most careful and patient treatment.
The results of our work are not fully in accord with
that of other workers in the matter of inoculation or
treatment. A few more cases will be necessary to con-
firm or disapprove the work that has been done.
"Salt-sick" is a term applied to nearly all diseases to
which bovine flesh is heir. It is to the stockmen of this
State what "hollow-horn" is to those of some of the other
States. The term does not mean the same in all parts of
the State. In some localities it refers to animal parasit-
ism, which is contracted by foraging over certain area.
In other parts it is caused by animals grazing over drying
lakes or swamps, in which the vegetation is unwholesome.
A third cause is the eating of grass which has had sand
washed upon it by dashing rains.
A. W. BITING,
Report of the Superintendent
DeFUNIAK SPRINGS SUB-STATION.
To Dr. O. Clute, Director,
The Superintendent of the DeFuniak Springs Sub-
Station herewith submits his report for the year ending
December 31st, 1893.
The Sub-Station owns forty acres of land near the city
of DeFuniak Springs. It is piny woods land, of about
the same quality as most of the lands in West Florida.
Ten acres of this land have been cleared and cultivated.
There is a small four-room dwelling house for the Su-
perintendent, which cost about $700, and a small frame
barn, 16 by 20 foot, which cost about $125. The land
and the buildings were a gift from some of the citizens of
There are now in cultivation nineteen varieties of the
peach, principally of the Oriental type. These early
blooming varieties are frequently frosted in this climate
and are not profitable. In the spring of 1893, fifty El-
berta peach trees were planted. With these trees an ex-
periment was made with fertilizers. Muriate and sulphate
of potash, acid phosphate and nitrate of soda were ap-
plied. These fertilizers were applied singly, either two of
them mixed, and the three mixed. Nothing was gained
in wood growth where no nitrogen was applied. The fer-
tilizers were applied on the surface, in a radius of four
feet. There were two applications. The first application
was on June 2d. In the thirty days following this appli-
cation the trees made an average growth of ten inches.
There was no marked difference of growth in the fertil-
ized trees over that of the unfertilized. The second ap-
plication of fertilizer was made July 3d. After this ap-
plication, to the end of the season the trees treated with
nitrate of soda added to the growth twelve inches and
remained green until frost. These trees had twelve
ounces of nitrate of soda at each application, that is,
twenty-four ounces for the season. No other trees of this
lot made any growth after July 1st.
There are thirteen varieties of pears, all doing well as
to wood growth, except Idaho and Japan. Jefferson,
Bartlett and Duchess bore a few fruit this year. Jefferson
is a very handsome pear; ripe June 19th.
A variety of apricots and plums have been set. As
yet there is nothing favorable to report concerning them.
Of farm products we grow a small field of cotton-
"' Matthews' Long Staple." It made a good growth and
gave a fine yield. We think this desirable for upland
long staple cotton. It has short joints, good sized boll,
and shows no disposition to rust.
Of sugar cane we grew a small field of Keni-Keni," a
green variety, the seed of which came from the Sandwich
Islands. It was planted on a sand hill, and at the time
of planting was fertilized with 600 pounds of acid phos-
phate; at time of first working with 400 pounds of cotton
seed meal, and at the second working with 200 pounds of
nitrate of soda. It produced 63,000 pounds of green
cane per acre.
A small plot of Cassava was planted on the same class
"of land. No fertilizer was used other than 600 pounds
of acid phosphate per acre. It did well. This is with-
out doubt a profitable root crop for this country, It re-
quires but little cultivation, does not seem to be affected
on the upland by the wet and dry seasons, yields from
eight to fifteen tons of root per acre. All stock like the
root, and thrive on the food.
A small plot was planted with tobacco, the seed from
Cuba. It was fertilized with cotton seed meal, 200
pounds; sulphate of potash, 150 pounds; acid phosphate,
100 pounds per acre. It produced 500 pounds per acre.
This is not a difficult crop to grow in this section.
During the year 1,166 cubic yards of ditch have been
cut, and three-fourths of the fence been re-set. In ad-
dition to the fifty peach trees mentioned above, 100 Sat-
suma orange trees have been planted. The orange is
doing well. It seems to be quite hardy in this climate
and bears very early. J. T. STUBBS,
DeFuniak Springs, Fla., Jan. 8, 1894.
Report of Superintendent
BRANCH STATION AT FORT MYERS.
Director O. Clute,
The land of this branch station consists of twenty-five
and one-half acres, half mile east of the city limits. It
has about 1,000 feet of water front, on the south side of
the Caloosahatchee Bay. The southern boundary is upon
the most public road in Lee county. The buildings are
one substantial frame barn, 20 by 40 feet, and 16 feet in
the story, and necessary poultry and other out-buildings;
a frame house 28 by 46 feet, one and a half story high,
with two porches 8 by 24 feet. The house contains eight
rooms, besides five closets. The buildings are all very
well built, and cost complete about $1,900. The lands
were procured at a cost of $50 per acre, $1,275. These
lands and buildings, together with the fencing of ten
acres, were furnished by Lee county and its citizens as
their part of the stipulation to aid in permanently locating
the branch station at Fort Myers.
For the year ending June 30th, 1891, there were $200
appropriated for this branch station outside of the Super-
intendent's salary of $800. This $200 was to cover all
expenses for. the year, including implements, feed, black-
smithing, labor, etc. For the year ending June 30, 1892,
there were $500 appropriated to this station outside of
the Superintendent's salary of $600. For the year end-
ing June 30th, 1893, there were $1,400 appropriated to
this station outside of the Superintendent's salary of $600.
These appropriations of $2,100 for the three years were
to include all expenditures upon the farm of every na-
ture. It required rigid economy, in opening up a new
farm, with these funds, where every laborer received the
customary wages of $1.50 per day. Nearly one-half of
the funds were required to purchase feed fo'r the animals
and all the various implements to operate the farm.
There have been about fourteen acres fenced and
cleared, grubbing about forty cords of saw palmetto and
other roots out of each acre, besides grubbing up the pine
trees. About two acres have been enclosed with galvan-
ized steel woven wire fencing as a protection against rab-
bits and other pests; also an acre for winter and summer
garden has been enclosed with a similar fence. Two
acres of ground have been thoroughly underdrained at a
heavy outlay of labor and expense, to test the feasibility
of summer gardening. Nine plats of pineapples have
been planted with various kinds of fertilizers and differ-
ent forms of cultivation. These experiments have devel-
oped large, vigorous plants, and large, delicious fruit,
that are likely to invite their extensive cultivation in this
part of Florida. Something over an acre of sisal hemp
(Agave rigida, var. sisalina) has been planted, which
promises to become a great industry in this part of the
State. The orchard embraces seven acres of land planted
in tropical and semi-tropical fruits. After preparing the
land, the trees are set out 20 by 20 feet. The prepara-
tion for each tree is as follows: A hole, 4 by 4 feet and 4
feet deep, is dug, the top soil put on one side, the white
sand is put on another side, and the hard pan on an-
other, then a wagon load of muck put on the fourth side
of the tree hole. After the hard pan and muck have
been acted upon by the sun and air till they are pliable,
the hole is filled up nearly full with the white sand and
saw palmetto roots mixed. Then the top soil, hard pan
and muck are mixed in and a bed formed six feet across
and one foot above the level of the ground. After the
rainy season has fully set in and the tree beds settled
about all they will, the fruit tree is planted in the center
of this bed, which should be done early enough to have
the trees well started before the rainy season subsides in
There have not been sufficient funds here to experi-
ment with the banana and plantain. These are such
valuable food plants that it is important to use all means
to encourage an extensive cultivation here. The cocoa-
nut is being experimented with at the station with en-
couraging prospects. There seems to be no reason why
there should not be enough cocoanuts produced in this
part of Florida to supply the United States with all of its
increasing demands for the future.
The Cahoon Palm, from Honduras, the most lovely
ornament of all the palm family, is planted and growing
nicely. The Sapodilla, one of our most delicious and
profitable tropical fruits, is being experimented with and
is doing nicely. The Mangosteen, probably the finest
fruit known, has been .planted but not with encouraging
success. The Mango, admitted to be the finest fruit
known except, possibly, the Mangosteen, is cultivated
here with the most flattering prospects. The Mamma
Apple has been planted but not with encouraging success.
It is a fine fruit and should be tested more fully.
The Mammae Sapota is growing here but not giving
satisfaction. The Cherimoya (Anona Cherimolia) is
planted here and giving promising encouragement; a
valuable fruit. The Star Apple, a rare tropical fruit, is
planted and growing nicely. Seeds of coffee from Trini-
dad and Honduras have been planted but failed to germi-
nate. The Barbadoes cherry has been planted, but the
results are not encouraging.
The Date Palm (the date of commerce) has been
planted with the best of prospects. The Spanish Lime
(Melicocca Bijuga) is planted and doing well. It is a val-
uable fruit; not of the citrus family, but like an immense
grape. The Sour Sop or ice cream fruit (Anonamuricata)
is planted and doing finely; a valuable and delicious
fruit. The Bread fruit (Artocarpus incisa) has been
planted but is not a success so far. The experiments
should be continued, for it is a most valuable food fruit.
The Melon Papaw or melon tree, (Corica papaya)produces
fruit similar to a musk-melon. Perhaps nothing else is
so valuable for dyspeptics and other invalids. It is
planted and giving the greatest satisfaction. It will be
largely cultivated in the future.
The Cashew-Nut (Anacardium occidental) is planted
and growing rapidly. The juice of the fruit is a delicious
beverage, and the seeds are used in the place of almonds,
and also a valuable Japan varnish is made from them.
Experiments with this valuable tree should continue.
The Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) is planted here and
doing well; it forms a large tree and is a prolific bearer.
Conserve of tamarinds is made from this fruit, which,
when macerated with water and sugar, makes a delight-
ful, most valuable, cooling febrifuse drink and appetizer
for invalids. The Cacao (Theobroma Cacao) has been
tried here, but the seed proved to be defective. From the
seed of this tree chocolate is made. Honduras Sarsapa-
rilla has been planted but failed to germinate. This val-
uable medical plant will receive further attention.
The Guava (Psidium guaiva). This valuable tropical
fruit takes the place of apples and peaches both, and
grows wild throughout Lee county. Experiments are
conducted here to prove the best varieties. The Catley
Guava (Pridium Catleyanum) is successfully cultivated
here. It is a delicious fruit of easy cultivation. The
Avocado Pear, (Persea gratissima), vulgarly called alliga-
tor pear, is cultivated at the station with the greatest suc-
cess. This tree grows to a large size and the fruit is de-
licious and valuable. Its cultivation should be encour-
aged. The Bamboo is an ornamental and valuable plant
which is planted on the station. It grows to the greatest
perfection here, and there is no reason why we should im-
port it from Japan to supply the factories in the northern
Royal Palm. This exceedingly ornamental tree grows
wild to a height of 150 feet in Lee county. It has been
planted at the station. The India rubber tree is planted
at the station. It grows splendidly in Fort Myers.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is planted at the station and
promises to become a valuable product. Its cultivation
should be encouraged. Chinese Yam produces tubers
which will weigh from one to thirty pounds, and when
prepared for table use experts are puzzled to tell the dif-
ference between it and the Irish potato. It grows to per-
fection at the station, yielding at the rate of 600 bushels
The Cassava in South Florida is a perennial shrub,
with tubers a little like a sweet potato. Will yield large
returns in ten or twelve months from planting. A val-
uable human or stock food; the best known article for
the manufacture of starch or glucose, and the only thing
from which tapioca is made. The Royal Poincianna,
one of the most beautiful flowering and shade trees, is
growing at the station. It is conspicuous among the
ornamental trees of Fort Myers. Wherever grown it
The Sugar apple is delicious fruit; perhaps it is the
sweetest of all fruits. It is planted and doing well here.
It should have a place in every collection for home use in
this part of Florida. The Loquot or Japan plum is culti-
vated here and promises success. The Pecan is planted
at the station. Pecans have ripened nuts in six years
from the seed, in Fort Myers. It promises well in this
section. The tropical or Otaheite Gooseberry (Cicca dis-
tichia) is planted at the station. It is a rampant grower,
and forms a large tree in Fort Myers. The fruit is of the
size and flavor of the northern gooseberry, and one tree
will produce enough for a half dozen families. The
Almond is planted here and promises to do well.
The above are among the tropical products being ex-
perimented with on this branch station. Some of them
have not thus far succeeded. The failure has not been
due to climatic influence in most cases, but to poor seed,
cultivation, fertilizers, shade, etc. Contrary to what one
would suppose, most of the tropical products require
shade while young. A tropical climate is not always
limited to the torrid zone. Some parts of the torrid zone
have a severe winter climate, while some paits of the
temperate zone, like the peninsula of Florida, with its
water protection, have a tropical climate. There is an
area of about 10,000 square miles in Florida with a trop-
Lemons, limes, oranges, citrons, shaddock and other
citrus fruits are cultivated here with complete success.
The torrid zone is the home of the citrus fruits, and the
nearer to it the more perfect the fruit. Many oranges
and lemons are growing wild in this part of the State.
Attention should be given to them, to determine the best
varieties as well as best methods of cultivation. Grapes
are cultivated here, and more attention ought to be de-
voted to them. Northern apples, peaches, pears, plums,
quinces, etc., are experimented with here, but they appear
to be out of their latitude, as they have not sufficient
time for rest during the winter.
It is a noteworthy fact, that this part of Florida pro-
duces larger and finer pineapples, mangoes, avocado
pears, sapodillas, guavas and other tropical fruits, than
those grown in Cuba and other tropical countries. There
must be some cause for this. Possibly it is due to the
tact that our rainy and dry seasons are not so excessive
as in most tropical countries. Secondly, our winters are
cooler than in other tropical countries, giving more of a
season of rest, after which plants grow off more vigor-
ously, like northern products when spring returns. If a
tree or plant is stunted by too much rain or drouth, it
cannot come to its greatest perfection. We should give
all the attention possible to tropical products here, as the
most tender fruits that cannot be imported can in time
be shipped North from here in the refrigerator cars.
L. C. WASHBURN, M. D.,
Fort Myers, Fla., January 15, 1894.