Florlan is the only State east of the Missssisippi River that has
no law for the analysis of commercial fertilizers. This Stale is,
therefore, an open field for the sale of anything that unjybody may
choose to put upon the market under the name of "fertilizers"
While it is not likely that manufacturers ot Well established repu-
tation would go out of their way to produce an inferior article for
this market, still. if in thu process or manufacture, they should
turn out a lot not up to the usual standard, Florida provides a
market where this inferiority would never be discovered. However
the matter may stand with the better class of manufacturers,;dis-
honest ones, if there be any, can find here a place to'carry on their
It will, of course, be impossible tor the station to control this
matter in the absence of a State law ; It is, nevertheless, the pur-
pose of the station to publish the results of analyses .of fertilizers
sampled from time to time in various parts of theState. Below
are given a few such analyses :
Wilcox Fertilizer Co., Savannah Ga., sampled at A. B. Hart's
ware-house, Lake City. February.
MoisturA at 1500 10.25
Sulphuric Acid (80) 23.07
No mark on the bags; bought ot W. A. Bours, Jacksonville,
pla.; sampled atathe Experiment Station, Lake City, February.
Moisture at 1500 18.03
Sulphuric Acid 208,3
The fert:lizing ingredient that determines the value is l sit is
potash. The above samples agree fairly well in this ingredient
with the usual guarantee. As is well known, the principal source
of kainit is the Stassfurt Mine in Germany. This mine was form-
erly worked mainly for salt of which it contains vast quantities.
Only within the last twenty or thirty years was the presence of
potash in valuable quantities discovered. The unavoidable ad-
mixture of so large,a per cent. of salt in kainit is an evil and ren-
ders great discrimination necessary in its use as a fertilizer. Ger-
man agriculturists have discovered the fact that manures contain-
ing large amount of salt, although increasing the quantity of yield,
degrade the quality of certain crops. Thus for example, salt
diminishes the per cent. of starch in potatoes, of sugar in :uets,
and renders tobacco so poorly combustible as to ill tit t for smok-
ing. On the other hann flax and grasses take well to salt. The
German system of using kainit is, therefore, to apply it to these lat-
ter directly; then the following season, after the salt is assimilated
by the soil, to plant to potatoes, beets, tobacco or other crops that
especially need and aire impro%'ed by potash. Another of their
methods of utilizing the potash in kainit is to apply it first to the
pea which is ploughed under; an.l the land then planted to such
crops as they may wish. Until experiments have determined defi-
nitely the best method for Florida soils, it is undoubtedly safest to
compost the kainit.
Paine's Florida Vegetable Food-Sample sent in by Capt. C.
A. Finley, Lake City, February. No guarantee on sacks.
Moisture at 1000 17.oO
Total Phosphoric Acid 16.53
Soluable Phosphoric Acid (in water) 10.17
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid (in citrate of Am'a) 2.27
Reverted Phosphoric Acid 4.09
This fertilizer is very rich in phosphoric acid, poor
in ammonia and very poor in potash.
BLOOD AND BONE.
Bought at Jacksonville, Fla., of Armour & Co., sampled at the Ex-
periment Station, Lake City. No guarantee on sacks.
Moisture at 1000 9.75
Phosphoric Acid (total amount) 9.34
S (Soluble in water) .34
(iusoluble in am'nia citrate 4.65
This is a highly ammoniated manure.
From J. J. Inglis & Co., Madison, Fla., sampled at the Experi-
ment Station. No guarantee on sacks.
, Moisture atl000
Organic and volatile matter 53.10
Phosphoric Acid 6.15
This is a fairly good fertilizer.
MUCK, MARL AND SOILS.
Muck-Sent on from Island Lake, Orange county, Fla., by Miss
Moisture at 1000 46.10
Organic and volatile matter 48.87
Phosphoric Acid .08
Potash and soda .03
Iron and alumnium oxides
Sand and insoluble matter :I ,
The per cent. of organic matter is large. That of sand, insoluble
and useless matter small; and this may be considered an excellent
quality of muck.
Marl-From the Turnbull Hammock, sent on by Mr. C. D.
Moisture at 1000 0.64
SOrganic and volatile matter 2.81
Phosphoric Acid .37
Iron and aluminum ox!des 1.04
Sand and insoluble matter 51.15
This marl might be profitably applied to land where lime is
Soil (D)-Low Hammock, sample taken on the Experiment Sta-
tion 1oo yards or so from brink of lake. Depth taken about 5 inches
Moisture at 1000 0.59
Organic and volatile matter 2.50
Phosphoric Acid .02
Potash and Soda .10
Iron and Aluminum oxides .13
Soil (E)-Low Hammock, taken from near the same spot as
above. Depth to which sample was taken about 2 inches. Under-
lain by sand; but the sample judged by the eye seemed to contain little
of that ingredient and much organic matter.
Moisture at 100o 3.87
Organic and Volatile Matter 14.48
Phospherio Acid 0.70
Potash and Soda .03
Iron and Aluminum Oxides .49
The above two samples were taken in the virgin forest. Below is
given the analysis of a soil and corresponding sub-soil, taken at the
Station Farm from high, rolling hammock, for many years cleared and
Organic ani Volatile Matter 1.27
Phosphoric Acid .07
Potash and Soda .0 9
Iron and Aluminum Oxides 33
Organic and Volatile Matter .80
Phosphoric acid .02
Potash and Soda .09
Iron and Aluminum Oxides ,28
The striking feature of these soils is the large amount of sand. If
they are compared with each other with reference to the amount of
moisture and organic matter they contain, thus:-
Moisture 0.28 0.51 0."0 3.87
Organic Matter .80 1.27 2,60 14,43
Sand .97.00 96,00 96.00 80,55
it will be observed that the amount of moisture increases as the amount
of organic matter increases, and that it is less, the greater the amount
of sand. Nothing is of greater importance in the treatment of the
sandy soils of Florida than keeping them well supplied with abundance
muck or other vegetable matter. This treatment, not to speak of its
fertilizing value, increases greatly the capacity of the soil to remain
moisture and withstand drought.
Directions for taking samples of soil, water
Great care should be taken that the sample represents afair
average of the substance to be analyzed, and that they be put into
In taking samples of soil avoid fence corners, and spots that have
been enriched above the average by droppings from animals, decayed
logs, stumps, etc. Scrape away the top trash, leaves or mould, make
with a spade a hole five or six inches square. The hole should be sunk
perpendicularly to the surface. From one side of the hole take with a
spade a slice two or three inches thick and'down to a depth equalling
the depth of the soil. This will usually be from five to twelve or fif-
teen inches. The point at which the soil ends and where the sub-soil
begins is usually pretty well marked by difference in color or texture of
the soil. Take several samples in this way from different parts of the
field, put them together, thoroughly mix and from the mixture make
up a sample, for analysis, of two or three pounds. In a similar way take
samples of the sub-soil from the same holes from which the soil'samples
have been taken. A pint or quart fruit jar is the best and most con-
venient vessel for holding sample. Each sample should have a label,
telling where taken, the nature of the land-pine, high or low ham-
Open about every tenth sack, or package of the lot to be sampled;
take from the interior as well as from the ends of each, a pound or so;
mix the portions from the different sacks thoroughly in a clean, dry
box, and from the mixture fill a quart fruit jar and seal so as to be air-
tight. The operation of sampling should be gone through with as
quickly as possible and in such a place and in such a manner as to
prevent the fertilizer from either losing or taking on moisture. Label
with name and address of sampler brand of fertilizer, manufacturer's
name and address.
Samples of water should always be put into glass bottles or demi-
johns. Too great care cannot be had to thoroughly cleanse the bot-
tles, and to use fresh, clean stoppers. To this end, after tlie vessel
has been thoroughly cleansed, it should be rinsed a half dozen times
or more with water from the same source as that to be analyzed. The
sample should then be put in, immediately corked and sealed with wax.
Corks should, before using, be soaked for several hours in frequently
changed water from the spring or well to be analyzed. In taking
sample avoid getting mud, sand, and other foreign matter. Not less
than two gallons should constitute a sample.
If there is any gas in the water, proceed as follows to catch the
gas: Fill a demijohn with water, cork it, insert and uncork with
mouth under water ; if held in this position ;ihe gas will rise and
take the place of the water in the demijohn. When full of gas,
cork while under water, and seal with wax.
J. M. PICKELL, Professor of Chemistry and Phys:cs,
JOHN J. EARLE, Assistant Chemist.
NOTE. All samples ot fertilizers, soils, water, cereals and fruits, it
sent prepaid, are analyzed free to the sender on application to the
Director, Rev. Jas. P. DePass, Lake City, Fla.
The unfinished and incomplete condition of the laboratory till
now, has heretotore crippled and limited chemical investigation.
THE HATCH ACT.
AN ACT TO ESTABLISH AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS IN CN-
FECTION WITH THE COLLEGES ESTABLISHED IN THE SEVERAL STATES
UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF AN ACT APPROVED JULY 2ND, 1862, AND OF
THE ACTS SUPPLEMENTARY THERETO.
SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-
tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in
order to aid in acquiring and diffusing among the people of the
United States useful and practical information on subjects connected
with agriculture, and to promote scientific investigation and experi-
ment respecting the principles and applications of agricultural
science, there shall be established, under direction of the college or
colleges, or agricultural department of colleges, in each State or
Territory established, or which may hereafter be established, in
accordance with an act approved July 2d, 1862, entitled "Act do-
nating lands of the several States and Terrtories which may pro-
vide colleges for thebenefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts,"
or any of the supplements to said act, a department to be know and
designated as an "Agricultural Experiment Station:" Provided,
That in any State or Territory in which two such colleges have
been or may be so established, the appropriation hereinafter made;
to such.State or Territory shall be equally divided between such col-
leges, unless the Legislature of such State or Territory shall other-
sEc.2. Thatit shallbethe object and duty ot said Experiment
Stations to conduct original researches or experiments on the physi-
ology of plants and animals; the diseases to which they are severally
subject, with the remedies for the same; the chemical composition of
plants at their different stages of growth; the comparative advanta-
ges of rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops.
the capacity ot new plants or trees for acclimation; the analysis of
soils and water; the chemical composition of manures, natural or
artificial, with experiments designed to test their comparative ef-
fects on crops of different kinds; the adaptation and value of grasses
and forage plants; the composition and digestibility of the different
kinds of food for domestic animals; scientific and economic questions
involved in the production of butter and cheese; and such other re-
searches or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry
ol the United States as may in each case be deemed advisable,
having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of the
respective States and Territories.
SEC. 3. That in order to secure, as far as practicable, uniformity
of methods and results in the work of said stations, it shall be the
duty pf the United States Cpmmi,seioner pl Agricult.u. tq Igrrn.ish
forms, as far as practicable, ft'r tei tabulatin of rczuilts of invesii-
gations o, exp-riinitls; to indi.eate i'rol time to time such li ue
of inquiry ais to l.in shall seem most important and in general to fur-
nish such advice as will best promote tLe purl:oes ot 'his act
It shall be the dut y of each ot said stations, annually, on o: before
the first day of February, Wo matei to the Go\ernor of the State
or Territory in which it is located, a full anl dcleatn:ed report of its
operations, a statement of receipts and expenditures, a copy of which
report shall be sent to each o; bald stations, to the (_'ulmissionner ot
Agriculture, and the Secretary of the Trecaury :'f il eC United State.
SEC. 4. That bulletins or reports of process siiall Ibe published at
said stations at least unce in tl hce no'Lths, c -ne 1c.p i \l which shall
be sent to each newspaper in the States or 'Tiritorics in which they
a.e respectivelv icciLItC,, and to sue1:1 in iiviJ.uails act iuaily eilg'ag'ed
ila ltiriillug as inl:I' '(req estU ile slamle, aUt. as 1.r :is i lle f:,I.ans t 11th
station ,ii pjr.lll. Su t lC bulleii or rpo. a.t I Lhe annl ua.
reports of said bt.Lious snail be IraunsitMice in lie miaiis ol the
ULnited statess free of cIhar;ge or postage, llutler sullh i :eglatioils as
til Posltllaser General iiay iroIU tilie to tune llresrcl'lc .
SEC. 5. That for the ipupose of paying the necessary expenses of
conducting investigations and experiments ani d print i llo ig and dla-.
tributing tlie result as heremnbeiore prescribed, .lie siin ofr'15.000
Ls hereby appropriated to each State, to be specially provided for by
Congress in the appropriations from year to year, and to each Ter-
ritory entitled under the provisions of section eight of this act, out
ot any money in the treasury proceeding froln the sales of publle
lands, to be paid in equal quarterly payments on the lirst day Po
January, April, Ju!y, alid October in each year, to tle treasurer or
other officer duly appointed by the governing board of said college
to receive the same. the first payment to be made on the iirst day
of October, 1887 :Prozvided,however, that ou ot tthe first ainniual applro
pnra tion so received by any Station an amount not exceding oie-
fifth may be expended iln the erection, enlargement, or repair ol a
building or buildings necessary for carrying on the. woi k of sutah
Station; and thereatteran amount not exceeding live per centum of
such annual appopriartion may be so expended.
sEC. 6. Thtt whenever it shall appear to the Secretary of the
Treasury, from the annual statement of receipts and expenditures
of any of said stations, that a portion of the proceeding annuIal alp
prop nation remains unexpended, such amount shall be deducted from
the next succeeding annual appropriation to such station, in order
that the amount of money appropriately In any station shall not
exceed thI amount actually and neces arily required for its maiL-
tenance and supl ort.
src. 7. That nothing in this act shall be construe to impair or
nuolily the legal relation existing between any ot the said ,'ollegs
and the government of the States or Territories in which they aur
sr:. 8. That in States having colleges entitled under this section
to the bueefis of this act, and having also agricultural experiment
stations established by law separate Ifom said colleges such States
shall be authorized to apply such benefits to experiments at stations
established by such Statcs; and in case any State shall have stab
listed, under provisions of said act of July 2nd afcro'Aaid, an agri
Scnltural department or experimental station in connection with any
university, college or institution not distinctively an agricultural
college or school, and said States shall have established or shall
hereafter establish a separate agricultural college or school which
shall have connected tiherewith an experimental fIarln or station, the
Legislature ot such State may aplly in whole or in part the appro
priation by this act made tY such agricultural college or school;
an..l no Legislature shall, by contract express or implied, disable
itself.from so doing.
sec. 9. That the grants of moneys authorized by this act are made
subicct to the legislative assent of the several States and Tclrttgrie.
to the purposes of said grants: Provided, That payments of such
installments of the appropriation herein made a. shall become.due
to any State before the adjournment of the regular session of th e
Legislature meeting next after the'passage of this act shall be made
upon the ascent of the Governor thereoftduly certified to the See-
retaTr of the Treasury.
sEc. 10. Nothing in this act shall be held or construed as binding
the Upiicd States to continue any payments from the treasury t
mny or all the States or institutions mentioned in this act; but Con-
gress may at any tirne amend, suspend or repeal any or all of the
p visions of this act.
Approved March 2, 1887.