• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Map
 Key to symbols
 Systematic list of predators and...
 Check list of beneficial speci...
 Check list of incidental speci...
 Index to families, genera and common...














Title: annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on Florida citrus
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 Material Information
Title: annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on Florida citrus
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Muma, Martin H.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1961
Copyright Date: 1961
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026752
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Map
        Page 4
    Key to symbols
        Page 5
    Systematic list of predators and parasites
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Check list of beneficial species
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Check list of incidental species
        Page 37
    Index to families, genera and common names
        Page 38
        Page 39
Full Text


Bulletin 634 September, 1961




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA








An Annotated List of Predators and

Parasites Associated with Insects

and Mites on Florida Citrus



MARTIN H. MUMA, ALLEN G. SELHIME
and HAROLD A. DENMARK







TECHNICAL BULLETIN







Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
















CONTENTS

Page
IN TRODUCTION ............................................ ......................................... ......... 3
M AP ..................... ......................................................................................... 4
K EY TO SYMBOLS ---....... ......-- ...................................-. ................ 5
SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PREDATORS AND PARASITES .........----......... ................ 6
CHECK LIST OF INJURIOUS SPECIES ......------ ...................-....... 29
CHECK LIST OF BENEFICIAL SPECIES .......................-........ -- --------. 35
CHECK LIST OF INCIDENTAL SPECIES ..........---.........------ ..-......... 37
INDEX TO FAMILIES, GENERA AND COMMON NAMES .....................-------.---.... 38

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Mrs.
Eugenia Parker and Mrs. Helen Louise Greene in the organiza-
tion and validation of records and proofreading and correcting
this manuscript.





J










AN ANNOTATED LIST OF PREDATORS AND
PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH INSECTS
AND MITES ON FLORIDA CITRUS

MARTIN H. MUMA 1, ALLEN G. SELHIME 2, and
HAROLD A. DENMARK 3

INTRODUCTION
This systematic list of predators and parasites of insects
and mites associated with Florida citrus has been compiled from
files and reference collections located at the University of Flor-
ida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, the United States
Department of Agriculture Citrus Insects Investigations Lab-
oratory, Orlando, and the State of Florida Department of Agri-
culture, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville. Records used
are confined to those specimens actually taken on citrus or in
litter beneath the trees. As a matter of convenience, the citrus-
producing area has been divided into the 5 geographical sec-
tions shown on the map. Records outside these locations are
given to the nearest town. Evaluation of importance, seasonal
abundance, and distribution are given on the basis of records
to date.
Reference identifications have been made largely by special-
ists of the Entomology Research Division USDA located at the
United States National Museum. In a few instances authorities
at other institutions have been consulted. These include Dr.
E. A. Chapin, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge,
Mass.; Dr. Warren T. Atyeo, Department of Entomology, Uni-
versity of Nebraska at Lincoln; Dr. Francis M. Summers, De-
partment of Entomology and Parasitology, University of Cali-
fornia at Davis; Mr. Harold Compere, University of California
Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside; Dr. William E. Bick-
ley, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland at Col-
lege Park; Mr. Ellis G. MacLeod, Department of Zoology, Uni-
versity of Maryland, College Park; Dr. G. W. Krantz, Depart-

Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake
Alfred.
"Entomologist, USDA, Agr. Res. Serv., Entomology Research Di-
vision, Citrus Insects Investigations, Orlando.
3 Chief Entomologist, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Gainesville.







4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ment of Entomology, Oregon State University, Corvallis; and
Mr. Stanley F. Bailey, Department of Entomology, University
of California at Davis. Later identifications have been made
by the authors, using the reference material.
Cross reference check lists of predators and parasites of
injurious species, beneficial species, and incidental species are
also included.

















"as' I Cen al 0



th a '
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An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 5









KEY TO SYMBOLS
Subject Symbol
Systematic list of predators and parasites.
Following symbols or combination of symbols
indicate ten or more specimens at:
Lake Alfred (Citrus Experiment Station) ........ L
Gainesville (Florida Division of Plant
Industry) -........----........--..........----...--- ...-- G
Orlando (USDA, Citrus Insects Investigations) O
One to 9 specimens at:
Lake Alfred ....-.....----------..---.----------..--.. 1
Gainesville .----..-..------- ...............----.------- g
Orlando .--....--..-..-..--........----...--..------..--.......----... o
Specimens retained at United States National
Museum --...-........---.. ---................ USNM

Check list of injurious species
Predatory or parasitic habit questionable ....--....--- ?
Important predator or parasite ..-.....................----- *
Common predator or parasite .-.............--- ..........-------- ...







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PREDATORS AND PARASITES

Class ARACHNIDA
Order ACARINA

Family Aceosejidae
Blattisocius keegani (Fox)--Collected only twice, once on a
scaly orange leaf and once feeding on acarids in a bagworm
pupa. Distribution: central and north central in sum-
mer. (1)
Lasioseius sp.-Four collections from leaves, twigs and litter.
One collection was from a Pseudococcus citri (Risso) infesta-
tion and 1 from a Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks) infesta-
tion. Distribution: central, south central and east coast
in the summer and winter. (1)
Lasioseius sp.-Many collections from scaly leaves, mite-in-
fested leaves and citrus twigs. Fed on Chrysomphalus aoni-
dum (L.) eggs in laboratory; no grove feeding records.
Distribution: central, east coast and west coast the year
round. (L)
Proctolaelaps hypudaei (Oud.)-Collected only once from scaly
grapefruit leaves. Reared in laboratory on a red-headed
fungus. Distribution: central in summer. (1)

Family Anystidae
Anystis sp. prob. agilis Banks-Many collections from scaly
orange leaves. This predator has been observed feeding on
Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.) crawlers and Panonychus citri
(McG.). Distribution: north central, central and east coast
in fall and winter. (L)

Family Bdellidae
Bdella distinct B. & B.-Five collections from scaly leaves and
under L. beckii (Newm.). Distribution: east coast and cen-
tral in summer and fall. (1)
Bdella longicornis (L.)-Two collections from litter under trees.
Distribution: north central in winter. (1)
Bdella mexicana B. & B.-Three collections on orange leaves.
Distribution: central and north central in summer and
winter. (lo)







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 7

Family Caligonellidae
Neophyllobius texanus McG.-Four collections from scaly
leaves. Distribution: north central, central, east coast and
west coast in winter, spring and summer. (1)

Family Cheyletidae
Cheyletia wellsi Baker-Many collections have been made from
leaves and twigs infested with scales and mites. To date
this predator has been observed feeding only on phytoseiid
mites. It refused other food under laboratory conditions.
Distribution: north central, central, east coast, west coast
and Archer, Alachua County, in fall, winter and spring. (Lo)
Cheyletia sp.-One record from leaves. Distribution: north
central in summer. (USNM)
Cheyletia sp.-One record feeding on Parlatoria pergandii
Comst. on lime at Key Largo, Monroe County, in winter.
(USNM)
Cheyletia sp.-One collection from litter under trees. Distri-
bution: north central in winter. (1)
Cheyletia sp.-One collection on Temple orange. Distribution:
east coast in winter. (o)
Cheletogenes sp.-Two collections from scaly orange leaves.
Distribution: north central and west coast in winter. (1)

Family Cunaxidae
Cunaxa boneti Baker & Hoffman-One collection of many speci-
mens from litter. Distribution: north central in fall. (L)
Cunaxa capreolus (Ber.)-One collection from twigs. Distri-
bution: east coast in spring. (1)
Cunaxa setirostris (Hermann)-One collection from L. beckii
(Newm.) infested leaves at Archer in November. (1)
Cunaxa simplex Ewing-One collection from litter. Distribu-
tion: central in summer. (1)
Cunaxa taurus Kramer-Many collections from scaly leaves and
litter. This predator has not been observed feeding and its
hosts have not been determined. Distribution: state-wide
in all months. (L)
Cunaxa womersleyi Baker & Hoffman-One collection of many







8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

specimens from litter. Distribution: north central in fall.
(L)
Cunaxoides andrei Baker & Hoffman-Five collections from lit-
ter, 2 from scaly orange leaves. Distribution: north cen-
tral, central and east coast the year round. (1)
Cunaxoides pectinellus Muma-One collection from litter. Dis-
tribution: north central in winter. (1)

Family Digamasellidae
Asca duosetosa Fox-Many collections from litter and scaly
leaves. No feeding records. Distribution: north central
and east coast the year round. (Lo)
Asca sp.-Five collections from litter. Distribution: central
in summer. (1)

Family Hemisarcoptidae
Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer-Nine collections feeding on C.
aonidum (L.) eggs and crawlers, 1 collection feeding on
Unaspis citri (Comst.). Distribution: north central, cen-
tral and east coast in fall, winter and spring. (lo)

Family Macrochelidae
Macrocheles merdarius (Ber.)-Two collections, 1 from litter
and 1 from a scaly orange leaf. Distribution: central and
west coast in spring and summer. (1)

Family Phytoseiidae
Amblyscutus grandis (Berlese)-One record from grapefruit
leaves. Distribution: east coast in fall. (USNM)
Amblyseiella setosa Muma-One collection from orange leaves
infested with scales and mites. Distribution: west coast
in spring. (1)
Amblyseiulus dorsatus Muma-Seven collections from scaly
leaves and Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley) infestations.
Distribution: north central, south central and east coast
in summer, fall and winter. (1)
Amblyseius (Amblyseialus) largoensis (Muma)-Seven collec-
tions from leaves infested with scales or mites. Distribu-
tion: east coast and Florida Keys in winter, spring and
summer. (lo)







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 9

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) aerialis (Muma)-Many collections
from leaves infested with scales and mites. No feeding ob-
served. Distribution: north central, central and east coast
the year round. (Lo)
Amblyseius (Amblyseius) floridanus (Muma)-Three collec-
tions from litter. Distribution: north central, south central
and east coast in summer, fall and winter. (lo)
Amblyseius (Iphiseius) quadripilis (Banks)-Many collections
from leaves. This predator accepted and fed on L. beckii
(Newm.), Lepidosaphes gloverii L. (Pack.) and C. aonidum
(L.) eggs and crawlers in the laboratory but rejected P.
citri (McG.). On 1 or 2 occasions, it has appeared to be
feeding on E. sexmaculatus (Riley) in groves. Distribu-
tion: state-wide year round. (Lo)
Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) hibisci (Chant.)-Many collec-
tions from leaves infested with scales or mites. Feeding
has not been observed under grove conditions but in the
laboratory it has been collected from a Eutetranychus banksi
(McG.) colony. Distribution: north central and west coast
in winter, spring and summer. (Log)
Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and Mc-
Gregor)-Six collections from leaves infested with scales
and E. sexmaculatus (Riley). Distribution: east coast in
winter and spring. (1)
Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) peregrinus (Muma)-Many col-
lections from leaves infested with scales and E. sexmacula-
tus (Riley). This predator is the most common phytoseiid
on the trees. Grove studies indicate that the species is in-
versely associated with P. citri (McG.) infestations. In
the laboratory it feeds readily on scale eggs but in groves
has been observed to feed on P. citri (McG.) eggs. Distri-
bution: state-wide the year round. (Log)
Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis) sabali (DeLeon)-Two collec-
tions, 1 from litter and 1 from orange leaves. Distribution:
north central and south central in fall and winter. (1)
Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis) simplicissimus (DeLeon)--Six
collections from scaly leaves and E. sexmaculatus (Riley) in-
fested leaves and twigs. This predator is closely related
to Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis) cucumeris (Oud.). Dis-







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tribution: south central and east coast in fall, winter and
spring. (1)
Galendromus annectens (DeLeon)-Three collections from E.
sexmaculatus (Riley) infestations. This predator is closely
related to Galendromus floridanus (Muma). Distribution:
east coast in spring. (1)
Galendromus floridanus (Muma)-Many collections from E.
sexmaculatus (Riley) colonies. This predator has been ob-
served feeding on E. sexmaculatus (Riley) and P. citri
(McG.) eggs. Grove studies show an inverse relationship
with E. sexmaculatus (Riley) infestations. In the labora-
tory the species has controlled P. citri (McG.) and E. banksi
(McG.) infestations. Distribution: north central, central,
east coast and west coast in winter, spring and summer. (Lo)
Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma-Nine collections from leaves in-
fested with acarids. This predator is invariably associated
with or feeding on acarids. Distribution: north central and
central in spring and summer. (lo)
Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) -Two collections from leaves
infested with spider mites. Distribution: east coast and
central in spring. (1)
Typhlodromina conspicua (Garman)-Eight collections from
leaves infested with scales or mites and from litter. Has
been observed feeding on E. sexmaculatus (Riley) and P.
citri (McG.) eggs. Distribution: state-wide, except south
central, in winter, spring and summer. (1)

Family Pyemotidae
Siteroptes sp.-Three collections from under L. beckii (Newm.)
armors. Distribution: east coast in summer. (1)

Family Stigmaeidae
Agistemus terminalis (Quayle)-Four collections. Distribu-
tion: east coast in the spring and summer. (1)
Agistemus sp.-Many collections from leaves infested with E.
sexmaculatus (Riley) and scales. Under grove conditions
this predator has been observed feeding on the eggs of E.
sexmaculatus (Riley), tydeids and Fungitarsonemus pere-
grinus (Beer). It has also been observed feeding on Phyllo-
coptruta oleivora (Ashm.) and nymphs of Tydeus. In the







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 11

laboratory it feeds readily on scale crawlers. Distribution:
state-wide, except south central, in all months. (Lo)
Agistemus sp.-One collection from litter under orange tree.
Distribution: north central in winter. (1)
Eupalopsis sp.-Nine collections from leaves infested with scales
and mites. Distribution: north central, central and east
coast in summer, fall and winter. (1)
Exothorhis caudata Summers-Nine collections from scaly
orange leaves. Distribution: north central and central in
spring and fall. (lo)
Ledermuelleria segnis Koch-One collection from litter under
trees. Distribution: north central in winter. (1)

Family Trombidiidae
Atomus sp.-One collection apparently feeding on E. sexmacu-
latus (Riley). Distribution: east coast in spring. (lo)
Trombidium sp.-One record from Lake of the Hills, Polk Coun-
ty, on aphids, winter. (USNM)

Family Tydeidae
Lorryia sp.-Eight collections from leaves infested with scales
and mites. Distribution: east coast in winter and spring.
(1)
Pronematus sp.-Many collections from leaves infested with
scales, mites, and apparently clean. Although this predator
has not been observed feeding, a comparison of populations
indicates that it probably feeds on P. oleivora (Ashm.) and
F. peregrinus (Beer). Distribution: state-wide the year
round. (Lo)
Pronematus sp.-One collection from litter under grapefruit
trees. Distribution: central in summer. (1)
Tydeus sp.-Many collections from leaves and fruit. At least
5 species of this genus are presently confused under this
designation. Until they are segregated and named, how-
ever, this listing will be continued. The predatory habits
of the species have not been investigated and are open to
question. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons (Log)







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Class INSECTA
Order COLEOPTERA

Family Coccinellidae
Axion tripustulatum (DeG.)-Two records. Distribution: north
central and east coast in spring. (USNM)
Chilocorus stigma (Say)-Many collections. This predator has
been observed feeding on armored scales, soft scales, P.
citri (Risso), aphids and whiteflies. It is the most common
coccinellid in the groves. Special studies indicate a host
preference and an ability to develop and reproduce more
rapidly on certain hosts, but present information is incom-
plete. Distribution: state-wide in all months. (LGo)
Coleomegilla maculata fuscilabris (Muls.) -Five collections.
Observed feeding on Aphis spiraecola Patch and a lepidop-
terous larva. Distribution: north central, central and south
central in all seasons. (lo)
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.-Many collections. Observed
feeding on P. citri (Risso), Coccus hesperidum (L.) and Pro-
topulvinaria pyriformis (Ckll.). Distribution: an intro-
duced predator; Key West, Monroe County, central, and west
coast in winter, spring and summer. (Lgo)
Cycloneda munda (Say)-One record. Distribution: north cen-
tral in summer. (USNM)
Cycloneda sanguine (L.)-Many collections. Observed feed-
ing on aphids, spider mites, P. citri (Risso) and scale in-
sects. More frequently recorded on aphids. Distribution:
state-wide in all seasons. (LGO)
Decadiomus bahamicus (Csy.)-Two collections feeding on P.
citri (Risso). Distribution: central in spring. (Ig)
Delphastus pallidus (Lec.)-Many collections. Observed feed-
ing on whiteflies and apparently on P. oleivora (Ashm.). Dis-
tribution: central, east coast and west coast in the spring,
summer and fall. (Lo)
Delphastus pusillus (Lec.) -Many collections. Observed feed-
ing on whiteflies and L. beckii (Newm.). This is a very
common whitefly-eating coccinellid. Distribution: state-
wide, except south central, in all months. (LgO)
Exochomus marginipennis Lec.-Many collections. Observed







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 13

feeding on aphids, C. aonidum (L.), L. beckii (Newm.), P.
pyriformis (Ckll.), and I. purchase Mask. Distribution:
north central and central in fall, winter, spring and sum-
mer. (Lgo)
Hippodamia convergens Gu6r.-Many collections feeding on
aphids. Distribution: north central, east coast, central, west
coast, Gainesville, Alachua County, Homestead, Dade Coun-
ty, and Paola, Seminole County, in winter and spring. (1Go)
Hyperaspis signata (Oliv.)-One collection. Distribution:
north central in spring. (o)
Leis dimidiata quinquedecimmaculata (Hope) -Many collections.
Observed feeding on aphids. Distribution: an introduced
predator that is more common in the north central, but is
occasionally found in the central in the spring, summer and
fall. (LGo)
Lindorus lophanthae (B.)-Nine collections feeding on C. aoni-
dum (L.) and L. beckii (Newm.). Distribution: north cen-
tral and Monticello, Jefferson County, in the fall and win-
ter. (lo)
Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.)-Many collections. Observed
feeding on L. beckii (Newm.), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus
(Comst.), and C. aonidum (L.), apparently preferring the
last. This predator is common in heavy scale infestations.
Distribution: north central, central, east coast and west
coast in all seasons. (LgO)
Nephaspis gorhami Csy.-Many collections feeding on Dialeu-
rodes citrifolii (Morg.), Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.) and Aleu-
rothrixus floccosus (Mask.). This is a very common white-
fly-eating coccinellid. Distribution: state-wide, except south
central, in all seasons. (Lo)
Olla v-nigrum var. plagiata Csy.-Many collections. Observed
feeding on aphids, C. hesperidum (L.), C. aonidum (L.),
P. citri (Risso) and spider mites, but apparently prefers
the last 2. Distribution: state-wide in spring, summer and
fall. (Lo)
Psyllobora viginti-maculata Say-Eight collections. This species
is believed to be a fungus feeder. Distribution: east coast
and north central in spring and summer. (lo)
Rodolia cardinalis (Muls.)-Many collections. Observed feed-







14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ing on I. purchase Mask. Distribution: This introduced
predator is state-wide in all seasons. (1Go)
Scymnillodes subtropicus Csy.-Many collections. Observed on
leaves infested with scales and whiteflies. Two collections
at Davie, Broward County, on Coccus viridis (Green) in
the summer. Distribution: east coast and Miami area in
all seasons. (Lgo)
Scymnillodes sp.-One collection on orange at Davie in the
fall. (USNM)
Scymnillus aterrimus Horn-Two collections, 1 from a C. aoni-
dum (L.) infestation. Distribution: north central and cen-
tral in spring and fall. (1)
Scymnus (Pullus) fraternus Lec.-Five collections on aphids.
Distribution: west coast, central, and Davie in summer. (g)
Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons Melsh.-Many collections. Ob-
served feeding C. aonidum (L.), L. beckii (Newm.), and
P. citri (Risso) but is most common on the last. Distribu-
tion: state-wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Scymnus (Pullus) kinzeli Csy.-Two collections, 1 feeding on
A. spiraecola Patch on Temple orange. Distribution: north
central in spring. (o)
Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis Lec.-Many collections feeding
an aphids. Distribution: east coast, north central and cen-
tral in all seasons. (L)
Scymnus (Diomus) terminatus Say-Seven collections, 1 feed-
ing on aphids. Distribution: east coast, north central, cen-
tral and west coast in spring, summer and fall. (lo)
Scymnus (Pullus) sp. near natchezianus Csy.-One record. Dis-
tribution: east coast in spring. (o)
Scymnus sp.-Many collections. Hosts: D. citrifolii (Morg.),
Paraleyrodes perseae (Quaint.), A. spiraecola Patch and C.
hesperidum (L.). Several species may be confused here.
Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (Go)
Stethorus utilis (Horn)--Many collections feeding on E. sex-
maculatus (Riley), one or two on P. citri (McG.). This
predator is common in E. sexmaculatus (Riley) colonies.
Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in winter,
spring and summer. One collection from Key West. (LgO)







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 15

Family Tenebrionidae
Epitragodes tomentosus (Lec.)-Six collections on I. purchase
Mask. and L. beckii (Newm.). Distribution: east coast,
north central and central in spring, summer and fall. (g)

Order DIPTERA
Family Chamaemyiidae
Leucopis sp.-Four collections reared from Toxoptera aurantii
(Fonsc.) infested terminals. Distribution: north central,
central and west coast in winter, spring and summer. (10)
Family Dolichopodidae
Condylostylus sp.-One collection feeding an adult whiteflies.
Distribution: north central in fall. (o)
Family Cecidomyiidae
Itonidini-Many collections of larvae in E. sexmaculatus (Riley),
P. oleivora (Ashm.) and L. beckii (Newm.) infestations.
Distribution: state-wide in winter, spring and summer. (L)
Lasioptera sp.-One record from Gasteracantha cancriformis
(L.) egg case on leaf. Distribution: north central in winter.
(USNM)
Mycodiplosis sp.-One record of pupae under C. aonidum (L.)
armors. Distribution: east coast in spring. (USNM)
Family Larvaevoridae
Achaetoneura rileyi (Will.)--Eight hearings from Papilio cres-
phontes Cram. Distribution: north central and east coast
in fall and winter. (lo)
Carcelia lagoae (Tns.)-Three hearings from Megalopyge oper-
cularis (J. E. Smith). Distribution: north central in the
fall. (lo)
Ceracia sp. (near dentata Coq.)-One recorded rearing from
Melanoplus femur-rubrum (DeG.). Distribution: north cen-
tral in the fall. (USNM)
Eucromasia floridensis Rein.-Four hearings from Platoeceticus
gloveri Pack. Distribution: north central in the winter. (1)
Gonia crassicornis (F.)-Three hearings from Spodoptera frugi-
perda (J. E. Smith) larva and pupa. Distribution: central
in fall. (1)







16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Phorocera einaris Smith-One recorded rearing from Sibine
stimulea (Clem.). Distribution: east coast in spring.
(USNM)
Trichopoda pennipes (F.)-Two hearings from stinkbugs. Dis-
tribution: north central in winter and fall. (o)

Family Syrphidae
Allograpta obliqua (Say)-Three collections feeding on A.
spiraecola Patch. Distribution: central in spring. (1)
Allograpta sp.-One collection feeding on T. aurantii (Fonsc.).
Distribution: central in spring. (1)
Allograpta sp.-One collection at Davie on aphids in the spring.
(g)
Baccha clavata (F.)-Many collections feeding on A. spiraecola
Patch and other aphids. This is the most common aphid-
feeding syrphid. Distribution: state-wide in spring, sum-
mer and fall. (Lgo)
Baccha fuscipennis Say-Five collections feeding on T. aurantii
(Fonsc.). Distribution: central in fall. (1)
Baccha lugens Lw.-Two collections feeding on whiteflies. Dis-
tribution: central in the fall. (1)

Order HEMIPTERA
Family Pentatomidae
Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas)-Two collections feeding on
P. cresphontes Cram. larvae. Distribution: north central
and Gainesville, Alachua County, in the fall. (go)

Order HYMENOPTERA
Family Bethylidae
Goniozus hubbardi How.-One rearing from Platynota sp. Dis-
tribution: north central in summer. (o)
Goniozus sp.-One rearing from P. gloveri Pack. Distribution:
north central in winter. (1)
Goniozus sp.-One rearing from Oiketicus abboti Grt. Distri-
bution: north central in winter. (1)







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 17

Family Braconidae
Apanteles empretiae Vier.-Two hearings from S. stimulea
(Clem). Distribution: east coast in the summer and fall.
(o)
Apanteles sp.-Three hearings from S. stimulea (Clem.). Dis-
tribution: central, St. Augustine, St. Johns County, and
Davie, Broward County, in fall and winter. (g)
Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.)-Many hearings from A. spirae-
cola Patch and T. aurantii (Fonsc.). Distribution: state-
wide in all seasons. (LGo)
Iphiaulax sp.-Two hearings from 0. abboti Grt. Distribution:
north central and central in winter and spring. (L)

Family Ceraphronidae
Aphanogmus sp.-Four hearings, 2 from L. beckii (Newm.),
1 from C. aonidum (L.) and 1 from P. pyriformis (Ckll.).
Although reared from isolated scales, these records are open
to question, as all known species of this genus are parasites
of midge larvae. This listing may include 2 species but
specific identification awaits specialists' study. Distribution:
north central and central in spring, summer and fall. (lo)
Ceraphron sp.-One rearing from scaly orange leaf, no host
recorded. Distribution: central in the fall. (1)
Dendrocerus conwentziae var. rufus Gah.-Two hearings from
Coniopteryx vicina Hagen. Distribution: east coast in spring
and summer. (1)

Family Chalcididae
Brachymeria robusta (Cress.)-One rearing on P. cresphontes
Cram. pupa. Distribution: central in summer. (lg)
Spilochalcis igneoides (Kby.)-One collection from orange grove,
no host recorded. Distribution: north central in fall. (1)

Family Cynipidae
Charips sp.-One rearing from aphids. This is a hyperparasite
of Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.). Distribution: central in
the spring. (1)
Family Encyrtidae
Achrysopophagus dactylopii (How.)-Many hearings from P.







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

citri (Risso), probably hyperparasitic. Distribution: east
coast and central in spring and summer. (Lo)
Adelencyrtus sp.-One rearing from C. aonidum (L.) infesta-
tion. Host not determined. Distribution: central in sum-
mer. (1)
Aphycus flavus How.-Many hearings from C. hesperidum (L.)
and Ceroplastes floridensis Comst. This is a common para-
site of immature C. hesperidum (L.). Distribution: east
coast, central, west coast and Miami, Dade County, area, in
all seasons. (L)
Aphycus sp.-One rearing from P. pyriformis (Ckll.) and 1
from C. hesperidum (L.). Distribution: north central in
the spring and summer. (o)
Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr.)-Many hearings from C.
aonidum (L.). This species is a hyperparasite through
Pseudhomalopoda prima Grit. Distribution: state-wide in
all seasons. (L)
Cheiloneurus sp.-Three hearings, 1 from P. pyriformis (Ckll.),
1 from C. viridis (Green), and 1 from C. floridensis
Comst. Probably hyperparasitic on Aphycus flavus (How.).
Distribution: central in spring. (L)
Chrysoplatycerus howardii Ashm.-Two hearings from P. citri
(Risso). Distribution: east coast in spring and summer.
(USNM)
Chrysoplatycerus splendens (How.)--Eight hearings from P.
citri (Risso). Distribution: state-wide, except for the west
coast, in spring, summer and fall. (1)
Chrysopophagus compressicornis Ashm.-Many hearings from
C. cubana Hagen, C. rufilabris Burm. and Chrysopa sp. This
is a hyperparasitic species. Distribution: east coast and
central in the spring and summer. (L)
Comperiella bifasciata How.-Many hearings from C. aonidum
(L.). Although widely distributed, this parasite is not com-
mon. Distribution: state-wide, except on the east coast, in
summer, fall and winter. (L)
Homalotylus terminalus (Say)-Many hearings from C. san-
guinea (L.) larvae. Distribution: north central and east
coast in the spring and summer. (Lo)







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 19

Isodromus iceryae How.-Many hearings from C. cubana Hagen,
C. bimaculata McC1., C. sanchezi Navas, and Chrysopa sp.
Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in all sea-
sons. (L)
Leptomastidea abnormis (Grlt.)-Many hearings from P. citri
(Risso). This is the most common parasite in immature P.
citri (Risso). Distribution: state-wide, except on the west
coast, in spring and summer. (Lo)
Leptomastix dactylopii How.-Many hearings from P. citri
(Risso). This is a common parasite of mature P. citri (Ris-
so). Distribution: north central, central and east coast in
spring, summer and fall. (Lo)
Metaphycus eruptor (How.)--One rearing from C. floridensis
Comst. Distribution: central in winter. (1)
Metaphycus sp.-One rearing from C. floridensis Comst. Dis-
tribution: cental in winter. (1)
Microterys flavus (How.)-Many hearings from C. hesperidum
(L.), 3 from P. pyriformis (Ckll.), one from C. viridis
(Green). This is a common parasite of young scales. Dis-
tribution: state-wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Ooencyrtus submetallicus (How.)-Nine hearings. No host
identification. This is a parasite of hemipterous eggs. Dis-
tribution: east coast in summer. (1)
Pseudhomalopoda prima Grlt.-Many hearings from mature fe-
male C. aonidum (L.). This is a critical parasite. Distri-
bution: state-wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)--Many hearings from
Baccha clavata (F.), Baccha lugens Lw. and Metasyrphus
wiedmanni (John.). Distribution: north central and west
coast in the summer and spring. (Lo)

Family Eulophidae
Ablerus clisiocampae (Ashm.)-Many hearings from young C.
aonidum (L.). This is a hyperparasite. Distribution: state-
wide, except south central, in all seasons. (L)
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet)-Many hearings from imma-
ture and male C. aonidum (L.) and Aonidiella citrina
(Coq.). This is a common parasite. Distribution: state-
wide all seasons. (Lo)







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet)-Many hearings from P. pergandii
Comst. This is a common parasite. Distribution: north
central and central in summer, fall and winter. (L)
Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp.-Many hearings from L. beckii
(Newm.). One from L. gloverii (Pack.). This is a common
parasite of mature scale and may be critical. Distribution:
state-wide in all months. (LO)
Aphytis lingnanensis Comp.-Several hearings from U. citri
(Comst.). Distribution: north central in the fall and win-
ter. (1)
Aphytis mytilaspidis (LeB.)-Two hearings from L. beckii
(Newm.). Distribution: north central in the fall. (o)
Aphytis proclia (Wlkr.)-Reared from leaves and twigs infested
with U. citri (Comst.) and from P. pergandii Comst. Dis-
tribution: north central in the summer and fall. (o)
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) -Many hearings from L. beckii
(Newm.), U. citri (Comst.), L. gloverii (Pack.) and P. per-
gandii Comst. This is a common parasite of immature and
male scales. Distribution: state-wide, except south central
in all seasons. (Lo)
Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. & P.)-Many hearings from L.
beckii (Newm.), C. aonidum (L.) and L. gloverii (Pack.).
This is a common parasite of immature and male scales.
Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Azotus sp.-Eight hearings from C. aonidum (L.) infestations.
Distribution: central, north central and west coast in win-
ter, spring and summer. (1)
Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.)-Many hearings from C. hesperi-
dum (L.) and 1 rearing from Saissetia oleae (Targ.). This
is a parasite of young to nearly mature scales. Distribu-
tion: state-wide, except south central, in the fall, winter
and spring. (Lo)
Encarsia basicincta Gah.-One rearing from A. floccosus
(Mask.) and 1 from Tetraleurodes ursorum (Ckll.). Distri-
bution: central and north central in summer and winter.
(o)
Encarsia variegata How.-Eight hearings from A. floccosus
(Mask.). Distribution: central and east coast in the winter,
spring and summer. (1)








An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 21

Eretmocerus haldemani How.-On A. floccosus (Mask.) at Lake
Alfred, Polk County, in summer. (go)
Eretmocerus portoricensis Doz.-One rearing from A. floccosus
(Mask.). Distribution: north central in summer. (o)
Eretmocerus sp.-Three hearings from A. floccosus (Mask.).
Distribution: central and south central in summer and fall.
(1)
Horismenus sp.-Three hearings from P. gloveri Pack. and C.
cubana Hagen, C. sanchezi Navas and Chrysopa sp. Distri-
bution: state-wide, except south central, in all seasons. (L)
Prospaltella aurantii (How.)-Many hearings from C. aonidum
(L.) and several from L. beckii (Newm.). This is a com-
mon parasite of C. aonidum (L.). Distribution: state-wide
in the summer, fall and winter. (L)
Prospaltella brasiliensis (Hempel) -Many hearings from A. floc-
cosus (Mask.). Distribution: state-wide, except west coast,
in all seasons. (lo)
Prospaltella elongata Doz.-Many hearings from L. gloverii
(Pack.). Distribution: state-wide, except west coast, in all
seasons. (L)
Prospaltella fasciata Mal.-Seven hearings from P. pergandii
(Comst.). Distribution: central, south and east coast in the
fall, winter and spring. (1)
Prospaltella sp.-Many hearings from A. floccosus (Mask.).
Distribution: central, south central and east coast in the
winter, spring and summer. (L)
Tetrastichus chrysopae (Cwfd.)-Four hearings from C. cubana
Hagen and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: north central, cen-
tral, east coast and west coast in the summer and spring. (lo)
Tetrastichus melanis Burks-Two hearings from C. sanguinea
(L.) larva. Distribution: south central and east coast in
the spring and fall. (L)
Tetrastichus minutus (How.)-Many hearings from C. hesperi-
dum (L.), green lacewings, C. sanguinea (L.) and P. citri
(Risso), probably hyperparasitic. Distribution: north cen-
tral, central, east coast and west coast in the spring and
summer. (Lo)







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Tetrastichus sp.-One rearing from C. viridis (Green) and 1
from C. floridensis Comst. Distribution: central and east
coast in spring and winter. (1)

Family Eupelmidae
Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh and Riley)-Many hearings from
katydid eggs, primarily Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.).
This is a common parasite. Distribution: north central,
central and west coast in all seasons. (Lgo)
Anastatus sp.-Two hearings from pupal cases of C. cubana
Hagen and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: central in the sum-
mer. (1)
Anastatus sp.-Reared from eggs of Automeris io lilith Strck.
on lime. Distribution: Key West, Monroe County, in sum-
mer and fall. (g)
Anastatus sp.-One rearing from Coccus elongatus (Sign.). Dis-
tribution: east coast in summer. (1)
Arachnophaga sp.-Two hearings from Chrysopa sp. Distribu-
tion: east coast in the summer and spring. (1)
Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm.-Six hearings from C. hesperidum
(L.), S. oleae (Bern.) and S. hemisphaerica (Targ.). This
parasite attacks mature female scales. Distribution: cen-
tral, east coast and west coast in the spring, summer and
fall. (lo)
Family Ichneumonidae
Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush.-Many hearings from Chrysopa
cubana Hagen, C. sanchezi Navas, C. bimaculata McC1. and
Chrysopa sp. Distribution: east coast and central in the
spring and winter. (L)
Diplazon laetatorius (F.)-One rearing from B. clavata (F.).
Distribution: north central, no date. (o)
Lymeon orbum (Say)-Two hearings from P. gloveri Pack.
Distribution: north central in winter. (lo)
Otacustes bicolor (Cush.)-Three hearings from Chrysopa sp.
Distribution: east coast in the spring. (1)
Otacustes crassus chrysopae Ashm.-Many hearings from C.
cubana Hagen, C. bimaculata McCI., C. rufilabris Burm., C.
sanchezi Navas and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: state-wide
in spring, summer and winter. (Lo)







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 23

Phobetes thyridopteryx (Riley)-Many hearings from P. gloveri
Pack. and 0. abboti Grt. Distribution: north central in
winter and spring. (Lo)

Family Mymaridae
Alaptus caecilii Grlt.-One rearing from leaves. Probable egg
parasite of psocids. Distribution: unknown. (USNM)
Alaptus sp.-Two hearings from leaves. Possible psocid egg
parasite. Distribution: north central and east coast in
spring. (1)
Camptoptera sp.-One rearing from pupal case of C. vicina
Hagen. Distribution: central in summer. (1)
Cosmocomoidea morrilli How.-One rearing from pupal case
of C. vicina Hagen. Distribution: central in summer. (1)
Neomymar vierecki Cwfd.-One rearing from leaf. Distribu-
tion: central in winter. (1)

Family Pteromalidae
Pachyneuron syrphi (Ashm.)-Many hearings from syrphids,
including B. clavata (F.). Distribution: west coast, north
central and central in the spring and summer. (Lo)
Scutellista cyanea Mots.-Many hearings from S. oleae (Bern.)
and C. floridensis Comst. This is an egg predator. Distri-
bution: north central, central and west coast in summer and
fall. (Lg)
Systasis diplosidis Eckel-One recorded rearing from leaf. Dis-
tribution: east coast in winter. (USNM)

Family Scelionidae
Telenomus heliothidis Ashm.-One rearing from unidentified
lepidopterous eggs. Distribution: east coast in spring. (1)
Telenomus podisi Ashm.-One recorded rearing from egg clus-
ter on Temple orange leaf at Fort Pierce, Indian River Coun-
ty, in the fall. (USNM)
Telenomus sp.-One rearing from unidentified pentatomid eggs.
Distribution: central in fall. (1)
Telenomus sp.-Reared from P. pyriformis (Ckll.) on grape-
fruit leaf. Distribution: central in spring. (o)







24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Family Thysanidae
Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.)-Many hearings from C. aoni-
dum (L.). Hyperparasite through P. aurantii (How.). Dis-
tribution: north central, central and south central in all
seasons. (L)
Thysanus louisianae Doz.-One recorded rearing, host unknown.
Distribution: central in summer. (USNM)
Thysanus niger (Ashm.)-One rearing, host unknown. Distri-
bution: unknown. (USNM)
Thysanus occidentalis (How.)-One recorded rearing from
leaves infested with L. beckii (Newm.) from Archer, Ala-
chua County, in the fall. (USNM)

Family Trichogrammatidae
Oligosita sanguinea (Grlt.)-One rearing from bark infested
with U. citri (Comst.). Distribution: north central in sum-
mer. (1)
Trichogramma minutum Riley-One rearing from material on
orange leaf. Distribution: east coast in winter. (o)

Order LEPIDOPTERA
Family Cosmopterygidae
Pyroderces rileyi (Wals.)-Many collections on I. purchase
Mask. and P. citri (Risso). This species is thought to be a
scavenger. Distribution: west coast, east coast, north cen-
tral and at Peters, Dade County, in winter, summer and
fall. (Go)
Family Phycitidae
Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.)-Many collections of larvae tun-
neling among S. oleae (Bern.), C. hesperidum (L.), P. citri
(Risso) and I. purchase Mask. on leaves and twigs. Distri-
bution: state-wide the year round. (Go)

Order NEUROPTERA
Family Chrysopidae
Allochrysa virginica (Fitch)-One collection from orange tree.
Distribution: central in fall. (1)
Chrysopa bicarnea Banks-Two collections from grapefruit
trees. Distribution: west coast in spring and fall. (1)







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 25

Chrysopa bimaculata McC1.-Many collections from P. citri
(Risso), P. citri (McG.), C. aonidum (L.), E. sexmaculatus
(Riley) and D. citrifolii (Morg.) infestations. This pre-
dator is common in some groves. Distribution: state-wide
in spring, summer and fall. (L)
Chrysopa cubana Hagen-Many collections from insect and mite
infestations. This is the most abundant chrysopid. Distri-
bution: State-wide in all seasons. (L)
Chrysopa plorabunda Fitch.-Four collections from orange trees.
Distribution: north central and central in winter and
spring. (1)
Chrysopa rufilabris Burm.-Many collections from insect and
mite infestations. This is the second most abundant chry-
sopid. Distribution: state-wide in fall, winter and spring.
(Lo)
Chrysopa sanchezi Navas-Many collections from insect and
mite infestations. This is a common predator in some
groves. Distribution: state-wide, except north central, in
fall, winter and spring. (L)
Nodita callota (Banks)--Four collections from trees. Distri-
bution: central, south central and west coast in fall and
winter. (1)
Nodita floridana (Banks)-Many collections from trees. Dis-
tribution: central, south central and west coast in summer,
fall and winter. (L)
Nodita pavida (Hagen)-Many collections from trees. Distri-
bution: state-wide, except north central, in fall, winter and
spring. (L)
Family Coniopterygidae
Coniopteryx vicina Hagen-Many collections from trees. Adults
feed on P. oleivora (Ashm.), larvae on scale crawlers and
spider mites. Distribution: state-wide, except extreme
east coast and south central, in winter, spring and sum-
mer. (Lg)
Family Hemerobiidae
Hemerobius stigmaterus Fitch-One collection. Distribution:
unknown. (1)
Micromus posticus (Wlkr.)-Many collections. Laboratory-
reared on T. aurantii (Fonsc.). This is a common hemero-







26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

biid. Distribution: state-wide, except north central, in
winter, spring and summer. (Lo)
Micromus subanticus (Wlkr.)-One collection. Distribution:
east coast in spring. (1)
Sympherobius barberi (Banks)-Nine collections from P. citri
(Risso) infestations. Distribution: state-wide, except east
coast, in spring and summer. (1)

Family Mantispidae
Mantispa sayi Banks-One collection on aphids at Miami, Dade
County, in winter. (g)

Order THYSANOPTERA

Family Phlaeothripidae
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin)-Many collections from
C. aonidum (L.), L. beckii (Newm.), I. purchase Mask. and
whitefly infestations. This is the most common predatory
thrips. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (LGo)
Haplothrips merrilli Watson-Collected on L. gloverii (Pack.)
and L. beckii (Newm.) on orange at Citra, Marion County,
in the fall. (g)
Leptothrips sp.-Many collections in L. beckii (Newm.) and E.
sexmaculatus (Riley) infestations. Distribution: north cen-
tral, central, east coast and west coast in the spring, sum-
mer and fall. (L)

Family Thripidae
Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.)-Many collections from E.
sexmaculatus (Riley) colonies. Distribution: north cen-
tral and central in winter and spring. (Lo)

Class PHYCOMYCETES
Order CHYTRIDIALES

Family Olpidiaceae
Myiophagus sp.-This endoparasitic chytrid has been recorded
from L. beckii (Newm.), C. aonidum (L.), P. pergandii
Comst. and L. gloverii (Pack.). Second and third stage
scales are most frequently attacked. Distribution: it is







An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 27

found throughout the citrus-growing area and is most prev-
alent during the summer rainy season. (L)

Order ENTOMOPHTHORALES

Family Entomophthoraceae
Entomophthora aphidis Hoff.-This fungus has been collected
from an unidentified aphid. Distribution: not known. (1)
Entomophthora fresenii Nowakowski-This fungus has been
collected from A. spiraecola Patch. Distribution: nothing is
known concerning the geographic and seasonal distribu-
tion. (1)
Entomophthora fumosa Speare-This endoparasite attacks late
nymph and adult female P. citri (Risso). Distribution: ap-
parently in all areas in the late spring and early summer.
(1)
Entomophthora sp.-This endoparasitic fungus is known to at-
tack deutonymph and adult P. citri. (McG.). Distribution:
it is found throughout the citrus-growing area and is most
prevalent in heavy infestations during periods of high tem-
perature and humidity. (L)
Entomophthora sp.-This fungus which attacks E. banks
(McG.) is similar to and may be identical with that found
in P. citri (McG.). Distribution: it occurs wherever the host
mite is found in numbers and when temperature and humi-
dity are high. (L)
Entomophthora sp.-This fungus has been collected once from
S. oleae (Bern.). Distribution: not known. (1)
Entomophthora sp.-This fungus has been collected twice from
C. hesperidum (L.). Distribution: not known. (1)

Class BASIDIOMYCETES
Order AGARICALES
Family Clavariaceae
Hirsutella besseyi Fisher.-This fungus is known to be associ-
ated with L. beckii (Newm.) and C. aonidum (L.) crawlers.
Distribution: apparently in all areas whenever heavy popu-
lations of L. beckii (Newm.) crawlers occur. The distri-
bution is not consistent with C. aonidum (L.) crawlers. (L)







28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher-This fungus is consistently as-
sociated with P. oleivora (Ashm.). It attacks deutonymphs
and adults. Distribution: in all areas whenever P. oleivora
(Ashm.) infestations are heavy in the presence of high
humidity. (L)
Hirsultella sp.-This fungus has been found associated with P.
citri (McG.) infestations in 1 east coast grove. Only dis-
eased adult females were collected. Distribution: east coast
in early summer. (1)
Hirsutella sp.-This fungus has been collected once associated
with E. banksi (McG.). Distribution: north central in
winter. (1)
Hirsutella sp.-This fungus has been found associated with E.
sexmaculatus (Riley) infestations on 2 occasions. Distribu-
tion: central in the fall and winter. (1)

Class DEUTEROMYCETES
Order PHOMALES

Family Zythiaceae
Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber-This parasitic fungus, known
commonly as the red fungus, attacks nymphs of P. citri
(Ashm.) and D. citrifolii (Morg.). Distribution: in all areas
in the summer and fall. (1)
Aschersonia goldiana Saccordo and Ellis-Yellow fungus is the
common name applied to this fungus. It is known to attack
both D. citri (Ashm.) and D. citrifolii (Morg.). Distribu-
tion: all areas in the summer and fall. (1)

Order MONILIALES
Family Tuberculariaceae
Aegerita webberi Fawcett-This parasite-saprophyte, known by
the common name brown fungus, attacks D. citri (Ashm.) and
D. citrifolii (Morg.) but is more common on the former.
Distribution: all areas in the summer and fall. (1)








An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 29


CHECK LIST OF INJURIOUS SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS

ARMORED SCALES

Aonidiella citrina (Coq.) Yellow scale
INSECTA
*Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet)

Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) Florida red scale
ACARINA
+Amblyseius (Iphiseius) quadripilis (Banks), Hemisarcoptes malus
Shimer, Lasioseius sp.
INSECTA
Ablerus clisiocampae (Ashm.), Adelencyrtus sp., Aleurodothrips
fasciapennis (Franklin), Aphanogmus sp., 'Aphytis chrysomphali
(Mercet), Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr.), +Aspidiotiphagus
lounsburyi (B. & P.), Azotus sp., *Chilocorus stigma (Say), Chry-
sopa bimaculata McCI., Chrysopa cubana Hagen, Chrysopa rufi-
labris Burm., Chrysopa sanchezi Navas, Comperiella bifasciata How.,
Exochomus marginipennis Lec., Lindorus lophanthae (B.), *Micro-
weisea coccidivora (Ashm.), Mycodiplosis sp., Olla v-nigrum var.
plagiata Csy., Prospaltella aurantii How., *Pseudhomalopoda prima
(Grlt.), Scymnillus aterrimus Horn., Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons
Melsh., Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.)
PHYCOMYCETES
Myiophagus sp.
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella besseyi Fisher

Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.) Purple scale
ACARINA
Amblyseius (Iphiseius) quadripilis (Banks), Anystis sp., Bdella dis-
tincta B. & B., Siteroptes sp.
INSECTA
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Aphanogmus sp., *Aphytis
lepidosaphes Comp., Aphytis mytilaspidus (LeB.), Aspidiotiphagus
citrinus (Craw), +Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. & B.), +Chilocorus
stigma (Say), Chrysopa cubana Hagen, Coniopteryx vicina Hagen,
Delphastus pusillus (Lec.), Epitragodes tomentosus (Lec.), Exo-
chomus marginipennis Lec., Haplothrips merrilli Watson, Itonidini,
Leptothrips sp., Lindorus lophanthae (B.), Microweisea coccidivora
(Ashm.), Prospaltella aurantii (How.), Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons
Melsh., Thysanus occidentalis (How.)
PHYCOMYCETES
*Myiophagus sp.
BASIDIOMYCETES
*Hirsutella besseyi Fisher








30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Lepidosaphes gloverii (Pack.) Glover scale
ACARINA
'Amblyseius (Iphiseius) quadripilis (Banks)
INSECT
Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp., Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw), As-
pidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. & P.), Haplothrips merrilli Watson,
*ProspalteUa elongata Doz.
PHYCOMYCETES
+Myiophagus sp.
Parlatoria pergandii Comst. Chaff scale
ACARINA
Cheyletia sp.
INSECTA
*Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet), Aphytis proclia (Wlkr.), Aspidioti-
phagus citrinus (Craw), *Chilocorus stigma (Say), *Prospaltella
fasciata Mal.
PHYCOMYCETES
Myiophagus sp.
Unaspis citri (Comst.) Citrus snow scale
ACARINA
Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer
INSECTA
Aphytis lingnanensis Comp., Aphytis proclia (Wlkr.), Aspidioti-
phagus citrinus (Craw), Oligosita sanguinea (Grlt.)

UNARMORED SCALES
Ceroplastes floridensis Comst. Florida wax scale
INSECT
Aphycus flavus How., Cheiloneurus sp., +Metaphycus eruptor (How.),
Metaphycus sp., +Scutellista cyanea Mots., Tetrastichus sp.

Coccus elongatus Sign. Long soft scale
INSECTA
Anastatus sp.
Coccus hesperidum (L.) soft brown scale
INSECTA
*Aphycus flavus How., Aphycus sp., +Chilocorus stigma (Say), Chry-
sopa rufilabris Burm., +Coccophagus lycinnia (Wlkr.), +Cryptolaemus
montrouzieri Muls., Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.), Lecaniobius
cockerelli Ashm., *Microterys flavus (How.), Olla v-nigrum var.
plagiata Csy., Scymnus sp., Tetrastichus minutus (How.)
PHYCOMYCETES
Entomophthora sp.
Coccus viridis (Green) Green scale
INSECTA
Cheiloneurus sp., Cycloneda sanguine (L.), Microterys flavus (How.),
Scymnillodes subtropicus Csy., Tetrastichus sp.













An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 31

Icerya purchase Mask. Cottony-cushion scale
INSECT
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Epitragodes tomentosus
(Lec.), Exochomus marginipennis Lec., Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.),
?Pyroderces rileyi (Wals.), *Rodolia cardinalis (Muls.)

Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Ckll.) Pyriform scale
INSECT
Aphanogmus sp., Aphycus sp., +Cheiloneurus sp., +Cryptolaemus
montrouzieri Muls., Exochomus marginipennis Lee., Microterys flavus
(How.), Telenomus sp.

Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targ.) Hemisphaerical scale
INSECTA
Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm.

Saissetia oleae (Bern.) Black scale
INSECT
Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.), Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.), Leca-
niobius cockerelli Ashm., *Scutellista cyanea Mots.
PHYCOMYCETES
+Entomophthora sp.

MEALYBUGS

Pseudococcus citri (Risso) Citrus mealybug
ACARINA
Lasioseius sp.
INSECT
Achrysopophagus dactylopii (How.), +Chilocorus stigma (Say),
*Chrysopa bimaculata McCI., Chrysopa cubana Hagen, Chrysopa
sanchezi Navas, Chrysoplatycerus howardii Ashm., Chrysoplatycerus
splendens (How.), *Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls., Cycloneda san-
guinea (L.), Decadiomus bahamicus (Csy.), Laetilia coccidivora
(Comst.), *Leptomastidea abnormis (Grlt.), Leptomastix dacty-
lopii How., +Olla v-nigrum var. plagiata Csy., ?Pyroderces rileyi
(Wals.), Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons Melsh., *Sympherobius bar-
beri (Banks), Tetrastichus minutus (How.)
PHYCOMYCETES
Entomophthora fumosa Speare

WHITEFLIES

Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) Woolly whitefly
INSECT
Chrysopa cubana Hagen, Delphastus pallidus (Lec.), *Delphastus
pusillus (Lee.), Encarsia basicincta Gah., *Encarsia variegata How.,
Eretmocerus haldemani How., Eretmocerus portoricensis Doz., Eret-
mocerus sp., +Nephaspis gorhami Csy., *Prospaltella brasiliensis
(Hempel), *Prospaltella sp.












32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.) Citrus whitefly
INSECTA
*Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Delphastus pallidus (Lec.),
*Delphastus pusillus (Lec.), Nephaspis gorhami Csy.
DEUTEROMYCETES
Aegerita webberi Fawcett, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber, *Ascher-
sonia goldiana Sacc. & Ellis
Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.) Cloudy-winged whitefly
INSECTA
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Chrysopa bimaculata McCl.,
Delphastus pallidus (Lec.), Delphastus pusillus (Lec.), Nephaspis
gorhami Csy., Scymnus, sp.
DEUTEROMYCETES
Aegerita webberi Fawcett, *Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber, *Ascher-
sonia goldiana Sacc. & Ellis
Paraleyrodes perseae (Quaint.)
INSECTA
Scymnus sp.
Tetraleurodes ursorum Ckll.
INSECTA
Encarsia basicincta Gah.

APHIDS
Aphis spiraecola Patch Spirea aphid (green citrus aphid)
INSECTA
Allograpta obliqua (Say), +Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.), +Baccha
clavata (F.), Chilocorus stigma (Say), +Chrysopa rufilabris Burm.,
Coleomegilla maculata fuscilabris (Muls.), +Cycloneda sanguine
(L.), Exochomus marginipennis Lec., Hippodamia convergens Gudr.,
Leis dimidiata quinquedecimmaculata (Hope), Scymnus (Pullus)
kinzeli Csy., *Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis Lee., +Scymnus (Diomus)
terminatus Say, Scymnus sp.
PHYCOMYCETES
*Entomophthora fresenii Nowakowski
Toxoptera aurantii (Fonsc.) Black citrus aphid
INSECTA
Allograpta sp., +Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.), Baccha fuscipennis
Say, Leucopis sp., +Micromus posticus (Wlkr.), Olla v-nigrum var.
plagiata Csy., Scymnus (Diomus) terminatus Say

MITES
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley) Six-spotted mite
ACARINA
Amblyseiulus dorsatus Muma, +Amblyseius (Iphiseius) quadripilis
(Banks), Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman & Mc-








An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 33

Gregor), Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) peregrinus (Muma), Ambly-
seius (Typhlodromopsis) simplicissimus (De Leon), Atomus sp.,
Galendromus annectens (De Leon), *Galendromus floridanus (Muma),
*Agistemus sp., Typhlodromina conspicua (Garman)
INSECTA
Chrysopa bimaculata McCl., 'Chrysopa cubana Hagen, 4Chrysopa
rufilabris Burm., Coniopteryx vicina Hagen, Cycloneda sanguinea
(L), Itonidini, Leptothrips sp., Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.),
*Stethorus utilis (Horn.)
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.

Eutetranychus banksi (McG.) Texas citrus mite
ACARINA
Amblyseius (Typhlodromus) hibisci (Chant.) Galendromus flori-
danus (Muma)
INSECTA
Olla v-nigrum var. plagiata Csy.
PHYCOMYCETES
*Entomophthora sp.
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.

Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks) Broad mite
ACARINA
Lasioseius sp.

Panonychus citri (McG.) Citrus red mite
ACARINA
"*Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) peregrinus (Muma), Anystis sp. prob.
agilis Banks, Galendromus floridanus (Muma), Typhlodromina con-
spicua (Garman)
INSECTA
+Chrysopa bimaculata McCl., +Chrysopa cubana Hagen, Cycloneda
sanguinea (L.), +Olla v-nigrum var. plagiata Csy., Stethorus utilis
(Horn)
PHYCOMYCETES
Entomophthora sp.
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.

Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.) Citrus rust mite
ACARINA
Agistemus sp., +Pronematus sp.
INSECTA
*Coniopteryx vicina Hagen, Delphastus pallidus (Lee.), Itonidini
BASIDIOMYCETES
*Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher








34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS

Automeris io lilith Strck. Io moth
INSECT
Anastatus sp.

Megalopyge opercularis (J. E. Smith) Puss caterpillar
INSECTA
*Carcelia lagoae (Tns.)

Melanoplus femur-rubrum (DeG.) Red-legged grasshopper
INSECTA
Ceracia sp. near dentata Coq.

Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.) Broad-winged katydid
INSECTA
*Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh and Riley)

Nezara viridula (L.) Southern green stink bug
INSECTA
+Trichopoda pennipes (F.)

Oiketicus abboti Grt. Orange bagworm
INSECTA
Goniozus sp., Iphiaulax sp., *Phobetes thyridopteryx (Riley)

Papilio cresphontes Cram. Orange dog
INSECT
*Achaetoneura rileyi (Will.), *Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas),
Brachymeria robusta (Cress.)

Platoeceticus gloveri Pack. Orange basketworm
INSECTA
+Eucromasia floridensis Rein., Goniozus sp., Horismenus sp., Lymeon
orbum (Say), *Phobetes thyridopteryx (Riley)

Platynota sp.
INSECTA
Goniozus hubbardi How.

Sibine stimulea (Clem.) Saddleback caterpillar
INSECTA
*Apanteles empretiae Vier., Apanteles sp., Phorocera einaris Smith

Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) Fall armyworm
INSECTA
Gonia crassicornis (F.)









An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 35


CHECK LIST OF BENEFICIAL SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS

PREDATORS
Baccha clavata (F.)
INSECTA
Diplazon laetatorius (F.), Pachyneuron syrphi (Ashm.), Syrpho-
phagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)
Baccha lugens Lw.
INSECTA
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)
Chrysopa bimaculata McC1.
INSECTA
Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush., Isodromus iceryae How., Otacustes
crassus chrysopae Ashm.
Chrysopa cubana Hagen
INSECTA
Anastatus sp., Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush., Chrysopophagus, com-
pressicornis Ashm., Horismenus sp., Isodromus iceryae How., Ota-
custes crassus chrysopae Ashm., Tetrastichus chrysopae (Cwfd.)
Chrysopa rufilabris Burm.
INSECTA
Chrysopophagus compressicornis Ashm., Otacustes crassus chrysopae
Ashm.
Chrysopa sanchezi Navas
INSECTA
Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush., Horismenus sp., Isodromus iceryae
How., Otacustes crassus chrysopae Ashm.
Chrysopa sp.
INSECTA
Anastatus sp., Arachnophaga sp., Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush.,
Chrysopophagus compressicornis Ashm., Horismenus sp., Isodromus
iceryae How., Otacustes bicolor (Cush.), Otacustes crassus chrysopae
Ashm., Tetrastichus chrysopae (Cwfd.)
Coniopteryx vicina Hagen
INSECTA
Camptoptera sp., Cosmocomoidea morrilli How., Dendrocerus con-
wentziae var. rufus Gah.
Cycloneda sanguine (L.)
INSECTA
Homolotylus terminalus (Say), Tetrastichus minutus (How.)
Nodita floridana (Banks)
INSECTA
Isodromus iceryae How.








36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Phytoseiidae
ACARINA
Cheyletia wellsi Baker
Metasyrphus wiedmanni (John.)
INSECTA
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)

PARASITES
Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.)
INSECTA
Charips sp.
Aphycus flavus (How.)
INSECTA
Cheiloneurus sp.
Prospaltella aurantii How.
INSECTA
Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.)

Pseudhomalopoda prima (Grlt.)
INSECTA
Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr)








An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 37

CHECK LIST OF INCIDENTAL SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS
MITES
Acarids
ACARINA
Blattisocius keegani Fox, Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma

Fungitarsonemus peregrinus (Beer)
ACARINA
Agistemus sp., Pronematus sp.

Tydeus sp.
ACARINA
Agistemus sp.
SPIDERS

Gasteracantha cancriformis (L.)
INSECT
Lasioptera sp.
INSECTS
Psocids
INSECT
Alaptus caecilii Grit., Alaptus sp.

FUNGI
Fungus
INSECTA
Psyllobora viginti-maculata Say

Sphaerostilbe aurantiicola (Berk. & Br.) Petch Red-headed fungus
ACARINA
Proctolaelaps hypudaei (Oud.)








38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

INDEX TO FAMILIES, GENERA AND COMMON NAMES

Subject Page Subject Page Subject Page

A Cecidomyiidae .......... 15 Entomophthoraceae.. 27
Ablerus 19 Ceracia -..........-----.. 15 Eotetranychus ........ 32
Acarids ............ ... 6 Ceraphron .-..........-... 17 Epitragodes ........... 15
Acaeoseid ae .------.. --. 6 Ceraphronidae -....... 17 Eretmocerus .......... 21
Aceeaeto ura..-.... 15 Ceroplastes ........... 30 Eucromasia -..........-- 15
Acha ro o a u 17 Chaff scale ................ 30 Eulophidae .............. 19
Achrysopophagus 17 Chalcididae .......---.. 17 Eupalopsis ..........--.. 11
Adelencyrtus ..... 8 Chamaemyidae .... 15 Eupelmidae .....-........ 22
Aegeitaus -- Charips ......-.--.......... 17 Eutetranychus ....... 33
Alaptus .... 1, Cheiloneurus ........--.. 18 Exochomus ...........---- ... 12
Alaptus .................. 23 Cheletogenes .------..-. 7 Exothoris .---------....... 11
Alcaeorrhynchus ... 16 Cheyletia ...----- 7
Aleurodothrips .-...... 26 Cheyletidae .............. 7 F
Aleurothrixus .......... 31 Chilocorus .-----. 12
Allochrysa ......--....... 24 Chrysomphalus ........ 29 Fall armyworm ...... 34
Allograpta ..........-... 16 Chrysopa .. 24, 25 35 Florida red scale .... 29
Amblyscutus ....... 8 Chrysopidae ....... 24 Florida wax scale .... 30
Amblyseiella ............ 8 Chrysoplatycerus .... 18 Fungitarsonemus -... 36
Amblyseiulus .......... 8 Chrysopophagus ...... 18 Fungus ...................... 37
Amblyseius ..---..-- 8, 9 Chrysopophagus .... 31
Anastatus---------22 Citrus mealybug 8_ 31
Anastatus ------......... 22 Citrus red mite ...... 33 G
Anystidae----------6 Citrus ret mite- 8- G
Anystis ---- 6 Citrus rust mite .... 33 Galendromus .........-- 10
Aonidiella ..-......... 29 Citrus snow scale .... 30 Gasteracantha .-...... 36
Apanteles -........ 17 Citrus whitefly ........ 32 Glover scale .......... 30
Apanteleogmus --------_ 17 Clavariaceae--- -27 G ------.-- 15
Aphanogmus ........... 17 Clavariaceae ......... 27 Gonia ........................ 15
Aphidius .---. 17, 36 Cloudy-winged Goniozus ---........--. 16
Aphis ................- 32 whitefly ....-....... 32 Green citrus aphid -. 32
Aphicus 18 32 Coccinellidae ---. 12 Green scale .............. 30
Aphycus -------........... 18, 36 Coccophagus........-------..20
Aphytis .------.......--...... 19, 20 Coccus .... ---- .............. 0
Apterencyrtus ........ 18 Coleomegilla 12 H
Arachnophaga ....... 22 Comperiella .-..... 18 Haplothrips ......- 26
A sca -.8........................ 8 ...........................
Aschersonia .....------- 28 Condylostylus .....-.. 15 Hemerobiidae .......... 25
Ascpidiotiphagus 20 Coniopterygidae ..-.. 25 Hemerobius ..---......... 25
Atomusdiotiphagus ..- Coniopteryx ...... 25, 35 Hemisarcoptes ....... 8
Atoms Cosmocomoidea ..... 23 Hemisarcoptidae .... 8
Axionmes ...--...--- .. 12 Cosmopterygidae ... 24 Hemispherical scale 31
Axiousn ---.-------.. Cottony-cushion Hemitarsonemus ... 33
Azotus -- ....-. .. 20 scale .................... 31 Hippodamia .-..--...-... 13
B Cryptolaemus ...-.... 12 Hirsutella .......... 27, 28
Cunaxa .--....---............ 7 Homalotylus .........-- 18
Baccha ....--..-..-.. 16, 35 Cunaxidae -.....-........ 7 Horismenus ............ -- 21
Bdella .....-.............-.. 6 Cunaxoides -........--- 8 Hyperaspis .-.........-.. 13
Bdellidae ....--.....-... 6 Cycloneda .......- 12, 35
Bethylidae .......-.....- 16 Cynipidae ............-- 17 I
Black citrus aphid .. 32
Black scale .---......... 31 D Icerya --.. ----................. 31
Blattiscocius .--...... 6 Decadiomus ........... 12 Icheumo dae.....- 22
Brachycyrtus ........-.. 22 Delphastus ........ 12 phiaula ...----..--....... 17
Brachymeria .-...-...- 17 Dendrocerus ............ 17 Isodromus ------........ 1C
Braconidae ...........- 17 Dialeurodes .-....... 32 Itonidini------ 1
Broad mite ........... 33 Digamasellidae ........ 8................ 1
Broad-winged Diplazon .--....---....... 22
katydid ................ 34 Dolichopodidae ....... 15 L
Laetilia ..... ---......... ... 24
C E Larvaevoridae ....-... 15
Caligonellidae ...-...... 7 Encarsia .......-............ 20 Lasioptera ......-......... 15
Camptoptera ..........-- 23 Encyrtidae ...-....... -- 17 Lasioseius .----.............. 6
Carcelia -........-...---- 15 Entomophthora ...... 27 Lecaniobius .-....-...... 22









An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites 39

Subject Page Subject Page Subject Page
Ledermuelleria ........ 11 P Scymnus .................. 14
Leis .--------.................. 13 Pachyneuron ..-....... 23 Sibine --------......--... --34
Lepidosaphes .... 29, 30 Panonychus ..-----. 33 Siteroptes ................ 10
Leptomastidea ........ 19 Papilio ............... 34 Six-spotted mite ...-.. 32
Leptomastix .--..-...-.. 19 Paraleyrodes .------.. 31 Soft brown scale .... 30
Leptothrips .........-.. 26 Parlatoria .......- 30 Southern green
Leucopis .........---........ 15 Pentatomidae .......... 16 stink bug ............ 34
Lindorus .....-............ 13 Phlaeothripidae ...... 26 Sphaerostilbe .......... 37
Long soft scale ........ 30 Phobetes .----........ 23 Spilochalcis .............. 17
Lorryia .---.................. 11 Phorocera ...........-.... 16 Spirea aphid ..-.....-... 32
Lymeon .......-- ......... 22 Phycitidae ................ 24 Stethorus ................ 14
Phyllocoptruta ........ 33 Spodoptera .............. 34
M Phytoscutus ........-.... 10 Stigmaeidae ............ 10
Macrocheles ..... 8 Phytoseiidae ........ 8, 36 Sympherobius .....-... 26
Macrochelidae ......... 8 Phytoseiulus ......-..... 10 Syrphidae ................ 16
Mantispa ............ -- 26 Platoeceticus ............ 34 Syrphophagus .......... 19
Mantispidae ......... --- 26 Platynota ................. 34 Systasis .................... 23
Megalopyge -.........- 34 Proctolaelaps .......... 6
Melanoplus ...-.......... 34 Pronematus --.-----.......... 11 T
Metaphycus .............. 19 Prospaltella ..... 21, 36 Telenomus .-.....-....... 23
Metasyrphyus ........... 36 Protopulvinaria ...... 31 Tenebrionidae .......... 15
Microcentrum ......-.. 34 Pseudhomal- Tetraleurodes .......... 32
Micromus ....... 25, 26 opoda -----.......... 19, 36 Tetrastichus ....... 21, 22
Microterys -.............. 19 Pseudococcus ............ 31 Texas citrus mite .... 33
Microweisea 9........... 13 Psocids ................ ------36 Thripidae ...-............ -- 26
Mycodiplosis ............ 15 Psyllobora ........---..... 13 Thysanidae .......-..... 24
Myiophagus ..-.......--. 26 Pteromalidae ........ 23 Thysanus .................. 24
Mymaridae .--.....----. 23 Purple scale .-..-...... 29 Toxoptera ...........-.... 32
Puss caterpillar ----.... 34 Trichogramma ........ 24
Pyemotidae ...----...... 10 Trichogrammatidae.. 24
N Pyriform scale ....-... 31 Trichopoda .............. 16
Neomymar .........--... 23 Pyroderces ...-.......... 24 Trombidiidae ............ 11
Nephaspis .-...........-- 13 R Trombidium .......... 11
Neophyllobius ..--...... 7 Tuberculariaceae .... 28
Nezara ...................... 34 Red-headed fungus.. 37 Tydeidae .........-.... 11
Nodita -.........-..... 25, 35 Red-legged Tydeus --------....... 11, 36
grasshopper ...... 34 Typhlodromina ........ 10
0 Rodolia ...............-...-- 13
Ooencyrtus .............. 19 S Unaspis ---............ 30
Oiketicus ................. 34 Saddleback W
Oligosita .................. 24 caterpillar ......... 34
Olla ............................ 13 Saissetia .......-..-.... 31 W oolly whitefly ...... 31
Olpidiaceae ............. 26 Scelionidae ---....-...... 23 Y
Orange bagworm .. 34 Scolothrips ..--..-....... 26 Yellow scale --- 29
Orange basketworm 34 Scutellista ..-............. 23......
Orange dog .............. 34 Scymnillodes .-.......--. 14 Z
Otacustes ......------. ... 22 Scymnillus .......-------.... 14 Zythiaceae .........-...... 28





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