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 Table for the use of fungicides...






Group Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station - No. 23
Title: Insecticides and fungicides
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026732/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insecticides and fungicides
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 36 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rolfs, P. H ( Peter Henry ), 1865-1944
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1893
 Subjects
Subject: Insecticides   ( lcsh )
Fungicides   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: P.H. Rolfs.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026732
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000919934
oclc - 18151072
notis - AEN0326

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table for the use of fungicides and insecticides
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text



December, 1893.


FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT


STATION,






INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES.




P. H. ROLFS.



The Bulletin of this Station will be sent free to n ay address in 'lorida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment
Station, Lake City, Fla.
TI DA COST PRINTING HOUSE, JACKSONV:LLE. FLCRIDA


1" ^ '


Bulletin TIo. 23.


















BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


HON. WALTER GWYNN, President .. .. Sanford
EON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President . Pensacola
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Ch'n Executive Committee Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGAN, Secretary . .Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER ...... .. Brooksville
HoeN. S. J. TURNBULL . . .. Monticello
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY . . .. .DeLand

STATION STAFF.

0. CLUTE, M. S. LL. D .. ...... .Director
J. N. WHITNER, A. M . .. Horticulturist
P. H. ROLFS, M. S ......... .Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S .. .... .. .Chemist
WI. G. DEPAss . .Assistant Agriculturist
C. A. FINY . . .Director's Secretary
L. C. WASHBURN Superintendent Ft..M.\ i. Sub-Station
J. T. STUnBB Superintendent DeFuniak Sub-Station









INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES.


TABLE OF1 CONTENTS.
Page.
INTRODUCTION . . . 5
Insecticides for Biting Insects .. .... 5
Insecticides for Sucking Insects ... 5-6
What Fungi are. . ... .. 6-7
Parasitic Fungi. ... .. .. 7-8
What is a Fungicide? ... .. .. 8
When to Spray . . .. 8-9
How to Spray .. .... .... 9
FuNGICIDEs-(Preparation of') .. . .. 9
Bordeaux Mixture .... . 9
Formula . . . 9-10
How to prepare Copper Sulphate ..... 10
How to prepare Lime .. ..... 10-11
How to mix Bordeaux.. . .11-12
Eau Celeste, formula and preparation of 12
Modified Eau Celeste, formula and prepara-
tion of .. .. .. . 12-13
Ammonical Solution of Copper Carbonate. 13
Formula............. ..... 13
How Prepared . . . 13
Mixture of Carbonate of Copper and Carbon-
ate of Ammonia, formulaand preparation 14
Other Formulas .. . .. 14
Cost of Applying Fungicides .... .14-15
A Few Hints . . 15
Are Sprayed Fruits and Vegetables Danger-
ous to Health? ....... .. .15-16
Hot Water for Oats Smut ... ... 16
How Treated .. .. .. 1-17
The Operation . ... .... 17-18
Potassium Sulphide for Oats Smut .. 18
Remarks on Fungicides . .. 18-19
INSECTICIDES.-(Preparation of) . 9
Paris Green, formula and preparation of 1 '-
London Purple, formula and preparation of "(
A "Powder Gun" . 21
Caution in Using Paris Green and London
Purple . . . .. 21









Page.
INSECTICIDES-(Preparation of)-continued.
Kerosine Emulsion . . .. 21
Formula . . .. 21
Preparation . . . 21
Resin Wash, Formula and Preparation of 22-23
Resin Wash for Winter, Formula and Prepa-
*ration of . . . 23-24
Sulphur Spray, Formula and Preparation of 24
Lime, Salt and Sulphur Mixture, Formula,
Remarks and Preparation of .. .24-25


Sulphur . . . .
Pyrethrum, Buhach, Remarks .. ...
Application as a Powder ..
Application as Fumes ...
Application as Solution .. .....
Tobacco, Remarks .. ... .. ..
Preparation of a Decoction of . .
Naphthaline, how used . . .
Bisulphide of Carbon, how used .. ...
Combined Insecticides and Fungicides .
Formula for and Preparation of .
Remedies that have failed . .
Cost of material for making spraying solu-
tions and where it may be obtained .
TABLE FOR THE USE OF FUNGICIDES AND INSECTI-


CIDES . . . .
How to use the table . . .
Remedies for the diseases of,
Beans . . ....
Cabbage . . . .
Cucumbers . . .
Eggplant .. . . ..
Grapes . . .
Oats . . .
Oranges ... . ...
Peach . . ... .
Pear ................
Pl rm . . .
Plum . . . .
Potatoes . . .
Seed (various kinds) . .
Tomatoes. . . .


25
25-26
26
26
26
27
27
27
27-29
29-30
30
30-31

32


32-33
33

34
34
34
34
34
35
35
35
35-36
36
36
36
36










INTRODUCTION.
Spraying of fruit trees and other plants to prevent
injury from insects and fungi is of comparatively recent
origin.
The first systematic work performed in that line in
this country was that against the Colorado potato beetle.
In the Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1871
we find Paris green recommended for the first time. After
that several agricultural colleges took up the work syste-
matically, but it was several years- before any work was
done with a view to prevent diseases caused by fungi.
This new department in agriculture demands terms
that shall be used exclusively for it; this bulletin con-
tains as few of these newly introduced terms as seemed
consistent. The term insect is generally understood to in-
clude all the smaller animals that have their bodies divided
into three regions; their young are called grubs, maggots,
caterpillars, and some have special names, as cut-worms,
wire-worms, etc. The ending cide means to kill, hence
an insecticide is any substance that is used to kill insects.
INSECTICIDES FOR BITING INSECTS.
Insects, like higher animals, require food and air for
their existence, and to poison the food or cut off their sup-
ply of air will kill them as surely as it will kill any higher
animal. The earliest way of combating insects was, as
stated before, by poisoning their food; this was accom-
plished by the use of Paris green. All the insects that ate
enough of the Paris green died, but those that ate from
the portions of plants not covered with poison were not
harmed; hence the more thoroughly a plant is sprayed
the greater the number of insects that will be killed, but
here another difficulty is encountered; if more than a cer-
tain amount of poison is used the plant will be killed also.
INSECTICIDES FOR SUCKING INSECTS.
While some insects obtain their food by eating the
leaves and outer portion of plants generally, others get











their nourishment by sucking the juices from the plants;
now it is clear that these cannot be poisoned except by
poisoning the juice of the plant, and that so far has been
impracticable. To' this class of insects belong the plant-
lice, the scale-insecfs, plant-bugs and others. These stick
their proboscis into the bark or the leaf, and take out the
nourishment they want. It has been found that these
may be killed by cutting off their supply of air, or by
rendering the air they breath poisonous. By studying
the anatomy of insects it was found that they do not
breathe through their mouths as the back-boned animals
do, but they take in the air through a system of openings
on each side of the. body. These openings are called
trachews and are normally eleven on a side. Any sub-
stance that might be brought in contact with an insect
and that would close up the tracheae, would. suffocate it.
Water will not do this because the insects are more or
less oily and the minute hairs help to hold air to their
bodies and prevent water from entering the trachele.
Some oily or soapy substance may be used to effect an
entrance. We have remedies of this kind in our resin
soaps, kerosene emulsions, and a number of others.
Another mode of killing insects that do not eat the
epidermis of plants has already been referred to. It is
by poisoning the air they breathe. This is accomplished
by the gas treatment, sulphur spray and carbon disul-
phide.
Experience alone can teach us as to which insecticide
is best for any particular case. Often a substance that
will kill a particular pest will also kill the tree or plant
it affects. Nearly all insecticides need to be used with
care, and substances that have been advertised as "per-
fectly harmless," are found to be indeed so to insects.
WHAT FUNGI ARE.
Many diseases of plants as rusts, rot, mildews and
some blights are caused by a class of minute plants called
fungi. Commonly these are not recognized as plants, be-
cause we usually associate chlorophyl, the green coloring
matter, with plants, but a close study reveals that we may
have plants without this chlorophyl. Plants without









chlorophyl cannot take up material directly from the
earth, inorganic matter, and convert it into plant material,
organic matter, but they must rely upon the plants with
chlorophyl to elaborate this organici) material for them.
Fungi are not supplied with chlorophyl, hence they must
rely for sustenance upon plants with it, either by living
directly on living ones or on dead ones ; to this latter be-
long mushrooms, toad-stools and shelf fungi. The former,
that live upon living plants and cause diseases, concern
us directly.
PARASITIC FUNGI.
These parasitic fungi, that is, those that live on liv-
ing plants, are usually very minute and of a simple
structure, often being composed of a simple thread-like
body, only a fraction of an inch long, but when there are
myriads of them present on a single leaf or fruit, the dam-
age is soon visible. The damage to the host, the plant
the parasite lives on, is often very great before the true
cause is recognized; the food being diverted from its
proper course makes the host less fruitful, and often fruit-
less, without any apparent cause.
Fungi do not develop flowers or seed, but they pro-
duce what are called spores. These spores perform some
of the functions of seed. In many cases a spore is so
light that it may be carried long distances by the wind; it
will also withstand long droughts and severe cold; again,
if the proper temperature and moisture are present it will
often germinate very quickly. When a spore finds
lodgment on the leaf, stem or fruit of its host it germinates
and the parasite enters the tissues where it draws nour-
ishment from the host. Moisture is quite an aid in the
development of fungoid diseases; warm, moist days and
nights are especially favorable. Dashing rains wash off
the spores and in that way are beneficial, but the heavy
dews that usually follow rains bring about conditions
favorable to propagation of fungi. Dry and cold weather
is unfavorable to germination and propagation of fungoid
diseases. When fungi have entered their host they can-
not be killed without damaging the tissue of their host.
The object, then, is to destroy these disease-producing fungi
before they enter their hosts.









Plants are more or less susceptible to poisoning from
copper compounds.' Some plants are much more sensi-
tive than others in this respect; for example, a compound
that did not hurt tomato vines, scalded eggplant badly.
When in condition for entering their hosts fungi are very
sensitive to poisoning from copper compounds. So the
experimenters have found such compounds as will kill
the attacking fungus and not injure the host.
WHAT IS A FUNGICIDE?
A serviceable fungicide is something that will de-
stroy a fungus it comes in contact with, and not the host of
that fungus. The word is made up funyi, discussed above,
and cide, to kill. The several copper preparations given
are such substances. The fungus must first come in con-
tact with the host before it can cause disorder of the host,
now if it comes in contact with the host and not with the
fungicide, it forces an entrance and causes disease of the
plant; but if the host has been covered with the fungi-
cide, the fungus coming in contact with the fungicide, will
be killed and the disease prevented. To make a plant
immune to disease it is necessary to cover the entire plant
with a fungicide. 'his is not, possible. As a rule the
more thoroughly the host can be covered with the fungi-
cide the more thorough will the protection be.
WHEN TO SPRAY.
As spraying is only a preventive for disease of plants,
the time to spray becomes of prime importance. It is nec-
essary to anticipate these disorders and prevent their at-
tacking the plant.
In fields where the crop has suffered in a previous
year it is quite certain that the same crop will suffer from
the same disease the following year, and the treatment, to
be most effective, should be begun before the appearance
of diseased plants. The treatment for black rot of grapes
should be begun before the buds open in the spring, for
blight of tomatoes and egg plant before the flower buds
open.
The interval between sprayings should be a week or
ten days. When heavy rains occur they wash the fungi-













in fact, its whole value lies in its being brief and bringing
together facts deduced from elaborate treatises. One may
know, also, under what heading to look for fuller discus-
sion of any particular remedy.
HOW TO USE THE TABLE.
The method of using the table hardly needs explana-
tion. The first column to the left contains the names of
plants in common cultivation in alphabetical order. The
second column contains the names of diseases of the plants
named in the first column.
The first disease that a remedy is given for is placed di-
rectly opposite the name of the plant. The name of the sec-
ond disease of that plant, if given, is placed directly under
the first, and so on. Directly opposite the disease is given
the remedy. If there are two or more remedies given for the
same disease the second is placed under the first, and so on.
The mode of treatment is placed in the fourth column op-
posite the remedy. To illustrate, let us suppose the trou-
ble is with a peach, looking down the first column we find
peach, opposite this in the second column is San Jose scale;
below this peach louse, plant louse, black louse, curculio, but
none is the disease we are looking for; finally we come to
-spotting on the fruit; as this is what we are looking for we
will look opposite the third column for the remedy, which
we find to be ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate, and
opposite this in the fourth column we are advised to spray
when the fruit has set, and then repeat every ten days or
two weeks.
The above table should not be considered complete. A
single instance, that of the grape, may be cited, which
has more known diseases than the total number given in
the second column.













TABLE FOR USE OF FUNGICIDES AND INSECTICIDES.


Plant. Disease. Remedy. How Used.


cans. Brown spot of pod Ammonical Solu- Soak the Seed 24
long plants, and tion of Copper Car- hours: plant; spray
leaves. I.'t. lr-.. r... Bordeaux plants every ten
chum L-,ir..,, '''- Xi\'1 i. days or two weeks
anuin.)
Blight. (Seleroti- Eau Celeste. Am- At first signsspray
um s p.) monical solution of stems, roots and
Copper Carbonate soil about the plant
every ten days or,
two weeks.

Weevils.(Bruehus Carbon bi-sulphide. Use in closed bin
oboletus ) or barrel.


Cabbage. light. (Scleroti-
un s p )
S"Worms," (Lar-
rvc of Lepidoptera )


Harlequin bug,
Calico bug, (MGur-
lanltia histlronica.)



Cucumbers. Cucumber louse.
melon louse, hes-
sion fly, (Aphis cu-
cumeris.)
Cucumber bug
(beetle) (Diabrotica
12-punctata.)

-- ] -

Eggplant. Leaf spot fungus.
(Phillosticta horto-
rium.)


SBlight. (Seleroti-
\um sp.)



Grapes. Black rot. (Loes-
tadla bidwellii.)






"Worms." (Various
Larvce.)


Napthaline.




Same as for beans
Pyrethrum.

Paris Green,
London Purple.)







Kerosene Emul-
sion.


Tobacco stems.


Bordeaux Mixture,
Ammonical sol u-
tion of copper car-
bonate.

Same as for bean
blight,



Bordeaux mix-
ture Eau Celeste.
Ammon ical solu-
tion of Copper Car-
bonate.


Odor keeps them
out



Same as for beans

Dust or spray on
plants.
Not advised.
Pick off.
Destroy eggs.



Apply thoroughly
to the underside of
leaves of infested
plants.
Placed on the hill
as the plants begin
to come up.



Destroy all leaves
and fruit attacked;
spray leaves and-
fruit every 10 days
or two weeks.
Same as for bean
blight.



Spray stems when
buds begin to swell
and then every 12
days until fruit is
fullgrown. Donot
use Bordeaux the
last two times; it
colors the fruit.
Hand picking of
the earliest broods.


Be


^.










TABLE FOR USE OF FUNGICIDES AND INSECTICIDES.


Plant.


Oats.


Diseases.


S mu t (Ustilago
avenue).


Orange. Rust mites (Phy-
tops).


Peach.


Red spider (Tet-
ryancus 6-macula-
tus).


Red scale (Aspidi-
otus flcus).


Long Scale (Myti-
laspis gloverl).






White fly (Aley-
rodes citrifol i)



San Jose scale(As-
pidiotus peniciosus)






Plant louse,peach
louse(Myzus cerast)
Black louse (Aphis
persicaeniger).
Cureullo (Cono-
trachelus nenuphar)


Remedy.


Hot water.
Potassium s u -
phide.


Sulphur spray.



Sulphur.



Kerosene emul-
sion, sulphur spray
Water.

Resin wash,
Lime, salt and
sulphur spray.
Same as Red
Scale.






Rosin wash.




Rosin wash.
Summer wash.
Winter wash.
Keresene emul-
sion.
Lime, salt and
sulphur.
Kerosene emul-
sion.
Kerosene emul'n
Paris green.
London purple.


Spotting on fruit Ammoniacal so
(Cladosporium car- lution of copper
pophilum). carbonate.


How Used.



See page (28)



Spray in May or
June (before they
migrate to the
fruit).
Dusted over
leaves and among
branches-in May or
June.
Use as an ordina-
ry spray.
Used with irri-
gating plant.
Spray when the
insects are bad; be-
fore rainy season
preferred.
Spray in March or
April (when larviw
are moving) also in
Juneor Julyand in
September or Octo-
ber. Repeat spray-
ing at short inter-
vals.

Spray under side
leaves thoroughly
before ty be-
comes winged.


Burn on the spot
all badly infested
trees.
Spray thoroughly
and repeat every
ten days or two
weeks.

Spray forcibly on
underside of leaves
Same as above.
Spray when fruit
has well set: repeat
every ten days.

Spray when fruit
has set; repeat ev-
ery ten days or two
weeks.


Pear. Blight, fire blight (No treatment has Cut out the dis-
(Micrococus stood the test). eased parts to afoot
amylovorous). below where blight
shows. Burn part
cut out.











TABLE FOIl USE OF FUNGiICIDIES AND INSECTICIDES.


Plant. Disease. Remedy.


Pear. (Con.) Scab, (on fruit). Bordeaux mix-
(Tusicladitum pyr- ture. Modified Eau
num). Celeste. Ammona-
cal solution of Cop-
per carbonate.


-.I i,.. ,...,i- i ...r,- hon af-
OSus).


San Jose Scale, Same as for peach

Curculio. Same as for peach

Brown rot. (Mo- Bordeaux mix-
nilla fructegena.) ture. Ammonacal
solution of Copper
carbonate.


Shot-hole flln'-i. Pod rdeaux mix-
(Septoria n. .'. r .. Ammonacal
solution of Copper
carbonate,


Potato. (Irish.) Black rot. (Mac-
rosporium solani.)


Blight. (Selerotf-
ums.)





Weevils and
Moths.






Blight. (Seleroti-
um sp).
Black rot. (Ma-
crosporium solani.

Leaf blight. (Cla-
dosportum fulvum.


Seed (Various
kinds).






Tomato.


Bordeaux mix-
ture. Modified Eau
Celeste. Ammona-
cal solution of Cop'
per carbonate.

Same as for bean
blight.





Napthaline.


Carbon bisulphide



Same as for pota-
to blight.

Same as potato
black rot
Bordeaux Mix-
ture. Ammonical
solution of Copper
carbonate.

36


How Used.


S ray 1st, before
leaves appear.
'd. Just after.
3d. When fruit
has formed.
4th. At intervals
of ten days iintil
fruit is nearly
grown.
Same as when af-
fecting peach.



Same as for peach

Same as for peach

Spray when buds
begin to swell,
again when fruit
has set, then every
ten days or two
weeks.

When leaf buds be-
gin to open, and re-
seat every ten days
or two weeks until
leaves are full
grown.



Spray as soon as
plants are well up.
Repeat every ten
days.

Same as for bean
blight; use about a
pint of fungicideto.
a plant.



Place among and
on top of seed in
closed boxes.
Kills. (See page
(28)


Same as for pota-
to blight.
Same as potato
black rot.

Spray on first ap-
pearance, then ev-
ery ten days or two.
weeks


Plums.




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