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Agricultural experiments
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 Material Information
Title: Agricultural experiments
Series Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Added title page title: Tobacco
Long or black seed cotton
Rice
Sorghum
Ashes as a fertilizer
Physical Description: 15 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: DePass, Jas. P ( James P )
Publisher: Experiment Station of Florida at the State Agricultural College
Place of Publication: Lake City, Fla
Publication Date: 1891
Copyright Date: 1891
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Tobacco -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cotton -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Rice -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Ashes as fertilizer -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption titles.
Statement of Responsibility: Jas. P. DePass.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AFH1935
oclc - 18686427
alephbibnum - 001086647
System ID: UF00026739:00001

Full Text







BULLETIN No. 12,

-OF THE--



EXPERIMENT STATION


OF FLORIDA,

--AT THE-


STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.

Lake Citg, Florida.



JANUARY 1, 1891.



REV. JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
STAFF:
DR. J. C. NEAL, ENTOMOLOGIST AND BOTANIST.
DR. J. M. PICKELL, CHEMIST.
J. J. EARLE, A. B.,IASSISTANT CHEMIST.



JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA :
DACOSTAIPRINTING AND PUBLISHING HOUSE,
1891.

M-iiiiii ~ .~niivrii^ -.tiiii-il -~





























ERRATUM.
On page 17, Bulletin No. ii, occurs this paragraph:
The same report estimates the following as a suitable daily ration
for a milk cow of one thousand pounds live weight: ten pounds fod-
der corn (field cured), eleven pounds oat straw, twenty pounds tur-
nips, three pounds cornmeal and fifteen pounds cottonseed meal.
Instead-of fifteen, it should be FIVE pounds of cottonseed meal.














TOBACCO.
An effort was made last year to make extensive experiments in
tobacco. Seed of the best quality was obtained and plantings were
made on carefully prepared beds as early as December 6, '89. Every
month these were continued, and while the seed sprouted well, still
in a few days nothing but a few plants were left. The attention of the
entomologist was called to it and the fact discovered that the flea beetle
was doing the damage, but the discovery was too late to get in an
early setting of plants. On June the I4th and i9th, sowings were
again made Irom which a fine stand of plants were obtained. These
were set out in the early part of July, and by the middle of September
were cut and stored away in the barn. The plants immediately
suckered out, and before a killing frost another crop had been made.
I used the cabbage patch, planting in the same hills from which the
cabbage had been taken. The crop was a luxurient one.
This planting demonstrates that every vegetable grower can make
a paying crop of tobacco by having his plants ready for the field by the
time his vegetables are gathered and shipped.
The two crops which a planting makes will have been housed be-
fore the time of fall or winter gardening begins. Thus their lands can
be kept in good condition by cultivating growing crops. Stable
manure, cottonseed meal, or good wood ashes, have been found to be
specially adapted to the plant.
All tobacco growers insist on cooking the soil by burning brush
and log heaps freely for seed beds. I tried burnt and unburnt beds
this year and last, both on old and new land, and got plants both ways.
A rather damp place, with a sun exposure, is the best. If, however,
the bed can be irrigated without packing the soil, it will doubtless
serve every purpose.
Since writing the above, Mr. Henry J. Fenton, the F. C. & P.
expert, has examined my fall crop of tobacco and pronounced
it as good as any he has seen grown in Florida. This is an encourag-
ing fact, as the opinion of some was that late tobacco did not cure
well.
TO KILL OR PREVENT THE FLEA BEETLE-BY DR. J. C. NEAL.
Apply Pyrethrum Powder (Insect Powder) freely every other day.
Use fresh powder and the insects will soon disappear; or
To one gallon air-slaked lime add one fluid ounce carbolic acid,
or one ounce turpentine. Mix thoroughly by sifting. Apply this
freely.
NOTES.
I cannot in too strong terms urge our farmers and truck growers
to plant tobacco freely. It is demonstrated within a few years past
that Florida produces as valuable a leaf as Cuba. There is no doubt
but that our tobacco is manufactured into cigars and sold all over the
country as Havana.









4

The methods of curing are simple, and our people will soon adjust
themselves to it if they will undertake it. Thousands of acres of our
light sandy soils, both pine and hammock, cheaply fertilized, will
produce both wrappers and fillers of a fine texture and excellent flavor,
and in a few years, however large the crop, the demand will increase.
I give below a paper, prepared by Mr. Henry J. Fenton, who is
the tobacco agent of the F. C. & P. This great railroad, always in
the front rank to help Florida, through its President, Mr. H. R.
Duval, and its General Superintendent, Captain D. E. Maxwell,
has for several years tried hard, at great expense of time and money,
to introduce the culture of tobacco in Florida. To some extent the
effort has been successful. The management of this road is still will-
ing to assist. By consent, I publish Mr. Fenton's circular as infor-
mation in the interest of this important and growing industry.



FLORIDA CENTRAL & PENINSULAR R. R. CIRCULAR.
There was produced in Gadsden county this year about 650 acres
of tobacco, not including the plantations of Messrs. Straiton & Storm,
(the Owl Cigar Co.), and those of Messrs. Carl Voght & Sons, and
Messrs. Schoeder & Bon, which grew about 700 acres, making a total
of about 1,350 acres. The well known success of the three firms
named makes it unnecessary to further refer to them, so I will only
mention the result of the 650 acres grown by others. The various
crops planted ranged from one to twenty acres each. The average
yield per acre was about 392 pounds, and the price realized averaged
about twenty-five cents per pound, making a total of 254,800 pounds,
selling for $63,700.00, or $98.00 per acre, the cost of producing which
did not exceed $48.00 per acre.
These results prove that tobacco planting is most profitable in
Florida, and encourage the Florida Central & Peninsular Railroad
Company to endeavor to further stimulate its production, to which end
I beg to offer the following suggestions upon the cultivation of tobacco
in this State, in the belief that the most satisfactory results will fellow
their observance:

I. SELECTION OF SEED.
a. Seed from the Vuelta de Abajo District of Cuba is beyond
doubt the best for this State, since it produces both a good filler and
wrapper.
b. It is demonstrated that plants raised from pure Vuelta de
Abajo seed produce the best tobacco seed, the seed of the first and
second year's planting being the best. That is to say, plants from
Vuelta de Abajo seed planted in 1891 will produce plants which will
supply seed for the planting of 1892, and plants thus grown in 1892
will supply seed for the following year. But the plants of 1893, being
two generations from Cuba, do not produce good seed. The tobacco









5

from the first year's planting does not grow large enough for a wrapper,
and does not produce enough tobacco to be profitable to the grower
as a filler. But it does produce a seed which is good for the next year
planting. It is therefore necessary that a sufficient quantity of pure
Vuelta de Abajo seed be planted to keep up the stock, because, as
shown above, after three generations the seed loses its good qualities.
2. TIME TO PLANT SEED.
a. The proper time to plant seed is in January, February and
March. The two former months producing the best results, while
the sowing in March is necessary for re-setting and late planting.

3. LOCATION AND PREPARATION OF SEED BEDS.
a. It is well to select two locations for seed beds if possible, one
in a low, damp place, and the other on rich uplands. By this the
disastrous results of a dry or wet season may be avoided. It is wisest
to plant a number of small beds which can easily be covered and pro-
tected from frost. A simple muslin cover on stretchers is the best.
b. Upon the spots selected, burn an abundance of wood and
brush, for the purpose of killing insects, and the ashes to sern c as fer-
tilizer.
c. If any roots remain, remove them if possible, and work the
ground thoroughly with a plow or hoe, pulverizing well, sloping the
surface slightly to prevent water standing on the beds.
d. Sow the seed and rake it in. One teaspoonful of seed should
be sown to each square rod of land, which will produce sufficient
plants for setting one acre. In order to sow the seed evenly, it is
well to mix it with meal or wood ashes. Should the weather continue
dry, the beds must be watered as may be necessary.
4. TRANSPLANTING.
a. Plants are ready to be put out when from three to six inches
high, and the work is done similarly to the manner in which cabbage
plants are handled. The roots should be loosened with a sharpened
stick or fork, and care used not to bruise the plant in any way.
5. SOIL FOR FIELDS.
a. Soil for fields should be of a sandy loam, with a red clay sub-
soil. Avoid surface clay land. Hammock land is the best, but old
fields produce good tobacco when properly fertilized.
6. FERTILIZERS.
a. Cow pen manure and cottonseed compost make good fertil-
izers. Of the latter, fifty to one hundred bushels per acre should be
used, according to the land.
7. PREPARING FIELDS.
a. The fields should be well worked, and made as mellow as pos-
sible, and fertilizers well worked in.









6

b. The field should be made into small rows (two small furrows
thrown together). Rows to be from three to four feet apart, and
plants set from fifteen to eighteen inches apart, depending upon the
richness of the land.

8. CULTURE OF THE PLANT.
a. Fields must be kept well cultivated and free from weeds.
The soil should be kept mellow, and should it, for any reason, become
hard or crusty, it must at once be worked with a team or hoe.
b. As soon as the bloom shows, the bud should be broken off,
leaving on the top of the plant a good, healthy-looking leaf. Some
difference of opinion exists as to the best time for topping, but the best
results have been obtained as above.
c. After a plant is topped a sucker will grow to each leaf, which
should be picked off when two or three inches long, and never be al-
lowed to remain on the stalk and be gathered.

9. HARVESTING.
a. Tobacco should be harvested by cutting the entire plant when
it is thoroughly ripe, and not by stripping its leaves from time to time,
as is sometimes done.
b. A plant is sufficiently ripe for harvesting when the leaves near
the top will snap when pinched on the under side between the stems.
The ripeness of a plant cannot always be determined by its color.

10. TOBACCO SHEDS.
a. These should be so built as to give a good circulation of air
from bottom to top, and arranged to be closed when necessary.
b. A shed 6ox32 feet, with 12-foot posts, is of sufficient size to
cure five acres of tobacco. Sheds of this size, and smaller, are best,
as larger ones cannot be well ventilated, which is the first importance
in curing tobacco. Plans and speecifications for sheds will be sent
upon application.

I HANGING IN SHEDS.
a. After a plant is cut, it should, if possible, not be laid upon the
ground, as sand will adhere to it, causing trouble when the lea[ reaches
the factory.
b. Plants should be hung seven to eight inches apart both ways.
c. They may either be tied to a lath or pole, or the stalk split and
a pointed lath run through it, putting six or eight plants on a lath.
Poles or laths should be hung in the manner that will best economize
space.
d. The sheds should be well ventilated until the tobacco is well
wilted down and the plants hang clear of each other.








7

12. PREPARING FOR MARKET.
a. When the main stem of a leaf can be pinched near the stalk
and show no sap, the leaves are ready to be stripped.
b. The leaves should be carefully sorted, ragged, poor and ground
leaves being placed together, irrespective of sizes; also small coarse
leaves from the top. The good leaves should be divided as to size, long
together, and short together.
c. They are then to be tied into packages, or hands, wrapper
packages to contain from thirty to thirty-five leaves and filler packages
to have from from forty to fifty leaves. In placing them in packages,
each leaf should retain its natural shape as stripped from the stalk, and
not in any case be smoothed out flat.
d. In bulking away or boxing, keep the different grades or kinds
of packages by themselves, and pack by lapping the tips of the pack-
ages. When boxing, use only clean dry boxes, leaving small space
between the ends of the packages and the box to prevent molding.
Do not let the boxes remain on the ground.
13. INSECTS.
a. Insects may threaten plants at any time. The cut-worm usually
appears immediately after transplanting. The most effectual remedy
is one tablespoonful of Paris Green to four quarts meal or flour, mix
well and sprinkle the plants. A perforated can or pepper box can be
used for this purpose.
b. The horn and bud-worms appear while the plant is in its
growth and must be quickly picked off or the plant is ruined. The
horn-worm fly can be destroyed by use of Jamestown (gympson) weed
blossoms poisoned with cobalt. Place the blossoms in the field at
night on a stick, and the fly is killed by sucking the poisoned honey.
The undersigned has been to Cuba and personally purchased seed
for 1891 planting, to supply stock seed for planting in 1892 and 1893.
I have also secured a limited amount of seed grown in Florida from
1890 planting, of the pure Vuelta de Abajo variety. Upon application
on and after January ist, 1891, both qualities of this seed will be sup-
plied free to growers whose plantations are located within ten miles of
the Florida Central & Peninsular Railroad. All applications must
contain the maximum acreage proposed to be planted, as Florida
grown seed is scarce this year, and must be distributed carefully to the
greatest possible area.
It will afford me pleasure to give you any further information de-
sired, and if at any time you wish me to visit your plantation for the
purpose of directing the cultivation, gathering or curing of crop, I will
gladly do so if you will furnish transportation from your F. C. & P.
R. R. station tofield and return.
Address all communications to Quincy, Fla.
Yours truly,
HENRY J. FENTON,
Tobacco Agent.








8



LONG OR BLACK SEED COTTON.

The past season was a most disastrous one for this crop.
In the early part of the season the prospect for an immense yield
was exceedingly favorable. The plant grew off well, was healthy,
putting on forms early and numerously. About the middle of July the
dreaded boll worm made its appearance and continued its ravages until
the close of the season. In the latter part of August the rust devel-
oped quite rapidly, and by the middle of September its fatal effects were
manifested.
All experienced farmers know that fresh land is the best for cot-
ton. In conducting my experiments I select the oldest land for the
purpose of testing the effect of fertilizers in producing a paying crop.
The land on which this crop wav grown was doubtless an Indian patch,
but it is known to have been in cultivation over thirty years.
The following five plots consisted of two thirds of an acre each,
planted March 25, with the very best sea island seed, obtained through
H. F. Dutton & Co., from South Carolina:
i.-Was fertilized with black cottonseed meal. Result, 22 pounds
per acre.
2.-One ton of farm compost (the formula of which was reported
in Bulletin i1); yield, 430 pounds per acre.
3.-400 pounds cottonseed meal and 40 pounds acid phos-
phate; 385 pounds per acre.
4.-225 pounds cottonseed meal and 235 pounds pot-ammoniac;
392 pounds per acre.
5.-203 pounds cottonseed meal and 34 pounds acid phosphate;
275 pounds per acre.
The following six plots, I 14 of an acre, each, were planted April
ii, in land where once a house stood. The first two were planted
with common Florida seed. The second two with the C. C. or what
is commonly known as the Alford, and the last two with the best Sea
Island:
j.-Not fertilized; yield, 242 pounds per acre.
2.-Fertilized with farm compost; i,ooo pounds per acre; yield,
per acre, 477 pounds.
3.-Unfertilized; 535 pounds.
4.-Fertilized with farm compost, 1,000ooo pounds per acre; 875.
5.-Not fertilized; 372 pounds per acre.
6.-Fertilized with farm compost, I,ooo pounds per acre; 433
pounds.
The cost of the farm compost is $3.33 per I,ooo pounds.
The yield of the above plots was not affected to any marked de-
gree by rust. The inequality of yield is due to the boll worm. The
C. C. or Alford cotton is decidedly the most prolific I have ever tried,









9

and it uniformly turns out one pound of lint to three pounds of seed
cotton, and the lint is good.
I made an experiment again this year by planting the 4th of June.
The season was too wet, and the crop suffered with boll worm and
rust. The yield per acre on unfertilized plot was 65 pounds, and on
the fertilized 152 pounds.

FOREIGN COTTON.
The experiment was with short and long staple. I had only seed
enough, of each variety, to plant a row 35 feet long. The farm com-
post was used at the rate of i,ooo pounds per acre. The object in
view of using it alone was to find the value of lint of each variety
and the yield per acre, under the same manner and system of cultiva-
tion. The planting was made the 27th of March.
The short cotton was-
I.-From Bombay. India; lint poor; yield, 520 pounds per acre.
2.-From Pernambuco in Brazil; lint inferior; 416 pounds per
acre.
3.-White Peruvian; common lint; 546 pounds per acre.
The long staple was-
i.-From Egypt; staple medium; 572 pounds per acre.
2.-From Soutn Sea Islands; staple medium; 546 pounds per
acre.
3.-From Figi; staple very fine; 624 pounds per acre.
4.-From Tahiti; staple very fine; 624 pounds per acre.
The Payta-Peruvian, Maranham and Pernambuco grew unusually
large, but did not fruit. I am indebted to the firm of H. T. Dutton &
Co., of Gainsville, Fla., for procuring the seed of foreign cotton.
Very fine samples of the above were exhibited at the Farmers' Alliance
Exhibition at Ocala, December 3, 1890, but were destroyed by fire, a
few hours after they were placed in position, through the carelessness
of a youth who tossed his match into the cotton, after lighting his ci-
garette.



RICE.

In 1889 five-eighths of an acre was planted in rice, and fertilized
with rotted bone at the rate of 500 pounds per acre. A heavy rain just
after it came up ruined the stand, and it had to be replanted. The
land was old, sandy, rolling and dry except a small part, which was
wet and springy. In the wet land it grew off rapidly, and did well,
but in the dry some of it failed to head. The yield was 14 2.5 bushels
per acre.
The same plot was planted last year and fertilized with farm com-
post, at the rate of one ton per acre. The seasons were favorable, th








10

stand good but not thick enough in hill, nor were the hills as near
each other as they ought to have been. It was observed that when
the hills were close together, about ten inches apart, and the plants
thick, that the growth and yield were better. One-eighth of the plot
was so dry and thirsty that it did not mature grain.
It was planted on the 25th of March, hoed April i8th and May
2oth, and plowed May 9th and 22nd, and June 2oth. The yield was
21 bushels.
The crop is an easy one made if planted early. Uniformly the
first part of March is the best time to plant. This gives the rainy sea-
son for it to mature in, and then the stubble stools out, making good
forage, even sometimes maturing grain, but of an inferior quality.
The land should be prepared by flushing with a good one-horse
plow, a two-horse is better, and then harrowed smooth. The rows
ought not to be more than three feet apart, and the fertilizer, if any is
used, should be evenly distributed, covered with Iwo furrows and
allowed to remain at least a week or ten days before planting. When
ready to plant open with a bull tongue and either sow or drop seed ten
inches in drill. If sowed, plant thick enough so as to leave eight or
ten shoots in the hill, when chopped to a stand. If no fertilizer is used,
the seed can be planted as soon as the ground is prepared.
Light sand hills or very dry land is not adapted to rice. Almost
every farm in Florida has either some level o0 moist places on which
enough can be made for home use. The difficulty of having it cleaned
has been overcome by a few by shipping it to Charleston, S C., or Sa-
vannah, Ga., to a merchant mill. This can be done quite cheaply.
Should the farmers in any section conclude to make rice for profit they
will find it easy to sell, and at prices ranging from 80 cents to $i.oo
per bushel. A very large area of Florida known as flat lands, will,
without fertilizer, grow from 15 to 30 bushels per acre. A crop of
rice instead of cotton on such lands would be more remunerative.
Besides the straw is a valuable forage, preferred to either hay or corn
fodder by many who have tried it.
Farther experiments will be made in rice, both on high and low
lands. I am satisfied it is a valuable crop for Florida, and if a suffi-
cient area was planted mills, for cleaning it would soon be established
at our centers.


SORGHUM.
Quite a number of varieties of sorghum seed were sent me from the
Department of Agriculture at Washington, requesting that they be
planted and reported on. The following were planted: Early Orange,
Early Amber, Links Hybred, cross of Amber and Orange, Red Libe-
rian, Undendebule, Neayea, Kansas Orange and unknown cross of
India. On land lightly fertilized and unfertilized they all grew well,
some canes reaching as high as eighteen feet, and one and a half inches
at base. The cross of Amber and Orange averaged up the best as to
uniform size and yield of juice. The yield of syrup was good, but of








II

inferior quality compared to sugar cane. The seed were planted April
IIth, and the cane was ready to grind by August Ist. The Depart-
ment at Washington is experimenting largely in sorghum, with a view
of making it a producer of sugar and fine grades of syrups. In the
event that a simple and cheap method is discovered.
NOTE.-Other experiments of an interesting character are in prog-
ress and will be reported in due time.
The laboratory is now worked to its utmost capacity, and hence
analyses of rocks, soils, etc., will be declined.
JAS. P. DEPASS,
Director.


ASHES AS A FERTILIZER.
Ashes are generally regarded as a potash fertilizer, and the fact
that they are equally a lime fertilizer is too often left out of view.
The effect that they have on the physical condition of the soil, as
well as their strictly manurial value, should always be taken into ac-
count. Lime, of which they contain from about 20 to 50 or 60 per cent,
benefits clay soils by rendering them more open, pulverulent and
warm, and light soils by making them more compact and retentive of
moisture. Potash and soda, on the other hand, tend to render clay
soil still more adhesive, breaking up in hard clods. It is, therefore,
doubtful whether the good effects of the lime of wood ashes on clay
soils would not be counterbalanced by the bad effects of the potash.
'Wood ashes have been found especially valuable in light soils, render-
ing them compact and capable of drawing up moisture by capillary ac-
tion. On soils rich in humus, it has been observed that potash causes
tobacco to grow rank and coarse, "probably because of nitrogen sup-
plied to the crop," says Prof. Stores, "by the action of potash on hu-
mus." This is a point worthy of consideration by those having orange
groves on hammocks. Wood ashes are especially valuable in correct-
ing "sourness" of soil and in rendering soluble salts of iron harmless
by rendering them insoluble.
The writer was recently asked to advise a gentleman which to use,
wood ashes at $21 a ton, or cottonseed hull ashes at $30 a ton, the
latter analyzing 28 to 35 per cent. of potash, and 8 to o1 per cent.
phosphoric acid. From the standpoint of cost only, the latter is vastly
to be perferred. Cottonseed hull ashes contain from 17 to 42 per cent.
(average 24 per cent.) of potash; 3 to 13 per cent. (average 8 per cent.)
of phosphoric acid; 9 per cent. of lime (average). Wood ashes contain
f to 8 or o1 per cent. (average about 5fC per cent.) of potash; Y to
4% per cent. (average 134 per cent.) of phosphoric acid, and 35 per
cent. (average) of lime. A simple calculation will show that $30 in-
vested in cottonseed hull ashes, of average composition, will buy at
$30 a ton, 480 pounds of potash; a6o pounds of phosphoric acid, and
180 pounds of lime. The same amount ($30) invested in wood ashes,
of average composition, will buy, at $21 a ton, 150 pounds of potash;
50 pounds of phosphoric acid, and i,ooo pounds of lime. It will,









12

therefore, be seen that $21 a ton for wood ashes is a very dear price
for potash and lime. It would be far cheaper to buy one's potash in
the form of cottonseed hull ashes, and one's lime direct as lime from
the kilns. It should, however, always be borne in mind that ashes are
exceedingly variable in quality, and that it is never safe to buy them
except under guaranteed analysis.
Wood ashes, as they come into market as fertilizers, contain from
about 20 to 50 or 60 per cent. of lime, 4 to 3 or 4 per cent. of phos-
phoric acid (average about 13 per cent.), i to 8 or io per cent. of pot-
ash (average about 5 to 6 per cent.). This wide variation is due
partly to impurities (sand and dirt), partly to the fact that the
ashes (or the wood) have been, either by accident or design, more
or less leached, and partly to the fact that the ash ot different
kinds ol wood contain the various ash constituents in widely dif-
ferent quantities. The following analyses of the pure ash of
different kinds of wood, made at the Georgia Experiment Station,
illustrate the latter fact very forcibly:
CONSTITUENTS OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF ASH.


Pure ashes of the different woods con- 8
tain the following per cent. of the '.
different ingredients: 0

Dogwood. ..... . 28.04 8.51 38.93 6.8o
Sycamore . 23.17 12.23 31.62 0.62
Post Oak. . . 21.91 9.00 46.39 6.88
Ash . .... . 46.04 3.58 23-57 0.60
Red Oak... . 24.66 10.55 48.26 5-38
Hickory. .. . 28.60 rI.97 37-94 10.04
White Oak . .... 46. 16 9.48 29.85 3-43
Magnolia . . 19-54 8.75 38-94 8.05
Georgia Pine . ... .. 15.35 3.82 55.24 6.25
Yellow Pine ....... .. 19.70 4.18 65.53 3.20
Black Pine.... ... . 1430 4-33 58-98 0.50
Chesnut ... .... .. .18.10o 6.76 49.18 2.11
Old Field Pine. . ...... 3.85' 4.11 67.73 6.54
The trees selected for the foregoing analyses were of medium age,
and grew as nearly as possible under similar conditions. No bark was
included in the wood from which the ashes were made. Special pains
were taken to get a pure ash, free from earth, sand, etc. It will be
noticed that the ash of the White Oak and that of the Ash are the
richest in potash, that the quantity of potash in the ash of different
species of oak varies widely. The same fact is observable in the
pines, which show the lowest per cent. of potash but the highest per
cent. of lime of all the ashes analyzed.
The beggar weed will serve to illustrate the folly of burning the
vegetable matter from the soil in cases where it is practicable to plow









13

it under and allow it to decay in the soil. The ash of the beggar
weed is very valuable as a fertilizer, a ton of the pure article being es-
timated as worth about $29. But to make one ton of the ash about
twenty tons of the "cured" (or sun dried) weed would be necessary.
These twenty tons contain about 758 pounds of nitrogen, worth at 15
cents a pound $113.70. By slow process of decay in the soil a lariLe
part, if not all, of this nitrogen, would become available as plant foo l;
whereas, if the weed is burned, it is dissipated into the air.-J. M.
PICKELL.]


28I.-ASH OF PINE STRAW.
[ANALYSES BY J. J. EARLE.]
OLD STRAW GATHERED FROM THE GROUND IN THE FOREST. 100 LBS.
OF THE STRAW CONTAIN 1.65 LBS. OF ASH.
THE ASH CONTAINS. PER CENT. AMOUNT IN 2,000 LBS.
Sand and insoluble matter 55.90.. . ix, 8.oo
Lime . ... .. 14.47 .. . 289.40
Phosphoric acid. .. 4.28 .. . 85.60
Potash .. .. ... 2.0S .. . .. 41.60
Valuation per ton, $3.79.
In this and the following estimates, phosphoric acid is put at
2 cents and potash at 5 cents a pound.

282.-ASH OF PINE BURR.

100 LBS. OF THE BURR CONTAIN 1.09 LBS. ASH.
THE ASH CONTAINS. PER CENT. AMOUNT IN 2,000 LBS.
Sand and insoluble matter 45.31 . . .. 906.20
Lime. ....... .1030 .. . . 206.00
Phosphoric acid .. .... 3.31 . . 66.20
Potash ........... 6.92 .......... 13840
Valuation per ton, $8.24.

285.-ASH OF PINE BARK.

I00 LBS. OF AIR-DRY BARK CONTAIN 3.6 LBS. OF ASH.
THE ASH CONTAINS. PER CENT. AMOUNT IT 2,000 LBS.
Silica and insoluble matter 8.66 .. . 173.2
Lime.. . .. .. 30.92.. .. .. .. 618.4
Phosphoric acid .. . 4.28 . . 85.6
Potash . ... 4.21.. .. . 84.2
Valuation per ton, $5.92.









I4

286.-ASH OF OAK LEAVES.
100 LBS. OF AIR-DRY LEAVES CONTAIN 4.70 LBS. OF ASH.
THE ASH CONTAINS. PER CENT. AMOUNT IN 2,000 LBS.
Silica and insoluble matter 30.51. . . 6o. 2
Lime . . 29.03 .. . .. .. 580.6
Phosphoric acid . 3.35 .. . . 67.0
Potash... . . 3.74 . . 74.8
Valuation per ton, $5.08. These were old leaves gathered up
from the ground.

279.-ASH OF BEGGAR WEED.
00 LBS. OF THE GREEN PLANT CONTAIN 2.36 LBS. ASH. 100 LBS. OF
THE GREEN PLANT CONTAIN 0.92 LBS. NITROGEN.
THE ASH CONTAINS. PER CENT. AMOUNT IN 2,000 LBS.
Sand and insoluble matter .. 8.01 .. . ... .160.20
Lime..... .. . 25.40. . ... 508.oo
Phosphoric acid. ... .11.52 .......... .230 40
Potash ..... ... .24.10 .. .. ... .. 482.00
Valuation per ton, $28.70.
Forty to forty-five tons of green Beggar Weed will yield one ton
of ash.
Twenty to twenty-five tons of air-dry Beggar Weed will yield one
ton of ash.
One ton of air-dry Beggar Weed contains about 37.8 lbs. of ni-
trogen.
280.-ASH OF RAG WEED.
o00 LBS. OF THE GREEN PLANT CONTAIN 3.46 LBS. ASH.
THE ASH CONTAINS. PER CENT. AMOUNT IN 2,000 LBS.
Sand and insoluble matter 2.70 . . 54.00
Lime . . 22.52 ..... 450.40
Phosphoric acid. ... 9.60 .. . ... 192.00
Potash .... ... ... 31.I.1 ..... .. 622.20
Valuation per ton, $34.95.
80 (a).-ASH OF SPANISH MOSS.
100 LBS. OF MOSS CONTAIN 3.65 LBS."'OF ASH.
THE ASH CONTAINS. PER CENT. AMOUNT IN 2,000 LBS.
Sand and insoluble matter .. 25.79 . . .. 5I5.8
Lime . . 13.04 .. . . 260.8
Phosphoric acid. . 3.48 . . .. 69.6
Potash .......... 13.39 . .. . 267.8
Valuation per ton, $14.78.









15

The analyses of Pine Straw, Beggar Weed, Oak Leaves and Rag
Weed Ash were made to determine their relative value not only as
soilers but as litter for stables, cowpens, etc. Another year, or as we
have opportunity, other analyses of these and other grasses and weeds
will be made for the same purpose. By studying these analyses our
people will see that at their very doors material is wasting which, if
properly used, would make their lands productive And their homes
abound in plenty.
JAMES P. DEPASS, Director.































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